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and Physiological

Trauma Research



Seize Your Journeys



Traumatic stress is found in many competent, healthy, strong, good people.  No one can completely protect themselves from traumatic experiences.  Many people have long-lasting problems following exposure to trauma.  Up to 8% of persons will have PTSD at some time in their lives. People who react to traumas are not going crazy.  What is happening to them is part of a set of common symptoms and problems that are connected with being in a traumatic situation, and thus, is a normal reaction to abnormal events and experiences.  Having symptoms after a traumatic event is NOT a sign of personal weakness.  Given exposure to a trauma that is bad enough, probably all people would develop PTSD.

By understanding trauma symptoms better, a person can become less fearful of them and better able to manage them. By recognizing the effects of trauma and knowing more about symptoms, a person will be better able to decide about getting treatment.



Secure Attachments as a Defense Against Trauma

 “All people mature and thrive in a social context that has profound effects on how they cope with life’s stresses.  Particularly early in life, the social context plays a critical role in fuffering an individual against stressful situations, and in building the psychological and biological capacities to deal with further stresses.  The primary function of parents can be thought of as helping children modulate their arousal by attuned and well-timed provision of playing, feeding, comforting, touching, looking, cleaning, and resting—in short, by teaching them skills that will gradually help them modulate their own arousal.  Secure attachment bonds serve as primary defenses against trauma-induced psychopathology in both children and adults (Finkelhor & Browne, 1984).  In children who have been exposed to severe stressors, the quality of the parental bond is probably the single most important determinant of long-term damage (McFarlane, 1988).”  van der Kolk, Bessel, Alexander C. McFarlane, and Lars Weisaeth, eds.  1996. Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society.  New York and London: Guilford Press. .p. 185


Eating Disorders

 “The Eating Disorders are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior.  This section includes two specific diagnoses, Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.  Anorexia Nervosa is characterized by a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight.  Bulimia Nervosa is characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications; fasting; or excessive exercise.  A disturbance in perception of body shape and weight is an essential feature of both Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.  An Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified category is also provided for coding behaviors that do not meet criteria for a specific Eating Disorder.

          Simple obesity is include in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) as a general medical condition but does not appear in DSM-IV because it has not been established that it is consistently associated with a psychological or behavioral syndrome.  However, when there is evidence that psychological factors are of importance in the etiology or course of a particular case of obesity, this can be indicated by noting the presence of Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition.

          Disorders of Feeding and Eating that are usually first diagnosed in infancy or early childhood (i.e., Pica, Rumination Disorder, and Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood) are included in the section “Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood.

 Anorexia Nervosa

 Diagnostic Features

The essential features of Anorexia Nervosa are that the individual refuses to maintain a minimally normal body weight, is intensely afraid of gaining weight, and exhibits a significant disturbance in the perception of the shape or size of his or her body.  In addition, postmenarcheal females with this disorder are amenorrheic.  (The term anorexia is a misnomer because loss of appetite is rare.)

          The individual maintains a body weight that is below a minimally normal level for age and height (Criterion A).  When Anorexia Nervosa develops in an individual during childhood or early adolescence, there may be failure to make expected weight gains (i.e., while growing in height) instead of weight loss.

Criterion A provides a guideline for determining when the individual meets the threshold for being underweight.  It suggests that the individual weigh less than 85% of that weight that is considered normal for that person’s age and height (usually computed using one of several published versions of the Metropolitan Life Insurance tables or pediatric growth charts.).  An alternative and somewhat stricter guideline (used in the ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for research) requires that the individual have a body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms/height in meters2) equal to or below 17.5kg/m2.  These cutoffs are provided only as suggested guidelines for eh clinician, since it is unreasonable to specify a single standard for minimally normal weight that applies to all individuals of a given age and height.  In determining a minimally normal weight, the clinician should consider not only such guidelines but also the individual’s body build and weight history.

Usually weight loss is accomplished primarily through reduction in total food intake.  Although individuals may begin by excluding from their diet what they perceive to be highly caloric foods, most eventually end up with a very restricted diet that is sometimes limited to only a few foods.  Additional methods of weight loss include purging (i.e., self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxative or diuretics) and increased or excessive exercise.)

Individuals with this disorder intensely fear gaining weight or becoming fat (Criterion B).  This intense fear of becoming fat is usually not alleviated by the weight loss.  In fact, concern about weight gain often increases even as actual weight continues to decrease.

The experience and significance of body weight and shape are distorted in these individuals (Criterion C).  Some individuals feel globally overweight.  Others realize that they are thin but are still concerned that certain parts of their bodies, particularly the abdomen, buttocks, and thighs are “to fat.”  They may employ a wide variety of techniques to estimate their body size and weight, including excessive weighing, obsessive measuring of body parts, and persistently using a mirror to check for perceived areas of “fat.”  The self-esteem of individuals with Anorexia Nervosa is highly dependent on their body shape and weight.  Weight loss is viewed as an impressive achievement and a sign of extraordinary self-discipline, whereas weight gain is perceived as an unacceptable failure of self-control.  Though some individuals with this disorder may acknowledge being thin, they typically deny the serious medical implications of their malnourished state.

In postmenarcheal females, amenorrhea (due to abnormally low levels of estrogen secretion that are due in turn to diminished pituitary secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone [PSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) is an indicator of physiological dysfunction in Anorexia Nervosa (Criterion D.)  Amenorrhea is usually a consequence of the weight loss but, in a minority of individuals, may actually precede it.  In prepubertal females, menarche may be delayed by the illness.

The individual is often brought to professional attention by family members after marked weight loss (or failure to make expected weight gains) has occurred.  If individuals seek help on their own, it is usually because of their subjective distress over the somatic and psychological sequelae of starvation.  It is rare for an individual with Anorexia Nervosa to complain of weight loss per se.  Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa frequently lack insight into, or have considerable denial of, the problem and may be unreliable historians.  It is therefore often necessary to obtain information form parents or other outside sources to evaluate the degree of weight loss and other features of the illness.”  p. 583-584.

 Bulimia Nervosa

 “Diagnostic Features

          The essential features of Bulimia Nervosa are binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight gain.  In addition, the self-evaluation of individuals with Bulimia Nervosa is excessively influenced by body shape and weight.  To qualify for the diagnosis, the binge eating and the inappropriate compensatory behaviors must occur, on average, at least twice a week for 3 months (Criterion C.)

          A binge is defined as eating in a discrete period of time an amount of food that is definitely larger than most individuals would eat under similar circumstances (Criterion A1.).  The clinician should consider the context in which the eating occurred—what would be regarded as excessive consumption at a typical meal might be considered normal during a celebration or holiday meal.  A “discrete period of time” refers to a limited period, usually less than 2 hours.  A single episode of binge eating need not be restricted to one setting.  For example, an individual may begin a binge in a restaurant and then continue it on returning home.  Continual snacking on small amounts of food throughout the day would not be considered a binge.

          Although the type of food consumed during the binge varies, it typically includes sweet, high-calorie foods such as ice cream or cake.  However, binge eating appears to be characterized more by an abnormality in the amount of food consumed than by a craving for a specific nutrient, such as carbohydrate.  Although individuals with Bulimia Nervosa consume more calories during an episode of binge eating than persons without Bulimia Nervosa consume during a meal, the fractions of calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate are similar.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa are typically ashamed of their eating problems and attempt to conceal their symptoms.  Binge eating usually occurs in secrecy, or as inconspicuously as possible.  An episode may or may not be planned in advance and is usually (but not always) characterized by rapid consumption.  The binge eating often continues until the individual is uncomfortably, or even painfully, full.  Binge eating is typically triggered by dysphoric mood states, interpersonal stressors intense hunger following dietary restraint, or feelings related to body weight, body shape, and food.  Binge eating may transiently reduce dysphoria, but disparaging self-criticism and depressed mood often follow.

          An episode of binge eating is also accompanied by a sense of lack of control (Criterion A2).  An individual may be in a frenzied state while binge eating, especially early in the course of the disorder.  Some individuals describe a dissociative quality during, or following, the binge episodes.  After Bulimia Nervosa has persisted for some time, individuals may report that their binge-eating episodes are no longer characterized by an acute feeling of loss of control, but rather by behavioral indicators of impaired control, such as difficulty resisting binge eating or difficulty stopping a binge once it has begun.  The impairment in control associated with binge eating in bulimia Nervosa is not absolute; for example, an individual may continue binge eating while the telephone is ringing, but will cease if a roommate or spouse unexpectedly enters the room.

          Another essential feature of Bulimia Nervosa is the recurrent use of inappropriate compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain (Criterion B).  Many individuals with Bulimia Nervosa employ several methods in their attempt to compensate for binge eating.  The most common compensatory technique is the induction of vomiting after an episode of binge eating.  This method of purging is employed by 80%-90% of individuals with Bulimia Nervosa who present for treatment of eating disorders clinics.  The immediate effects of vomiting include relief from physical discomfort and reduction of fear of gaining weight.  In some cases, vomiting becomes a goal in itself, and the person will binge in order to vomit or will vomit after eating a small amount of food.  Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa may use a variety of methods to induce vomiting, including the use of fingers or instruments to stimulate the gag reflex.  Individuals generally become adept at inducing vomiting and are eventually able to vomit at will.  Rarely, individuals consume syrup of ipecac to induce vomiting.  Other purging behaviors include the issue of laxatives and diuretics.  Approximately one-third of those with Bulimia Nervosa misuse laxatives after binge eating.  Rarely, individuals with the disorder will misuse enemas following episodes of binge eating, but this is seldom the sole compensatory method employed.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa may fast for a day or more or exercise excessively in an attempt to compensate for binge eating.  Exercise may be considered to be excessive when it significantly interferes with important activities, when it occurs at inappropriate times or in inappropriate settings, or when the individual continues to exercise despite injury or other medical complications.  Rarely, individuals with this disorder may take thyroid hormone in an attempt to avoid weight gain.  Individuals with diabetes mellitus and Bulimia Nervosa may omit or reduce insulin doses in order to reduce the metabolism of food consumed during eating binges.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa place an excessive emphasis on body shape and weight in their self-evaluation, and these factors are typically the most important ones in determining self-esteem (Criterion D).  Individuals with this disorder may closely resemble those with Anorexia Nervosa in their fear of gaining weight, in their desire to lose weight, and in the level of dissatisfaction with their bodies.  However, a diagnosis of Bulimia Nervosa should not be given when the disturbance occurs only during episodes of Anorexia Nervosa (Criterion E).”  p. 589-591


Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 2000. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.




LifeSpan Developmental Trauma


Trauma and Adolescence

Title: Illness: A crisis for children.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Steward, Margaret S.

Source/Citation: Handbook of crisis counseling, intervention, and prevention in

the schools (2nd ed.)., Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.,

Publishers; 2002, (vii, 444), 183-211

Source editor(s): Sandoval, Jonathan (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Addresses the need for school personnel to make a

concerted effort to understand the physical capacities and limitations, and

medical needs of each of the children in their midst who must deal with

chronic illness, injury, or physical disabilities. Topics discussed include

incidence and prevalence of disease in childhood and adolescence, theories,

trauma induced by acute injury or necessary but painful medical or dental

procedures, who is at risk, primary prevention, methods that work with

high-risk children, and group intervention. 

Title: School violence and disasters.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Sandoval, Jonathan; Brock, Stephen E.

Source/Citation: Handbook of crisis counseling, intervention, and prevention in

the schools (2nd ed.)., Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.,

Publishers; 2002, (vii, 444), 249-270

Source editor(s): Sandoval, Jonathan (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This chapter discusses two categories of hazardous

events that lead to crisis responses in adults and children, and which most

often come to mind when we think of crises in the school. The authors examine

reactions to natural and man-made disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, and

fires, and they discuss reactions to terrorist attacks or other acts of

violence that may occur at school. The authors view such incidents as drive-by

shootings, sniper attacks, and bombings as acts of terrorism. First, the

authors explore what can be done to prevent acts of violence (including

identifying and responding to potentially violent youth). Next they discuss

how to prepare for the crisis response following acts of violence of natural

or man-made disaster. Finally, the actual crisis intervention response to acts

of violence and to disaster (including the processes of identifying and

responding to psychological trauma victims) is examined ========================================


Title: Comparison for two treatments for traumatic stress: A community-based

study of EMDR and prolonged exposure.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Ironson, Gail; Freud, B.; Strauss, J. L.; Williams, J.

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychology; Vol 58(1) Jan 2002, US: John

Wiley & Sons; 2002, 113-128

Abstract/Review/Citation: This pilot study compared the efficacy of 2 treatments

for postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Eye Movement Desensitization and

Reprocessing (EMDR) and Prolonged Exposure (PE). Data were analyzed for 22

patients (aged 16-62 yrs) from a university based clinic serving the outside

community (predominantly rape and crime victims) who completed at least 1

active session of treatment after 3 preparatory sessions. Results showed both

approaches produced a significant reduction in PTSD and depression symptoms,

which were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Successful treatment was faster

with EMDR as a larger number of people (7 of 10) had a 70% reduction in PTSD

symptoms after 3 active sessions compared to 2 of 12 with PE. EMDR appeared to

be better tolerated as the dropout rate was significantly lower in those

randomized to EMDR versus PE (0 of 10 vs 3 of 10). However all patients who

remained in treatment with PE had a reduction in PTSD scores. Finally,

Subjective Units of Distress (SUDS) ratings decreased significantly during the

initial session of EMDR, but changed little during PE. Postsession SUDS were

significantly lower for EMDR than for PE. Suggestions for future research are




Title: Patients as partners, patients as problem-solvers.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Young, Amanda; Flower, Linda

Source/Citation: Health Communication; Vol 14(1) Jan 2002, US: Lawrence

Erlbaum; 2002, 69-97

Abstract/Review/Citation: This article reports the authors' ongoing work in

developing a model of health care communication called collaborative

interpretation (CI), which they define as a rhetorical practice that generates

building blocks for a more complete and coherent diagnostic story and for a

collaborative treatment plan. The study begins with an analysis of

provider-patient interactions in a specific setting--the emergency department

(ED) of an urban trauma-level hospital--where patients and providers were

observed miscommunicating in at least 3 distinct areas: over the meaning of

key terms, in the framing of the immediate problem, and over the perceived

role of the ED in serving the individual and the community. The authors argue

that all of these miscommunications and missed opportunities are rooted in

mismatched expectations on the part of both provider and patient and the lack

of explicit comparison and negotiation of expectations. This model of CI

provides strategies to help patients to represent their medical problems in

the context of their life experiences and to share the logic behind their

health care decisions. In addition, CI helps both patient and provider

identify their goals and expectations in treatment, the obstacles that each

party perceives, and the available options. ========================================


Title: Competitive re-employment after severe traumatic brain injury: Clinical,

cognitive and behavioural predictive variables.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Cattelani, Raffaella; Tanzi, Francesca; Lombardi,

Francesco; Mazzucchi, Anna

Source/Citation: Brain Injury; Vol 16(1) Jan 2002, United Kingdom: Taylor &

Francis; 2002, 51-64

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the relationships between the return to

pre-trauma competitive activities at the final discharge from rehabilitation

facilities, and neuroanatomical, neuropsychological and behavioral data

collected at different phases of the recovery from a traumatic brain injury

(TBI). 35 severe TBI Ss (aged 15-35 yrs at the time of injury) were

retrospectively selected from 228 consecutive admissions over a 3-yr period,

according to pre-morbid, clinical and demographic characteristics matching the

established selection criteria, and submitted to comprehensive

neurophysiological, intellectual, cognitive and behavioral examinations

carried out at different stages of the recovery (acute, subacute and chronic

phases). Ss completed Barthel Activity of Daily Living (BADL) index, Wechsler

Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and checklists aimed to detect

cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. TBI Ss successfully re-employed obtained

significantly better scores on length of coma and post-traumatic amnesia,

intellectual status, cognitive functioning and behavioral competence. Other

specific measures of injury severity (CT-scan abnormalities, GCS score level,

BADL index) resulted as being unrelated to the resumption of pre-trauma

competitive activities.



Title: Family intervention in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorders.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Saldanha, D.

Source/Citation: Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health; Vol 9(1)

Jan 2002, India: Somatic Inkblot Society; 2002, 57-61

Abstract/Review/Citation: Details the cases of 6 military personnel (aged 17-38

yrs) who, after sustaining various traumas, met criteria for posttraumatic

stress disorder (PTSD). A treatment protocol was used that incorporated family

members whenever possible. Five families actively cooperated in a trauma-based

cognitive framework and insight-oriented psychotherapy to effect on

attitudinal change. Five out of the 6 PTSD cases showed significant

improvement with the intervention of family members. The 6th case illustrates

how incorporating a family member in treatment could have helped prevent

chronicity of PTSD. Finally, the significance of the role of families in the

care of the mentally ill is discussed. ========================================


Title: The relationship between dissociative proneness and alexithymia.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Elzinga, Bernet M.; Bermond, Bob; van Dyck, Richard

Author Affiliation: U Amsterdam, Dept of Psychonomics, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Vrije U Amsterdam, Dept of Psychiatry, Amsterdam, Netherlands Paper Number: 20020227

Source/Citation: Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics; Vol 71(2) Mar-Apr 2002,

Switzerland: S Karger AG; 2002, 104-111

Abstract/Review/Citation: It was hypothesized that the relationship between

dissociative tendencies and alexithymia would be partly mediated by current

levels of stress and/or by past traumatic experiences, and that dissociation

may also be related to enhanced fantasizing, although alexithymia has been

associated with an incapacity to fantasize. Data were obtained from 833

nonclinical Ss (aged 17-30 yrs) on dissociative tendencies, alexithymia,

childhood abuse, current stress and socially desirable behavior. Correlation

analyses followed by multiple regression were performed. Dissociative

tendencies appeared to be especially related to one alexithymic feature: a

difficulty in identifying feelings. This relationship was partially mediated

by levels of current stress. A history of trauma did not predict dissociation

measures. Furthermore, highly dissociative Ss were more fantasy prone than

low-dissociative Ss. Results suggest that dissociation may provide a way to

cope with current stressful events, associated with a difficulty in

identifying feelings. It is argued that two types of dissociation may exist,

one trait-like type of dissociation that is associated with fantasy proneness

and other related factors, and a trauma-related type of dissociation that is

more apparent within the clinical range. ========================================


Title: A psychologist's guide to oral diseases and their treatment.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Albino, Judith E. N.

Source/Citation: Professional Psychology: Research & Practice; Vol 33(2) Apr

2002, US: American Psychological Assn; 2002, 176-182

Abstract/Review/Citation: Nine types of oral diseases and conditions are

described, including dental caries, periodontal disease, dental facial

anomalies, birth defects, endentulism, cancer, trauma, pain, and salivary

gland dysfunction. Special attention is given to the psychological impact of

these conditions on children, adolescents, young people, midlife adults, and

older adults. Basic information about the etiology and epidemiology of these

health problems and about the disease experience provides insight into

psychological aspects of patient response. The roles that psychologists can

play in treatment are suggested through explanations of the various

psychological mechanisms that may come into play in coping with disease

characteristics and descriptions of the social factors that may influence

responses to disease.



Title: Heroes in the nursery: Three case studies in resilience.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Rak, Carl F.

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychology: Special Issue: A second

generation of resilience research.; Vol 58(3) Mar 2002, US: John Wiley &

Sons; 2002, 247-260

Abstract/Review/Citation: This article examines the therapeutic work in three

cases ( an 11 yr old boy, a 17 yr old girl, and an adult male) to study the

impact of a supportive and nurturing parent early in life upon the development

of resilience. The close analysis of the clinical material of each client's

personal narrative is the primary source. The metaphor of "heroes in the

nursery" is posited as a vehicle for enhancing understandings of the

development of resilience and a continuum from defense through adaptation to

resilience. Each case provides additive meaning to recent studies that elevate

the importance of the memories of parents to the development of resilient

responses of children later in life. Each case reveals specific dimensions of

the impact of heroes in the nursery which extend our understandings of

resiliency in children and adolescents as a proactive response to stress,

trauma, and loss.



Title: Post-traumatic stress in children following motor vehicle accidents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Keppel-Benson, Jane M.; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Benson,

Mark J.

Author Affiliation: Virginia Polytechnic Inst & State U, Dept of Psychology,

Child Study Ctr, Blacksburg, VA, US Virginia Polytechnic Inst & State U,

Blacksburg, VA, US

Source/Citation: Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied

Disciplines; Vol 43(2) Feb 2002, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishers; 2002,


Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined children's experiences following a motor

vehicle accident (MVA). Approximately 9 mo following the accident, 50 children

(29 boys and 21 girls, aged 7-16 yrs) and their 50 parents participated in

extensive interviews about the accident and in comprehensive, structured

diagnostic interviews concerning overall psychological functioning. Additional

assessments included posttraumatic stress questionnaires, archival police

report records, and emergency treatment medical records. Of the 50 children,

7 children (14%) met criteria for PTSD diagnosis, and an additional 5 children

met criteria for specific phobia (10%) related to the automobile accident on

the structured diagnostic interview (DICA-R-C; total of 24%). Degree of

physical injury predicted more PTSD symptoms, and previous accident

experiences predicted fewer symptoms, before and after controlling for other

variables. Holding degree of physical injury and age constant revealed that

social support predicted fewer PTSD symptoms. Findings suggest the possible

inoculating role of previous accidents and the importance of social support

following MVA injury.



Title: Hospital emergency rooms and children's health care attitudes.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Peterson, Carole; Ross, Abraham; Tucker, V. Charlene

Author Affiliation: Memorial U of Newfoundland, St John's, NF, Canada Memorial U

of Newfoundland, St John's, NF, Canada

Source/Citation: Journal of Pediatric Psychology; Vol 27(3) Apr 2002, England:

Oxford Univ Press; 2002, 281-291

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed attitudes of children requiring hospital

emergency room (ER) treatment for trauma injuries 5 years afterward to

evaluate the long-term effect of treatment distress. For comparison, health

care attitudes of a large random sample of children were assessed. Children

(N=39, 7-19 years old) recruited from the ER completed Children's Health Care

Attitudes Questionnaire. Comparable schoolchildren (N=1,300) completed the

same questionnaire, with the addition of a few questions asking about hospital

contact. The ER-recruited group was part of a 5-year follow-up study, and at

the time of initial recruitment, their parents had rated their children's

degree of distress at both the time of injury and of ER treatment on a 6-point

scale. For the ER-recruited sample, the degree of distress during ER treatment

did not seem to have longterm effects on children's attitudes. For the random

sample, contact with the ER, especially for a trauma injury, was related to

children liking the ER more. Although other research has shown that aversive

medical experiences may negatively affect children's attitudes, these findings

suggest that the nature of the medical contact is important in how children

interpret medically induced pain, which is related to their attitudes.



Title: Treating traumatized children: Clinical implications of the psychobiology

of posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Cohen, Judith A.; Perel, James M.; DeBellis, Michael D.;

Friedman, Matthew J.; Putnam, Frank W.

Author Affiliation: U Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, US U

Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, US National Ctr for PTSD, US U

Cincinnati School of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, US

Source/Citation: Trauma Violence & Abuse; Vol 3(2) Apr 2002, US: Sage

Publications; 2002, 91-108

Abstract/Review/Citation: There is growing evidence that child maltreatment and

posttraumatic stress disorder result in numerous neurobiological alterations

in children and adolescents, including abnormalities in brain structure and

functioning. This article reviews several psychobiological systems with regard

to their functioning under normal stress and in the presence of posttraumatic

stress disorder, with a focus on recent research findings in children and

adolescents, and the implications these findings have on clinical intervention

for traumatized children. The importance of early identification and treatment

of traumatized children and the need to empirically evaluate

psychopharmacological interventions for childhood posttraumatic stress

disorder are discussed in detail. Research and policy priorities are also




Title: Childhood trauma in obsessive-compulsive disorder, trichotillomania, and


Author(s)/Editor(s): Lochner, Christine; du Toit, Pieter L.; Zungu-Dirwayi, Nompumelelo; Marais, Adele; van Kradenburg, Jeanine; Seedat, Soraya;

Niehaus, Dana J. H.; Stein, Dan J.

Author Affiliation: U Stellenbosch, MRC Unit of Stress & Anxiety Disorders,

Cape Town, South Africa U Stellenbosch, MRC Unit of Stress & Anxiety

Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa U Stellenbosch, MRC Unit of Stress &

Anxiety Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa U Stellenbosch, MRC Unit of Stress

& Anxiety Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa U Stellenbosch, MRC Unit of

Stress & Anxiety Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa U Stellenbosch, MRC

Unit of Stress & Anxiety Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa U

Stellenbosch, MRC Unit of Stress & Anxiety Disorders, Cape Town, South


Source/Citation: Depression & Anxiety; Vol 15(2) 2002, US: John Wiley &

Sons; 2002, 66-68

Abstract/Review/Citation: There is relatively little data on the link between

childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive/putative obsessive-compulsive

spectrum disorders. The revised Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which

assesses physical, emotional, and sexual abuse as well as physical and

emotional neglect, was administered to 74 patients (mean age 36.1 yrs) with

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 36 Ss (mean age 31.8 yrs) with

trichotillomania (TTM), and a group of 31 normal controls (mean age 21.5 yrs).

All of the Ss were females between the ages of 12-71 yrs. The findings showed

a significantly greater severity of childhood trauma in general, and emotional

neglect specifically, in the patient groups compared to the controls. Although

various factors may play a role in the etiology of both OCD and TTM, this

study is consistent with some evidence from previous studies suggesting that

childhood trauma may play a role in the development of these disorders.



Title: A clinical investigation and analysis of psychic trauma in patients with

depressive neurosis.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Liu, Suzhen

Source/Citation: Psychological Science (China); Vol 25(1) Jan 2002, China:

Editorial Board of Psychological Science; 2002, 34-36 Description/Edition Info.: Journal Article; 250

Abstract/Review/Citation: Analyzed the psychic trauma of patients with

depressive neurosis (DN) according to the patients' age, gender, and education

levels. 69 patients with DN (aged 16-83 yrs) (19 males and 50 females) in

China were investigated for psychic trauma through the reporting of their life

events. The life events in the categories of personal development, family

members' failings, disappointment in love affair, disease, family conflict,

loss of loved one, personal relationships, and childhood trauma were studied

in 3 age groups (< 35 yrs, 35-55 yrs, and > 55 yrs) by gender and

education levels (under or above college). The results found that sensitive

life events occurred in Ss at different ages, of either sex, and with

different levels of education; that some life events relating to personal

development, diseases, loss of loved one, especially family conflicts could

cause psychic traumas; that uncontrollable life events could be the main cause

of psychic trauma of patients with DN. The results indicate that there is a

close connection between DN and psychic trauma; and that Ss at different ages,

of either sex, and with different levels of education have different levels of

experiences of life events and psychic traumas.  ========================================


Title: Dissociation and post-traumatic stress disorder: Two prospective studies

of road traffic accident survivors.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Murray, James; Ehlers, Anke; Mayou, Richard A.

Author Affiliation: Inst of Psychiatry, Dept of Psychology, London, United

Kingdom U Oxford, Dept of Psychiary, Oxford, United Kingdom Paper Number: 20020424

Source/Citation: British Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 180(4) Apr 2002, England:

Royal Coll of Psychiatrists; 2002, 363-368

Abstract/Review/Citation: Dissociative symptoms during trauma predict

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but they are often transient. It is

controversial whether they predict chronic PTSD over and above what can be

predicted from other posttrauma symptoms. This study investigated

prospectively the relationship between dissociative symptoms before, during,

and after a trauma and other psychological predictors, and chronic PTSD. Two

samples of 27 and 176 road traffic accident survivors (aged 17-76 yrs) were

recruited. Patients were assessed shortly after the accident and followed at

intervals over the next 6 mo. Assessments included measures of dissociation,

memory fragmentation, data-driven processing, rumination, and PTSD symptoms.

All measures of dissociation, particularly persistent dissociation 4 wks after

the accident, predicted chronic PTSD severity at 6 mo. Dissociative symptoms

predicted subsequent PTSD over and above the other PTSD symptom clusters.

Memory fragmentation and data-driven processing also predicted PTSD.

Rumination about the accident was among the strongest predictors of subsequent

PTSD symptoms. Thus, persistent dissociation and rumination 4 wks after trauma

are more useful in identifying those patients who are likely to develop

chronic PTSD than initial reactions. ========================================


Title: Reliability and validity of the Turkish Version of the Child Dissociative


Author(s)/Editor(s): Zoroglu, Salig S.; Tuzun, Umran; Ozturk, Mucahit;

Sar, Vedat

Author Affiliation: Istanbul U, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Dept of Child &

Adolescent Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey Vakif Gureba Hosp, Dept of Child &

Adolescent Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey Istanbul U, Dept of Psychiatry,

Istanbul, Turkey

Source/Citation: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation; Vol 3(1) 2002, US:

Haworth Medical Press; 2002, 37-49

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated the psychometric characteristics of the

Turkish Version of the Child Dissociative Checklist (CDC). The CDC was

translated by the authors and discrepancies were resolved by consensus. It was

administered to a sample consisting of 9 disociative identity disorder (DID),

28 dissociative disorder nototherwise specified (DDNOS), 35 anxiety disorder,

22 mood disorder, 22 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 88

non-psychiatric comparison children and adolescents (N = 204, aged 6-17 yrs).

Parents or caretakers completed the measure at the hospital for patient

groups. Controls were recruited through school. A 5-motest-retest was

performed on a mixed patient and control group. Results show that the

test-retest coefficient was 0.59. The split-half was 0.85. For the whole

sample, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.89. Spearman rank-order

correlations were calculated between each item and item-corrected score totals

and were all significant at p < 0.001 except for item 17. A Kruskal-Wallis

comparison across the different groups with pair-wise comparisons was highly

significant. The median score of CDC was 25.0 in DID, 16.5 in DDNOS, 4.0 in

anxiety disorder, 5.0 in mood disorder, 5.5 in ADHD groups and 2.0 in

non-clinical controls.



Title: Children and violence: Findings and implications from a rural community.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Slovak, Karen; Singer, Mark I.

Author Affiliation: Case Western Reserve U, Mandel School of Applied Social

Sciences, Cleveland, OH, US

Source/Citation: Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal; Vol 19(1) Feb 2002,

US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2002, 35-56

Abstract/Review/Citation: The present study addresses gaps in the youth

violence literature by exploring the types and levels of children's violence

exposure in a rural setting and examining psychological trauma associated with violence

exposure. The study is a secondary data analysis using a rural sample of 549

Ss from a larger study. The larger study employed a 45-minute questionnaire

given to students in grades 3 to 8 (aged 8-15 yrs). The questionnaire was

designed to assess children's present and past violence exposure as a victim

and witness across the home, school, and neighborhood. In addition, this

questionnaire assessed children's psychological trauma symptoms. This study

found that children in the rural sample were exposed to high amounts of

violence as both victims and witnesses within, and prior to, the past year.

Violence exposure variables explained a significant amount of variance in

total trauma symptoms after controlling for demographic variables. This

finding is consistent with the literature examining the association of trauma

and violence exposure.



Title: Reliability and validity of the Japanese-language version of the Impact

of Event Scale-revised (IES-R-J): Four studies of different traumatic events.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Asukai, Nozomu; Kato, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Noriyuki;

Kim, Yoshiharu; Yamamato, Kohei; Kishimoto, Junji; Miyake, Yuko; Nishizono-

Maher, Aya

Author Affiliation: Hyogo Inst for Mental Health Care, Kobe, Japan National Inst

of Mental Health, Ichikawa, Japan National Inst of Mental Health, Ichikawa,

Japan Wakayama City Public Health Ctr, Wakayama, Japan SAS Inst Japan, Tokyo,

Japan Tokyo Inst of Psychiatry, Dept of Stress Disorders Research, Tokyo,

Japan Tokyo Inst of Psychiatry, Dept of Stress Disorders Research, Tokyo,


Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 190(3) Mar 2002,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002, 175-182

Abstract/Review/Citation: The authors developed the Japanese-language

version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R-J) and investigated its

reliability and validity in 4 different groups: 487 workers (aged 18-60 yrs) with

lifetime mixed traumatic events, 61 survivors (aged 12-68 yrs) of an arsenic

poisoning case, 86 survivors (aged 26-86 yrs) of the Hanshin-Awaji earthquake, and 658 survivors (aged 18-79 yrs) of the Tokyo Metro sarin attack. Evidence

includes retest reliability and internal consistency of the IES-R-J. Posttraumatic

stress disorder (PTSD) and partial PTSD cases indicated significantly higher

scores than non-PTSD cases. In analysis of scale structure, the majority of

intrusion and hyperarousal items were subsumed under the same cluster, whereas

avoidance items made up a separate cluster. Female patients indicated higher

scores than male patients. A negative weak correlation between age and the

score was found only among female earthquake survivors. The IES-R-J can be

used as a validated instrument in future international comparative research.



Title: Characteristics of traffic crashes in Maryland (1996-1998): Differences

among the youngest drivers.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Ballesteros, Michael F.; Dischinger, Patricia C.

Author Affiliation: U Maryland, Charles McC. Mathias National Study Ctr for

Trauma & EMS, Baltimore, MD, US

Source/Citation: Accident Analysis & Prevention; Vol 34(3) May 2002, United

Kingdom: Elsevier Science/Pergamon; 2002, 279-284

Abstract/Review/Citation: Notes that motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the

leading cause of death among teenagers in the US. The present study examined

how crash rates and crash characteristics differed among drivers aged 16-21

yrs in the state of Maryland from 1996 to 1998. The results show that, based

on police reports, the youngest drivers have the highest rate of MVCs per

licensed driver and per annual miles driven. Furthermore, crash

characteristics suggest that inexperience rather than risky driving may

account for the differing rates. Drivers closer to the age of 16 yrs had their

crashes under the safest conditions: during the day in clear weather while

drinking less.



Title: The aetiology of postpsychotic posttraumatic stress disorder following a

psychotic episode.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Shaw, Katharine; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Bookless,

Clara; Air, Tracy

Author Affiliation: U Adelaide, Queen Elizabeth Hosp, Dept of Psychiatry,

Woodville South, SA, Australia U Adelaide, Queen Elizabeth Hosp, Dept of

Psychiatry, Woodville South, SA, Australia U Adelaide, Queen Elizabeth Hosp,

Dept of Psychiatry, Woodville South, SA, Australia

Paper Number: 20020501

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 15(1) Feb 2002, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2002, 39-47

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examines the aetiology of postpsychotic posttraumatic

stress disorder (PP/PTSD) symptoms in 42 people (aged 16-65 yrs) hospitalized

for a psychotic illness were interviewed during recovery to investigate

whether a psychotic episode was associated with PTSD symptomatology. Measures

included the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument, a modified Brief

Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, the Stanford

Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, and the Impact of Event Scale. All

participants found psychosis and hospitalization highly distressing. PP/PTSD

symptoms were not associated with demographic factors, previous trauma,

treatment, or insight. The PP/PTSD group reported more distress and intrusive

memories associated with illness and treatment experiences and had higher

scores for anxiety and dissociative symptoms. The development of PP/PTSD

phenomenology was associated with the psychological distress of the




Title: Children exposed to warfare: A longitudinal study.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Dyregrov, Atle; Gjestad, Rolf; Raundalen, Magne

Author Affiliation: Ctr for Crisis Psychology, Bergen, Norway Ctr for Crisis

Psychology, Bergen, Norway

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 15(1) Feb 2002, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2002, 59-68

Abstract/Review/Citation: Following the 1991 Gulf War a group of 94 children

(aged 6-17 yrs) in Iraq were interviewed at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years

after the war. The group was exposed to the bombing of a shelter where more

than 750 were killed. Selected items from different inventories, including the

Impact of Event Scale (IES), a semistructured inteview, the Child Behavior

Checklist, the War Trauma Questionnaire, and a Posttraumatic Stress Reactions

Checklist, assessed children's reactions. Results reveal that children

continue to experience sadness and remain afraid of losing their family.

Although there was no significant decline in intrusive and avoidance reactions

as measured by the IES from 6 months to 1 year following the war, reactions

were reduced 2 years after the war. However, the scores were still high,

indicating that symptoms persist, with somewhat diminished intensity over




Title: The prevalence of potentially traumatic events in childhood and


Author(s)/Editor(s): Costello, E. Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Fairbank, John A.;

Angold, Adrian

Author Affiliation: Duke U Medical Ctr, Dept of Biostatistics &

Bioinformatics, Durham, NC, US Duke U Medical Ctr, Dept of Psychiatry &

Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Epidemiology Ctr, Durham, NC, US Duke U

Medical Ctr, Dept of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Developmental

Epidemiology Ctr, Durham, NC, US

Paper Number: 20020508

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 15(2) Apr 2002, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2002, 99-112

Abstract/Review/Citation: This paper examines exposure to potentially traumatic

events from middle childhood through adolescence, and vulnerability to such

exposure. Analyses are based on the first 4 annual waves of data from a

longitudinal general population study of youth in western North Carolina,

involving 4,965 interviews with 1,420 children and adolescents (aged 9, 11,

and 13 yrs at intake) and their parents or guardians. Participants reported on

DSM extreme stressors ("high magnitude events"), other potentially

traumatic events ("low magnitude events"), and background

vulnerability factors. In this general population sample, one-quarter

experienced at least one high magnitude event by age 16, 6% within the past 3

months. One third experienced a low magnitude event in the past 3 months. The

likelihood of such exposure increased with the number of vulnerability




Title: Attachment quality and post-treatment functioning following sexual trauma

in young adolescents: A case series presentation.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Stubenbort, Karen; Greeno, Catherine; Mannarino, Anthony; P.

Cohen, Judith A.

Author Affiliation: U Pittsburgh, School of Social Work, Pittsburgh, PA, US MCP

Hahnemann U, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, US MCP Hahnemann U, School

of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, US

Source/Citation: Clinical Social Work Journal; Vol 30(1) Spr 2002, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2002, 23-39

Abstract/Review/Citation: Children and adolescents who suffer sexual abuse

evidence symptoms that may persist into adulthood. Attachment theory may lend

some insight into the psychological sequelae following sexual trauma. A

clinical case series presents four sexually abused young adolescents (aged 12

and 13 yrs) from the first author's clinical caseload. Each case is rated

regarding the quality of attachment, the severity of trauma, and the child's

functioning at the time of follow-up. Ratings are made by the first author and

qualified by a second clinician who is familiar with each case. Findings

suggest that those youngsters who had the benefit of a strong and secure

attachment evidence more positive outcome at follow-up. ========================================


Title: Reactions and guidelines for children following trauma/disaster.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Gurwitch, Robin H.; Silovsky, Jane F.; Schultz, Shelli; Kees, Michelle; Burlingame, Sarah

Author Affiliation: U Oklahoma, Health Sciences Ctr, Dept of Pediatrics, OK, US

U Oklahoma, Health Sciences Ctr, Dept of Pediatrics, OK, US U Oklahoma, Health

Sciences Ctr, Dept of Pediatrics, OK, US U Oklahoma, Health Sciences Ctr, Dept

of Pediatrics, OK, US

Source/Citation: Communication Disorders Quarterly; Vol 23(2) Win 2002, US: PRO

ED; 2002, 93-99

Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents guidelines and reactions for children

following a traumatic event or disaster. The guidelines are for elementary

school students, middle school students, high school students, and teachers in

all 3 levels of school.



Title: Supporting adolescents in times of national crisis: Potential roles for

adolescent health care providers.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Schonfeld, David J.

Source/Citation: Journal of Adolescent Health; Vol 30(5) May 2002, US: Elsevier

Science; 2002, 302-307

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses adolescents' reactions to the terrorist

attacks of September 11th, and possible counseling strategies. Manmade

disasters, especially when there is an underlying human intent to cause harm,

often result in more psychological distress than do natural disasters.

Potential symptoms of adjustment reactions may include sleep problems, anxiety

and trauma-related fears, separation anxiety, school avoidance, difficulties

in concentration, sadness, depression, avoidance of previously enjoyed

activities, regression, somatization, onset of or increase in substance abuse,

and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Adolescents may attempt to

withhold complaints of symptoms because of concerns that they are abnormal.

Adolescents should be advised to consider limiting the amount of television

viewing, especially those most affected.



Title: Family backgrounds of teenage female sex workers in Istanbul metropolitan


Author(s)/Editor(s): Kuntay, Esin

Source/Citation: Journal of Comparative Family Studies: Special Issue:

Theoretical and methodological issues in cross-cultural families.; Vol 33(3)

Sum 2002, Canada: Univ of Calgary; 2002, 345-358

Abstract/Review/Citation: Based on data accumulated in a study undertaken in

1998, this paper explores the lives of teenage female sex workers in the

Istanbul metropolitan area. A backplan of the Turkish traditional-rural

culture with its norms and values in its transplanted form in an urban setting

is presented. A grounded theory approach and qualitative research were adapted

as the method of research and evaluation of the data gathered through in-depth

interviews with 30 females aged 14-18 yrs. Findings indicate that the Ss have

been exposed to multiple risks of street life and sexual exploitation. The

work conditions of these commercial sex workers meet the criteria of forced

labor. The data reveal the psychosocial effects related to the emotional,

physical, and the sexual abuse of the Ss. The consequences of this abuse are

very low assessment of self-identity, fear of the future based on the belief

that there is no way out, helplessness, frustration, and posttrauma stress.

Findings indicate the need to recognize this group of young girls as children

in need of care and protection, to start a first aid refuge center, to gather

reliable statistics on the number of minors involved in child prostitution,

and to make sure they receive psychotherapeutic treatment on substance abuse

and trauma.



Title: Psychosocial interventions and children's rights: Beyond clinical


Author(s)/Editor(s): Veale, Angela; Dona, Giorgia

Author Affiliation: U East London, Dept of Anthropology & Sociology, London,

United Kingdom

Source/Citation: Peace & Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology; Vol 8(1) Mar

2002, US: Lawrence Erlbaum; 2002, 47-61

Abstract/Review/Citation: There has been a significant increase in psychosocial

interventions in the aftermath of ethno-political violence. This paper

critically examines the contribution of psychosocial interventions to the

broader development agenda of reconstruction and rehabilitation. Using Rwanda

as an example, the authors undertake a brief psychologically informed analysis

of the factors that contributed to genocide, as a means of outlining the

political and cultural context in which psychosocial interventions operate.

During the violence, ethnicity was politically mobilized, communities

polarized, and social networks fragmented. An analysis of psychosocial

interventions for children demonstrates that the implications of social power

and status are seldom examined before reintegration and community-based

psychosocial interventions are implemented. The authors explore the potential

impact of a narrow focus on victims and survivors on societal rehabilitation,

and reflect on the implications of how 'trauma'--a dominant discourse--may be

appropriated and politicized as a symbol of genocide and political legitimacy.

The paper concludes with an analysis of what a human rights framework can

contribute to linking psychosocial work more centrally to broader political

and development analysis.



Title: Predicting posttraumatic distress in hospitalized trauma survivors with

acute injuries.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Zatzick, Douglas F.; Kang, Sun-Mee; Mueller, Hans-Georg;

Russo, Joan E.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Katon, Wayne; Jurkovich, Gregory J.;Roy-

Byrne, Peter

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 159(6) Jun 2002, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2002, 941-946

Abstract/Review/Citation: Interviewed 101 randomly selected survivors (aged

14-65 yrs) of motor vehicle crashes or assaults while hospitalized and 1, 4,

and 12 mo after injury. In the surgical ward, inpatients were screened for

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive, and dissociative symptoms,

for prior trauma, for pre-event functioning, and for alcohol and drug

intoxication. Patient demographic and injury characteristics were also

recorded. Random coefficient regression models were used to assess the

association between these clinical, injury, and demographic characteristics

and PTSD symptom levels over the year after the injury. Of the 101 surgical

inpatients, 73% screened positive for high levels of symptomatic distress

and/or substance intoxication. At 1, 4, and 12 mo after the injury, 30%-40%

reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of PTSD. High ward PTSD symptom

levels were the strongest and most parsimonious predictor of persistent

symptoms over the course of the year. Greater prior trauma, stimulant

intoxication, and female gender were also associated with higher symptom

levels. Increasing injury severity, however, was not associated with higher

PTSD symptom levels. It is concluded that effectiveness trials that test

screening and intervention procedures for at-risk inpatients should be




Title: The psychological consequences of community violence exposure: What

variables protect children in urban settings?

Author(s)/Editor(s): Ulschmid, Nancy Kaczmarek

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities

& Social Sciences; Vol 62(7-A) Feb 2002, US: University Microfilms

International; 2002, 2354

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examined the psychological consequences of

community violence exposure in 121 students (11-15 years of age) attending

public school in a Midwest urban area. The results indicate that students had

been exposed to significant levels of community violence in their lifetime

that included hearing about or witnessing violence, or direct victimization.

Violent events ranged from beatings and serious threats to stabbings,

shootings, and killings. Consistent with earlier studies, community violence

exposure predicted trauma symptomology in both boys and girls. In general,

girls reported a wider range of trauma symptomology than boys. Community

violence exposure also predicted a wider range of self-reported psychological

maladjustment in girls including sensation-seeking, atypicality, somatization,

social stress and inadequacy. Surprisingly, community violence exposure was

not predictive of teacher-rated problems, including externalizing,

internalizing, or learning problems. Using a model of stress, risk and

resiliency, a few risk factors were identified that appear to increase degree

of symptomology. Being female and repeated exposure to community violence

appeared as important risk factors. Other demographic variables did not appear

influential, although being African-American predicted nearly all

teacher-rated problems. Protective or resiliency factors including individual,

familial and external factors appeared to influence degree of symptomology as

well. A high level of self-reported personal resources (self-reliance,

interpersonal relations, and relations with parents) predicted a lower level

of trauma symptomology. In addition, attitude toward life, school and self

effected level of symptomology. Specifically, negative attitudes were

predictive of greater PTSD symptomology. Further analyses were conducted to

examine possible moderating or mediating effects of these variables. The

results suggest that self-reported personal resources had a direct and

separate effect on trauma symptomology regardless of violence exposure. In

contrast, self-reported negative attitudes about life, school and self appear

to have mediated the effects of community violence exposure on trauma

symptomology. Study limitations and implications for intervention are




Title: Sibling adjustment to burn trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mancuso, Melodee Gerber

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 62(7-B) Feb 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2002, 3383

Abstract/Review/Citation: The present study examined the psychosocial

adjustment of the siblings of children suffering from burn trauma. In addition, the

study investigated the impact of illness factor variables, family adaptation

variables, and sibling constellation variables to identify risk factors

impacting their level of adjustment. Seventy-nine parents or legal guardians

of the sibling closest in age to the pediatric burn patient meeting specified

inclusion criteria participated in this study in addition to fourteen

non-injured siblings from ages 11-18. Levels of psychological adjustment were

obtained using the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL) (Achenbach, 1991). Family

factors predicting psychosocial adjustment were assessed utilizing the Family

Environment Scale (FES) (Moos and Moos, 1981). Two instruments were developed

for the present project: one to identify factors indicated by well siblings as

being relevant to their adjustment; the other to identify changes in the

non-injured sibling's behavior since the burn injury. Using a nonparametric

Mann Whitney U statistic, a marginally significant difference was found (MW-U:

2df z = -1.676, p < 0.0938) on the Total Problems Scale, suggesting that

the study group was better adjusted than the age and gender matched normative

group on psychological dimensions. Analysis of the Competency Dimension of the

CBCL resulted in significant differences (MW-U: 2df z = -2.357, p <

0.0184) indicating that the children of siblings with burn injuries faired

worse than the normative group on overall Competence, particularly Social

Competence. Further nonparametric analyses compared the study sample to the

normative group as clustered by severity of injury. Analysis indicated that

the minimal and the moderate burn study group did significantly better on the

CBCL Syndrome dimensions. However, analysis of the CBCL Competency scales

found that the moderate (MW-U: 2df z = -2.314, p < 0.0206) and severe

injury groups (MW-U: 2df z = -1.663, p < 0.0962) were lower than the

normative sample, particularly in social competence. Analysis of family

adaptation factors as a predictor of psychosocial adjustment of the study

group could not be carried out. A Cronbach's Alpha Statistic indicated poor

internal consistency on the FES scales and therefore deemed inappropriate with

this population.



Title: Memory functioning in children with traumatic brain injuries: A Test of

Memory and Learning (TOMAL) validity study.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lowther, Jodi Lyn

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 62(8-B) Mar 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2002, 3823

Abstract/Review/Citation: Approximately every 11 minutes a child sustains a

head injury resulting in permanent disabilities. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) leads

the causes of death and disability among children and adolescents. The

children who survive their brain injury often develop difficulties in their

motor, language, and cognitive skills that last a lifetime. Across the

literature, memory impairments are most often associated with TBI. In

children, this is particularly devastating given that memory is integral in

other cognitive functions, such as learning. Despite the prevalence of TBI

among children and its lasting effects, few studies have examined memory

functioning in children utilizing developmentally appropriate, standardized

measures of memory. Further, there remains much controversy and uncertainty as

to how the TBI severity types compare to one another on memory. Thus, the

purpose of this study was to compare the memory functioning, as measured by

the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL), of children with and without TBI, as

well as with moderate and severe TBI, to determine if differences existed and

examine the nature of those differences. The sample included 140 children

ages 5 to 19, of which 70 had sustained moderate to severe head trauma and 70

were controls gathered from the TOMAL normative sample and matched in age and

gender to the clinical sample. A series of ANOVAs and MANOVAs were utilized to

examine the groups' performance on the TOMAL Indexes and subtests. When the

clinical and control groups were compared, significant differences were found

on all of the TOMAL Indexes. With the exception of the verbal delayed recall

items, significant differences were demonstrated on the subtests, as well. A

pattern of relative strengths and weaknesses were observed in these analyses.

No differences were identified when moderate and severe groups were compared.

The findings of this investigation further the understanding of memory

functioning following pediatric TBI. Additionally, the implications of these

results, primarily interventions for the educational setting for the TBI

student, are discussed.



Title: Defense mechanisms as moderators of trauma symptomatology in maltreated


Author(s)/Editor(s): Warren, Michelle

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 62(9-B) Apr 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2002, 4241

Abstract/Review/Citation: Three defense styles, as measured by the Defense Style

Questionnaire (DSO-R; Andrews, Pollock, & Stewart, 1989), were

investigated as possible moderators of the relationship between maltreatment

experiences and psychological symptomatology in an adolescent clinical

population ( N = 75). Participants indicated the degree to which they

experienced maltreatment, including child sexual abuse, child physical abuse,

child exposure to family violence, and child emotional abuse, on the Record of

Maltreatment Experiences (ROME; Wolfe & McGee, 1994). Psychological

symptomatology was indicated by participants' self-reports of externalizing

and internalizing behaviour problems on the Youth Self-Report (YSR; Achenbach,

1991) and data from the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale - Child and

Adolescent Version (CAPS-CA; Nader, 1996), pertaining to DSM-IV Criteria B, C,

and D PTSD symptomatology. Results suggested that specific defense styles

moderate the effects of specific types of maltreatment. An immature defense

style was found to moderate the relationship between child sexual abuse and

externalizing behaviour problems. A mature defense style was found to moderate

the relationship between child emotional abuse and internalizing behaviour

problems. A neurotic defense style was found to moderate the effects of child

physical abuse and child exposure to family violence, on the development of

PTSD symptomatology. In addition, the defense styles were found to operate in

different fashions. An immature defense style protected against the effects of

increasing levels of maltreatment, whereas neurotic and mature defense styles

exacerbated the effects of increasing maltreatment. Limitations of these

findings and implications for future research are discussed. ========================================


Title: Mixed handedness and trauma symptoms in disaster-exposed adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Chemtob, Claude M.; Taylor, Kristen B.; Woo, Lia; Coel,

Marc N.

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 189(1) Jan 2001,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001, 58-60

Abstract/Review/Citation: A number of psychological disorders have been

associated with personal and familial left-handedness. However, it has also

been suggested that mixed lateral preference, rather than left-handedness in

and of itself, may be a risk factor for some psychological disorders. The

authors studied 203 students (mean age 15.59 yrs) who completed questionnaires

designed to assess their reactions to a hurricane, as part of a larger project

aimed at assisting students with psychological recovery. Ss completed The

Impact of Events Scale (IES), which is used to measure trauma symptoms.

Disaster-exposed adolescents with mixed handedness had significantly higher

IES intrusion and IES total scores than did adolescents reporting consistent

handedness. Although this study focused on trauma symptoms rather than on PTSD

diagnosis, the author's findings are consistent with the results of B. Spivak

et al, (1998) who showed increased susceptibility to PTSD in mixed-handedness

individuals. Notably, avoidance scores on the IES were not related to

participants' consistency of hand use. This suggests that further

investigations of the relationship between mixed-handedness and PTSD should

evaluate these components of PTSD separately. ========================================


Title: Vulnerability to anxiety disorders in adulthood.

Author(s)/Editor(s): McNally, Richard J.

Source/Citation: Vulnerability to psychopathology: Risk across the lifespan.,

New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press; 2001, (xv, 476), 304-321

Source editor(s): Ingram, Rick E. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reviews what is known about vulnerability for

developing anxiety disorders (ADs) in adulthood. Restricting coverage to

adulthood eliminates from consideration several syndromes that usually emerge

in childhood and adolescence (e.g., phobias, generalized AD). Panic disorder

(PD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder

(OCD) are the foci of the chapter. Panic disorder rarely begins before

puberty, PTSD can occur at any age, and many people develop OCD in adulthood.

Research on vulnerability for PD suggests that fear of bodily sensations is a

risk factor for panic attacks and perhaps PD. In addition, PD is heritable.

Vulnerability research on PTSD suggests several conclusions. For example,

trauma studies are shifting from emphasizing investigation of the pathogenic

properties of events themselves to investigation of vulnerability factors that

render some people more susceptible than other to develop PTSD. Vulnerability

research on OCD yields few firm conclusions. For example, it is unclear

whether genetic factors increase specific risk for OCD or whether they

predispose people to develop anxiety syndromes in general. The search for

vulnerability factors for adult ADs will likely continue at multiple levels:

genetic, cognitive, and social.



Title: Dual diagnosis: Counseling the mentally ill substance abuser (2nd ed.).

Author(s)/Editor(s): Evans, Katie; Sullivan, J. Michael

Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press; 2001, (xiii, 290)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Updated for today's health care climate, the revised

and expanded second edition of this volume offers a thorough introduction to

clinical work with this difficult-to-treat population. Providing a unique

synthesis of chemical dependency and mental health models, the book

articulates a framework for assessment and treatment and describes a range of

effective counseling and motivational strategies for adolescents and adults.

The second edition is fully compatible with Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV), and

includes discussions of the latest developments in treatment, sample treatment

plans, increased coverage of ways to incorporate 12-step concepts into mental

health interventions, and a new section on trauma-based disorders in addicted

female adolescents. The practical utility of the volume is enhanced by

clinical vignettes, clearly presented tables, and reproducible forms.



Title: Disentangling the link between disrupted families and delinquency.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Juby, Heather; Farrington, David P.

Source/Citation: British Journal of Criminology: Special Issue: ; Vol 41(1) Win

2001, England: Oxford Univ Press; 2001, 22-40

Abstract/Review/Citation: The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development is a

prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males from 8 to 46 yrs

old. Delinquency rates were higher among boys who were living in permanently

disrupted families on their 15th birthday compared to boys living in intact

families. Results were very similar whether juvenile convictions, juvenile

self-reported delinquency or adult convictions were studied. Delinquency rates

were similar in disrupted families and in intact high conflict families. Boys

who lost their mothers were more likely to be delinquent than boys who lost

their fathers, and disruptions caused by parental disharmony were more

damaging than disruptions caused by parental death. Boys from disrupted

families who continued living with their mothers had similar delinquency rates

to boys from intact harmonious families. These results are more concordant

with life course theories than with trauma or selection theories of the

effects of family disruption.



Title: Outcome of children seen after one parent killed the other.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kaplan, Tony; Black, Dora; Hyman, Philippa; Knox, Jill

Source/Citation: Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry; Vol 6(1) Jan 2001,

England: Sage Publications Ltd; 2001, 9-22

Abstract/Review/Citation: A postal questionnaire was sent to the referrers of 95

children (aged 19 mo-15 yrs) whose one parent had killed the other. Data on

the children had been collected at assessment at least one yr before. The

authors examined a number of outcome variables including placement effects,

the frequency of their contact with the surviving parent, the referrer's view

of the difference the intervention had made and their view on the child's

adjustment over time. The authors analysed the data to determine any

associations between these factors in order to understand the difficulties

these children face and to aid clinical decisions. ========================================


Title: Children involved in road traffic accidents: Psychological sequelae and

issues for mental health services.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Baldwin, Sarah

Source/Citation: Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry; Vol 6(1) Jan 2001,

England: Sage Publications Ltd; 2001, 23-39 Description/Edition Info.: Journal Article; 250

Abstract/Review/Citation: Although road traffic accidents involving children are

common daily events it is only recently that the psychological consequences

arising from such traumas have been investigated. This article summarizes the

current research and highlights, by the use of case histories of children

(aged 2-18 yrs) involved in road traffic accidents, the psychological

reactions typically experienced by child traffic accident victims. Mental

health services are not routinely provided to this group of children and the

possible treatment implications are discussed. ========================================


Title: Timeholes: A useful metaphor when explaining unusual or bizarre behaviour

in children who have moved families.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hobday, Angela

Source/Citation: Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry; Vol 6(1) Jan 2001,

England: Sage Publications Ltd; 2001, 41-47

Abstract/Review/Citation: Many psychological problems are present when children

have moved families. The majority of such children have experienced trauma and

loss. They can show sudden mood changes with extreme behavioural difficulties.

The mood changes resemble affect flashbacks. Using metaphor to describe these

episodes as 'timehole', and giving guidance as to how to reduce them, has

proved clinically useful. The description of a timehole and its link to other

psychological reactions and appropriate interventions are discussed.  ========================================


Title: Combat trauma: Trauma with highest risk of delayed onset and unresolved

posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, unemployment, and abuse among men.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Prigerson, Holly G.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Rosenheck,

Robert A.

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease: Special Issue: ; Vol

189(2) Feb 2001, US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001, 99-108

Abstract/Review/Citation: Little is known about the risk and course of

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other forms of dysfunction,

associated with combat trauma relative to other traumas. Modified versions of

the Mental Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) PTSD module from the Diagnostic

Interview Schedule and Composite International Diagnostic Interview were

administered to a representative national sample of 5,877 Ss (15-54 yrs old)

in the part 2 subsample of the National Comorbidity Survey. Of the weighted

subsample, 1,703 men reported a traumatic event. The risk of PTSD and other

forms of dysfunction were compared for men who nominated combat as their worst

trauma vs men nominating other traumas as worst, controlling for confounding

influences. Men reporting combat as their worst trauma were more likely to

have lifetime PTSD, delayed PTSD symptom onset, and unresolved PTSD symptoms,

and to be unemployed, fired, divorced, and physically abusive to their spouses

than men reporting other traumas as their worst experience.  ========================================


Title: Wounded adolescence: School-based group psychotherapy for adolescents who

sustained or witnessed violent injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Layne, Christopher M.; Pynoos, Robert S.; Cardenas, Jose

Source/Citation: School violence: Assessment, management, prevention.,

Washington, DC, US: American Psychiatric Press, Inc; 2001, (xix, 322), 163-186 Source editor(s): Shafii, Mohammad (Ed) Description/Edition Info.: Chapter; 160

Abstract/Review/Citation: Designed, implemented, and qualitatively evaluated a

school-based pilot psychotherapy program for adolescents who directly

sustained violent injury or who witnessed the violent injury or death of a

close friend or family member. The pilot program had 2 primary goals: (1) to

develop a battery of instruments that could be used in a high school health

clinic setting to screen students for exposure, distress, and developmental

impact, to provide more in-depth evaluation of identified students, and to

monitor course of recovery; and (2) to develop and pilot a structured, yet

flexible, time-limited school-based group psychotherapy intervention for

adolescent victims of violence that focuses on trauma and grief. Each

treatment session (6 in all) was designed to address 5 therapeutic foci

(traumatic experiences and posttraumatic stress reactions, trauma and loss

reminders, traumatic loss and complicated bereavement, secondary stresses and

adversities, and developmental impact). Ss were 6 urban high school students

referred for mental health services at a school-based clinic. Data from

postgroup evaluative essays, self-report measures, and a 13-mo follow-up

interview indicate that significant progress was made by Ss in achieving the

therapeutic goals.



Title: Strategies for the prevention of youth violence in Chicago public


Author(s)/Editor(s): Bell, Carl C.; Gamm, Sue; Vallas, Paul; Jackson, Phillip

Source/Citation: School violence: Assessment, management, prevention.,

Washington, DC, US: American Psychiatric Press, Inc; 2001, (xix, 322), 251-272 Source editor(s): Shafii, Mohammad (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Offers a model of violence prevention, including its

theoretical underpinnings, by summarizing programmatic efforts used in the

Chicago public schools. The suggested principles necessary to promote violence

in an inner-city population include (1) rebuilding the village (developing

community partnerships and coalitions); (2) providing access to health care;

(3) improving bonding, attachment, and connectedness dynamics within the

community and between stakeholders; (4) improving self-esteem; (5) increasing

social skills of target recipients; (6) reestablishing the adult protective

shield; and (7) reducing the residual effects of trauma. The authors state

that they do not maintain that what the Chicago public schools have

accomplished is easy or is methods foolproof. However, its efforts appear to

be a significant start at curbing the epidemic of violence plaguing schools

and communities.



Title: Child maltreatment: Risk of adjustment problems and dating violence in

adolescence. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wolfe, David A.; Scott, Katreena; Wekerle, Christine;

Pittman, Anna-Lee

Source/Citation: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent

Psychiatry; Vol 40(3) Mar 2001, US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Co;

2001, 282-289

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the relationship between child maltreatment,

clinically relevant adjustment problems, and dating violence in a community

sample of adolescents. Adolescents (aged 14-19 yrs) from 10 high schools in

Ontario completed questionnaires that assessed past maltreatment, current

adjustment, and dating violence. Logistic regression was used to compare

maltreated and nonmaltreated youths across outcome domains. One third of the

school sample reported levels of maltreatment above the cutoff score on the

Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Girls with a history of maltreatment had a

higher risk of emotional distress compared with girls without such histories.

They were also at greater risk of violent and nonviolent delinquency and

carrying concealed weapons. Boys with histories of maltreatment were 2.5-3.5

times as likely to report clinical levels of depression, posttraumatic stress,

and overt dissociation as were boys without a maltreatment history. They also

had a significantly greater risk of using threatening behaviors or physical

abuse against their dating partners. Maltreatment is a significant risk factor

for adolescent maladjustment and shows a differential pattern for male and

female adolescents.



Title: Recommendations and illustrations for combining hypnosis and EMDR in the

treatment of psychological trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Beere, Donald B.; Simon, Melinda J.; Welch, Kenneth

Source/Citation: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis; Vol 43(3-4) Jan-Apr

2001, US: American Society of Clinical Hypnosis; 2001, 217-231

Abstract/Review/Citation: Evaluates the combination of hypnotherapy and EMDR.

Three experienced therapists, trained in hypnosis and EMDR, distilled some

tentative hypotheses about the use of hypnosis in EMDR from 15 cases, 2

presented here (a 34-yr-old female with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

and a 16-yr-old female diagnosed with Atypical Dissociative Disorder). Both

cases focused on resolving traumatic issues using EMDR. An overview of EMDR is

provided, including a discussion pertaining to its efficacy. Similarities and

differences between the 2 treatment techniques are discussed.  ========================================


Title: The new handbook of psychotherapy and counseling with men: A

comprehensive guide to settings, problems, and treatment approaches, Vol. 1

& 2.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Brooks, Gary R.; Good, Glenn E.

Source/Citation: San Francisco, CA, US: Jossey-Bass Inc, Publishers; 2001, (xv,


Abstract/Review/Citation: To work effectively with male clients, mental health

professionals must learn how to reach men and make the therapeutic process

meaningful for clients who are, more often than not, stubbornly opposed to

therapy. The New Handbook of Psychotherapy and Counseling with Men is a

compilation of information on the most current theories, research, effective

treatment programs, techniques, and strategies for working compassionately and

successfully with the often resistant or mandated male client. This 2-volume

resource is written by an exceptional group of mental health professionals who

draw on their real-life experiences of working with men facing problems in a

variety of settings and circumstances. It gives clinicians the practical

solutions and proven techniques they need for addressing some of men's most

common problems, including depression, drug and alcohol abuse and addiction,

divorce, male aggression and violence, and sexual dysfunction. It also shows

how to counsel boys and men in a wide variety of circumstances and includes

techniques for working with school-aged clients, businessmen, court-ordered

clients, college students, prisoners, and others.

Notes/Comments: Volume one Acknowledgments Introduction Men's problems and effective treatments: Theory and empirical support Glenn E. Good and Nancy B.

Sherrod Section one: Settings A male-friendly therapeutic process with school-age boys Mark S. Kiselica Counseling men in medical settings: The six-point HEALTH

plan Will H. Courtenay Working with men in sports settings John M. Robertson and

Fred B. Newton Consulting with men in business and industry Hope I. Hills,

Aaron Carlstrom and Margaret Evanow Counseling men in college settings John M.

Robertson Psychotherapy with men in prison Terry A. Kupers Issues of males

with physical disabilities in rehabilitation settings Irmo D. Marini

Counseling and psychotherapy for male military veterans Gary R. Brooks Section

two: Problems Assessing and treating depression in men Sam V. Cochran Treating

substance abuse in men Carl Isenhart Male survivors of trauma David Lisak

Homicide, violence, and male aggression David Lisak Confusion of sex and

violence: Counseling process and programming considerations for college men

Mark A. Stevens Male gender role issues in the treatment of sexual dysfunction

Cathryn G. Pridal Men and divorce Caren C. Cooper Section three: Normative

issues of the male life cycle The crises of boyhood Ronald F. Levant

Addressing the implications of male socialization for career counseling Mary

J. Heppner and P. Paul Heppner Contemporary marriage: Challenges for clients

and therapists Lucia Albino Gilbert and Sarah J. Walker Therapeutic

interventions with fathers Jerrold Lee Shapiro Desperately seeking language:

Understanding, assessing, and treating normative male alexithymia Ronald F.

Levant Psychotherapy with men navigating midlife terrain Sam V. Cochran

Psychotherapy with the young older man Jack Sternbach Name index Subject index

The authors Volume two Acknowledgments Section four: formats and modalities

"Masked men": new psychoanalytically oriented treatment models for

adult and young adult men William S. Pollack Cognitive therapy for men James

R. Mahalik Interpersonal psychotherapy for men James R. Mahalik Integrative

therapy for men Glenn E. Good and Laurie B. Mintz Group therapy for men

Fredric E. Rabinowitz Family therapy for men Carol L. Philpot Section five:

Special skills Promoting men's growth and development: Teaching the new

psychology of men using psychoeducational philosophy and interventions James

M. O'Neil Mythopoetic and weekend retreats to facilitate men's growth Michael

Andronico A feminist perspective on men in emotional pain Leonore E. A. Walker

Women helping men: Strengths of and barriers to women therapists working with

men clients Norine G. Johnson Male therapist, male client: Reflections on

critical dynamics Murray Scher Section six: Cultural diversity and variations

African-centered therapeutic and counseling interventions for African American

males Leon D. Caldwell and Joseph L. White Machismo revisited in a time of

crisis: Implications for understanding and counseling Hispanic men J. Manuel

Casas, Joseph A. Turner and Christopher A. Ruiz de Esparza Asian American

masculinity and therapy: The concept of masculinity in Asian American males

David Sue Psychotherapy with gay and bisexual men Douglas C. Haldeman

Counseling men with religious affiliations Michael R. Maples and John M.

Robertson A final word Gary R. Brooks and Glenn E. Good Name index Subject

index The authors current research & theory on & techniques &

strategies for conducting psychotherapy & counseling, male clients



Title: Mental health issues in Tamil refugees and displaced persons.

Counselling implications.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Vries, Jolanda De

Source/Citation: Patient Education & Counseling; Vol 42(1) Jan 2001, US:

Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 2001, 15-24

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the mental health and psychosocial problems

of Sri Lankan Tamils living in refugee camps in South India. 51 Ss (aged 16-67

yrs) completed the Hopkins Symptom Checklist--58 (L. R. Derogatis et al, 1974)

and participated in interviews concerning personal loss, personal traumatic

experiences, negative feelings, living in camps, and the availability of

support. Results show that the mental health of Ss was poor. Living in camps

had resolved most fears of being harmed but Ss suffered from survival guilt,

grief, loss of dignity, shame, uncertainty, and other negative feelings. Those

who had experienced personal trauma scored higher concerning posttraumatic

stress disorder. Findings suggest that easily accessible counseling centers

with counselors who have the same cultural background as the refugees are




Title: Children experiencing disasters: Prevention and intervention.

Author(s)/Editor(s): La Greca, Annette M.

Source/Citation: Handbook of psychological services for children and

adolescents., New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press; 2001, (x, 485),


Source editor(s): Hughes, Jan N. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: In the wake of devastating natural disasters,

human-made disasters, as well as recent school shootings, bombings, and

terrorist activities, tremendous concern has developed regarding the impact of

disasters on children and adolescents. Media coverage of such activities has

alerted us to the significant trauma that children can and do experience. In

fact, it has become apparent that children's exposure to such traumatic events

can lead to reactions that may interfere substantially with their day-to-day

functioning and cause them and their families significant distress.

Specifically, exposure to natural and man-made disasters represent traumatic

events that can result in the emergence of a specific set of symptom

patterns--those of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This chapter

describes the symptoms and prevalence of PTSD in children and adolescents, as

well as other reactions that may result from exposure to disasters. The

chapter also outlines factors that contribute to the development and course of

posttraumatic stress and discusses the implications of these findings for

prevention and intervention with children and adolescents.  ========================================


Title: Managing juvenile diabetes: Developmental considerations and clinical


Author(s)/Editor(s): Walker, Todd F.; Dudley, Stan T.

Source/Citation: Innovations in clinical practice: A source book, Vol. 19.,

Sarasota, FL, US: Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange,

Inc; 2001, (x, 467), 185-193

Source editor(s): VandeCreek, Leon (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Uses psychoanalytic theory of the self to explicate

how diabetes threatens child and adolescent development. The authors contend

that empathy must be used to attempt to walk in the shoes of the diabetic

patient in order to understand the insidious nature of the disease. It is

argued that this perspective facilitates the recognition of the interplay

between diabetes, the patients' psychological stability, and ways in which

significant others understand and respond to the child's developmental and

diabetic needs. The impact of the disease on self-development is examined from

the initial crisis of diagnosis, through the psychological vicissitudes of

fluctuating blood sugar levels and the trauma of hypoglycemic attacks and

"diabetic blackouts," to the ongoing struggle of preventing medical

complications while ambitiously pursuing a fulfilling life. Potential

narcissistic injuries to the self of both parent and physician as each

confronts to limitations of their respective roles as rescuer and healer are

addressed. Vignettes are provided to demonstrate how a child's emotional

milieu may either compromise or promote the development of a health, cohesive,

and vigorous self.



Title: Children, adolescents, and families exposed to torture and related


Author(s)/Editor(s): Pynoos, Robert S.; Kinzie, J. David; Gordon, Malcolm

Source/Citation: The mental health consequences of torture., New York, NY, US:

Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, (xxiii, 375), 211-225 Plenum series

on stress and coping.

Source editor(s): Gerrity, Ellen (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examines the prevalence of trauma exposure in

children and adolescents, as well as the nature and course of psychological,

physical, social, and developmental consequences of the phenomenon. Effective methods of prevention and intervention are presented, and important factors that

influence vulnerability, adjustment, and recovery are noted. It is concluded

that the degree of posttraumatic distress in children and adolescents exposed

to extreme forms of violence appears to be mediated by a number of individual

and family factors that may help guide interventions. ========================================


Title: Violence exposure, psychological trauma, and suicide risk in a community

sample of dangerously violent adolescents. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Flannery, Daniel J.; Singer, Mark I.; Wester, Kelly

Source/Citation: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent

Psychiatry: Special Issue: ; Vol 40(4) Apr 2001, US: Lippincott Williams

& Wilkins Co; 2001, 435-442

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined violence exposure, violent behaviors,

psychological trauma, and suicide risk in a community sample of dangerously

violent adolescents compared with a matched community sample of nonviolent

adolescents. Anonymous self-report questionnaires were administered to

students in grades 9 through 12, in 6 public high schools (N = 3,735). From

this sample, 484 adolescents (349 males, 135 females) who reported attacking

someone with a knife or shooting at someone within the past year (i.e.,

dangerously violent adolescents) were drawn. 484 controls were also selected

and matched on gender, age in years, ethnicity, area of residence, and family

structure. Dangerously violent adolescents reported higher levels of exposure

to violence and victimization than did matched controls. Dangerously violent

females were more likely to score in the clinical range of depression,

anxiety, posttraumatic stress, anger, and dissociation than were control

females and violent males; they also had significantly higher levels of

suicide potential. It is concluded that students who have been known to commit

violent acts should be adequately assessed for violence exposure and symptoms

of psychological trauma, with special attention given to the suicide potential

of violent females.



Title: Severity, manifestations, and consequences of violence among pregnant


Author(s)/Editor(s): Covington, Deborah L.; Justason, Betsy J.; Wright, Lydia N.

Source/Citation: Journal of Adolescent Health: Special Issue: ; Vol 28(1) Jan

2001, US: Elsevier Science Inc; 2001, 55-61

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the severity, manifestations, and

consequences of prenatal violence among 192 adolescent (mean age 17.4 yrs) and

353 adult (mean age 24.9 yrs) participants in a county health department

prenatal care coordination program. Participants of this program were screened

for prenatal violence using a validated, systematic violence assessment

protocol 3 times during pregnancy. This protocol was linked with prenatal care

and hospital delivery records to document pregnancy outcomes. Among teens,

16.1% reported prenatal violence, including 9.4% who reported severe violence;

11.6% of adults reported prenatal violence, including 4.8% who reported severe

violence. Teens were more likely to report abdominal trauma and violence

perpetrated by a relative, and those who reported severe prenatal violence

were more likely to report alcohol use. They were also significantly more

likely to deliver preterm than teens who reported "other" or

"no" prenatal violence. For adults, the relationship between

prenatal violence and preterm delivery was not statistically significant. The

relationship between prenatal violence and low birth weight was not

significant for either age cohort. It is concluded that prenatal violence is a

significant risk factor for preterm birth in this population, especially among




Title: Avenues of hope: Art therapy and the resolution of trauma. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Appleton, Valerie

Source/Citation: Art Therapy: Special Issue: ; Vol 18(1) 2001, US: American Art

Therapy Association Inc; 2001, 6-13

Abstract/Review/Citation: Described a method for using art therapy with

adolescents in crisis. A model developed for the study defines 4 trauma stages

and associated art therapy goals. They are Stage I, Impact--Creating

Continuity; Stage II, Retreat-- Building Therapeutic Alliance; Stage III,

Acknowledgment--Overcoming Social Stigma and Isolation Through Mastery; and

Stage IV, Reconstruction--Fostering Meaning. An example of the application of

the paradigm is presented through a case study including the art therapy

approaches and method for assessing the artwork and art processes across the

continuum of these stages. It is found that hope is experienced through art

and generative processes. The author draws on research conducted on an

intensive care burn unit to develop a new paradigm for understanding crisis

and trauma through art therapy, (V. E. Appleton 1990).  ========================================


Title: A study of posttraumatic disorders in children who experienced an

industrial disaster in the Briey region.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Vila, G.; Witowski, P.; Tondini, M. -C.; Perez-Diaz, F.;

Mouren-Simeoni, M. -C.; Jouvent, R.

Source/Citation: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry; Vol 10(1) 2001,

Germany: Dr D Steinkopff Verlag GmbH & Co KG; 2001, 10-18

Abstract/Review/Citation: Studied posttraumatic disorders in children who were

directly and indirectly involved in an industrial disaster. The authors tried

to assess the respective impact of traumatism exposure, parental disorders and

sociodemographic variables on the posttraumatic disorders of the children. The

children were assessed with self-administered questionnaires (STAIC, CDI, IES)

and questionnaires filled in by parents (CPRS, CBCL). 43 exposed children

(aged 4-13 yrs) were compared with 44 children (aged 8-13 yrs) who were

exposed to the same risk and with a control group of 50 unexposed children.

The exposed group obtained significantly higher anxiety and trauma-related

scores than the control group and the threatened group, as well as higher

scores of behavioural symptoms and of parental disorders. Indirectly exposed

children did not have higher rates of symptoms than control children. The

younger exposed children exhibited the highest psychopathological scores. Low

sociodemographic status was associated with more disorders. There were no

differences on questionnaire scores between girls and boys. Children's

disorders correlated with disorders in both parents; a finding which supports

the hypothesis of a direct impact of the trauma on the child.  ========================================


Title: Psychological characteristics of subjects with achondroplasia and

tramatically shortened extremities.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Khromov, A.

Source/Citation: Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health: Special

Issue: ; Vol 8(1) Jan 2001, India: Somatic Inkblot Society; 2001, 53-64

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined psychological characteristics, based on

responses on the Somatic Inkblot Series--I, of 17-20 yr old females: 19 Ss

with achondroplasia and 18 Ss with shortened extremities due to trauma.

Compared with normal Ss, Ss with achondroplasia gave fewer movement responses.

Some responses were replaced by an image that suggested, "I'm small"

(i.e., pussy cat). It is suggested that the body image for such Ss was evident

only at the subconscious level, which allows them to keep a good self-esteem.

The main psychological features of dwarves were superseding somatic images,

inadequacy and infantilism, increased sensitivity and an attachment to other

people. Ss with an acquired orthopedic defect had clear images of the deformed

body at the conscious level, causing frustration, a high level of physical and

verbal aggression, negativism and an extrapunitive reaction.  ========================================


Title: Pain as a reason to visit the doctor: A study in Finnish primary health


Author(s)/Editor(s): Maentyselkae, Pekka; Kumpusalo, Esko; Ahonen, Riitta;

Kumpusalo, Anne; Kauhanen, Jussi; Viinamaeki, Heimo; Halonen, Pirjo; Takala, Jorma

Source/Citation: Pain; Vol 89(2-3) Jan 2001, United Kingdom: Elsevier Science

BV; 2001, 175-180

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined pain prevalence as a rationale for seeing

primary care physicians. 2,237 individuals (aged 1-99 yrs) reporting pain

during visits to primary care physicians were assessed for physician visit

rationale, pain-localization information, diagnosis, and sick leave

prescriptions. Ss completed questionnaires concerning sociodemographic

information and pain duration, intensity, and frequency. Results show that

pain was identified as the reason for 40% of the primary care visits. The most

common localizations were in the lower back, abdomen, and head. 21% of Ss had

experienced pain for >6 mo. 50% of pain symptoms were due to

musculoskeletal disease or trauma. Activity limitations were reported in 80%

of Ss. It is concluded that pain is a common reason for visiting primary care




Title: Clinical assessment of child and adolescent behavior.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Vance, H. Booney; Pumariega, Andres

Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2001, (xvi, 557) Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents a description of the assessment process and

intervention/treatment approaches for disorders found in infancy, childhood,

and adolescence. Each chapter provides detailed, procedural guidelines for the

assessment of these disorders, current descriptions of assessment instruments

used in the identification process, detailed case studies, and an integrated

treatment approach, including the use of psychopharmacology agents in the

management of these challenging behaviors. Section I addresses the assessment

of children and adolescents, including processes and techniques. Special

attention is given to behavior assessment, functional behavior analysis,

forensic assessment, and assessment of motor defects following pediatric brain

injury. Section II covers specific disorders of behavior, emotions, and

communications. Section III covers special intervention for children and youth

with challenging behaviors such as medication management, cultural

competencies in treatment, and systems of intervention for severely

emotionally disturbed children and youth.

Section I: Processes and techniques The assessment process: An introduction H. Booney Vance and Andres J. Pumariega Clinical assessment of children and

adolescents: A place to begin K. Ramsey McGowen Functional analysis and behavioral assessment of children and adolescents Freddy A. Paniagua The mental status

exam in child and adolescent evaluation Charles D. Casat and Deborah A. Pearson Issues in the forensic evaluation of children and youth Thomas E. Schacht The assessment of motor deficits following pediatric brain injury R. Eric Roth Section II:

Disorders of behaviors, emotions, and communications Learning disorders: Real

children, real problems H. Booney Vance and Ramsey McGowen Communicative

disorders Nancy J. Scherer Pervasive developmental disorders David A.

Sabatino, H. Booney Vance and Gerald Fuller Disruptive behavior disorders:

Assessment and intervention John E. Lochman, Heather E. Dane, Thomas N. Magee,

Mesha Ellis, Dustin A. Pardini and Nancy R. Clanton

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Charles D. Casat, Deborah A. Pearson

and Jeanette Pierret Casat Eating disorders: Bulimia and anorexia nervosa

Merry N. Miller and Andres J. Pumariega Child abuse and psychic trauma in

children Steven P. Cuffe and Margaret Shugart Disorders of infancy and early

childhood Tami V. Leonhardt and Harry Wright Anxiety disorders in children and

adolescents Eugenio M. Rothe and Daniel Castellanos Childhood mood disorders:

History, characteristics, diagnosis and treatment David A. Sabatino, Bonnie G.

Webster and H. Booney Vance Socially and emotionally maladjusted youth Kenneth

M. Rogers and Jasjeet K. Miglani Section III: Special interventions with

children and adolescents Psychopharmacological interventions for children with

challenging behaviors Amor S. Del Mundo, Andres J. Pumariega, Booney Vance and

Curtis Kauffman Cultural competence in treatment interventions Andres J.

Pumariega Systems of care for children and adolescents with serious emotional

disturbance Nancy C. Winters and Andres J. Pumariega Author index Subject

index assessment; intervention; treatment; disorders; infancy; childhood;

adolescence; guidelines; psychopharmacology; behavior; functional analysis;

forensic assessment; motor defects; brain; emotions;



Title: From childhood trauma to adult well-being through psychosocial assistance

of Chilean families.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Punamaeki, Raija-Leena

Source/Citation: Journal of Community Psychology: Special Issue: The impact of

violence on children at home, community, and national levels. ; Vol 29(3) May

2001, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2001, 281-303

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined whether psychosocial assistance in childhood

predicted coping strategies, family atmosphere, learning experiences and

mental health in adulthood. Participants were 153 Chileans (aged 14-30 yrs)

who, as children, had lost a family member through political imprisonment,

execution, disappearance, or expulsion from the country. Participants were

visited in their homes by researchers. SEM-modeling reveals that early timing

and substantial duration of psychosocial assistance in childhood predicted

good mental health and positive learning experiences in adulthood via

effective coping strategies. In addition, a family atmosphere characterized by

high cohesion and a low level of conflict associated with good mental health

and positive learning experiences. Both the nature of childhood trauma and the

timing and duration of assistance turned out to be crucial for later

resourcefulness and well-being. Children who had lost a parent as executed or

disappeared were the most task-oriented and conscientious students and enjoyed

a harmonious family life. Early initiation and substantial duration of

assistance predicted lower levels of poor mental health symptoms

(posttraumatic, depressive, anxiety, somatic, and aggressive) in adulthood.



Title: The development and implementation of a crisis response team in a school


Author(s)/Editor(s): Eaves, Cindy

Source/Citation: International Journal of Emergency Mental Health: Special

Issue: ; Vol 3(1) Win 2001, US: Chevron Publishing Corp; 2001, 35-46

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reviews the need for and development of a school-based

crisis intervention system. The author states that traumatic events and

subsequent crises within the school setting can have a devastating effect on

students, faculty, staff, and parents. Crises serve to comprise the most

important mission of the school (learning). It is proposed that school crisis

response plans should be a mandatory aspect of effective educational planning

and administration. The effects of trauma on learning, potential crises faced

by schools, school liability in crisis prevention and intervention, and

advantages of a crisis response plan are explored. Also, obstacles to the

implementation of a crisis response plan, theoretical guidelines and models

for designing school crisis response, steps for determining goals/conducting

needs assessment, and helpful hints in operating a response plan are




Title: Specificity of autobiographical memory and mood disturbance in

adolescents. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Swales, Michaela A.; Williams, J. Mark G.; Wood , Pam

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: Cognition & Emotion: Special Issue: ; Vol 15(3) Feb 2001,

United Kingdom: Psychology Press; 2001, 321-331

Abstract/Review/Citation: Extends the study of autobiographical memory into an

adolescent population. Adolescents (mean age 14.5 yrs) from a psychiatric,

residential inpatient facility completed the autobiographical memory test

alongside measures of depression and hopelessness. Their data were compared

with normative data collected from a school sample. The clinical group, who

were more depressed and hopeless than the normative comparison group, were

less specific in their response to cue words on the autobiographical memory

test. This result is comparable to that found in adult clinical groups.

Unusually for studies of autobiographical memory, a positive correlation was

found between specificity, depression and hopelessness in the clinical group,

with the more depressed and hopeless participants being more specific. Recall

of specific memories in response to negative cues tended to be associated with

hopelessness in both males and females. Post-hoc analyses suggested that this

was a consequence of a number of adolescents in the clinical group who had a

history of parasuicidal behaviour tending to recall the same traumatic memory

to more than one cue word.



Title: Posttraumatic stress and depressive reactions among Nicaraguan

adolescents after hurricane Mitch. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Goenjian, Armen K.; Molina, Luis; Steinberg, Alan M.;

Fairbanks, Lynn A.; Alvarez, Maria Luisa; Goenjian, Haig A.; Pynoos, Robert S.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry: Special Issue: ; Vol 158(5)

May 2001, US: American Psychiatric Assn; 2001, 788-794

Abstract/Review/Citation: Determined the severity of posttraumatic stress and

depressive reactions among Nicaraguan adolescents after Hurricane Mitch and

the relationship of these reactions to objective and subjective features of

hurricane exposure, death of a family member, forced relocation, and thoughts

of revenge. Six mo after the hurricane, 158 adolescents from 3 differentially

exposed cities were evaluated by using a hurricane exposure questionnaire, the

Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index, and the Depression

Self-Rating Scale. Severe levels of posttraumatic stress and depressive

reactions were found among adolescents in the two most heavily affected

cities. Severity of posttraumatic stress and depressive reactions and features

of objective hurricane-related experiences followed a

"dose-of-exposure" pattern that was congruent with the rates of

death and destruction across cities. Level of impact (city), objective and

subjective features, and thoughts of revenge accounted for 68% of the variance

in severity of posttraumatic stress reaction. Severity of posttraumatic stress

reaction, death of a family member, and sex accounted for 59% of the variance

in severity of depression.



Title: PTSD in children and adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Eth, Spencer

Source/Citation: Washington, DC, US: American Psychiatric Association; 2001,

(xxv, 173) Review of psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 1.

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reviews the evidence from animal and human studies of

the aberrations, both psychological and biological, that can persist

throughout adulthood as a result of trauma experienced during childhood.

Chapters review the evaluation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in

children and adolescents; the reliability of traumatic memories in children;

the role of medication in clinical practice; and the relationship between

early trauma, biological substrates, and the subsequent development of PTSD in


Notes/Comments: Print (Paper) Human 10 Animal 20 Childhood (birth-12 yrs) 100

Adolescence (13-17 yrs) 200 Adulthood (18 yrs & older) 300 (Abbreviated)

Contributors Introduction to the Review of Psychiatry Series [by] John M.

Oldham and Michelle B. Riba Introduction: Childhood trauma in perspective [by]

Spencer Eth Evaluation and assessment of PTSD in children and adolescents Evan

B. Drake, Sherry F. Bush and Wilfred G. van Gorp Forensic aspects of PTSD in

children and adolescents James E. Rosenberg PTSD in children and adolescents

in the juvenile justice system William Arroyo Biological treatment of PTSD in

children and adolescents Soraya Seedat and Dan J. Stein Relationship between

childhood traumatic experiences and PTSD in adults Rachel Yehuda, Ilyse L.

Spertus and Julia A. Golier Index childhood trauma; PTSD; posttraumatic stress

disorder; traumatic memories; biological substrates; animal research;

children; adolescents



Title: Forensic aspects of PTSD in children and adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Rosenberg, James E.

Source/Citation: PTSD in children and adolescents., Washington, DC, US: American

Psychiatric Association; 2001, (xxv, 173), 33-58 Review of psychiatry, vol.

20, no. 1.

Source editor(s): Eth, Spencer (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses forensic aspects of posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents, reviewing the literature on

diagnosis of PTSD, epidemiology, genetics, risk factors in various settings,

and psychophysiologic alterations resulting from trauma. General guidelines

for clinical assessment of PTSD in children and adolescents applicable to

forensic evaluation are discussed. The implications of PTSD for memory are

discussed, including recovered memories by adults of childhood abuse, child

suggestibility, child witness testimony, and validity of repressed memories.

Finally, recommendations are made for expert psychiatrists who serves in a

forensic consulting capacity when dealing with cases involving PTSD in

children and adolescents.



Title: Relationship between childhood traumatic experiences and PTSD in adults.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Yehuda, Rachel; Spertus, Ilyse L.; Golier, Julia A.

Source/Citation: PTSD in children and adolescents., Washington, DC, US: American

Psychiatric Association; 2001, (xxv, 173), 117-158 Review of psychiatry, vol.

20, no. 1.

Source editor(s): Eth, Spencer (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This chapter seeks primarily to review evidence for

the association between early traumatic life events, particularly repeated

physical or sexual abuse, and the subsequent development of posttraumatic

stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. This relationship is considered in the

context of theory and data on the impact of early stress on developing

neurobiologic systems. One of the most pivotal observations in relation to the

development of PTSD in adults traumatized as children has been the association

between early trauma exposure and subsequent retraumatization. This chapter

considers the possibility that changes in neurobiologic systems resulting from

adverse childhood experiences can result in augmented responses to subsequent

stressors experienced in adulthood. These augmented responses render survivors

more vulnerable to the development of PTSD and related problems. To provide

necessary perspectives about conclusion in the literature and highlight gaps

in our knowledge, the authors also consider methodologic issues related to the

study of the impact early events have on subsequent symptoms.  ========================================


Title: Marital violence: Impact on children's emotional experiences, emotional

regulation and behaviors in a post-divorce/separation situation.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lee, Mo-Yee

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal: Special Issue: ;

Vol 18(2) Apr 2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 137-163

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examined the mediating effects of

children's emotional experiences and regulation strategies on the relationship

between marital violence and children's behavioral problems following

divorce/separation. Ss were 50 children aged 6-12 yrs old. Mothers were 23-50

yrs old. Findings indicated marital violence as reported by the mothers was

associated with children's internalizing problems as measured by the Achenbach

Behavior Checklist. Marital violence was also associated with children's

reported experience of negative emotions, with sadness and anger emerging as

statistical predictors of children's behavioral problems. A weak relationship

was found between emotional regulation strategies and children's behavioral

problems, with the exception that "direct intervention" and the

range of strategies used by children were positively associated with

behavioral problems. Children's reported anger was also found to mediate the

relationship between marital violence and children's total behavioral

problems. Implications of findings for treatment of children and adolescents

from separated, conflicted homes are discussed.  ========================================


Title: A warrior prevails.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Botwin, Shari

Source/Citation: Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention:

Special Issue: ; Vol 9(2) Sum 2001, US: Brunner/Mazel Inc; 2001, 177-183

Abstract/Review/Citation: Becoming a psychotherapist has been compared to

learning a craft or becoming a fine artist. It is not surprising that one of

the most important opportunities for growth is in the therapist's own personal

treatment. This paper is on the internalization of the therapist as an aid to

healing. By internalizing the therapeutic alliance, change occurs in the way

one thinks, feels, and functions in relationships. The article discusses many

components related to the importance of the therapist as an internal object

related to the authors's own work in therapy and in the author's work with her

patients, primarily with women and teens in recovery eating disorders, abuse,

trauma, and loss. As the author recovered from her experiences of childhood

abuse while in therapy, she took what she internalized from her own therapist

as a model to foster connection and healing in her patients. Three vignettes

illustrate how internalization and the creation of paths for change occurred

in individual and group sessions.



Title: Graffiti: Voices of Israeli youth following the assassination of the

prime minister.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Klingman, Avigdor; Shalev, Ronit

Source/Citation: Youth & Society: Special Issue: ; Vol 32(4) Jun 2001, US:

Sage Publications Inc; 2001, 403-420

Abstract/Review/Citation: A political opponent assassinated Ytizhak Rabin, the

Prime Minister of Israel, in 1995. The event was a macro-level collective

trauma during which youth had to confront and contend with the symptoms of

trauma and grief and their interactions. One unique reaction of youth was to

write graffiti on the walls of Tel Aviv's city hall. The texts and symbols of

the graffiti were examined and studied 2 days after the assassination and 10

mo later. Overall, the graffiti was found to represent spontaneous and

authentic feelings of loss and "spontaneous memorization." Beyond

this, content analysis of the graffiti revealed that many youth were

addressing the social, political, and cultural aspects of the tragedy. The

uniqueness of the graffiti symbols is also discussed.  ========================================


Title: Dangerous transitions and the traumatized adolescent. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Giovacchini, Peter L.

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychoanalysis: Special Issue: ; Vol 60(1)

May 2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 7-22

Abstract/Review/Citation: One of the developmental tasks for the adolescent is

to construct a new transitional space that leads to internal changes and

adapts to the external world. When a nurturing matrix is unavailable,

adolescents experience the entrance into the adult world as a dangerous

transition. The author bases his arguments on psychoanalytic theories, mostly

Winnicott's, and illustrates these with clinical material. He suggests that,

even though these traumatized adolescents experienced nonfunctional

transitional spaces, it is proven that they could be treated

psychoanalytically. Here, the main task of the analyst is to establish a

holding environment as a type of transference, resulting in less emphasis on

interpretation of inner conflicts.



Title: Early childhood traumatic development and its impact on gender identity.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Cohen, Yecheskiel

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychoanalysis: Special Issue: ; Vol 60(1)

May 2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 23-41

Abstract/Review/Citation: The author clarifies issues of gender identity typical

to contemporary Western societies. Nowadays, we tend to emphasize

self-autonomy as the main target of the individual's development. In

adolescence this may cause many questions as to the adolescent's conception of

his or her gender and sexual identity. These questions are the outcome of

early development, and thus early traumas may impact the entire gender

development. In this context, trauma includes not only major violations such

as sexual abuse, terror attacks, and so forth, but also comprises events

heretofore considered minor. Two clinical vignettes with females (aged 13 and

16 yrs) are discussed.



Title: Trauma and deferred action in the reality of adolescence.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Novick, Jack; Novick, Kerry Kelly

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychoanalysis: Special Issue: ; Vol 60(1)

May 2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 43-61

Abstract/Review/Citation: In the search for ever earlier determinants of adult

pathology many ignore the transformative impact of adolescence. The authors

suggest that the reality of adolescent development creates a vulnerability to

being overwhelmed. Through deferred action childhood experiences may interact

with adolescent realities and omnipotent beliefs to traumatize the adolescent.

The authors suggest that trauma in adolescence can be independent both of the

intensity of current external exposure or of earlier traumatic experiences.



Title: Psychological trauma in adolescence: Familial disillusionment and loss of

personal identity.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mishne, Judith Marks

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychoanalysis: Special Issue: ; Vol 60(1)

May 2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 63-83

Abstract/Review/Citation: This article presents trauma theory and

characteristics of traumatized adolescents. A case vignette demonstrates the

considerations regarding assessment and treatment strategies in clinical work

with an adolescent girl who suffered profound trauma, loss of personal

identity, and self-esteem due to familial disillusionment. In contrast, the

author presents the case of a female Holocaust survivor, documenting

catastrophic loss, also during adolescence. Irrespective of the nature and

magnitude of trauma, the single most outstanding predictor of future positive

adjustment and resilience was the nature of the parent-child tie.  ========================================


Title: Antinociceptive reflex alteration in acute posttraumatic headache

following whiplash injury. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Keidel, Matthias; Rieschke, Petra; Stude, Philipp; Eisentraut, Rainer; van Schayck, Rudolf; Diener, Hans-Christoph

Electronic Access: ob=ArticleURL& udi=B6T0K-433P7PM-1& user=

768839& coverDate=06%2F2001& rdoc=1& fmt=full& orig=browse& srch=%234865%239990

79996%23251263!& cdi=4865& sort=d& acct=C000000413& version=1& urlVersion=0& us

Source/Citation: Pain: Special Issue: ; Vol 92(3) Jun 2001, United Kingdom:

Elsevier Science BV; 2001, 319-326

Abstract/Review/Citation: Brainstem-mediated antinociceptive inhibitory reflexes

of the temporalis muscle were investigated in 82 patients (aged 17-55 yrs)

with acute posttraumatic headache (PH) following whiplash injury but without

neurological deficits, bone injury of the cervical spine or a combined direct

head trauma on average 5 days after the acceleration trauma. Latencies and

durations of the early and late exteroceptive suppression (ES1 and ES2) and

the interposed EMG burst (IE) of the EMG of the voluntarily contracted right

ternporalis muscle evoked by ipsilateral stimulation of the second and third

branches of the trigeminal nerve were analyzed and compared to a cohort of 82

normal Ss (aged 21-56 yrs). Highly significant reflex alterations were found

in patients with PH with a shortening of ES2 duration with delayed onset and

premature ending as the primary parameter of this study, a moderate

prolongation of ESI and IE duration and a delayed onset of IE. The latency of

ES1 was not significantly changed. Results indicate that acute PH in whiplash

injury is accompanied by abnormal antinociceptive brainstem reflexes. The

abnormality of the trigeminal inhibitory temporalis reflex is based on a

transient dysfunction of the brainstem-mediated reflex circuit mainly of the

late polysynaptic pathways.



Title: Psychological impact of the hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua in a one-year


Author(s)/Editor(s): Cladera, T. ; Palma, L.; Penayo, U.; Kullgren, G.

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology: Special

Issue: ; Vol 36(3) May 2001, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 2001, 108-114.

Abstract/Review/Citation: Whereas natural disasters more commonly occur in

low-income countries, almost all studies on psychological consequences have

been conducted in the Western world. In countries where resources are poor it

is of importance to know which groups should be targeted for early

intervention after a disaster. The study aims at assessing the prevalence of

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and of post-traumatic symptoms among

people afflicted by hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua and at identifying risk

factors for PTSD symptoms 6 mo following a disaster. At four primary health

care centres, 496 consecutive adult patients (aged 15-80 yrs) were interviewed

6 mo after hurricane Mitch regarding PTSD symptoms (Harvard Trauma

Questionnaire), disaster experiences and post-disaster help-seeking. PTSD

represents a serious mental health problem after a disaster. Those with

illiteracy, females and those with previous mental health problems should be

targets for early post-disaster intervention.  ========================================


Title: The prevalence and symptom rates of depression after traumatic brain

injury: A comprehensive examination. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.; Seel, Ronald T.; Gourley, Eugene

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: Brain Injury: Special Issue: ; Vol 15(7) Jul 2001, US: Taylor

& Francis; 2001, 563-576

Abstract/Review/Citation: Differing definitions of depression, limited sample

sizes, and variability in methodologies have contributed to equivocal findings

about the prevalence of depression among persons with traumatic brain injury

(TBI). The present investigation used standardized diagnostic criteria and a

large sample to identify the manifestations of depression after TBI. 722

outpatients (aged 17-82 yrs) with brain injury, referred for comprehensive

assessment at a regional Level I trauma centre, were studied. Depressive

symptoms were characterized utilizing standard DSM-IV criteria and the

Neurobehavioural Functioning Inventory. 42% of patients with brain injury met

the prerequisite number of symptoms for a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive

disorder. Fatigue (46%), frustration (41%), and poor concentration (38%) were

the most commonly cited manifestations of depression. Many patients with brain

injury are at great risk for developing depressive disorders. Future research

should focus on prognostic factors, developing protocols for identification of

high risk patients, and examining the efficacy of treatment interventions.



Title: Tracheotomy in severe TBI patients: Sequelae and relation to vocational


Author(s)/Editor(s): Keren, Ofer; Cohen, Mario; Lazar-Zweker, Irina; Groswasser, Zeev

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: Brain Injury: Special Issue: ; Vol 15(6) Jun 2001, US: Taylor

& Francis; 2001, 531-536

Abstract/Review/Citation: The aim of the present study was to find the influence

of performing tracheotomy on outcome of severe TBI patients. TBI patients,

many of them intubated during the very acute phase post-injury, who remain

unconscious for more than a few days, undergo tracheotomy to provide a

reliable long-term artificial airway. Tracheotomy, although being a simple

elective surgical procedure, may have a negative influence on the

rehabilitation process. Tracheotomy was performed in 69 severe TBI patients

(aged 6-65 yrs) admitted to the rehabilitation department during 3 yrs. In 7

patients, tracheotomy was performed immediately after injury due to

cranio-facial trauma, in 18 patients due to respiratory disturbances, in 42

patients after prolonged intubation, and in 2 patients due to combined

problems. 45% of patients with tracheotomy suffered from respiratory

disturbances and 8.6% from complications of tracheotomy. Longer periods of

unconsciousness and mechanical ventilation were significantly associated with

respiratory complications. However, presence of tracheotomies per se, did not

affect vocational rehabilitation.



Title: Head injuries in men's and women's lacrosse: A 10 year analysis of the

NEISS database.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Diamond, Paul T.; Gale, Shawn D.

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: Brain Injury: Special Issue: ; Vol 15(6) Jun 2001, US: Taylor

& Francis; 2001, 537-544

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined differences in lacrosse-related injuries

between genders and amongst various age groups. Data on lacrosse-related

injuries maintained through the Consumer Product Safety Commission's National

Electronic Injury Surveillance System, In-depth Investigation File, and

Injuries/Potential Injuries File were analysed over 10 yrs January 1990-April

2000). A total of 1,727 cases of lacrosse-related trauma (range 4-59 yrs) were

recorded. Males accounted for 80.5% of cases. The head and face region was the

most common area injured (20.4%). Injuries to the head and face were

significantly more prevalent among females (30.1% of all injuries) than males

(18.0% of all injuries), and often resulted from contact with the ball (33.6%

of incidents). Children aged 4-11 years experienced the highest percentage of

injuries to the head and face. Closed head injuries represented 5.6% of all

lacrosse-related injuries and were slightly more prevalent among females.

Women and children lacrosse players are at risk of serious injury to the head

and face region. The use of protective head/face gear should be encouraged.



Title: Dangerous transitions and the traumatized adolescent.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Giovacchini, Peter L.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychoanalysis: Special Issue: The

traumatized adolescent: Theoretical and clinical considerations. ; Vol 61(1)

Mar 2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 7-22

Abstract/Review/Citation: One of the developmental tasks for the adolescent is

to construct a new transitional space that leads to internal changes and

adapts to the external world. When a nurturing matrix is unavailable,

adolescents experience the entrance into the adult world as a dangerous

transition. The author bases his arguments on psychoanalytic theories, mostly

D. W. Winnicott's, and illustrates these with clinical material. He suggests

that, even though these traumatized adolescents experienced nonfunctional

transitional spaces, it is proven that they could be treated

psychoanalytically. Here, the main task of the analyst is to establish a

holding environment as a type of transference, resulting in less emphasis on

interpretation of inner conflicts.



Title: Early childhood traumatic development and its impact on gender identity.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Cohen, Yecheskiel

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychoanalysis: Special Issue: The

traumatized adolescent: Theoretical and clinical considerations. ; Vol 61(1)

Mar 2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 23-41

Abstract/Review/Citation: The author clarifies issues of gender identity typical

to contemporary Western societies. Clinical vignettes of 4 clients (aged 13-23

yrs) are used for illustrative purposes. Nowadays, we tend to emphasize

self-autonomy as the main target of the individual's development. In

adolescence this may cause many questions as to the adolescent's conception of

his or her gender and sexual identity. These questions are the outcome of

early development, and thus early traumas may impact the entire gender

development. In this context, trauma includes not only major violations such

as sexual abuse, terror attacks, and so forth, but also comprises events

heretofore considered minor.



Title: Trauma and deferred action in the reality of adolescence.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Novick, Jack; Novick, Kerry Kelly

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychoanalysis: Special Issue: The

traumatized adolescent: Theoretical and clinical considerations. ; Vol 61(1)

Mar 2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 43-61

Abstract/Review/Citation: In the search for ever earlier determinants of adult

pathology many ignore the transformative impact of adolescence. The authors

suggest that the reality of adolescent development creates a vulnerability to

being overwhelmed. Through deferred action childhood experiences may interact

with adolescent realities and omnipotent beliefs to traumatize the adolescent.

The authors suggest that trauma in adolescence can be independent both of the

intensity of current external exposure or of earlier traumatic experiences.



Title: Psychological trauma in adolescence: Familial disillusionment and loss of

personal identity.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mishne, Judith Marks

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychoanalysis: Special Issue: The

traumatized adolescent: Theoretical and clinical considerations. ; Vol 61(1)

Mar 2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 63-83

Abstract/Review/Citation: This article presents trauma theory and

characteristics of traumatized adolescents. A case vignette demonstrates the

considerations regarding assessment and treatment strategies in clinical work

with an adolescent girl (aged 12 yrs) who suffered profound trauma, loss of

personal identity, and self-esteem due to familial disillusionment. In

contrast, the author presents the case of a female Holocaust survivor (aged 63

yrs), documenting catastrophic loss, also during adolescence. Irrespective of

the nature and magnitude of trauma, the single most outstanding predictor of

future positive adjustment and resilience was the nature of the parent-child




Title: A witness breaks his silence: The meaning of a therapist's response to an

adolescent's self-destruction.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Frankel, Jay

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychoanalysis: Special Issue: The

traumatized adolescent: Theoretical and clinical considerations. ; Vol 61(1)

Mar 2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 85-99

Abstract/Review/Citation: Describes the case of a self-mutilating adolescent

girl (aged 15 yrs) and the author's dilemma, as her therapist, about telling

her parents about her self-abuse. The author uses two complementary, mutually

enhancing relational theories of trauma--S. Ferenczi's (1933) and J. M. Davies

and M. G. Frawley's (1994)--to help understand the minefield he was in. Davies

and Frawley describe certain relational configurations that are typical of

trauma victims. The author believes that it is not only unavoidable but

therapeutically vital for therapists to participate in these configurations so

they can know the patient's experience in a personal way. It is also crucial

that they be witnesses who provide recognition for the patient's pain and, in

so doing, relieve the intolerable feeling of isolation that Ferenczi proposed

was the most basic trauma. In addition, the author discusses the observation

that some people who have not been previously traumatized in any gross way

manifest characteristics of trauma.  ========================================


Title: Outcome after mild-to-moderate blunt head injury: Effects of focal

lesions and diffuse axonal injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wallesch, Claus-W.; Curio, Noreen; Kutz, Susanne;

Jost, Stefan; Bartels, Claudius; Synowitz, Hans

Source/Citation: Brain Injury: Special Issue: ; Vol 15(5) May 2001, US: Taylor

& Francis; 2001, 401-412

Abstract/Review/Citation: Compared effects of focal and diffuse axonal injury in

mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). In a prospective longitudinal

study of 138 consecutive patients (aged 16-70 yrs) suffering from TBI who were

admitted to the Magdeburg University Hospital, 60 could be assessed

neuropsychologically 8-31 days after trauma and 18-45 wks later. The initial

Glasgow Coma Scale score was significantly correlated with outcome impairment

of semantic fluency and memory in the Wechsler Similarities and in 2 clinical

scales (Neurobehavioural Rating Scale and Frontal Lobe Score). Presence of

computerized tomography (CT) signs of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) corresponded

with deficits in tasks of response selection and suppression, and presence of

focal contusions corresponded with results in the clinical scales.

Improvements between 1st and 2nd assessments were pronounced in Ss with signs

of DAI.



Title: The evil that lurks in the hearts of men.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lander, Dorothy

Source/Citation: Journal of Psychohistory: Special Issue: ; Vol 29(1) Sum 2001,

US: Assn for Psychohistory Inc; 2001, 50-51

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on an article by L. DeMause (see record

2001-06273-001) regarding historical evidence for abusive childrearing

practices. It is argued that, raised in families of abuse, children entered

adolescence and young adulthood bearing a need to repeat the trauma inflicted

upon them, but this time as the abuser, in a vain attempt to master the trauma

once inflicted upon them. Feelings of remorse or guilt were not present to act

as brakes upon these behaviors, since society's mores and laws supported and

sometimes sanctified such actions. As society progresses, people have learned

to control their thoughts and behaviors, although the incidence of child

molestation remains high. It is further argued that the only answer to such

blindness on the part of adults, and the reluctance of children to tell

anyone, is that there is some collusion among adults that these things are not

spoken of nor believed. The child has rightly assumed that he or she will not

be believed or, if so, will be blamed. It is theorized that this collusion

exists because at some level, unconscious fantasies of the parents are

satisfied--fantasies similar to those actions of past times when the parent

physically handed over the child.



Title: Ten-year follow-up study of patients with dissociative identity disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Coons, Philip M.; Bowman, Elizabeth S.

Source/Citation: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation: Special Issue: ; Vol

2(1) 2001, US: Haworth Medical Press; 2001, 73-89

Abstract/Review/Citation: Notes that little follow-up data has been published on

individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID). In this study, DID was

diagnosed in 25 patients by 2 seasoned dissociative disorder

clinician/researchers beginning in 1986. The initial evaluation included a

comprehensive medical and psychiatric evaluation and MMPI. A 10-yr follow-up

evaluation included the Dissociative Experiences Scale, Civilian Mississippi

PTSD Scale, Beck Inventory for Depression, Life Experiences Survey, the MMPI

Hypochondriasis scale, and a dissociative disorders follow-up questionnaire.

The patients were also asked to write a narrative about their life and

treatment since intake. 12 patients (mean age 39.6 yrs) provided follow-up

data. Of these 12, 6 ultimately achieved full integration of their personality

states, although 2 of them subsequently dissociated into alter personality

states again. The 2 teen-aged patients achieved full integration within 2 yrs,

while the older patients took considerably longer. Of the patients who elected

to continue in treatment for their dissociative disorder and who continued to

dissociate into alter personality states, all have experienced major

symptomatic improvement in both dissociative and non-dissociative




Title: Patterns of recovery from trauma: The use of intraindividual analysis. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Foa, Edna B.

Source/Citation: Journal of Abnormal Psychology: Special Issue: ; Vol 110(3)

Aug 2001, US: American Psychological Assn; 2001, 392-400

Abstract/Review/Citation: Patterns of recovery from sexual and nonsexual

assault were examined. Two studies containing data from female victims of these

assaults were analyzed. In Study 1, victims (N = 101) underwent 12 weekly

assessments with measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression,

and state anxiety. In Study 2, victims (N = 108) underwent monthly assessments

on the same measures. The authors examined the effects of type of trauma and

time of peak reaction on long-term recovery using intraindividual analysis of

change. In both studies, initial and peak reactions of rape victims were more

severe than were those of nonsexual assault victims on all measures of

psychopathology. Victims with delayed peak reaction exhibited more severe

pathology at the final assessment than did victims with early peak reaction.

Results of Study 2 indicated a slower recovery rate from sexual than nonsexual

assault; in Study 1 a similar pattern of recovery emerged. The advantages of

an individual-focused, longitudinal approach to recovery from a trauma are




Title: The relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms and the risk of

sexual revictimization: A prospective study.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wilson, Amy Elizabeth

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(8-B) Mar 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 4437

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study employed a prospective design to

investigate the relationship between previous victimization, posttraumatic

stress symptoms, and sexual revictimization. Unlike previous revictimization

studies that have focused primarily on the relationship between child sexual

abuse and future risk of assault, this study examined women who reported a

history of adolescent/adult victimization. This study assessed trauma-related

symptoms among 98 college women reporting at least one sexual assault

experience in adolescence or adulthood that met the legal definition of rape

(Time 1), and then reassessed participants four months later (Time 2) for

revictimization during that time period. The primary hypothesis of this study,

that women reporting more frequent and severe posttraumatic symptoms at Time 1

would be more likely to report revictimization at Time 2, was not supported.

The hypothesis that assault history at Time 1 (i.e., frequency and severity)

would be related to revictimization at Time 2 was partially supported, with

the frequency of severe assault predicting revictimization at Time 2. These

findings suggest that while previous victimization is a significant risk

factor for future assault, posttraumatic stress symptoms may not be the link

between subsequent victimization experiences.  ========================================


Title: Event-related potentials in posttraumatic headache. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Alberti, Andrea; Sarchielli, Paola; Mazzotta, Giovanni;

Gallai, Virgilio

Source/Citation: Headache: Special Issue: ; Vol 41(6) Jun 2001, US: Blackwell

Science Inc; 2001, 579-585

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed the impairment of cognitive functions

occurring in patients with posttraumatic headache as a consequence of a minor

cranial trauma in the absence of organic damage involving the central nervous

system. 25 Ss (aged 16-55 yrs) were examined between 3 and 6 mo after the

traumatic event. Ss underwent electroencephalography and brain stem auditory

evoked potentials; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to exclude

the presence of cerebral lesions. The mean latency of P300 was increased in

both central electrodes (Cz and Pz) in patients with posttraumatic syndrome

compared with controls; assuming the value of mean +-2 SD was the cutoff point

between normal and abnormal results, the P300 latency results were altered in

13 patients (52%). In the patient group, a significant correlation was

demonstrated between Zung Depression Scale score and P3 and N2 wave latencies

and between Zung Anxiety Scale scores and P3 wave latencies. Data suggest the

usefulness of the P300 event-related potential in evaluating cognitive

disturbances in patients affected by posttraumatic syndrome. Alteration of

cognitive potential in such patients, even in the absence of lesions

detectable by neuroimaging, indicate the functional impairment of specific

cerebral areas that can occur after a traumatic event.  ========================================


Title: Psychotherapy with young people in care: Lost and found.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hunter, Margaret

Source/Citation: Philadelphia, PA, US: Brunner-Routledge; 2001, (xiv, 193)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Whilst there is wealth of literature on working with

children and adolescents, very little focuses on those who are in residential

or foster care. This book is a practical guide to working with this group from

a psychoanalytic therapeutic perspective. The book examines the issues most

relevant to all those working with children and adolescents: (1) the place of

psychotherapy in residential/foster care, (2) ethical considerations (e.g.

confidentiality and sexual abuse), and (3) particular problems faced by young

people (e.g. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), trauma, identity

crisis, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Notes/Comments: Foreword [by] Peter Wilson

Acknowledgements Introduction Beginnings A view from the bridge

Confidentiality Joseph -- a therapy in pictures Charlotte Child sexual abuse

The longing in belonging Identity in crisis Restless children Trauma and its

treatment Epilogue Glossary Training schools of child psychotherapy

References Index psychotherapy; children; adolescents; residential care;

foster care; ethical considerations; confidentiality; sexual abuse; ADHD;

PTSD; identity crisis; trauma



Title: Correlates of community violence exposure in hospitalized adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Fehon, Dwain C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Lipschitz, Deborah S.

Source/Citation: Comprehensive Psychiatry: Special Issue: ; Vol 42(4) Jul-Aug

2001, US: WB Saunders & Co; 2001, 283-290

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined psychological and behavioral correlates of

community violence exposure in psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (aged

12-18 yrs). 89 inpatients were administered a battery of psychometrically

well-established self-report instruments. Violence exposure was assessed using

the Child's Exposure to Violence Checklist. Half of the patients reported

exposure to multiple incidents violence in their community (52%) and home

(53%). 61% were victims of physical assault, and 39% were victims of sexual

assault. Patients who had witnessed community violence reported significantly

more post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, drug use, and violence

potential than patients without a history of witnessing community violence.

Patients exposed to community violence were also more likely to be the victim

of childhood maltreatment, as well as a perpetrator of violence. In

conclusion, traumatization via exposure to community violence may serve as one

important determinant in the development of mixed internalizing and

externalizing psychopathology in adolescent inpatients, thus necessitating

accurate assessment and treatment planning.  ========================================


Title: Panic symptoms during trauma and acute stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bryant, Richard A.; Panasetis, Paula

Source/Citation: Behaviour Research & Therapy: Special Issue: ; Vol 39(8)

Aug 2001, England: Elsevier Science Ltd; 2001, 961-966

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study investigated the role of panic symptoms

that occur during trauma and subsequent acute stress disorder (ASD). 51

civilian trauma survivors with either ASD, subclinical ASD, or non-ASD were

administered the Acute Stress Disorder Scale, Impact of Event Scale, Beck

Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and the Anxiety Sensitivity

Index (ASI). Participants also completed the Physical Reactions Scale to index

panic symptoms that occurred during their trauma. Overall, 53% of participants

reported panic attacks during their trauma. ASD and subclinical ASD

participants reported more posttraumatic panic symptoms, and higher ASI

scores, than non-ASD participants. These findings are consistent with the

notion that posttraumatic panic may be related to subsequent posttraumatic

stress, and suggest that modification of maladaptive beliefs about physical

sensations should be addressed in posttraumatic therapy.  ========================================


Title: The adjustment of children of Australian Vietnam veterans: Is there

evidence for the transgenerational transmission of the effects of war-related

trauma? .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Davidson, Ann C.; Mellor, David J.

Source/Citation: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry: Special

Issue: ; Vol 35(3) Jun 2001, Australia: Blackwell Science Asia; 2001, 345-351

Abstract/Review/Citation: The presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

in trauma survivors has been linked with family dysfunction and symptoms in

their children, including lower self-esteem, higher disorder rates and

symptoms resembling those of the traumatized parent. This study aims to

examine the phenomenon of intergenerational transfer of PTSD in an Australian

context. 50 children (aged 16-30) of 50 male Vietnam veterans, subgrouped

according to their fathers' PTSD status, were compared with an age-matched

group of 33 civilian peers. Participants completed questionnaires with

measures of self-esteem, PTSD symptomatology and family functioning. Contrary

to expectations, no significant differences were found between the self-esteem

and PTSD symptomatology scores for any offspring groups. Unhealthy family

functioning is the area in which the effect of the veteran's PTSD appears to

manifest itself, particularly the inability of the family both to experience

appropriate emotional responses and to solve problems effectively within and

outside the family unit. Methodological refinements and further focus on the

role of wives/mothers in buffering the impact of veterans' PTSD symptomatology

on their children are indicated. Further effort to support families of

Veterans with PTSD is also indicated.  ========================================


Title: Reconstructing trauma memories: A prospective study of

"amnesic" trauma survivors. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Harvey, Allison G.; Bryant, Richard A.

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress: Special Issue: ; Vol 14(2) Apr

2001, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 277-282

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated memory for trauma in 79 patients (aged

17-58 yrs) who were initially amnesic of the trauma as a result of mild

traumatic brain injury. Motor vehicle accident survivors who sustained a mild

traumatic brain injury were assessed for their memory within 1-mo posttrauma

and again at 2-yrs post-trauma. Results show that consistent with their brain

injury, all patients reported significant amnesia of their accident at initial

assessment. At 2-yrs posttrauma, 40% were able to remember their accident.

Reporting memory for the trauma was associated with shorter duration of

posttraumatic amnesia. These findings suggest that people reconstruct memories

of trauma in the absence of complete encoding of the experience. Possible

mechanisms for memory reconstruction are considered.  ========================================


Title: Children's experiences of traumatic events: The negotiation of normalcy

and difference. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Urman, Michelle L.; Funk, Jeanne B.; Elliott, Robert

Source/Citation: Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry: Special Issue: ;

Vol 6(3) Jul 2001, England: Sage Publications Ltd; 2001, 403-424

Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of this study was to examine the

experience of childhood trauma. Aspects addressed were the children's

"trauma narratives", how they told the story of what took place, and

their current outlook after the trauma. Six participants, aged 9-13 years, who

had experienced a traumatic event within the past two years, were administered

a semi-structured interview. The data were then analyzed using grounded theory

analysis. Results suggest that throughout the traumatic event, participants

used a process of "negotiation", in which they attended to both

familiar or "normal" aspects of everyday life, and the threatening

or "different" aspects of the trauma. This "negotiation"

process is a metaphor for participants' ability to recognize both of these

aspects of the traumatic event, and to maintain a balance between the two.

This process continued to be used in children's current post-trauma life

experience. Participants described the post-trauma world as changed, and as

not sharing aspects of normalcy from the pre-trauma world. This model of

children's experience of traumatic events suggests that in the treatment of

traumatized children, it is necessary to broaden the definition of trauma to

include sudden bereavement and the witnessing of violence.  ========================================


Title: Variables in delayed disclosure of childhood sexual abuse. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Somer, Eli; Szwarcberg, Sharona

Source/Citation: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry: Special Issue: ; Vol

71(3) Jul 2001, US: American Orthopsychiatric Assn; 2001, 332-341

Abstract/Review/Citation: In a study of 41 adult survivors (aged 16-56 yrs) of

childhood sexual abuse, the level of childhood traumatization was found to

have contributed to delayed disclosure of the abuse. Other delaying variables

included: belief in the importance of obedience to grownups, mistrust of

people, fear of social rejection, and fear of the criminal justice system.

Variables such as media attention to similar cases and experiences of personal

achievement were inversely related to the age at disclosure. Recommendations

for policy are discussed.



Title: Intimacy dysfunction and trauma symptomatology: Long-term correlates of

different types of child abuse. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Davis, Joanne L.; Petretic-Jackson, Patricia A.; Ting, Ling

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress: Special Issue: ; Vol 14(1) Jan

2001, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 63-79

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the relationships among interpersonal

functioning, symptomatology, and childhood abuse in 315 university women (aged

17-46 yrs). Data were obtained from abuse/trauma and relationship/intimacy

measures. Results show that women reporting childhood abuse had lower quality

of past interpersonal relationships, greater fear of intimacy, and greater

trauma symptomatology than nonabused women had. Regression analyses indicate

that experiencing both sexual and physical abuse, more extensive psychological

abuse, and current sexual concerns, defensive avoidance, dissociation, and

intrusive experiences were significant predictors of fear of intimacy.

Dysfunctional sexual behaviors, impaired self-reference, and depression were

significant predictors of the quality of current interpersonal relationships,

whereas sexual abuse or multiple abuse experiences in childhood and

anger/irritability were predictors of the quality of prior interpersonal

relationships. Implications for treatment are discussed.  ========================================


Title: Trauma symptoms in bone marrow transplant survivors: The role of

nonmedical life events. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): DuHamel, Katherine N.; Smith, Meredith Y.; Vickberg,

Suzanne M. Johnson; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Ostroff, Jamie; Winkel, Gary;

Manne, Sharon; Redd, William H.

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress: Special Issue: ; Vol 14(1) Jan

2001, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 95-113

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated the association of trauma-related

symptomatology and recent life events in cancer survivors following bone

marrow transplantation. 100 individuals (aged 16.77-56.25) averaging 4.4 years

post-transplant were interviewed. Participants reported their trauma-related

symptomatology regarding cancer and its treatment as well as the number and

valence of recent life events. Results indicate that the more negative life

events a person experienced, the greater his/her trauma-related

symptomatology. The association of trauma-related symptomatology with positive

events varied by the individuals' level of physical functioning. For

individuals with poorer physical functioning, higher levels of trauma-related

symptomatology were associated with a greater number of positive events,

suggesting the greater vulnerability of these individuals to any type of

change in their life.



Title: Reports of prior exposure to potentially traumatic events and PTSD in

troops poised for deployment. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bolton, Elisa E.; Litz, Brett T.; Britt, Thomas W.; Adler, Amy;

Roemer, Lizabeth

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress: Special Issue: ; Vol 14(1) Jan

2001, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 249-256

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed the exposure to potentially traumatic events

(PTEs), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, and the mental

health status of 2,947 military personnel (aged 17-66 yrs) prior to deployment

on a peacekeeping mission. Data were obtained from comprehensive psychosocial

questionnaires. Results show that approximately 74% of the soldiers reported

being exposed to at least 1 traumatic event. The mean number of PTEs reported

was 2.38, most of which did not occur during previous deployments.

Approximately 6% of the participants exceeded the screening criteria for PTSD

and 43% endorsed elevated levels of psychological distress. These findings

document a high rate of exposure to PTEs in soldiers prior to their

deployment. The results also highlight the need to screen for PTEs when

attempting to isolate the rates of PTSD following a specific traumatic event

and to examine the effects of cumulative exposure to PTEs.  ========================================


Title: Traumatic stress and coping strategies of sesternary victims following an

aircraft disaster in Coventry.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Chung, Man Cheung; Easthope, Yvette; Chung, Catherine;

Clark-Carter, David

Source/Citation: Stress & Health: Journal of the International Society for

the Investigation of Stress: Special Issue: ; Vol 17(2) Mar 2001, US: John

Wiley & Sons Inc; 2001, 67-75

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the traumatic stress and coping strategies

of sesternary victims, that is, individuals that but by chance would have been

accident victims. 82 individuals (aged 17+ yrs) who were nearly victims of an

aircraft accident completed interviews and questionnaires 6 mo subsequently,

including the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Results show that the Ss

experienced more intrusion than avoidance behavior, and that there were no

significant differences between Ss and standardized samples regrading such

behavior. Confrontive coping, distancing, self-controlling, accepting

responsibility, escape-avoidance, and positive reappraisal were used by the Ss

significantly more than standardized samples. Avoidance was predicted by the

escape-avoidance coping strategy, intrusion was predicted by distancing and

escape-avoidance strategies, and GHQ scores were predicted by distancing and

escape-avoidance coping strategies. It is concluded that Ss exhibited

significant traumatic distress, which was partially associated with the model

of coping; seeking social support did not seem to account for distress.



Title: The Child PTSD Symptom Scale: A preliminary examination of its

psychometric properties.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Foa, Edna B.; Johnson, Kelly M.; Feeny, Norah C.; Treadwell, Kimberli R. H.

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Child Psychology: Special Issue: ; Vol

30(3) Aug 2001, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc; 2001, 376-384

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reports on the development and preliminary validation

of the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) for children and adolescents. The CPSS

is a new instrument that was developed to assess the severity of Mental

Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in children

exposed to trauma. The CPSS was administered to 75 school-age children (aged

8-15 yrs) approximately 2 yrs after the 1994 Northridge, California,

earthquake. The psychometric properties of the CPSS show high internal

consistency and test-retest reliability for both the total score and the 3

subscales. Convergent validity with the Child Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Reaction Index (CPTSD-RI) was established. As expected, the correlations of

the CPSS with depression and anxiety measures were lower than those with the

CPTSD-RI, providing some support for discriminant validity of the CPSS.

Results suggest that the CPSS is a useful tool for the assessment of PTSD

severity and for the screening of PTSD diagnosis among traumatized children.



Title: Adolescent trauma in Japanese schools: Two case studies of Ijime

(bullying) and school refusal.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kawabata, Naoto

Source/Citation: Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis: Special

Issue: ; Vol 29(1) Spr 2001, US: Guilford Publications; 2001, 85-103

Abstract/Review/Citation: The author presents 2 related cases of junior high

school students (aged 13 and 14 yrs), both of whom suffered from Ijime

(bullying) and started refusing to attend school. Ijime in these cases was not

the severe group ostracism that is often seen in Japanese schools. In fact,

the incidents could be called common troubles among students. However, they

provide us with good materials for examining the nature of the interpersonal

trauma and psychological difficulties Japanese adolescents are faced with.

With these case materials, the author discusses several issues related to

Ijime and school refusal. First, he presents a preliminary discussion of how

to see the interpersonal trauma. Second, he focuses on the isomorphic nature

of the traumatic events and individual's internal issues. Third, he argues the

importance of cultural context in which Ijime and school refusal occur. Last,

he suggests some implications for treatment.  ========================================


Title: Child injury morbidity in New Zealand, 1987-1996. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kypri, K.; Chalmers, D. J.; Langley, J. D.; Wright, C. S.

Source/Citation: Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health: Special Issue: ;

Vol 37(3) Jun 2001, Australia: Blackwell Science Pty Ltd; 2001, 227-234

Abstract/Review/Citation: Used data from New Zealand's hospital discharge

database to provide an epidemiological description of child injury morbidity

and to discuss options for prevention. All public hospital admissions for the

fiscal year 1995-96 were identified and grouped according to cause. This

allowed identification of all 0-14 yr olds hospitalized for injury in the

period 1987-96. Causes of injury, diagnoses and injury severity were examined

in 4 age groups. Injury was the 2nd leading cause of public hospital

admissions. Children were hospitalized with injury at the rate of 1,333 per

100,000 person-years. The victims were predominantly male (61%). In all age

groups, falls were the leading cause of morbidity. "Striking

events," motor vehicle traffic crashes and poisoning were also major

contributors to the child injury toll. The most common injury diagnosis was a

fracture of the upper limb (25%), followed by intracranial injury (18%).

Findings suggest the need for policy changes to make alternatives to motor

vehicle transportation safer and to encourage increased use of child

restraints to reduce road traffic trauma. Legislation requiring

child-resistant packaging for all toxic medications and household products is

necessary to reduce rates of child poisoning.

Trauma and Adolescence I


Title: Reactions to adolescent suicide and crisis intervention in three

secondary schools. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Poijula, Soili; Dyregrov, Atle; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik;

Jokelainen, Jari

Source/Citation: International Journal of Emergency Mental Health: Special

Issue: ; Vol 3(2) Spr 2001, US: Chevron Publishing Corp; 2001, 97-106

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study investigated crisis intervention in 3

secondary schools after the suicides of 5 students, focusing on the 89

classmates' risk of developing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder

(PTSD) (measured by IES) and high intensity (HI) grief as measured by Hogan

Sibling Inventory of Bereavement. Crisis interventions for the students varied

from none to first talk-throughs and psychological debriefings. Six months

after the suicide, 30% of the classmates evidenced scores indicative of PTSD

and 9.8% evidenced HI grief. Friendship was a predictor of PTSD and HI grief.

Inadequate crisis intervention was a risk factor for HI grief. Proper crisis

intervention, and appropriate screening and focused post-trauma psychotherapy

after a suicide of a student are recommended.  ========================================


Title: Unsolvable fear, trauma, and psychopathology: Theory, research, and

clinical considerations related to disorganized attachment across the life


Author(s)/Editor(s): Cassidy, Jude; Mohr, Jonathan J.

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice: Special Issue: ;

Vol 8(3) Aug 2001, England: Oxford Univ Press; 2001, 275-298

Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents a selective review of attachment theory and

research that have contributed knowledge about dynamics underlying early

trauma, mechanisms by which maladaptive responses to trauma may be transmitted

between generations, and trauma-related risk factors for psychopathology in

children, adolescents, and adults. First, the article focuses on the

foundations of attachment theory, including the biological basis of and

individual differences in infant attachment behavior, and discuss ways in

which the attachment, exploratory, and fear behavioral systems interact to

promote infants' survival. The 2nd section examines the connection between

frightening experiences and disorganized attachment. Infants who are regularly

and seriously frightened by aspects of their caregiving environment (i.e.,

parent-child relationship) are believed to be at risk for "unsolvable

fear" in which organized attachment responses to fear are impossible. The

behaviors and representations characteristic of disorganized children and

their parents are described. Next, the authors review recent research about

relations among attachment, trauma, and psychopathology across the lifespan.

Finally, the article discusses implications of these findings for clinical




Title: The truth will set you free: Overcoming emotional blindness and finding

your true adult self.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Miller, Alice

Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: Basic Books, Inc; 2001, (xvi, 202)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Implores readers to open their eyes to childhood pain,

offering evidence of the perils of emotional blindness. True stories are

presented to reveal the devastating effects of "educational"

violence endured in childhood and the dangers of mindless obedience to

parental will. The author also draws on brain development research to speak

out against the increasing popularity of childhood corporal punishment and

demonstrates how spanking and other disciplinary traumas are encoded in the

brain, stunting the ability to overcome them. This text invites readers to

confront their own pasts and reveals how individuals can liberate their

present as adults and as parents.

Notes/Comments: Preface Prologue: Thou shalt not know Part I: Childhood:

The untapped source of knowledge Medication versus memory Evading

childhood reality in psychotherapy Corporal punishment and political missions Prisoners: Time bombs in the brain The silence of the church Biographical

blind spots Part II: How we are struck emotionally blind Barriers in the mind

Part III: Breaking through: Discovering our childhood histories Talking it

through Without enlightened witnesses The healing power of truth Epilogue:

From ignorance to knowledge and compassion Bibliography Acknowledgments childhood experiences; childhood pain; childrearing; parent

child relations; emotional blindness; discipline; spanking  ========================================


Title:  Prevalence and correlated factors of posttraumatic stress disorder in

adolescents 17 months after earthquake.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Zhao, Chengzhi; Li, Junfu; Wang, Mingshan; Fan,

Qiliang; Zhang, Fu; Zhang, Huabiao; Wang, Xiangdong

Source/Citation: Chinese Mental Health Journal: Special Issue: ; Vol 15(3) May

2001, China: Chinese Mental Health; 2001, 145-147

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the prevalence and related factors of

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescents 17 mo after an earthquake.

Ss were 192 middle school students (aged 14-18 yrs) (8th-9th graders) (107

males and 84 females, 1 sex not indicated) who experienced an earthquake in

Dahe village, Zhangbei county, Hebei province, China. Ss were assessed with a

demographic information questionnaire, a traumatic event exposure

questionnaire, the SCL-90, and a PTSD diagnostic scale which was based on

the WHO's Computer International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)-PTSD module.

Multiple linear regression analysis and logistic regression analysis were conducted for

studying PTSD-related factors. The results show that 18 Ss (9.4% (18/192)

met diagnostic criteria of the Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV); and that the

prevalence of PTSD in females (15.5%, (13/84)) was higher than that in male

(4.7% (5/107)). The results reveal the most frequently occurring symptom:

acting or feeling as if the traumatic event were recurring (74.5%), the least

frequently occurring symptom: restricted range of affect (10.4%), and the

related factors of PTSD: level of sadness, degree of fear of loss of life,

severity of injury, and gender (female).  ========================================


Title: Psychological and developmental assessment: Children with disabilities

and chronic conditions.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Simeonsson, Rune J.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press; 2001, (xii, 386)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents an integrative framework for conducting

individualized assessments of children and adolescents with a wide range of

disabilities and chronic conditions. Expert contributors first provide an

overview of the field, reviewing general strategies and approaches in

developmental assessment. The volume then addresses the issues that arise in

working with young people with particular challenges, including motor

impairments, auditory and visual impairments, autism, chronic health

conditions, neurological problems, and exposure to trauma. Described are

concepts and tools to guide the practitioner in deriving an accurate

diagnosis, planning appropriate interventions in clinic or school, evaluating

progress, and monitoring treatment outcomes. The uses of specific assessment

instruments are considered, and needed modifications in settings, tasks, and

procedures are identified. Case vignettes are included.

Notes/Comments: Clinical assessment of children: An overview Rune J.

Simeonsson and Susan L. Rosenthal I. Dimensions and issues Issues in clinical

assessment Rune J. Simeonsson and Anita Scarborough Clinical assessment in

planning and evaluating intervention Rune J. Simeonsson and Janey Sturtz

McMillen II. General strategies and measures Quantitative assessment Rune J.

Simeonsson, Carrie Cook and Sadarryle Hill A qualitative developmental

approach to assessment Rune J. Simeonsson, Gail S. Huntington, J. Lytle Brent

and Cassandre Balant An ecobehavioral approach in clinical assessment Rune J.

Simeonsson and Elizabeth Kelly Boyles Assessment of family context Susan L.

Rosenthal, Sheila S. Cohen and Rune J. Simeonsson III. Specialized strategies

and measures Assessment of trauma and maltreatment in children with special

needs Barbara W. Boat and H. Jane Sites Infant assessment Tina Smith, Rebecca

Pretzel and Kristine Landry Assessment of children with motor impairments

Melissa R. Johnson, Cynthia Wilhelm, Deborah Eisert and Deborah L.

Halperin-Phillips Assessment of children with visual impairment or blindness

Naeela M. Chaudry and Philip W. Davidson Assessment of children who are deaf

or hard of hearing Rune J. Simeonsson, Tovah M. Wax and Kathleen White

Assessment of children with autism Lee M. Marcus, Sally Flagler and Susan

Robinson Assessment of children with chronic illness Janet R. Schultz and

Cheryl Chase-Carmichael Assessment of executive functions in children with

neurological impairment Gerard A. Gioia, Peter K. Isquith and Steven C. Guy

IV. Ethical and legal issues Ethical and legal issues in assessment of

children with special needs William A. Rae, Constance J. Fournier and Michael

C. Roberts Index psychological assessment; developmental assessment;

disabilities; chronic health conditions; children; adolescents



Title: Gun violence exposure and trauma among rural youth. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Slovak, Karen; Singer, Mark

Source/Citation: Violence & Victims: Special Issue: Developmental

Perspectives on Violence and Victimization ; Vol 16(4) Aug 2001, US: Springer

Publishing Co; 2001, 389-400

Abstract/Review/Citation: Compared rural youth (Grades 3-8) exposed to

gun violence and rural youth not exposed to gun violence on a number of

variables: anger, anxiety, dissociation, depression, posttraumatic stress, total trauma, violent behavior, parental monitoring, and levels of violence in the

home, school, and community. One-fourth (25%) of the 549 Ss reported

having been exposed to gun violence at least once. Youth exposed to gun

violence reported significantly more anger, dissociation, posttraumatic stress, and total trauma. In addition, youth exposed to the violence of guns reported

significantly higher levels of violent behaviors and exposure to violence in

other settings and also reported lower levels of parental monitoring.  The

present study contributes to the growing body of literature addressing the

stereotype that rural communities are not immune to the violence of firearms.

This stereotype acts as a barrier to mental health practice, research, and

policy issues in rural communities.  ========================================


Title: Adolescent trauma in Japanese schools: Two case studies of Ijime

(bullying) and school refusal.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kawabata, Naoto

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis:

Special Issue: ; Vol 29(2) Mar 2001, US: Guilford Publications; 2001, 85-103

Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents the cases of 2 junior high school students--a

13-yr-old boy and 14-yr-old girl--who suffered from Ijime and started

refusing to attend school. In Japan, Ijime is bullying that results in

trauma and school phobia in some cases. The cases presented here represent

bullying incidents that could be called common troubles among students, but

provide material for examining the nature of the interpersonal trauma and

psychological difficulties that Japanese adolescents are faced with. In this

article, the author discusses the context of interpersonal trauma and the

isomorphic nature of the traumatic events and the individual's internal

issues; and argues the importance of the cultural context in which Ijime and

school refusal occur. Finally, implications for treatment of school refusal

are suggested based on the author's role as school counselor for the 2 cases




Title: Untangling the impact of sexual abuse on HIV risk behaviors among youth

in foster care.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Elze, Diane E.; Auslander, Wendy; McMillen, Curtis;

Edmond, Tonya; Thompson, Ron

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: AIDS Education & Prevention; Vol 13(4) Aug 2001, US:

Guilford Publications; 2001, 377-389

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigates the interrelationships among

childhood sexual abuse, other types of child maltreatment (emotional and

physical abuse and neglect), emotional and behavioral problems, and HIV risk behaviors in a sample of 167 adolescents (aged 15-19 yrs) participating in an independent living preparation program in 1 midwestern county. Lifetime and

recent (last 2 mo) HIV risk behaviors assessed included several categories of

sexual risk taking behaviors (5 lifetime and 8 recent) and 3 items assessing

use of unclean needles for iv drug usage, piercing, or tattoos. 33% of the Ss

identified as white and 67% as youths of color. 59 Ss (33%) reported some

form of sexual abuse; 21 reported unwanted touching, with no unwanted

intercourse, and 38 reported unwanted intercourse. Multivariate analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between the severity of sexual abuse

and Ss' recent HIV risk behaviors, after accounting for the contribution of

other childhood trauma and emotional and behavioral problems. The findings

support the need for HIV prevention programs targeting sexually abused




Title: Low cortisol and a flattening of expected daytime rhythm: Potential

indices of risk in human development. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Gunnar, Megan R.; Vazquez, Delia M.

Source/Citation: Development & Psychopathology: Special Issue: Stress and

development: Biological and psychological consequences. ; Vol 13(3) Sum 2001,

US: Cambridge Univ; 2001, 515-538

Abstract/Review/Citation: Since the work of H. Selye, stress has been

associated with increased activity of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-

adrenocortical (LHPA) axis. Recently, a number of studies in adults have shown that this neuroendocrine axis may be hyporesponsive in a number of stress-related

states. Termed hypocortisolism (HPT), the paradoxical suppression of the LHPA

axis under conditions of trauma and prolonged stress presently challenges

basic concepts in stress research. Adverse conditions that produce elevated

cortisol levels early in life are hypothesized to contribute to the

development of HPT in adulthood. However, as reviewed in this paper, HPT

also may be a common phenomenon early in human childhood. The authors

argue that developmental studies are needed that help explicate the origins

of low cortisol and to determine whether the development of HPT is preceded by

periods of frequent or chronic activation of the LHPA axis. They also argue

that developmental researchers who incorporate measures of salivary cortisol

into their studies of at-risk populations need to be aware of the HPT

phenomenon. Lastly, they note that evidence of low cortisol under adverse

early life conditions in humans adds to the importance of understanding the

implications of HPT for health and development.  ========================================


Title: Developmental traumatology: The psychobiological development of

maltreated children and its implications for research, treatment, and policy.

Author(s)/Editor(s): De Bellis, Michael D.

Source/Citation: Development & Psychopathology: Special Issue: Stress and

development: Biological and psychological consequences. ; Vol 13(3) Sum 2001,

US: Cambridge Univ; 2001, 539-564

Abstract/Review/Citation: In this review, a developmental traumatology

model of child maltreatment and the risk for the intergenerational cycle of

abuse and neglect using a mental health or posttraumatic stress model is

described. Published data are reviewed that support the hypothesis that the

psychobiological sequelae of child maltreatment may be regarded as a

environmentally induced complex developmental disorder. Data to support this

view, including the descriptions of both psychobiological and brain maturation

studies in maltreatment research, emphasizing the similarities and differences

between children, adolescents, and adults, are reviewed. Many suggestions for

important future psychobiological and brain maturation research investigations

as well as public policy ideas are offered.



Title: Gender differences in violence exposure and violence risk among

adolescent inpatients. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Fehon, Dwain C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Lipschitz, Deborah S.

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 189(8) Aug 2001,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001, 532-540

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined gender differences in violence exposure and

violence risk among 130 adolescent inpatients (aged 12-18 yrs). The authors

found no difference between male and female Ss with respect to self-reported

violence potential or actual violence perpetration. Female Ss, however, were

significantly more often victims of sexual assault, and male Ss were

significantly more often victims of physical assault. For male Ss, a history

of violence perpetration in one area was closely linked with a history of

violence victimization in the same area. Alternatively, patterns of

victimization and perpetration among female Ss were less predictable and had

crossover to victimization and perpetration experiences in other areas.

Correlational analyses revealed that violence risk was associated with a broad

range of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Significant

associations with hopelessness, suicidality, and childhood trauma

differentiated the violence risk of male and female inpatients. The authors

propose a hypothesis for understanding these differences and conclude that

although psychiatrically ill adolescent male and female patients may commonly

fall victim to differing forms of violence, both genders are at equal risk for

actual violence perpetration.



Title: Traumatic Brain Injury Collaborative Planning Group: A protocol for

community intervention.

Author(s)/Editor(s): DePompei, Roberta; Frye, DeAnna; DuFore, Marcia;

Hunt, Pamela

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation: Special Issue: ; Vol

16(3) Jun 2001, US: Aspen Publishers ; 2001, 217-237

Abstract/Review/Citation: The Traumatic Brain Injury Collaborative Planning

Group was formed in December 1992 to address service gaps and to use agencies

and their programs better to meet the specialized needs of individuals with

traumatic brain injury (TBI). The group meetings served as the interagency

link between service providers for comprehensive planning and problem solving.

This article focuses on the 3 main tasks of this group: (1) interagency case

planning among participating agencies; (2) provision of training and

networking opportunities for service providers working with this population;

(3) development of creative funding mechanisms for community education and

support services to assist individuals to live and work in the community. Data

collected about the 21 persons served in the past 3 yrs is provided, and

protocol forms are shared. This model of collaboration throughout a countywide

area has been used as a basis for similar development in several other states.



Title: Factors associated with balance deficits on admission to rehabilitation

after traumatic brain injury: A multicenter analysis.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Greenwald, Brian D.; Cifu, David X.; Marwitz, Jennifer H.;

Enders, Lisa J.; Brown, Allen W.; Englander, Jeffrey S.; Zafonte, Ross D.

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation: Special Issue: ; Vol

16(3) Jun 2001, US: Aspen Publishers ; 2001, 238-252

Abstract/Review/Citation: Evaluate how demographics, measures of injury

severity, and acute care complications relate to sitting and standing balance

in 908 rehabilitation center patients (aged 16-85 yrs) with traumatic brain

injury (TBI). Sitting and standing balance were assessed within 72 hrs of

admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Age less than 50 yrs was associated

with normal sitting and standing balance. Measures of severity of TBI,

including admission Glasgow Coma Score, length of posttraumatic amnesia,

length of coma, and acute care length of stay were each related to impaired

sitting and standing balance ratings. Initial abnormalities in pupillary

response was associated with impairment of sitting but not standing balance.

Incidence of respiratory failure, pneumonia, soft tissue infections, and

urinary tract infections were all related to impaired sitting balance.

Presence of intracranial hemorrhages was not significantly related with either

sitting or standing balance. Intracranial compression had was significantly

related with standing but not sitting balance. A discrimmant function

analysis, which included neuroradiological findings, injury severity, and

medical complications, could not accurately predict impaired balance ratings.



Title: Activity restrictions as part of the discharge management for children

with a traumatic head injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Swaine, Bonnie R.; Friedman, Deborah S.

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation: Special Issue: ; Vol

16(3) Jun 2001, US: Aspen Publishers ; 2001, 292-300

Abstract/Review/Citation: This article describes a proactive management

strategy that is currently part of the discharge protocol for children seeking

care for a head injury (HI) at a pediatric and adolescent trauma center. The

strategy consists of setting activity restrictions for children hospitalized and

those seen in the emergency department after a HI that may or not have been sports related. It was developed based on extensive clinical experience with

families of children with a HI and existing guidelines for returning athletes to

sports. Possible merits and pitfalls of the strategy are discussed.  ========================================


Title: When disater strikes--the need to be "wise before the event":

Crisis intervention with children and adolescents. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Yule, William

Source/Citation: Advances in Mind-Body Medicine: Special Issue: ; Vol 17(3)

Sum 2001, US: John E Fetzer Institute Inc; 2001, 191-196

Abstract/Review/Citation: Addresses issues in providing crisis intervention to

children and adolescents affected by a traumatic event or disaster. These

include the need for risk analysis and preparation, cross-agency disaster

plans, coordinated efforts to provide evidence-based intervention packages for

local implementation with a modicum of training and supervision, and

psychological debriefing for children. Although few studies have evaluated the

effects of debriefing on children, the author makes several recommendations

for how to respond to children traumatized by an emergency event. The key to

improvements in crisis interventions is seen to be forward planning and better

outcome measurement studies.     ========================================


Title: Early predictors of mortality in penetrating compared with closed brain


Author(s)/Editor(s): Peek-Asa, Corinne; McArthur, David; Hovda, David;

Kraus, Jess

Source/Citation: Brain Injury; Vol 15(9) Sep 2001, US: Taylor & Francis;

2001, 801-810

Abstract/Review/Citation: Although brain injury incidence rates have been

decreasing, the proportion of these injuries which are penetrating has been

increasing. This study compares mortality amongst persons with penetrating and

closed brain injuries and explores the relationship of early predictors of

mortality. The study included 795 moderately or severely brain injured

individuals (aged 16-50+ yrs) identified through the UCLA Brain Injury

Research Centre. Logistic regression was used to predict mortality by Glasgow

Coma Scale (GCS) level and brain injury type, controlling for age, gender, and

presence of multiple trauma. Of the 795 individuals, 110 had penetrating and

685 had closed brain injury. Case fatality rates were higher for penetrating

than closed injuries for all GCS, gender, age, and cause of injury categories.

When controlling for GCS level at admission, age, gender, and multiple trauma,

those with penetrating injuries were 6.6 times more likely to die. As the pool

of information about survival and recovery from penetrating injuries grows,

decisions regarding clinical care and prevention activities can be more

appropriately focused.



Title: Perceptions and memories of Latino adolescents separated in childhood due

to piecemeal patterns of immigration.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Artico, Ceres Ildebrando

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities

& Social Sciences; Vol 61(9-A) Apr 2001, US: Univ Microfilms

International; 2001, 3472

Abstract/Review/Citation: Piecemeal immigration is common among families

in poor and war-stricken countries. During the 1980's, Latino immigrants often

left their children with extended family and immigrated to the United States. This

study explored the experiences, perceptions, and memories of Latino

adolescents and young adults reunited with their biological parents after

prolonged separation during childhood because of piecemeal immigration

patterns. The main hypothesis was that these children's interpretation of the

parents' departure as abandonment or as sacrifice shaped their internal

working models of self and others. Such representational models, in turn,

predisposed those children to develop specific affective, cognitive,

behavioral, and relational patterns. Attachment theory provided the conceptual

framework for this study. Three male and four female Latino adolescents, ages

15 to 19, described their experiences, reactions to, and memories of the

separation from and reunification with their parents during in-depth

interviews, and participated in an experiential activity with a sand tray. The

interviews were audio taped, transcribed, coded and analyzed, and the sand

tray constructions were photographed and analyzed. The context leading to the

parent's departure; the family's interpretation of parents' actions; the

parents' dependability as providers during the separation; and the quality of

communication in these families upon reunification influenced how these

children perceived the parents' immigration. The way love and affection was

expressed by parents and caretakers; the marital status of the parents, and

the children's perception of adults as supportive or critical influenced their

representational model of self. The way families handled the parent's

departure, the characteristics of the child's relationship with parents and

caretakers, and exposure to trauma and losses influenced the participants'

internal working model of others. All these factors influenced how these

children negotiated developmental tasks and life challenges and how these

families handled the process of reunification. Ignorance and lack of

communication increased the distress among these families. Professionals can

help these families integrate their experience and rebuild broken

relationships by facilitating communication, recognizing and validating their

fears and needs, and providing education about this process. Further

investigation and research on this topic can benefit Latino and other

immigrants and refugees with a similar history.  ========================================


Title: Immigrant adolescents at risk: A story of cumulative trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kennedy, Ann Aurelia

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities

& Social Sciences; Vol 61(9-A) Apr 2001, US: Univ Microfilms

International; 2001, 3444

Abstract/Review/Citation: With the increase of numbers of immigrant students

in secondary programs nationwide, English as a second language (ESL) educators

are investigating ways of improving the instruction of immigrant adolescents

in our public schools. The focus of my study is the immigrant adolescent who

has been 'unsuccessful' during the first two years of sheltered ESL

coursework, has therefore been labeled 'at-risk,' is enrolled in an

alternative high school ESL program, and in danger of becoming a high school

dropout. A study combining quantitative and qualitative data was designed to

investigate cross-cultural patterns shared by 54 at-risk immigrant adolescents

from Central America, Africa, and the Caribbean enrolled in an alternative ESL

program. The study included case studies of 11 focal students. To understand

the educational experiences and future plans of the at-risk immigrant

adolescents, I studied their behaviors, expectations, and values from their

personal perspectives and from the perspectives of their parents and teachers.

Through focus groups, interviews, dialog journals, and observations, I

discovered patterns shared across cultural and linguistic groups in response

to the questions: What factors have influenced and continue to influence the

academic progress of at-risk LCD adolescents? What are their meanings of

school and schooling? The study shows that the at-risk immigrant adolescents

shared factors in their backgrounds across cultures that may influence their

learning. In addition to significant gaps in their formal early educational

experiences, many of these adolescents also shared traumatic experiences: They

arrived from war-torn countries; they were separated from their mothers in

early childhood; they reunited with their mothers at adolescence, and they

dealt with a new school culture in a new language. Psychologists link trauma,

subsequent behaviors, and learning. Awareness of the influences on the

learning of at-risk immigrant adolescents can be useful in improving teaching

and learning at the secondary level. Earlier identification and intervention

can be a more effective, economical, and equitable way of preparing these

adolescents to become productive members of society.  ========================================


Title: The symptom structure of ptsd in child, adolescent, and adult survivors

of sexual assault: Where do symptoms of emotional numbing belong?

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hamblen, Jessica Liebergott

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(9-B) Apr 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 4984

Abstract/Review/Citation: The proposed study attempts to expand on

what is known about the symptom structure of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). One current issue that has been raised with regard to the diagnosis of PTSD

is whether avoidance and numbing symptoms should remain grouped together into a

single symptom cluster or be separated into distinct clusters. This question

is addressed in three different age samples of female survivors of sexual

assault and sexual abuse: adults ages 18-65, adolescents ages 11-17, and

children ages 6-10. Four hypotheses are evaluated within each trauma

population, specifically: (1) numbing will comprise a distinct symptom

cluster, (2) trauma survivors will exhibit numbing symptoms, (3) numbing will

discriminate survivors with and without PTSD, and (4) numbing will occur most

often in the presence of high arousal and avoidance. General conclusions about

the cohesiveness of PTSD, especially as it pertains to numbing symptoms are

discussed. Special attention is paid to the issues of generalizability and

developmental differences in response to sexual assault and sexual abuse.



Title: Assessment of self-reported symptom validity among sexually abused


Author(s)/Editor(s): Fricker, Adrienne Elizabeth

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(9-B) Apr 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 4981

Abstract/Review/Citation: Research suggests several factors may affect

children's decisions of whether to disclose, recant, or deny child sexual

abuse (CSA) (Sorenson & Snow, 1991). These same factors may affect

children's presentation on assessment measures. Elliott and Briere (1994)

provided an empirical demonstration of the impact of disclosure status on

children's self-reported symptoms on the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children

(TSCC) which suggested that multiple factors should be taken into

consideration when assessing sexually abused children's level of distress.

Most current measures used to assess CSA effects are not abuse-specific and do

not include validity scales to measure response set. The TSCC is both

abuse-specific and has validity scales; however, the validity scales were

created after the normative sample was completed. In the present study, 41 CSA

victims between 8 and 17 years completed the TSCC and a generic measure of

functioning, the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY). This study compared

the TSCC's and PIY's validity scales, and assessed whether the TSCC was more

sensitive to abuse-specific sequelae than the PIY. Abuse characteristics and

disclosure were examined as to their relation to response set and level of

distress on the TSCC. Results suggested that the TSCC's validity scales, while

similar to the PIY's scales, were more conservative in altered response

detection. Further, results supported the hypothesis that the TSCC was more

sensitive to PTSD diagnosis than the PIY. This study failed to replicate

Elliott and Briere's (1994) findings that disclosure was related to symptoms.

However, several relations were detected among abuse characteristics, level of

symptoms, and altered responding. The findings of this study suggest that the

TSCC, or other abuse specific measures, may be a critical addition in

assessment of CSA victims, as more generic measures are less sensitive in

detection of distress level. This study also provides some support for the

position that certain abuse characteristics are associated with children's

altered responding and level of symptoms. Further, this study suggests that

denial of symptoms may not represent lack of distress, and thus, an evaluation

of response set must be included in an assessment protocol for CSA victims.



Title: Declarative memory, cortisol reactivity, and psychological symptoms in

chronically abused girls.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Cianciulli, Caterina

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(9-B) Apr 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 4975

Abstract/Review/Citation: The influence of trauma on neuroendocrine

functions and related problems with declarative memory (short term verbal

memory) has been documented in several studies focused on adult survivors

of trauma. However, the impact of trauma on neuroendocrine and cognitive development of children and adolescents has not yet been explored.

Declarative memory functioning, cortisol reactivity and psychological symptoms were examined in nineteen adolescent female survivors (nine depressed and ten

non-depressed) of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and compared to

eleven non-abused controls. Salivary cortisol measurements (initial baseline assessment, assessment after an emotionally challenging task, followed by

second baseline one week later) were used to assess cortisol reactivity. The relationship between patterns of cortisol reactivity and declarative memory functioning was examined, as assessed by scores on selected subtests of the California Verbal Learning Tests. Similarly, the relationship between patterns

of cortisol reactivity and psychological symptoms, as reported on the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children, was also assessed. Results indicated the

presence of different patterns of cortisol reactivity during a challenging task

for the girt survivors of chronic trauma (depressed and non-depressed) as

compared to controls. The abused girls most frequently exhibited increased

cortisol release from the initial baseline to the subsequent measurement times, whereas cortisol levels generally decreased in the control group. Furthermore, in girl

survivors of chronic trauma, the larger increases in cortisol release were

related to lower declarative memory scores and to more symptoms of

dissociation, depression, posttraumatic stress, anger, and anxiety. Although

the subject sample was small, the results supported the existence of a link

between exposure to trauma, adrenocortical reactivity, and to a lesser extent,

declarative memory functioning. Similar results have been widely documented

in adults with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. These findings have implications

in terms of understanding of neurobiological development of trauma survivors.

Indeed, neurohormonal alterations (changes in cortisol reactivity) influence

response to stress, emotional regulation, and behavioral adjustment.

Therefore, understanding of the relationship of cortisol reactivity with

cognitive and emotional symptoms in young trauma survivors will enhance the

identification of at-risk individuals and will help in preventing the

development of long lasting deficits in emotional and behavioral functioning.



Title:  Feeling trauma and its relationship to alientation, personality values

and psychological disorders among Kuwaiti youth.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Al-Sahel, Rashed; Hanora, Masri

Source/Citation: Journal of the Social Sciences; Vol 29(2) Sum 2001, Kuwait:

Academic Publication Council; 2001, 55-80

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated the effects of trauma on Kuwaiti

youths' personality, personal values and alienation. Ss were 1,337 15-40 yr

olds, who completed the Multidimensional Alienation Inventory, Personal

Values Check List, Critical Items of Personality Assessment Inventory and

Trauma Feeling Scale (constructed by the authors). Results show that the Ss who scored the highest on the Trauma Feeling Scale also had the highest scores

on the alienation scales and psychological disorder measures, and the lowest

scores on personal positive values. These Ss are seen at higher risk for

psychological disorders. 



Title: Treating sexually abused children and their families: Identifying and

avoiding professional role conflicts.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mannarino, Anthony P.; Cohen, Judith A.

Source/Citation: Trauma Violence & Abuse; Vol 2(4) Oct 2001, US: Sage

Publications; 2001, 331-342

Abstract/Review/Citation: This article addresses the ethical issues and

dilemmas that clinical practitioners confront when providing services to

sexually abused children and their families. The differences between the roles of

forensic evaluator and treating therapist are highlighted, with a particular

emphasis on the ethical dilemmas related to role boundaries, confidentiality,

therapeutic alliance, and court testimony. The position adopted throughout

the article is that therapists for sexually abused children should avoid becoming

involved in legal/forensic matters because of the inherent conflict associated

with these different roles. Recent guidelines promulgated by professional

organizations that have a bearing on these issues are discussed. Concrete and

practical strategies that clinicians can utilize when dealing with these

issues are offered. 



Title: The impact of Thought Field Therapy on heart rate variability.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Callahan, Roger J.

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychology: Special Issue: Thought field

therapy: Initial research; Vol 57(10) Oct 2001, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc;

2001, 1153-1170

Abstract/Review/Citation: Thought Field Therapy (TFT) is a rapid treatment for

psychological problems, which consists of stimulation of (usually by tapping)

a precise sequence of meridian points on the body, more commonly known as the

acupuncture meridians. Interventions presented in the current literature show

modest improvements in heart rate variability (HRV), which has been shown to

be a strong predictor of mortality and is adversely affected by such problems

as anxiety, depression, and trauma. In this study, HRV readings on 20 Ss pre-

and post-treatment with TFT were obtained from the author's clients and

clients of 7 other therapists. Ss presented a wide variety of physical and/or

psychological problems. The cases included some Ss diagnosed with heart

problems and very low HRV, which is ordinarily more resistant to change. The

degree of improvements that were registered on HRV as a result of TFT

treatment exceeds reports found in the current literature. There was a close

correspondence between improved HRV and client report of reduced degree of

upset. HRV may prove to be an appropriate objective measure of psychotherapy

efficacy given the correspondence between client report and HRV outcome.



Title: Thought Field Therapy-- Soothing the bad moments of Kosovo.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Johnson, Carl; Shala, Mustafe; Sejdijaj, Xhevdet;

Odell, Robert; Dabishevci, Kadengjika

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychology: Special Issue: Thought field

therapy: Initial research; Vol 57(10) Oct 2001, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc;

2001, 1237-1240

Abstract/Review/Citation: Much of the ethnic Albanian majority living in

Kosovo was either massacred or tortured by invading Serbian forces in 1999,

leaving widespread posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among survivors.

This study describes the treatment of trauma in Kosovo with Thought Field

Therapy (TFT) during 5 separate trips by members of the Global Institute of

Thought Field Therapy. TFT treatment involves individual diagnosis of required sequences, followed by precision mechanical stimulation of points on the body's energy meridians, plus bilateral optical cortical stimulation. This treatment was

given to 105 ethnic Albanian residents of Kosovo (aged 4-78 yrs) with 249

separate traumas. Due to Albanian taboos against emotional suffering,

emotional suffering was measured in terms of the absence or presence of

unwelcome emotion and/or somatic discomfort when thinking about the moment.

Total relief was reported by 103 of the patients, and for 247 of the separate

traumas. Follow-up data (1-9 mo post-treatment) was obtained for 81 of the Ss.

These data showed enduring treatment successes and revealed no instance of




Title: Between search and research: How to find your way around? Review of the

article ' 'Thought Field Therapy-- Soothing the bad moments of Kosovo.' .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Rosner, Rita

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychology: Special Issue: Thought field

therapy: Initial research; Vol 57(10) Oct 2001, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc;

2001, 1241-1244

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on C. Johnson et al's (see record

2001-18792-009) study of the treatment of trauma in Kosovo with Thought Field

Therapy (TFT). The author argues that this study provides very limited

evidence for the effectiveness of TFT. The author argues that poor study

design and diagnostic procedures applied, or rather the absence of objective

diagnostic procedures following minimum psychometric requirements, do not

allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of treatment.  ========================================


Title: A comparison of traumatic symptomatology of the My Worst Experience and

My Worst School Experience Scales.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Snook, Pamela A.

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(10-B) May 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 5582

Abstract/Review/Citation: The literature reveals that contemporary understanding

of childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) rests on shaky

methodological grounds (Fletcher, 1996). One recommendation has been to make

comparisons between traumatized and comparable non-traumatized children

(Fletcher, 1996). This study sampled a non-clinical population of high school

students (n = 169) from a predominantly white, middle class parochial school

and assessed the level of stress symptomatology they experienced after their

worst experience. The My Worst Experience Scale (MWES) and My Worst School

Experience Scale (MWSES), identical self-report measures that ask children to

rate behaviors, thoughts, and feelings they may have experienced after a

traumatic event, were used to make comparisons of traumatic sequelae based on

type of trauma. The findings indicate that traumatic events that occur outside

of school, such as the death of a relative, sexual abuse/assault, and family

discord are significantly more likely to cause stress symptoms and PTSD than

events that occur in school. Based on the DSM-IV criteria, 10.1% of the

students completing the MWES and 1.25% of the adolescents from the MWSES

sample met the criteria for PTSD. Consistent with previous research, females

were more at risk for suffering stress symptoms and the younger one is when

the event occurs, the more likely he or she was to suffer disturbing dreams

and memories. Symptoms reported were consistent with the literature and

included avoidance, hypervigilance, re-experiencing the trauma, and intrusive

thoughts. A serendipitous finding was that 50% of the respondents reported

that peer bullying was their worst school experience. This is particularly

noteworthy because the MWSES was originally designed for students to report

the worst school experience caused by an educator. Data from Smith & Brain

(2000) indicate the potential of schools to cause student alienation and anger

between students and towards faculty without being aware of the problem.

Therefore, it is helpful to be able to assess school traumatization by use of

normative scales, such as the MWSES, and to assess when stress symptoms are

severe enough to reach the level of PTSD.  ========================================


Title: The relationship between depression, self-esteem, trauma, and psychopathy

in understanding conduct disordered adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Valentine, Iren S.

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(10-B) May 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 5585

Abstract/Review/Citation: Conduct Disordered children and adolescents are

those who are aggressive, destroy property, defy authority, and often frighten

and disturb adults. They are very difficult to treat therapeutically and a number

of them continue to demonstrate high levels of problematic behaviors

throughout their lifetime. Conduct Disorder is a devastating mental health

problem with multiple social ramifications. Research in the area of Conduct

Disorder is crucial so that we can augment our knowledge of this psychiatric

disturbance and develop treatment interventions. Existing research has

identified significant factors that appear to be promising in furthering our

understanding of Conduct Disorder. Some of these factors include depression,

trauma, self-esteem, and psychopathy. In the present study the relationship

between depression, self-esteem, trauma, and psychopathy are analyzed as

possible factors in furthering our understanding of Conduct Disorder. The

sample consisted of 61 adolescents (36 females/25 males), ages 12 to 18,

carrying a primary diagnosis of Conduct Disorder. Participants were drawn from

a residential treatment center primarily serving inner-city youths. The

participants completed a battery of paper-and-pencil questionnaires consisting

of a background information sheet, the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale,

the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, the Psychopathy Screening

Device, and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children. Results revealed that

30% of the sample met criteria for depression and females reported

significantly higher rates of depressive symptomatology than males. As

predicted a significant negative correlation was found between depression and

self-esteem (r = -.636 p < .001). A positive correlation was found between

depression and trauma ( r = .604, p < .001) this was also predicted.

Overall the results indicate that a number of adolescents with Conduct

Disorder experience significant levels of depression and those who are

depressed are also most likely to have been traumatized and to have low

self-esteem. Predicted correlations between psychopathy and both self-esteem

and depression were not supported by the findings. However, additional

analyses revealed that for females, sexual based trauma correlated with

psychopathy, while for males it correlated with problems in impulse control.



Title: The impact of intrafamilial and community violence on children's

psychological adjustment and academic achievement.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Skurulsky, Rebecca Jean

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(10-B) May 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 5582

Abstract/Review/Citation: The present study explored the relationship among

measures of intrafamilial and community violence and various indices of

adjustment including posttraumatic stress symptoms, internalizing and

externalizing symptoms, and academic achievement in a non-random sample of 73

urban, middle school youth. Self-reports of violence exposure revealed high

rates of both direct victimization and witnessing of potentially lethal forms

of community violence. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses

indicated that community violence victimization was significantly related to

self-reported trauma symptoms, self-reported externalizing behaviors including

aggression, attention problems, and delinquency, as well as self-reported

internalizing symptoms after controlling for gender. Associations between

family violence exposure variables and outcome variables of trauma symptoms,

internalizing behavior, externalizing behavior, and academic achievement were

generally weaker and more complex. The significance and implications of the

study are also examined. 



Title: Trauma/grief-focused group psychotherapy: School-based postwar

intervention with traumatized Bosnian adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Layne, Christopher M.; Pynoos, Robert S.; Saltzman, William R.; Arslanagic, Berina; Black, Mary; Savjak, Nadezda; Popovic, Tatjana;

Durakovic, Elvira; Music, Mirjana; Campara, Nihada; Djapo, Nermin; Houston,


Source/Citation: Group Dynamics: Special Issue: Group-based interventions

for trauma survivors.; Vol 5(4) Dec 2001, US: Educational Publishing Foundation;

2001, 277-290

Abstract/Review/Citation: Results of a preliminary effectiveness evaluation of a

school-based postwar program for war-exposed Bosnian adolescents are

described. The evaluation centered on a manualized trauma/grief-focused group

psychotherapy protocol for war-traumatized adolescents based on 5 therapeutic

foci: traumatic experiences, trauma and loss reminders, postwar adversities,

bereavement and the interplay of trauma and grief, and developmental impact.

Fifty-five secondary school students (81% girls; age range = 15-19 years, M =

16.81) from 10 Bosnian schools participated in the evaluation. Students

completed pregroup and postgroup self-report measures of posttraumatic stress,

depression, and grief symptoms and postgroup measures of psychosocial

adaptation and group satisfaction. The evaluation yielded preliminary but

promising results, including reduced psychological distress and positive

associations between distress reduction and psychosocial adaptation.  ========================================


Title: Trauma- and grief-focused intervention for adolescents exposed to

community violence: Results of a school-based screening and group treatment


Author(s)/Editor(s): Saltzman, William R.; Pynoos, Robert S.; Layne,

Christopher M.; Steinberg, Alan M.; Aisenberg, Eugene

Source/Citation: Group Dynamics: Special Issue: Group-based interventions for

trauma survivors.; Vol 5(4) Dec 2001, US: Educational Publishing Foundation;

2001, 291-303

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study assessed the prevalence of trauma

exposure among middle school students and evaluated the effectiveness of a

school-based, trauma- and grief-focused group psychotherapy protocol in

treating a subset of students with severe exposure, posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD), and functional impairment. Using a stratified screening

procedure, 812 students completed a screening survey; 58 students (7.1% of

those surveyed) met criteria for group treatment, and 26 students participated

in the group. Group participation was associated with improvements in

posttraumatic stress and complicated grief symptoms and in academic

performance. Results suggest that students who are exposed to severe levels of

community violence often may not be identified or treated. The findings also

suggest that severe PTSD in adolescence may be associated with impaired school

functioning, and that a reduction in PTSD symptoms may be related to academic




Title: Long-term neuropsychological outcome after traumatic brain injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Millis, Scott R.; Rosenthal, Mitchell; Novack, Thomas A.;

Sherer, Mark; Nick, Todd G.; Kreutzer, Jeffery S.; High, Walter M.; Ricker, Joseph H.

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 16(4) Aug 2001, US:

Aspen Publishers; 2001, 343-355

Abstract/Review/Citation: Compared neuropsychological outcomes 1 and 5 yrs

following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in those who received inpatient medical

rehabilitation, and determined the magnitude and pattern of neuropsychological

recovery. 182 individuals (aged 16+ yrs) with complicated mild to severe TBI

underwent 15 neuropsychological tests assessing a broad range of cognitive

ability. Results show significant variability in outcomes, ranging from no

measurable impairment to severe impairment on neuropsychological tests.

Improvement from 1 yr after injury to 5 yrs was also variable. Using the

Reliable Change Index, 22.2% of Ss improved, 15.2% of Ss declined, and 62.6%

of Ss were unchanged. Findings suggest that neuropsychological recovery after

TBI is not uniform across individuals and neuropsychological domains.

Improvement was most apparent on measures of cognitive speed,

visuoconstruction, and verbal memory.  ========================================


Title: Treating personality disorders in children and adolescents: A relational


Author(s)/Editor(s): Bleiberg, Efrain

Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press; 2001, (xvi, 348)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Offers a framework to make sense of childhood

personality disorders, distinguish them from more frequently diagnosed

childhood conditions, and respond appropriately to the challenges this

population presents. The author first explores the nature and clinical

presentation of childhood personality disorders. The book then takes the

clinician step-by-step through offering multimodal interventions that

incorporate individual psychotherapy, family treatment, and pharmacotherapy.

Case vignettes and transcripts are provided to bring to life the inner worlds

of these frightened young people and the clinicians who work with them. This

book gives particular attention to ways that therapists can understand and

work with their own emotional reactions in highly charged clinical situations.

This book may be of help to psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and

other clinicians working with children and adolescents. 

Introduction Attachment and reflective function Psychological

organization and the world of mental representations Trauma, vulnerability,

and the development of severe personality disorders Antisocial and

narcissistic children and adolescents Histrionic and borderline children and

adolescents Beginning treatment: Creating a secure base and a representational

mismatch Early stages of treatment: Forming the alliance and enhancing

reflective function Middle and late stages of treatment: Using connection to

move toward integration Residential treatment and the continuum of services

Pharmacological treatment References Index children; adolescents; personality

disorders; treatment



Title: Psykoedukation med Kosovo Albanske flygtningeborn: En effektundersogelse

af et program til forebyggelse af alvorlige psykiske belastningsreaktioner./

Psychoeducation with Kosovo Albanian refugee children.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Staaehr, Mia Antoni

Source/Citation: Psyke & Logos; Vol 22(1) 2001, Denmark: Dansk Psykologisk

Forlag; 2001, 127-146

Abstract/Review/Citation: Studied the development of trauma symptoms

among children from Kosovo who came to Denmark in the spring of 1999, and assessed the effect of a short psychoeducative intervention program. Ss

were male and female children (aged 0-18 yrs). Ss' psychological condition

was assessed on arrival in Denmark through interviews with nurses and parent interview data, and supplemented by a measure of posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD) symptoms, the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Ss participated

in a program aimed at reducing stress symptoms and supporting coping

strategies. Ss were assessed by IES before and after the intervention and by questions on social support and self-esteem. The results show a big

difference between the nurses' assessment of the Ss and the results of the

IES. Nurses found only a small percentage of Ss with serious psychological

symptoms, whereas IES analysis showed that 68.5% of Ss showed critical

scores, indicating a high risk of developing PTSD. The results of the

intervention show that there was a reduction in PTSD symptoms over time,

and a rise in self-esteem. However, this could indicate a spontaneous reduction of symptoms due to time independent of intervention, while the development of

a feeling of social support and self-esteem could be influenced positively by

fast intervention.



Title: Children and war: Current understandings and future directions.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Berman, Helene

Source/Citation: Public Health Nursing; Vol 18(4) Jul-Aug 2001, US: Blackwell

Scientific Publications; 2001, 243-252

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses the effects of war on refugee children and

adolescents. Many children have either witnessed or directly experienced

trauma prior to escape from their native countries. Additionally, many have

endured years of deplorable living conditions in refugee camps. The experience

of migration is typically accompanied by many stressors, including separation

from family and acculturation stress. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is

a common experience with this population, no matter what ethnocentric biases

underlie the conceptualization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Research into the protective factors of age and gender has produced mixed

results. Social, political, and ecological contexts may act as mediators.



Title: Treatment methods for childhood trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Nader, Kathleen

Source/Citation: Treating psychological trauma and PTSD., New York, NY, US: The

Guilford Press; 2001, (xii, 467), 278-334

Source editor(s): Wilson, John P. (Ed); Friedman, Matthew J. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Children who experience trauma are characterized by

multiple issues affecting symptom presentation and needs in treatment. This

chapter discusses innovative treatment methods for reducing symptoms of

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reducing or preventing the escalation of

depression and/or other trauma-associated symptoms, and enhancing or helping

to recover children's confidence, competence, and control. Topics discussed

include factors influencing presentation, treatment, and outcome (e.g., age

and developmental issues); choosing a treatment method; individual treatment

methods (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, play therapy); group treatment

methods (e.g., family therapy); and treatments for special populations (i.e.,

children with dissociative disorders, inner-city children and adolescents).



Title: Squiggles and spaces revisiting the work of D. W. Winnicott, (Vol. 2).

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bertolini, Mario; Giannakoulas, Andreas; Hernandez,


Source/Citation: London, England: Whurr Publishers, Ltd; 2001, (xix, 261)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This volume is a continuation of the book Squiggles

and Spaces . Volume 2 distinguishes itself from the first volume primarily in

two ways. On the one hand, a significant portion of the book is dedicated to a

comparative study of D. W. Winnicott's work and that of his noteworthy

contemporaries. The second noteworthy feature of this volume is the wide array

of essays by Italian psychoanalysts working in the tradition of Winnicott.

This is distinctive, as so little of contemporary Italian psychoanalysis is

translated into English.

Notes/Comments:  Foreword [by] Anthony Molino The

editors Contributors Introduction: Winnicott in Italy [by] Salvatore Grimaldi

Part I: On babies, mothers and fathers The interface between mother and baby

Ken Wright Self-states and the maternal integration function Anna Maria Lanza,

Silvana Picece Bucci and Anna Margarida Chagas Bovet Reparation in respect of

mother's organized defence against depression Patrizia Erlicher and

Allessandra Zanelli Quarantini What about the parents? Abraham H. Brafman The

father as function, environment and object Marco Armellini Part II: Illusion,

creativity and the self Illusion and reality in the work of D. W. Winnicott

Almatea Usuelli Kluzer Interminable illusion Pia De Silvestris Psychotherapy

and the squiggle game: A sophisticated game of hide-and-seek Nina Farhi The

parent-child relationship in Italina Renaissance painting: External and

internal realities in Giovanni Bellini's 'Families' Graziella Magherini

Winnicott and clinical theory Trauma and psychosis Cumulative trauma: When all

does not go well in the everyday life of the infant Paola Mariotti Psychosis

and the transitional area: A clinical case study Silvio Zucconi Empathy, hate

and countertransference A clinical approach to empathy Gabriele Pasquali The

'kind-hearted' versus the good analyst: Empathy and hatred in

countertransference Stefano Bolognini Acting-out Antisocial acting-out as a

substitute for the spontaneous gesture in adolesence Maria Teresa Aliprandi

Antisocial acting-out as a defence against breakdown Anna Maria Nicolo Part

IV: Winnicott and the treatment of psychosomatic patients Winnicott and the

psyche-soma P. Schoenberg Primary maternal preoccupation: Pregnancy and

child-rearing Patrizia Gallo and Renata Nacinovich From the aesthetics of

external objects to the quality of internal objects: On the diagnosis of

alopecia in childhood and adolescence Virginia Giannotti. F. Rocchetto, R.

Callegari, A. Carleschi, R. Del Guerra, A. Macho, N. Pizzi, E. Rosenholz, and

A. M. Lanza Psychosomatics in Jung and Winnicott Rosemary Gordon Interrupted

stories Antonio Suman Part V: Potential spaces: Winnicott in the world of

psychoanalysis Winnicott and Ferenczi: Trauma and the maternal analyst Luis J.

Martin-Cabre A comparison of the thought and work of Donald Winnicott and

Michael Balint Bernard Barnett The influence of Winnicott on the evolution of

Frances Tustin's thinking Giuliana De Astis C. G. Jung's Memories, Dreams,

Reflections: Notes on the review by D. W. Winnicott Giuseppe Maffei Winnicott

and Bion: On some uncanny affinities Lucio Sarno Part VI: Commentaries and

discussions Reflections on Nina Farhi's Psychotherapy and the Squiggle Game

Giulia Del Carlo Giannini With downcast eyes: Some notes on Graziella

Magherini's explorations of Giovanni Bellini's art Manuella Trinci Empathy:

Love or skill? Betty Denzler A discussion of Bernard Barnett's comparison of

D. W. Winnicott and Michael Balint Between C. G. Jung and D. W. Winnicott

Paolo Aite Bibliography Index D. W. Winnicott; psychoanalysis; psychotherapy

Literature Review/Research Review  ========================================


Title: Speech aeromechanics and the dysarthrias: Implications for children with

traumatic brain injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Netsell, Ronald

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 16(5) Oct 2001, US:

Aspen Publishers; 2001, 415-425

Abstract/Review/Citation: Focuses on an aeromechanical approach to

understanding, evaluating, and treating the moderate to severe dysarthrias in

children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury. These difficulties,

caused by neural lesions that result in movement disorders of the vocal tract,

compromise intelligibility and speaking effort. They can exist in addition to

cognitive, linguistic, neurobehavioral, and physical challenges faced in

rehabilitation by these children. This review focuses on methods available to

help individuals obtain or restore intelligible speech, and reduce speaking

effort. Evaluation and treatment strategies are examined. The article

highlights techniques that are now being used to treat these disorders, which

include "inspiratory checking" for achieving controlled exhalation,

the U-tube manometer in normalizing subglottal air pressure, and various

surgical options.



Title: Development of the Pediatric Test of Traumatic Brain Injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hotz, Gillian; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy; Nelson, Nikola


Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 16(5) Oct 2001, US:

Aspen Publishers; 2001, 426-440

Abstract/Review/Citation: Preliminary report of the Pediatric Test of

Traumatic Brain Injury (PTBI), a tool for assessing cognitive-linguistic skills of

school-aged children and adolescents in acute care and rehabilitation settings

after traumatic brain injury. The authors note that the test, currently in its

research edition, is the first standardized test to assess the full range of

cognitive and linguistic impairments of pediatric brain injury. The PTBI

samples the attention, memory, language, reading, writing, metalinguistic, and

metacognitive skills that are particularly at risk in pediatric brain injury,

and that are relevant to the general education curriculum. The article

describes how the the PTBI was developed, provides rationale for the areas of

assessment, discusses a plan for standardization, and illustrates its use with

case examples of 3 children with TBI. The authors' goal is to standardize the

PTBI so it can be used to establish baseline behaviors during the acute phase,

and to track cognitive-linguistic recovery. An Appendix of the 10 PTBI tasks

and their rationales is included.     ========================================


Title: Longitudinal outcome of verbal discourse in children with traumatic brain

injury: Three-year follow-up.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Chapman, Sandra Bond; McKinnon, Lyn; Levin, Harvey; S.

Song, James; Meier, Mary Claire; Chiu, Stephanie

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 16(5) Oct 2001, US:

Aspen Publishers; 2001, 441-455

Abstract/Review/Citation: Compared changes in discourse ability between

2 groups of children 5 to 10 yrs old at the time of brain injury, those with

severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and those with mild to moderate injury.

Ss were studied over 3 yrs with follow-up testing. Ss were 43 children with

TBI in rehabilitation, recruited from a larger research project examining

cognitive and linguistic recovery after injury. Of these patients, 22 had severe

injuries and 21 sustained mild to moderate injuries. All children were

presented an ordered sequence of pictures and asked to verbally produce a

story or narrative discourse, and then to produce a lesson relating to the

story. The severe group performed significantly worse than the mild to

moderate group when performance across all 4 discourse domains was considered.

Both groups improved across time on selected discourse measures. The severe

group showed differential rates of improvement across the individual discourse

variables over the 3-yr interval. Results show that severe TBI can have a

pernicious effect on discourse abilities in children years after injury,

compared with children with mild to moderate injuries. The major caveat is

that the discourse measures must be sufficiently challenging when used to

assess older children and children with milder forms of TBI.  ========================================


Title: Comparison of literal, inferential, and intentional text comprehension in

children with mild or severe closed head injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Dennis, Maureen; Barnes, Marcia A.

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 16(5) Oct 2001, US:

Aspen Publishers; 2001, 456-468

Abstract/Review/Citation: Studied the magnitude of impairment in 3 forms

of text comprehension for children with mild or severe head injury. These were literal

language (understanding literal text information), inferential language

(making pragmatic inferences, textual coherence inferences, or enriching

inferences), and the language of mental states and intentions (e.g., producing

speech acts, appreciating irony, and understanding deception). Effect sizes

were used to measure the magnitude of the difference between children with

head injury and age-matched controls. Children with severe closed-head injury

were significantly impaired on tasks of literal text understanding,

inferencing, and intentionality. Children with mild head injury were impaired

on some inferencing and all intentionality tasks, although they had no literal

text comprehension deficits. For both groups, the greatest deficits, i.e., the

largest effect sizes, were on tasks requiring understanding of the language of

mental states and intentions. The data bear on the long-term effects of

childhood closed-head injury on text- and discourse-level language, and also

on the nature and timing of language rehabilitation in children with head




Title: Social information processing in adolescents: Data from normally

developing adolescents and preliminary data from their peers with traumatic

brain injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Turkstra, Lyn S.; McDonald, Skye; DePompei, Roberta

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 16(5) Oct 2001, US:

Aspen Publishers; 2001, 469-483

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed aspects of social information processing in

adolescents, through naturalistic conversations. On-line videotape tasks were

administered to 60 normally developing (ND) Ss aged 13 to 21 yrs, and 10

adolescents of the same age with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study

developed a test of social encoding that would capture aspects of adolescent

daily social life and could be used to asses the level of social skill

competence in an already existing model. Task accuracy scores and measures of

reliability and validity were the main outcome measures. The ND group scores

were generally high, without significant differences by race, sex, or age. TBI

group scores were significantly lower than ND group scores for both emotion

recognition and detection of conversation skills. The results are discussed in

light of the evaluation of pragmatic competence in the rehabilitation of

adolescents with TBI.



Title: Pictures to print: A software scaffold to written literacy.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Gillette, Yvonne

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 16(5) Oct 2001, US:

Aspen Publishers; 2001, 484-497

Abstract/Review/Citation: Familiarizes rehabilitation and research professionals

in traumatic brain injury (TBI) with the range of written literacy software,

and to stimulate clinical applications and research related to their use with

students who have sustained a TBI. Pointing out that successful school

placements require effective written literacy skills, the author states that

when a student has traumatic brain injury (TBI), written literacy instruction

may need to be individualized and intense to facilitate optimal reintegration

into the school program. Software products can assist in creating the needed

individualized, intense experiences. Products include electronic clip art

sets, digital camera products, talking overlay creators for alternative

keyboards, talking screen creators, and word prediction programs. Many of the

program types can be individualized to match varied learning events, and

student requirements. Written literacy-learning experiences span a continuum

from preconventional messages expressed through pictures, to conventional

printed expressions designed to convey meaning, to the literate writing needed

to create stories and reports.



Title: What does it take to collaborate with families affected by brain injury?

A preliminary model.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Sohlberg, McKay Moore; McLaughlin, Karen A.; Todis,

Bonnie; Larsen, Jennifer; Glang, Ann

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 16(5) Oct 2001, US:

Aspen Publishers; 2001, 498-511

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reports on a preliminary model for collaboration

procedures for rehabilitation professionals working in clinical and

educational settings with individuals with brain injury and their families.

Collaboration is a process in which family expertise is acknowledged and used

to direct selection, implementation, and evaluation of treatment plans. The

authors conducted a 2-yr, qualitative study with 8 families of injured

individuals who were 16 to 50 yrs old. This led to the development of this

accessible model and a prescriptive manual for applying collaborative

principles to practice. The model divided the therapeutic process into 3

overlapping phases (the initial interview, the identification and

prioritization of goals, and monitoring change and revisiting goals). Although

collaboration has been frequently considered an ideal relationship between

professionals and families, many rehabilitation and education professionals

have traditionally emphasized the role of the professional as responsible for

client change. The collaborative model here does not introduce new concepts,

but the data reinforces existing reports that collaboration with clients'

families improves treatment outcomes, and the model delineates practice

procedures. An Appendix includes an interview guide.



Title: Childhood emotional experiences leading to biopsychosocially-induced

dyslexia and low academic performance in adolescence.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Anyanwu, Ebere; Campbell, Andrew

Source/Citation: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine & Health; Vol

13(3) Jul-Sep 2001, Israel: Freund Publishing House; 2001, 191-203

Abstract/Review/Citation: If a developing child is subjected to physical or

negative verbal abuse, such experiences may alter the manner in which the

child develops. This paper repots the incidence of "psychosocially

induced" dyslexia among adolescent learners at two further education

colleges. 66 known adolescent dyslexics and 66 non-dyslexics were investigated

and followed up for two years. 60% of the Ss were male and 40% were female,

ranging in age from 16-21 yrs. The aim was to explore the nature and cause of

their dyslexia. A large majority of the dyslexics were both physically and

verbally abused by their teachers, parents, siblings and classmates. At the

end of the second year and after classroom emotional exercises involving

counselling, self-esteem building, motivation and individual

self-determination, the overall dyslexic students' learning, reading,

spelling, writing and word acquisition skills improved significantly relative

to non-dyslexics. The present results indicate that although dyslexics may

manifest the same problems of poor writing, reading and word spelling skills,

some "dyslexias" are most likely to be associated with early

childhood emotional experiences which could be corrected by psychological




Title: Psychological vulnerability and resilience to emotional distress: A focus

group study of adolescent cancer patients.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lockhart, Ian A.; Phil, Dlitt et; Berard, Ray M. F.

Source/Citation: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine & Health; Vol

13(3) Jul-Sep 2001, Israel: Freund Publishing House; 2001, 221-229

Abstract/Review/Citation: Cancer in adolescents facilitates dependence on

caregivers, social isolation, and negative self-esteem. These pressures,

combined with having a life-threatening disease, predispose adolescents to

psychological distress. While distress is rooted in initial adjustment to

cancer, it may develop into psychological morbidity in some cases, but not in

others. Positive adjustment may be due to the co-presence of resilience

factors that ameliorate the distressing aspects of cancer for adolescent

patients. The study therefore aimed to identify themes of emotional distress

and resilience in the narrative accounts of adolescent cancer patients. A

focus group was used to collect four adolescent accounts (3 male Ss and 1

female S, aged 14-20 yrs) of three common cancer contexts, including the

diagnosis, hospitalization/treatment, and social support/coping situations.

The authors used grounded theory to derive emotional distress and resilience

themes from the data. Six emotional distress and five resilience themes were

identified across the three common illness contexts. A theoretical blueprint

was developed describing how contextual dynamics contribute to emotional

distress and resilience for adolescents with cancer.  ========================================


Title: Parentification as a mediator of family functioning and trauma

symptomatology in victims of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Green, Michelle L.

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(11-B) Jun 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 6134

Abstract/Review/Citation: Historically, research in the field of childhood

sexual abuse (CSA) has focused on identifying demographic and abuse specific

risk factors for CSA and predictors of subsequent adjustment. More recently,

this focus has shifted to identifying family-level variables which are

associated with increased risk of CSA and poor postabuse functioning. As

compared to families with no history of sexual abuse, the families of victims

are more often characterized as dysfunctional with high levels of conflict and

low cohesion. Although it is frequently suggested that aspects of family

functioning likely mediate the relation between sexual abuse and its traumatic

effects, most studies to date have concentrated merely on describing salient

features present in the family environment of victims. Clinical observations,

routinely presented in the scientific literature as empirically-validated

facts, suggest that role reversal is common in the families of victims.

Despite the assumption that families exposed to CSA are characterized by such

boundary violations across subsystems, a paucity of empirical research exists.

Often, the consequence of role reversal is destructive parentification in

which the child assumes responsibility for providing caregiving functions

within the family system at the expense of meeting her own needs. The goal of

the present study was to determine whether parentification mediates the

relation between family functioning and trauma symptomatology following

disclosure of intrafamilial sexual abuse in a sample of 96 preadolescent and

adolescent victims. Although no association was found between the magnitude of

family stressors or perceived emotional support and either parentification or

trauma symptomatology, the amount of family coping resources was significantly

correlated with parentification, anxiety, anger, and posttraumatic stress in

the child victim. Furthermore, results indicated that parentification mediates

the relation between family coping skills and anxiety and posttraumatic stress

and partially mediates the model predicting anger. Results provide prey

evidence that parentifcation is a risk factor for poor outcome following CSA

and serves as one mechanism through which poor family coping skills leads to

anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms in victims of CSA, thus filling a

much needed gap in the current body of literature.  ========================================


Title: The psychobiology of children exposed to marital violence.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Saltzman, Kristina Muffler

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(11-B) Jun 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 6147

Abstract/Review/Citation: Holden (1997) writes that 'children who live in

maritally violent homes are at risk for a wide variety of problems,' including

anxiety, depression, attachment difficulties, behavioral acting out,

hyperactivity and impulsivity, post-traumatic stress disorder, and diffuse

functional difficulties in social, familial, and academic realms. However,

there has been no examination to date on the specific physiological impact of

exposure to marital violence upon children. The present study was an attempt

to both replicate previous behavioral and psychological findings in children

exposed to marital violence and to broaden the body of knowledge by also

examining the physiology of this population. Participants were recruited from

the community via collaboration with a large Southwestern police department (N

= 21) and a clinical control group was used for comparison (N = 27). Degree

and severity of exposure to marital violence were assessed, as were trauma

symptoms, behavior disturbance, dissociation, sleep dysregulation, baseline

and 'triggered' cortisol levels, baseline and 'triggered' heart rate, baseline

and 'triggered' blood pressure, and orthostatic challenge response. Children

exposed to marital violence had higher baseline and 'triggered' levels of

cortisol, higher baseline and 'triggered' heart rate, higher 'triggered'

diastolic blood pressure, more trauma symptoms, higher levels of internalizing

behaviors, higher levels of dissociation, and higher levels of sleep

dysregulation. No erects were found for resting blood pressure, orthostatic

challenge response, or externalizing behaviors. These results suggest that

children exposed to marital violence have a different physiological profile

than controls, and that, in essence, these children may be 'physically abused'

by virtue of exposure to marital violence.  ========================================


Title: Posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescent solid organ transplant


Author(s)/Editor(s): Mintzer, Lisa Libman

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(11-B) Jun 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 6142

Abstract/Review/Citation: Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate

the prevalence of PTSD and the distribution of PTSD symptoms in adolescent

solid organ transplant recipients. A second purpose was to examine demographic

and medical variables that might predict the development of trauma symptoms in

this population. Finally, a qualitative analysis of adolescents' worst moments

was conducted in an attempt to understand what particular aspects of the

transplant and follow-up care were experienced as traumatic. Methods. One

hundred and four adolescent liver, heart, and kidney transplant recipients

completed the UCLA PTSD Index for DSM-IV and a demographic questionnaire. Data

regarding onset of illness were obtained from the physician providing the

post-transplant care, and information about medical course was gathered from

the UCLA hospital database. Results. Using a symptom cutoff score of 1

(symptoms occurring at least twice each month), 33.7% of the sample (n = 35)

met criteria for 'Full PTSD Likely'. Using a symptom cutoff score of 2

(symptoms occurring at least six times each month), 14.4% of the sample (n =

15) met the same criteria. Avoidance symptoms, as compared to arousal and

reexperiencing symptoms, were most prevalent and most severe. Using a multiple

regression analysis, none of the demographic or medical variables predicted

PTSD. Being Hispanic did increase the odds of being classified as 'Full PTSD

Likely', though this was just a trend (p = .08). Many of the adolescents'

reported worst moments centered around the transplant hospitalization itself

and on the theme of bodily harm. Discussion. PTSD is a common sequela of

solid organ transplantation in adolescents. Being Hispanic might be a risk

factor for the development of PTSD, in part due to the language barrier

between the transplant patients' parents and the medical staff. Additional

research is needed to identify predictors of PTSD in the transplant

population. Based on the qualitative analysis, it is hypothesized that the

genesis of PTSD symptoms likely occurs shortly after transplant for many.

Intervention during the pre- and post-transplant period is recommended, and

specific clinical approaches, with developmental issues in mind, are




Title: An examination of the relationship between combat related posttraumatic

stress disorder, age and narcissistic personality traits among Vietnam


Author(s)/Editor(s): Auen, Mary Beth

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(12-B) 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International; 2001,


Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of this study was to explore the

relationship between the following variables: Combat Related Post Traumatic

Stress Disorder (CR-PTSD), age at the time of combat related trauma and

narcissistic personality characteristics. It was hypothesized that in addition

to increased incidence of combat related post traumatic stress disorder,

younger Vietnam veterans who entered combat during late adolescence would

demonstrate greater instances of narcissistic traits than Vietnam veterans who

entered combat at later ages. The instruments used were the Post Traumatic

Stress Disorder Symptom Check List (based on the DSM-IV PTSD criterion), the

Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), and a demographic questionnaire.

Subjects were 84 Vietnam combat veterans who volunteered to complete the

survey. Results indicate that relationship between age at the time of combat

and the incidence of CR-PTSD does exist. Specifically, the younger a Vietnam

combat veteran was at the time of combat, the more likely he is to suffer from

CR-PTSD. However, results did not confirm that CR-PTSD was related to the

incidence of narcissistic personality traits. In addition, results also failed

to confirm that age at the time of combat was related to incidence of

narcissistic traits among Vietnam combat veterans. Implications of these

findings and suggestions for further research were discussed.  ========================================


Title: Cultivating resiliency in youth.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bell, Carl C.

Source/Citation: Journal of Adolescent Health; Vol 29(5) Nov 2001, US: Elsevier

Science; 2001, 375-381

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses characteristics of resiliency in adolescents

and young people, and the importance of strengthening resiliency and how to

build it. The neuropsychiatry of traumatic stress is discussed, including

effects on the catecholamine system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,

the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and the relationship with

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and attention deficit hyperactivity

disorder (ADHD). Esoteric resiliency-building activities are discussed,

including cultivating a sense of "Atman" (a true or real self), the

meditative practice of attending, developing a fighting spirit ("building

heart"), building physiologic resiliency (exercise and

adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) building), and building psychological

resiliency through Chi Kung exercises.  ========================================


Title: Childhood maltreatment, posttraumatic stress symptomatology, and

adolescent dating violence: Considering the value of adolescent perceptions of

abuse and a trauma mediational model.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wekerle, Christine; Wolfe, David A.; Hawkins, D. Lynn;

Pittman, Anna-Lee; Glickman, Ashley; Lovald, Benedicte E.

Source/Citation: Development & Psychopathology; Vol 13(4) Fal 2001, US:

Cambridge Univ Press; 2001, 847-871

Abstract/Review/Citation: The present study, utilizing both a child protective

services and high school sample of midadolescents, examined the issue of

self-report of maltreatment as it relates to issues of external validity

(i.e., concordance with social worker ratings), reliability (i.e., overlap

with an alternate child maltreatment self-report inventory; association of a

self-labeling item as "abused" with their subscale item

counterparts), and construct validity (i.e., the association of maltreatment

with posttraumatic stress symptomatology and dating violence). In the high

school sample, 1,329 adolescents (aged 13-20 yrs) and, in the CPS sample, 224

youth (aged 13-18 yrs) on the active caseloads completed comparable

questionnaires in the three domains of interest. For females only, results

support a mediational model in the prediction of dating violence in both

samples. For males, child maltreatment and trauma symptomatology added unique

contributions to predicting dating violence, with no consistent pattern

emerging across samples. When considering the issue of self-labeling as

abused, CPS females who self-labeled had higher posttraumatic stress

symptomatology and dating violence victimization scores than did their

nonlabeling, maltreated counterparts for emotional maltreatment.  ========================================


Title: Guided imagery: Exploring an alternative adjunctive intervention with

traumatized adolescents in residential foster care.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Gellman, Arlene R.

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities

& Social Sciences; Vol 62(2-A) Aug 2001, US: Univ Microfilms

International; 2001, 773

Abstract/Review/Citation: Traumatized adolescents in foster care manifest

psychopathology at a higher incidence than those reared in conventional

nuclear families. The consequence of antecedent maltreatment is felt by some

observers to have ramifications in adulthood, such as delinquency and

homelessness. There is a paucity of empirically sound research examining

therapeutic initiatives that may enhance autonomy and utilize self-empowerment

as a treatment model. Typically this population of adolescents suffer in all

three domains; cognitive, behavioral and affective. This includes poor

self-regulation capabilities, lack of coping skills, self-esteem, and anxiety

and depressive related dysfunction. Guided imagery has shown promise in other

populations while enabling individuals to manage life challenges, reduce

anxiety/stress, regulate ones emotional reactions, and achieve goals. This

study examined the effects of a 4-week guided imagery intervention on the

cognitive, behavioral and affective domains of 16 adolescent boys living in

residential foster care, as compared to a matched control group. Measures

included the Beck Depression Inventory, Youth Self-Report of the Child

Behavior Checklist, Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences,

Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Findings

were significant in all three domains.  ========================================


Title: Trauma exposure, PTSD, and substance abuse in urban adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Shuman, Paul Gray

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 62(2-B) Aug 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 1099

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study was designed to assess the relationship

between community violence, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse

in urban adolescents. The participants consisted of 617 adolescents aged 14 to

21 years from three inner city high schools and one suburban high school in a

large southwestern metropolitan area. Ethnicity of the participants included

Latino/a, African-American, Asian-American, and Caucasian. The relationship

between substance abuse relative to ethnicity, gender, grade level, and age

was also studied. Adolescents were administered the Los Angeles Symptom

Checklist (LASC), and the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence

(SCECV). The PTSD subscale of the LASC and the SCECV were correlated with two

items on the LASC that measured substance abuse. As hypothesized, there was a

significant relationship between PTSD and substance abuse. Additionally, the

hypothesis that predicted a significant relationship between substance abuse

and community violence was supported by the data. The results indicated no

significant differences with regard to ethnicity. These findings are an

important step in highlighting the importance of identifying the relationship

between substance abuse and community violence in adolescents of all




Title: Behavioral outcome in children diagnosed with craniofacial anomalies:

The role of the mother-child relationship.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mavis, Kristine Karol

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 62(2-B) Aug 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 1090

Abstract/Review/Citation: Children with craniofacial anomalies are subject to

increased risk of negative social and behavioral outcomes. Recent research

focuses on the differential outcomes among these children and the

developmental variables that are related to these outcomes. The purpose of

this study was to predict behavioral outcome in these children in relation to

a developmental model that included child factors, contextual factors, and

mother-child relationship factors. Mother-child relationship factors were

hypothesized to be of primary importance in child outcome. Framed within

attachment theory, this study emphasized two factors of the mother-child

relationship: the mother's internal working models of the child, of the

child's condition, and of the relationship, and the child's attachment status

with respect to the mother. Mothers' internal working models were measured by

the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview (Pianta & Marvin, 1992), which

assesses the mother's resolution of grief and trauma surrounding her child's

condition. Child attachment status was measured using the Preschool Strange

Situation (Cassidy & Marvin, 1992). Results of this study indicated that

mother's marital satisfaction was related to lower maternal report of child

behavior problems, and that female gender and secure attachment status were

related to lower teacher report of child behavior problems. Additional

analyses of the relationship factors and child behavior revealed that mothers

who were resolved with respect to their children's diagnosis reported lower

levels of child behavior problems than did the children's teachers, whereas

mothers who were unresolved reported higher levels of child behavior problems

than did teachers. 



Title: An exploratory study of the self-concept and body-image of Cuban and

Puerto Rican women living in the United States.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Smith, Ana Lilia

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 62(3-B) Sep 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 1600

Abstract/Review/Citation: This exploratory study examined the developmental

process by which Cuban and Puerto Rican women living in the United States

formed their self-concept and body-image and the effects of immigration and

acculturation on this process. Twelve participants, of ages 40 through 50, six

Cuban and six Puerto Ricans, were interviewed and asked to trace the

development of their self-concept and body-image through childhood,

adolescence and adulthood. The method was qualitative and the analysis of the

data, contextual. The results were utilized to generate theoretical

formulations applicable to Hispanic women's development. The findings suggest

that over the life span, experiences and psychological states are mediated

through the body. They also suggest that the language of the body is the means

of expression and conceptualization the self. During adolescence and

adulthood, with an increased capacity for cognitive process, the self-concept

and body-image become more clearly defined and articulated. The self-concept

and body-image are not static phenomena, rather, they change from moment to

moment in response to experience and psychological states. A core self-concept

and body-image are established during childhood, and dimensions are added with

maturation and experience. Structural changes to the core self-concept and

body-image can occur under extreme distress or trauma. The most

psychologically distressful experiences implicated in the development of the

self-concept and body-image are conflicted interpersonal relationships,

psychological and physical trauma, and ethnic and racial discrimination. A

positive directional relationship between self-concept and body-image, and

between self-concept and body-image and psychological and physical trauma for

all developmental phases was found. The most important contributing factors in

the development of the self-concept and body-image were interpersonal

relationships, maturational changes, education and career, marital and

maternal relationships, and immigration and acculturation. Immigration and

acculturation in late childhood and adolescence had a greater impact on the

self-concept and body-image than during adulthood. This study aimed to

increase understanding of development and immigration and acculturation

factors related to the self-concept and body-image of Cuban and Puerto Rican

women living in the Unites States. It will contribute to building a

theoretical framework of the psychology of Hispanic women and a body of

scientific knowledge for the Hispanic population.  ========================================


Title: Traumatic grief in the chemically abusing/dependent adolescent in


Author(s)/Editor(s): Gerardot, David D.

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 62(3-B) Sep 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 1574

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examines the likelihood that chemically

abusing/dependent adolescents in treatment who report moderate to severe

emotional and physical abuse/neglect are at greater risk for traumatic grief

than those with minimal emotional and physical abuse/neglect. One hundred

adolescents participated in this study and were categorized into two treatment

levels: an intensive outpatient and medically monitored intensive inpatient.

Participants were interviewed by Certified Chemical Dependency Counselors

using the Adolescent Diagnostic Intake Assessment (ASAM). Participants were

administered either the adolescent version of the Substance Abuse Subtle

Screening Inventory (SASSI, Miller, 1990) or were determined by a physician or

nurse practitioner to be chemically dependent. Histories of trauma associated

with emotional and physical abuse/neglect were identified by Childhood Trauma

Questionnaire (CTQ, Bernstein & Fink, 1998). Different types of loss

associated with chemical abuse/dependence were identified by the Loss-Grief

Inventory (L-GI, Beechem, Prewitt & Scholar, 1996). Traumatic and

separation distress associated with traumatic grief was identified by the

Inventory of Traumatic Grief (ITG, Prigerson, Kasl & Jacobs, 1999). In

addition, the Attachment Object Relations Inventory (AORI, Buelow, McClain

& McIntosh, 1996) and the Adolescent-Coping Orientation for Problem

Experiences (A-COPE, Patterson, McCubbin, 1981) were used to measure both the

internal and external dimensions of the self as well as other personal and

social coping resources necessary to adjust to traumatic grief. Results

indicated that traumatic grief was associated with physical abuse in

chemically abusing/dependent adolescents in treatment and that different types

of losses representative of grief were associated with emotional neglect.



Title: War-related loss of one's father and persistent depressive reactions in

early adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Zvizdic, Sibela; Butollo, Willy

Source/Citation: European Psychologist; Vol 6(3) Sep 2001, US: Hogrefe &

Huber Publishers; 2001, 204-214

Abstract/Review/Citation: The main goal of this research was to examine the

effect on early adolescents of the temporary or definite loss of their fathers

on their posttraumatic adaptation (psychological state, behavioral problems,

and school achievements). Researchers examined the effect of the exposure of

816 adolescents (10-15 yr olds in Sarajevo who were 6-12 yrs old at the time

of the war) to the 1992-95 war in Bosnia-Herzegovina and to postwar-related

stressful/traumatic experiences. In particular, they examined the level of

depression in these Ss who experienced temporary or definite traumatic loss of

a father, many of whom had no valid information about their fathers' fates.

The Ss completed questionnaires on their war-related trauma experiences and

completed the Birleson Depression Scale for Children. Results show that the

group of early adolescents whose fathers had disappeared (and are still

missing) was the group exposed most to war-related traumatic events; these

adolescents also show the highest level of depressive reactions.  ========================================


Title: Validation of the Hebrew version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale

(H-DES) in Israel.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Somer, Eli; Dolgin, Michael; Saadon, Meir

Source/Citation: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation; Vol 2(2) 2001, US:

Haworth Medical Press; 2001, 53-65

Abstract/Review/Citation: Explored the validity of the concept of dissociation

as measured by a Hebrew version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (H-DES)

in Israel. Exp 1 examined the reliability and validity of the H-DES by

assessing 340 patients (aged 15-70 yrs) consecutively admitted to an

outpatient clinic and 290 non-clinical Ss (aged 16-52 yrs) sampled from

university students and faculty. Exp 2 explored the construct validity of the

concept of dissociation by studying relationships between reported past

traumatization and current levels of dissociation among a different cohort of

70 female outpatients (aged 16-55 yrs). Results show that the H-DES has good

test-retest and split-half reliability in clinical and non-clinical Ss, and is

internally consistent. Its convergent validity with the MMPI-2 Phillips

Dissociation Scale is good, and it has good criterion-related validity with

Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) dissociative disorder diagnoses. It is concluded

that the concept of dissociation as measured in Israel by the H--DES has high

reliability and validity. These findings, along with studies in North America,

support dissociation as a valid psychological construct with widespread

cross-cultural applicability. This study contradicts claims that dissociation

is merely a passing North American professional fashion.  ========================================


Title: Life satisfaction after traumatic brain injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Corrigan, John D.; Bogner, Jennifer A.; Mysiw, W. Jerry;

Clinchot, Daniel; Fugate, Lisa

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 16(6) Dec 2001, US:

Aspen Publishers; 2001, 543-555

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated correlates of life satisfaction after

traumatic brain injury (TBI). 218 15-86 yr old patients in a specialized

inpatient TBI rehabilitation unit were interviewed 1 and/or 2 yrs after injury

(112 interviewed both years, 58 at 1 yr only, 48 at 2 yrs only). The main

outcome measure was the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Results show that

stepwise multiple regressions accounted for statistically significant, but

small, proportions of variance. Not having a preinjury history of substance

abuse and having gainful employment at the time of follow-up were associated

with higher life satisfaction both 1 and 2 yrs after injury. Motor

independence at rehabilitation discharge was also associated at 1 yr. Current

social integration and the absence of depressed mood were associated at 2 yrs.

Life satisfaction was relatively stable between years. Change that did occur

was associated with marital status and depressed mood 2 yrs after injury. It

is concluded that life satisfaction after TBI seems to be related to attaining

healthy and productive lifestyles.  ========================================


Title: Sibling adjustment of pediatric traumatic brain injury; A case-controlled


Author(s)/Editor(s): McMahon, Mary A.; Noll, Robert B.; Michaud, Linda J.;

Johnson, Jane C.

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 16(6) Dec 2001, US:

Aspen Publishers; 2001, 587-594

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed depressive symptoms, self-concept, and

behavior in non-affected siblings of children with severe pediatric traumatic

brain injury (TBI). Ss were 12 9-17 yr old siblings of 12 7-21 yr old patients

consecutively admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation unit after a severe TBI.

Case controls were randomly selected from the sibling's classmates. Outcome

measures included the Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher's Report Form of the

Child Behavior Checklist, Self-Perception Profile for Children, and Children's

Depression Inventory. Results show there were no statistical differences found

in depressive symptoms, self-concept, or behavior problems between the

siblings and their classmates 3-18 mo after injury. Poorer functional outcomes

in the child with a TBI correlated significantly with lower self-concept and

more symptoms of depression in the siblings.  ========================================


Title: Attenuation of frontal asymmetry in pediatric posttraumatic stress


Author(s)/Editor(s): Carrion, Victor G.; Weems, Carl F.; Eliez, Stephan;

Patwardhan, Anil; Brown, Wendy; Ray, Rebecca D.; Reiss, Allan L.

Source/Citation: Biological Psychiatry; Vol 50(12) Dec 2001, US: Elsevier

Science; 2001, 943-951

Abstract/Review/Citation: Present brain imaging findings from a study of

children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. 24 children

between the ages of 7 and 14 with a history of trauma and PTSD symptoms were

assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and

Adolescents. The sample underwent magnetic resonance imaging in a 1.5 T

scanner. Brain images were analyzed by raters blind to diagnostic status using

well-standardized methods, and images were compared with age- and

gender-matched healthy control Ss. The clinical group demonstrated attenuation

of frontal lobe asymmetry and smaller total brain and cerebral volumes when

compared with the control group. There were no statistically significant

differences in hippocampal volume between clinical and control Ss.  ========================================


Title: Six adoptees who murdered: Neuropsychiatric vulnerabilities and

characteristics of biological and adoptive parents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lewis, Dorothy Otnow; Yeager, Catherine A.; Gidlow,

Brooke; Lewis, Melvin

Source/Citation: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law;

Vol 29(4) 2001, US: American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law; 2001,


Abstract/Review/Citation: This article is the first to document the perinatal

trauma and neuropsychiatric impairment of a sequential sample of male adoptees

who committed murder. It also is the first to report objectively verifiable

psychopathology and violence in their biological and adoptive parents.

Subjects were six adopted murderers on whom data regarding biological and

adoptive parents could be obtained. In all six cases, central nervous system

development was compromised in utero or perinatally. In adolescence and/or

young adulthood, three met DSM-IV criteria for Bipolar Mood Disorder, one for

Schizophrenia, and two for Schizoaffective Disorder. All subjects had at least

one psychotic biological parent. In five cases, subjects were adopted into

psychotic or violent households. There was no evidence of a specific "bad

seed" for violence. Adoptees' intrinsic vulnerabilities to psychoses and

to the impulsiveness and emotional lability often associated with early brain

trauma, coupled with maltreatment, predisposed them to homicidal violence. As

such, these subjects were similar to other extraordinarily violent,

nonadopted, offenders. Conscious feelings regarding adoption did not

contribute to the subjects' homicidal rages, so much as did conscious rage

toward abusive, rejecting adoptive families.  ========================================


Title: An exploratory study of adolescent female sexual offenders in group


Author(s)/Editor(s): Lindquist, Jean E.

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 62(4-B) Oct 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 2066

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examined 20 adolescent female sexual

offenders who are currently in or have recently graduated from offender

specific group treatment. The adolescents involved in this project attended

group treatment while residing within the Jane Addams Treatment Center of

Germaine Lawrence. The research sought to identify the length of time needed

to complete specific protocol within the treatment criterion. Demographic

information, trauma history, offense history, use of substances, use of force,

coercion or weapons, and group therapist interviews regarding 'readiness' for

graduation were also categorical data used to inform the study and the

results. The data is described statistically in percentage form and with

averages. Examined, within the study, is the length of time necessary in

order for a female offender to complete specific treatment criteria. The

treatment criteria are the writing of an offense cycle, relapse prevention

plan and an empathy/clarification letter. This information was taken in

conjunction with statements made by group therapists regarding their knowledge

in determining the readiness of an adolescent to be discharged into the

community and/or graduation from treatment. Again, this study also provided

information regarding characteristics of the female adolescent's demographic,

personal, victimization, offense, and method of gaining victim's compliance. A

record review was conducted on each adolescent participant to obtain the

information. A structured interview was conducted with the group therapist to

receive the information pertaining to graduation and readiness for discharge.

Results are based upon current and archival records pertaining to the history

and treatment of 20 adolescent female sexual offenders. Data analysis yielded

averages and percentages of the length of time in treatment, length of time to

complete an assault cycle, relapse prevention plan, letter, presentation to

group or victim, and graduation. Data analysis also yielded percentages and

averages of demographics, personal history, victimization history, offense

history, the use of weapon(s) or substance(s) within the offense, and the

method used to gain compliance of the victim. Future research should focus on

the following: (1) consideration of gender differences in the effectiveness of

the current treatment model; (2) focus on outcome studies to measure the

benefits and/or appropriateness of treatment for females; (3) the use of

trauma work in treatment; and (4) attachment theories and how it pertains to

sexual deviancy and sexual offending. This preliminary exploration of group

treatment clearly supports the need for ongoing research in the treatment for

adolescent female sexual offenders.  ========================================


Title: The effects of dance/movement therapy on sexually abused adolescent girls

in residential treatment.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Truppi, Ann Marie

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 62(4-B) Oct 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 2081

Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of this study was to determine the

difference in effects, if any, between two therapeutic interventions on the

self-concept, shame, and trauma symptoms of sexually abused adolescent girls

in residential placement. These interventions were (a) a multimodal form of

verbal therapy (WT) and (b) dance/movement therapy (DMT). In addition to a low

self-concept, increased levels of shame, and the presence of symptoms related

to trauma found in abused individuals, the effects of sexual abuse on a young

child can also result in many psychological disturbances. Among these are a

distorted body image, dissociative reactions, low self-concept, behavior

problems, eating disorders, and self-mutilation, many of which can be lifelong

and emotionally disturbing. The five dependent variables in this study were

self-concept, shame, and issues related to trauma, specifically dissociation,

posttraumatic stress, and sexual concerns. In order to test the null

hypotheses that there would be no significant difference in the dependent

variables in this population despite the intervention received, a multivariate

analysis of variance was utilized. The five variables were measured by the

Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (CSCS), the Internalized Shame

Scale (ISS), and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC), which were

administered as pre- and posttests. The MANOVA was run on the pretest and

posttest data to determine differences between the methods of therapy.

Pillai's trace, Wilks's lambda, Hotelling's trace, and Roy's largest root were

used to evaluate the multivariate hypothesis that the population means were

equal. In addition, Box's test was used to conclude that the covariance

matrices of the dependent variables were not different across groups. Levene's

test of the equality of error variances was also used. All measures indicated

that there were no significant differences between DMT and MVT groups

regarding the dependent variables before or after treatment. Finally, the

overall MANOVA showed no significant differences; ANOVAs found no differences

between the groups for each dependent variable. No null hypotheses was

rejected, and no significant differences were found between DMT and MVT groups

on measures of self-concept, shame, sexual concerns, dissociation, and

posttraumatic stress. The small group size and insufficient length of

treatment may have contributed to the results.  ========================================


Title: Community-based trauma and anger expression in adjudicated adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Leite, Stephanie Stein

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 62(4-B) Oct 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 2065

Abstract/Review/Citation: The crime statistics for juveniles garner much

attention in the popular media and are of clinical interest. Juvenile

treatment facilities must increasingly treat young violent offenders. This

author hypothesizes that the anger expressed by these adolescents may be based

in a history of experienced trauma. Theories of anger and aggression as well

as treatment protocols are discussed in the first section of this paper. The

literature review discusses trauma, focusing on the development of a

definition of trauma that includes chronic exposure. Adolescents living in the

inner city are exposed to a high level of community based violence, either as

witnesses or through direct experience. This exposure can lead to the

development of posttraumatic symptomology. It is possible that some

adolescents may express their trauma through anger, a commonly recognized

symptom of trauma. Seventy-five adjudicated adolescents placed at Long Lane

School in Middletown, CT completed a packet of self-report questionnaires

including the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), the Trauma

Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) and a Home and Community Exposure to

Violence and Trauma Questionnaire (community violence) as well as several

demographic questions. A stepwise regression showed that the community

violence variable and the TSCC PTS (posttraumatic stress symptomology)

subscale accounted for thirty-six percent of the variance in the STAXI AX

(Anger Expression) scores. The importance of the trauma variables for the

anger expression variable indicates that trauma and anger expression are

linked. It is recommended, therefore, that treatment facilities for

adjudicated adolescents address both anger and trauma when devising

therapeutic treatment plans. 



Title: Articulated thoughts about dating and intimacy in late adolescent females

who were sexually abused as children.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hyde, Nadine

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 62(4-B) Oct 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 2061

Abstract/Review/Citation: Estimates of prevalence of (CSA) range 15% for females and 13% for males when defined as, 'sexual contact, ranging from

fondling to intercourse, between a child in mid-adolescence or younger and a

person at least five years older (Polunsy & Follette, 1995).' The erects of CSA

may vary greatly among survivors, with consequences ranging from mild emotional or

behavioral problems to severe psychopathology. However, not all individuals

exposed to child sexual abuse will develop adjustment difficulties in late

adolescence or early adulthood. Many survivors are capable of functioning

adaptively, providing evidence that internal mechanisms do exist for dealing

with severe childhood trauma. Given that a major developmental task of early

adulthood is to establish and maintain intimate relationships, women with a

history of CSA may experience typical dating events differently than those

women without a history of abuse. Furthermore, they may interpret and respond

to specific aspects of dating (e.g. affection, sexual behavior, boyfriend who

is not attentive) in ways that predispose them to having relationship

difficulties. This clinical dissertation explored the attributions of young

women (late adolescents) who had been sexually abused as children and the

manner in which their cognitions were related to their interpersonal

adjustment. A total of 16 late adolescent female volunteers between the ages

18-21 participated in this study. Half of the participants had a history of

childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and half had no childhood sexual abuse history

(NCSA). This study utilized the Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations

(ATSS; Davison, Robins, & Johnson, 1983) paradigm to assess how an

individual organizes and perceives her environment in terms of intimacy,

safety, trust, power, and self-esteem. Using the ATSS paradigm, it was

possible to explore CSA women's experience in simulated dating relationships.

Significant differences were found between the groups, and several trends

emerged that were interesting. The ATSS paradigm was very useful in exploring

cognitions and emotions related to dating and intimacy in late adolescents.

The simulated situations evoked rich and descriptive information that seemed

to be more sensitive than standard self-report instruments. The CSA women were

more internally focused than the NCSA women. This difference emerged only in

specific situations, particularly those involving self-esteem and trust. Women

with a history of CSA were more likely than women without an abuse history to

have strong negative reactions to a variety of dating scenarios. The findings

suggest that social functioning may be impaired in adulthood among some CSA

survivors, and that difficulties in the social domain may increase the risk of

depression. However, these difficulties do not appear to be stable, but

situation specific. Themes in the data suggest that adult attachment style

might be influenced by CSA. When responding to vignettes that tapped into

issues about trust and intimacy, the CSA women were more ambivalent in their

reactions to the boyfriend, which describes the circumstances in which they

might want intimacy but fear the loss of their boyfriends.



Title: In their own voices: Report of a study on the later effects of child

sexual abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Johnson, Paul

Source/Citation: Journal of Sexual Aggression; Vol 7(2) 2001, United Kingdom:

Whiting & Birch; 2001, 41-56

Abstract/Review/Citation: Explored the later effects of sexual abuse in females,

in pre or early adolescence. Based on interviews with a sexually abused group

(n=60; aged 13-21 yrs) and a comparison group (n=60), the study found that

incidents of sexual abuse led to numerous harmful later outcomes for their

victims. In contrast to a similar but non abused sample, the victims of abuse

were characterized by harboring thoughts of depression, death and suicidal

ideation, experiencing lower self-esteem; having fewer close friends;

experiencing more verbal altercations with their parent or parents; running

away from home; having multiple sexual partners; engaging in sexual activity

at an earlier age; not using birth control; having an increased chance of

becoming pregnant, and/or an increased risk of contracting sexually

transmitted disease, including HIV and AIDS. Ss valued assistance that had

helped them recover from the profound emotional trauma. However, they also

indicated that longer term services based in a multi-disciplinary setting, a

1-stop facility in essence, would have provided them with more sensitive and

effective assistance at the point of disclosure and subsequently.  ========================================


Title: Traumatic experiences and posttraumatic stress reactions in children and

their parents from Kurdistan and Sweden.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wahlsten, Viveka Sundelin; Ahmad, Abdulbaghi; von

Knorring, Anne-Liis

Source/Citation: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 55(6) 2001, Norway:

Scandinavian Univ Press; 2001, 395-400

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms

among Kurdish refugee children and their parents. 32 Kurdish refugee children

(aged 6-18 yrs) and their parents completed interviews using the Harvard

Trauma Questionnaire, the Harvard-Uppsala Questionnaire for Children (HUTQ),

and the Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms for Children (A. Ahmad, 1999). Results

show that parents reported considerably more traumatic events than did control

Swedish parents. Kurdish children showed more similarities with than

differences to control Swedish children, both with regard to types and levels

of traumatic events. Kurdish parents showed higher posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD) frequencies than did Swedish parents. However, these

differences proved to be significant with regard to both the mother's and the

father's lifetime and current PTSD symptom scores. Kurdish parents experienced

more war traumas and differed regarding trauma exposure and its consequences

compared with Swedish parents. Kurdish children showed more similarities than

differences with control Swedish children regarding reported trauma and

PTSD-related symptoms. The HUTQ is appended.  ========================================


Title: Attachment representations in adolescence: Further evidence from

psychiatric residential settings.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wallis, Paul; Steele, Howard

Source/Citation: Attachment & Human Development: Special Issue: Attachment

in mental health institutions.; Vol 3(3) Dec 2001, United Kingdom: Taylor

& Francis/Routledge; 2001, 259-268

Abstract/Review/Citation: The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) has afforded the

opportunity to profile the various ways in which people make sense of early

experience. While the initial research with the AAI was primarily based on

non-clinical populations, this paper extends the growing body of knowledge

concerning attachment representations in clinical samples, specifically among

severely emotionally disturbed adolescents. The study investigated 39

adolescents (aged 13-20 yrs) resident on 5 regional adolescent units in the

south-east of England. As predicted, the number of adolescents presenting as

securely attached was low (n=4), whilst the incidence of insecure attachment

patterns in the sample was high (n=35). When interviews were rated

additionally in terms of lack of resolution, 59% of the sample were unresolved

with respect to experiences of trauma or loss. Discussion addresses the

possible uses of the AAI in therapeutic interventions for severely disturbed

adolescents, which are centrally based on the formation of a secure, safe

relationship with a non-threatening adult.  ========================================


Title: A child trauma treatment pilot study.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Copping, Valerie E.; Warling, Diane L.; Benner, David G.;

Woodside, Donald W.

Author Affiliation: City of Hamilton, Child & Adolescent Services, Hamilton,

ON, Canada City of Hamilton, Child & Adolescent Services, Hamilton, ON,

Canada City of Hamilton, Child & Adolescent Services, Hamilton, ON, Canada Paper Number: 20020320

Source/Citation: Journal of Child & Family Studies; Vol 10(4) Dec 2001, US:

Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 467-475 Description/Edition Info.: Journal Article; 250

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined outcomes of a promising 21-session

trauma treatment model for children aged 3 to 17 yrs and their caregivers. All

children in treatment had experienced at least one traumatic event (e.g.,

sexual or physical abuse, family violence, caregiver separation, or sudden

death of a caregiver). The treatment intervention is rooted in theories of

trauma and attachment and combines psychoeducational parent training with

cognitive behavioral therapy to form a comprehensive trauma treatment program.

This study reports on 27 families who completed the program. Ss completed the

pre- and post-treatment Standardized Client Information System that includes 9

measures related to the child and caregiver, including Conduct Disorder,

Oppositionality, Attention Deficit Disorder, Separation Anxiety Disorder,

Depression, Anxiety, and Social Relationship Problems for the child, and

Caretaker Depression and Family Functioning relating to the caregiver. Results

reflect significant reductions in conduct disorder, problems in social

relations, and caregiver depression at an average of a 1-yr post-treatment

follow-up. Results from this preliminary study offer support for further

evaluation of the model.




Title: Attachment style and broken attachments: Violence, pregnancy, and


Author(s)/Editor(s): Allanson, Susie; Astbury, Jill

Author Affiliation: Fertility Control Clinic, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Source/Citation: Australian Journal of Psychology; Vol 53(3) Dec 2001,

Australia: Australian Academic Press; 2001, 146-151

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the relationships between women's experiences of violence, pregnancy and abortion and their adult attachment

style. Ss were 96 16-43 yr old women attending a clinic for early pregnancy termination. Attachment style was correlated with psychosocial variables,

including education and past experience of assault or violence (physical/sexual),

previous number of pregnancies and abortions, and prior emotional problems.

Findings indicate a general pattern of anxious women reporting the most

adverse life circumstances, and physiologically and psychologically demanding

experiences, including the highest incidence of violence, pregnancy, abortion,

emotional problems, and poor education. Secure attachment demonstrated the

least association with such experiences. Secure attachment was associated with

fewer pregnancies and abortions, a lower incidence of both violence and

emotional problems, and higher educational attainment. It is suggested that

pregnancy may be uniquely placed to highlight more complex attachment

processes. Links between insecure attachment, maternal ambivalence, multiple

models, and trauma/violence may best be pursued via a collaboration of

attachment and posttraumatic stress frameworks.



Title: Violencia Politica, Trauma y su Impacto en los Procesos Psiquicos de la

Adolescencia./ Political violence, trauma and its incidence in adolescents'

psychic processes.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kovalskys, Juana; Morales, German

Author Affiliation: Inst Latinoamericano de Salud Mental y Derechos Humanos,

Santiago, Chile

Source/Citation: Psykhe: Revista de la Escuela de Psicologia; Vol 10(2) Nov

2001, Chile: Universidad Catolica de Chile; 2001, 47-52

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses identity development processes associated

with traumatic experiences associated with political violence using the case

histories of 4 adolescent girls (aged 16-19 yrs) in Chile. The role of trauma

experiences, maternal bonding, family dynamics, and socialization in the

development of gender identity is considered. Implications for psychotherapy

that reconciles gender identity and trauma experiences are also discussed.



Title: Latin@ child sexual abuse survivors in the United States: Relational

assessment and intervention.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bacigalupe, Gonzalo

Source/Citation: Psykhe: Revista de la Escuela de Psicologia; Vol 10(2) Nov

2001, Chile: Universidad Catolica de Chile; 2001, 167-180

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reviews recent research on child sexual abuse among

Latinos and Latinas in the US. Incidence, cultural issues, family dynamics,

myths associated with child sexual abuse among Latinos, issues of disclosure,

trauma assessment programs, and the development of intervention programs are

considered. The case histories of an adolescent Latina girl with low SES and

an adult Latino male with high SES are used to illustrate sexual abuse

scenarios among Latinos in the US.  ========================================


Title: Five years later: Children's memory for medical emergencies.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Peterson, Carole; Whalen, Nikki

Author Affiliation: Memorial U Newfoundland, St John's, NF, Canada Paper Number: 20020403

Source/Citation: Applied Cognitive Psychology: Special Issue: Trauma, stress,

and autobiographical memory.; Vol 15(7) Dec 2001, United Kingdom: John Wiley

& Sons; 2001, S7-S24

Abstract/Review/Citation: 38 female and 43 male children who had been 2-13 years of age at the time of a medical emergency (an injury serious enough to

require hospital ER treatment) were re-interviewed about their injury and

treatment five years after injury, and three years after a previous interview.

The children showed excellent recall of the central components of their injury

experience, although their recall of hospital treatment was more incomplete.

Thus, both the nature of the event being recalled (the injury versus the

hospital treatment) and the centrality of information (central versus

peripheral) were important. The recall of 2-year-olds, although not as good as

that of children just a year older, did not fit with predictions of infantile

amnesia since they recalled a considerable amount about their injury. High

stress levels at the time of the target experiences had little effect on the

highly memorable injury event, but seemed to facilitate children's recall of

central components of the hospital event--the event that they had a harder

time remembering. Implications for eyewitness testimony are discussed.



Title: The effects of early trauma on autobiographical memory and schematic


Author(s)/Editor(s): Reviere, Susan L.; Bakeman, Roger

Author Affiliation: Georgia State U, Dept of Psychology, Atlanta, GA, US

Source/Citation: Applied Cognitive Psychology: Special Issue: Trauma, stress,

and autobiographical memory.; Vol 15(7) Dec 2001, United Kingdom: John Wiley

& Sons; 2001, S89-S100

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated clinical assumptions regarding deficits

in autobiographical memory and schematic self-representation associated with

early interpersonal trauma. 110 female undergraduates (aged 17-51 yrs)

completed a protocol involving interviews and questionnaires related to trauma

history, early autobiographical memory, and other clinical factors not used in

the immediate study. An adult autobiographical memory coding scheme was

developed to determine degree of elaboration of memories. It was hypothesized

that in a group positive for trauma history as compared with non-trauma

controls, deficits in the elaboration of autobiographical memory would be

found and that such deficits would be a basis for impairments in schematic

self-representation. No differences were found between trauma and no-trauma

groups on most major variables. One of 3 dimensions of self-representation, a

factor named identity integration, was significantly related to trauma

severity, suggesting that greater severity is related to less integration of

identity. In an exploratory analysis of the memory narratives, there was 1

additional significant finding suggesting that memories that participants

self-labeled as traumatic were more elaborated than all other memories.



Title: A developmental approach to school-based treatment of adolescents exposed

to trauma and traumatic loss.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Saltzman, William R.; Steinberg, Alan M.; Layne,

Christopher M.; Aisenberg, Eugene; Pynoos, Robert S.

Author Affiliation: U California, Dept of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral

Sciences, Los Angeles, CA, US Brigham Young U, Dept of Psychology, Provo, UT,

US U California, Dept of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, Los Angeles,

CA, US U California, Dept of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, Los

Angeles, CA, US

Source/Citation: Journal of Child & Adolescent Group Therapy; Vol 11(2-3)

Sep 2001, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 43-56

Abstract/Review/Citation: Details the UCLA School-Based Trauma/Grief

Intervention Program for children and adolescents who have been exposed to

trauma and/or traumatic loss, and who suffer from chronic distress and related

impairments in academic, peer, and family functioning. The program includes a

systematic method for screening a student body, a manualized 16-20 wk

trauma/grief focused group psychotherapy protocol, adjunctive individual and

family therapy, and specialized measures to assess symptom reduction and

adaptive functioning. This article provides a description of the program,

focusing on the group therapy component, and the conceptual model that has

guided the design of the assessment tools and treatment strategies.  ========================================


Title: Protocol for a trauma-based psychoeducational group intervention to

decrease risk-taking, reenactment, and further violence exposure: Application

to the public high school setting.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Glodich, AnnMarie; Allen, Jon G.; Arnold, Lucinda

Author Affiliation: The Menninger Clinic, Research Dept, Topeka, KS, US The

Menninger Clinic, Research Dept, Topeka, KS, US

Source/Citation: Journal of Child & Adolescent Group Therapy; Vol 11(2-3)

Sep 2001, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 87-107

Abstract/Review/Citation: On the basis of clinical experience with traumatized

adolescents, the authors developed a psychoeducational group intervention that

educates participants about trauma with the goal of minimizing their

propensity toward reenactment and risk-taking behavior that exposes them to

additional trauma. A pilot study with a community population showed promising

results: traumatized high-school students' learning about trauma in a

psychoeducational group related to healthier attitudes toward risk-taking

behaviors. Encouraged by these preliminary findings, the authors developed a

more refined 12-session protocol. Each session includes a combination of

trauma-related topics and exercises intended to build skills in the areas of

self-regulation, empathy, and interpersonal problem-solving. This paper

presents a session-by-session description illustrated with clinical examples

and concludes with a plan for further program evaluation and clinical

impressions of its effectiveness.   ========================================


Title: Covictimization and inner city youth: A review.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Brill, Cristina; Fiorentino, Nancy; Grant, Jasmine

Author Affiliation: Loyola Coll, Dept of Psychology, Evergreen Campus,

Baltimore, MD, US Loyola Coll, Dept of Psychology, Baltimore, MD, US

Source/Citation: International Journal of Emergency Mental Health; Vol 3(4) Fal

2001, US: Chevron Publishing; 2001, 229-239 Description/Edition Info.: Journal Article; 250

Abstract/Review/Citation: Covictimization, defined as the "the experiences

of directly observing the violent assault of another person" (B. Shakoor

and D. Chalmers, 1991), represents a real and present danger to inner city

youth. This paper reviews the scope and prevalence of the problem and a

potential emergency mental health response. Sources of covictimization include

domestic violence, sexual assault, and community violence. Common reactions

are discussed, including cognitive and emotional effects, behavioral problems,

developmental and mediating factors, and the trauma constellation consisting

of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, loss and grief reactions,

separation anxiety, and exacerbation or renewal of prior symptoms. The number

of treatment studies focusing on the psychological impact of covictimization

is limited, but relevant studies are reviewed with discussion of treatment

barriers, early intervention, triage and risk screening, and on-site

psychological first-aid. An early intervention treatment plan is described

including classroom, family, individual, and group interventions to address

different aspects of the trauma constellation, along with a brief discussion

of prevention programs.



Title: Cocuklarda ve ergenlerde travma sonrasi stres bozuklugu belirtilerinin

tedavisinde fluoksetinin etkinligi./ The efficacy of fluoxetine treatment in

children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Yorbik, Oezguer; Dikkatli, Semih; Cansever, Adnan;

Soehmen, Teoman

Source/Citation: Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Buelteni; Vol 11(4) 2001, Turkey: Kure

Iletisim Grubu AS; 2001, 251-256

Abstract/Review/Citation: Researchers investigated the effectiveness of

fluoxetine on the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with

children and adolescents. The study was performed with 26 children and

adolescents (10 males, 16 females; aged 7-17 yrs), exhibiting PTSD symptoms

developed after experiencing an earthquake disaster in Turkey. PTSD diagnosis

was made according to DSM-IV. The Clinical Global Impression Scale, and the

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Check List which was developed in our

department were used to assess the effectiveness of 7-20mg fluoxetine

treatment which lasted between 30 and 76 days. According to the Clinical

Global Impression Scale, 9 Ss (34.6%) improved very much, 14 Ss (53.8%)

improved much, 1 S (3.8%) improved slightly, 1 S (3.8%) did not change, and 1

S (3.8%) worsened. Fluoxetine caused statistically significant improvements on

all PTSD symptoms according to the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms

Check List. Fluoxetine was effective on symptoms of reexperiencing, of

avoidance of stimuli associated with trauma, of numbing of general

responsiveness, and of increased arousal after earthquake trauma.



Title: Dissociative experiences, response bias, and fantasy proneness in college


Author(s)/Editor(s): Merckelbach, Harald; Muris, Peter; Horselenberg, Robert;

Stougie, Suzanne

Source/Citation: Personality & Individual Differences; Vol 28(1) Jan 2000,

England: Elsevier Science Ltd.; 2000, 49-58

Abstract/Review/Citation: Two studies with a total of 112 undergraduates

(aged 16-43 yrs) examined the connection between dissociative experiences as

measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and memory distortions.

In the 1st study, DES scores of 42 female students were not found to be

related to reality monitoring failures. There was, however, a significant

association between DES and false positive memory failures, suggesting a

response bias in participants scoring high on the DES. In the 2nd study, 70

students (58 females) completed the DES, a measure of fantasy proneness, and

the Life Events Inventory (LEI). The LEI lists a large number of discrete

events and requires respondents to indicate whether these events have happened

to them before the age of 10 yrs. A positive connection between DES and LEI

was found, such that higher DES scores were accompanied by more positive

answers to the LEI. The connection between DES and positive response

tendencies to LEI items was evident for both neutral and negative items and

was carried by fantasy proneness. Taken together, the data indicate that high

DES scores are related to a positive response bias tendency. This may have

substantial implications for retrospective studies that attempt to link high

DES scores to traumatic antecedents.  ========================================


Title: Individual predictors of traumatic reactions in firefighters.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Regehr, Cheryl; Hill, John; Glancy, Graham D.

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 188(6) Jun 2000,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000, 333-339

Abstract/Review/Citation: Increasingly, theorists and researchers in the area of

trauma are pointing to the importance of individual differences in resilience

and vulnerability as key determinants of the intensity and duration of

trauma-related symptoms. Determining the relative influence of individual

predictors is important for the further development of theoretical models for

understanding trauma responses and for the subsequent development of

intervention strategies that are sensitive to individual differences. This

study explores the influence of individual factors and social support on

traumatic reactions in firefighters exposed to tragic events in the line of

duty. A total of 164 Australian firefighters (aged 16-63 yrs) completed

questionnaires targeting locus of control, self-efficacy, patterns of

interpersonal relating, social support and level of emotional distress (Beck

Depression Inventory and Impact of Event Scale). Results indicate that

individuals with feelings of insecurity, lack of personal control, and

alienation from others were more likely to experience higher levels of

depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms subsequent to exposure to

traumatic events on the job.



Title: Gender differences in the associations between posttraumatic stress

symptoms and problematic substance use in psychiatric inpatient adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lipschitz, Deborah S.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Fehon, Dwain;

McGlashan, Thomas M.; Southwick, Steven M.

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 188(6) Jun 2000,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000, 349-356

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examined gender differences in the

associations between posttraumatic stress symptoms and problematic substance

use in psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. 95 adolescent (13.2-18.5 yrs

old) inpatients (38 boys, 57 girls) were systematically evaluated with a

battery of psychometrically well-established self-report measures to assess

trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, problematic alcohol and drug

use, and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. 23% of patients met

Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) symptom criteria for posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD), and 37% and 34% of patients endorsed problematic levels of

drug and alcohol use, respectively. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were

significantly associated with problematic drug and alcohol use in girls but

not in boys. There were no significant gender differences in posttraumatic

stress symptoms and/or problematic substance use, to account for the gender

differences in the association between PTSD and substance use. Findings

suggest that the link between substance abuse and PTSD may be especially

salient for female adolescents.     ========================================


Title: Trauma spectrum adaptation: Somatic symptoms in long-term pediatric

cancer survivors.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Erickson, Sarah J.; Steiner, Hans

 Psychosomatics; Vol 41(4) Jul-Aug 2000, US: American

Psychiatric Press, Inc.; 2000, 339-346

Abstract/Review/Citation: The authors assessed somatic symptoms and the degree

of association among somatic symptoms, global adjustment, trauma symptoms, and

personality characteristics in long-term pediatric cancer survivors (aged

12-35 yrs). 40 cancer survivors completed self-reported questionnaires and

clinical interviews. Participants' level of somatic symptoms fell between

nonclinic and psychiatric populations. Somatic symptom scores correlated with

general adjustment in the negative direction and with posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD) scores in the positive direction. The majority of participants

met at least partial current PTSD criteria. Because these survivors

demonstrate a repressive adaptive style but endorse somatic symptoms, the

latter may represent a method for detecting trauma-related distress in this




Title: Predeployment personality traits and exposure to trauma as predictors of

posttraumatic stress symptoms: A prospective study of former peacekeepers.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bramsen, Inge; Dirkzwager, Anja J. E.; van der Ploeg,

Henk M.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 157(7) Jul 2000, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2000, 1115-1119

Abstract/Review/Citation: Studied the contribution of predeployment personality

traits and exposure to traumatic events during deployment to the development

of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in individuals involved in

military peacekeeping activities. 572 male veterans (aged 16-27 yrs) who

participated in the United Nations Protection Force mission in the former

Yugoslavia completed a short form of the Dutch MMPI before deployment.

Following deployment, they participated in a survey of all Dutch military

veterans who had been deployed in the years 1990-1995 and completed the

Self-Rating Inventory for PTSD. Exposure to traumatic events during deployment

had the highest unique contribution to the prediction of PTSD symptom

severity, followed by the personality traits of negativism and

psychopathology, followed by age. Both pretrauma vulnerabilities and exposure

to traumatic events were found to be important factors in the etiology of

posttraumatic stress symptoms. This study replicates in a non-American sample

of peacekeepers findings obtained among American Vietnam veterans (P. P.

Schnurr et al, 1993). 



Title: War trauma and psychopathology in Bosnian refugee children.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Papageorgiou, V.; Frangou-Garunovic, A.; Iordanidou, R.

Yule, W.; Smith, P.; Vostanis, P.

Source/Citation: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry; Vol 9(2) Jun 2000,

Germany: Dr D Steinkopff Verlag GmbH & Co KG; 2000, 84-90

Abstract/Review/Citation: Described the pattern of psychopathology in a sample

of 95 children aged 8-13 yrs, who had experienced war in Bosnia. The children

were assessed with a battery of standardized measures during a psychosocial

support program in Northern Greece. They either came from refugee families or

had suffered significant family loss (a parent had been killed in 28% and the

father was injured or absent in 27% of cases). Children recalled a substantial

number of war traumatic experiences. According to previously established

cut-off scores on self-report measures, 45 children scored within the clinical

range on the Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children, 28 on the Revised

Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and 65 on the Impact of Event Scale (IES)

measuring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reactions. There was a

significant association between the number of war traumatic experiences and

the intrusion and avoidance scores on the IES. The findings are discussed in

relation to setting up intervention programmes for children victims of war and

their families. 



Title: Handbook of hope: Theory, measures, and applications.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Snyder, C. R.

Source/Citation: San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press, Inc; 2000, (xxv, 440)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents a comprehensive overview of the psychological inquiry into hope, including its measurement, development in

children, how its loss is associated with specific clinical disorders, and therapeutic

approaches that can help instill hope in those who have lost theirs. A final

section discusses hope in occupational applications: how the use of hope can

make one a better coach, teacher, or parent. The handbook, woven around the

hope theory that has received the most attention in the 1990s, is divided into

6 sections. Two chapters describe the rise and fall of hope--that is, how hope

develops normally in children and how it tragically can die for some people in

their childhood or adult years. A chapter gives an overview of the various

instruments for and approaches to measuring hope. Five chapters deal with how

hope theory relates directly to the processes of helping people in general. 11

chapters cover hope theory applied to benefit various people: from children to

adolescents to the elderly, minorities, athletes and others.

Notes/Comments:  Contributors Foreword Preface Section I: Theorizing Hypothesis: There is hope C. R. Snyder Section II: Developing and deteriorating Genesis:

The birth and growth of hope C. R. Snyder The demise of hope: On losing positive thinking Alicia Rodriguez-Hanley and C. R. Snyder Section III: Measuring

Diagnosing for strengths: On measuring hope building blocks Shane J. Lopez, Roseanne Ciarlelli, Lisa Coffman, Marion Stone and Lisa Wyatt Section IV:

Theory-based applications Hope as a common factor across psychotherapy approaches: A lesson from the dodo's verdict C. R. Snyder and Julia D. Taylor Hope theory and cognitive-behavioral therapies Julia D. Taylor, David B. Feldman,

Richard S. Saunders and Stephen S. Ilardi Hope therapy: Helping clients build

a house of hope Shane J. Lopez, R. Keith Floyd, John C. Ulven and C. R.

Snyder Hope theory as applied to brief treatments: Problem-solving and

solution-focused therapies Scott T. Michael, Julia D. Taylor and Jen Cheavens Feminist therapy as empowering hope Susie Sympson and Myra Qualls Elder

Section V: Applications to specific people Children: Raising future hopes Diane McDermott and Sarah Hastings Gray power: Hope for the ages Jen Cheavens

and Amber Gum Hope for the evolution of diversity: On leveling the field of

dreams Shane J. Lopez, Kelli P. Gariglietti, Diane McDermott, Elisabeth D.

Sherwin, R. Keith Floyd, Kevin Rand and C. R. Snyder Hope takes the field:

Mind matters in athletic performances Lewis A. Curry and C. R. Snyder

Starving for hope: Goals, agency, and pathways in the development and

treatment of eating disorders Lori M. Irving and Ronda Cannon Rediscovering

hope: Understanding and working with survivors of trauma Susie Sympson

Hope conquers fear: Overcoming anxiety and panic attacks Scott T. Michael

Hope and depression: Light through the shadows Jen Cheavens Hope and

the journey with AIDS Christina Moon and C. R. Snyder Confronting breast cancer: Hopes for health Julia D. Taylor Hope over acquired disability: Lessons of a

young woman's triumph Timothy R. Elliott and Monica Kurylo Section VI:

Societal implications Hope for the many: An empowering social agenda C. R.

Snyder and David B. Feldman Author index Subject index development &

theory & measurement of hope & psychotherapeutic & career development applications & role of hopelessness in mental disorders & role of helping others in development of hope



Title: Violent children and adolescents: Asking the question why.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Boswell, Gwyneth

Source/Citation: London, England: Whurr Publishers, Ltd; 2000, (xx, 230)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Down the centuries, there have always existed

small minorities of children, and larger minorities of adolescents, who have

committed acts of violence and murder. Although significant bodies of

literature about childhood development and childhood trauma, and about violent

youth, have accumulated over the years, there has been little attempt to

research the possible association between these phenomena. The purpose of this

book is to bring together research and thinking, from a range of standpoints,

about the links that exist between childhood experiences and subsequent

violence in later childhood or teenage years. The contributors to this volume

write from a variety of academic and clinical perspectives. In doing so, they

seek to further the reader's understanding of the prevalence of violence in

youth, of factors associated with particular types of violence, of specific

kinds of influences and contexts, of evidence for the links between childhood

experiences and later violence, and of the ways in which this body of

information might more effectively be presented to the public.

Notes/Comments: Acknowledgements List of contributors Prologue [by] Gwyneth

Boswell Children who kill: Trends, reasons and procedures Paul Cavadino and

Rob Allen Adolescent violence: Findings and implications from the Cambridge

Study David P. Farrington Understanding and treating adolescent firesetters

Kevin Epps and Clive R. Hollin The antecedents of young male sex offenders

Victoria Harris and Carl Staunton The link between childhood trauma and later

violent offending: A case study Paul Renn Self-directed violence in

adolescence: A psychotherapeutic perspective Cairns Clery Violent adolescent

female offenders Susan Bailey Violent young people detained in a maximum

security psychiatric hospital Deborah Richards and Andrew Smith Aggressive and

bullying behaviour in children and adolescents Helen Cowie The influence of

film and video on young people and violence Kevin Browne and Amanda Pennell

Comparing studies of youth and violence: Towards an integrated approach

Stephen Parvez Rashid Bulger and beyond: Asking the question 'why?' David

James Smith Epilogue [by] Gwyneth Boswell References and citation index

Subject index childhood experiences & violence, children & adolescents



Title: L'incubo post-traumatico: Via regia alla cura inconscia della scissione

traumatica?/ Posttraumatic nightmare: "Via regia" to unconscious

healing of the traumatic split?

Author(s)/Editor(s): Grunbaum, Liselotte

Source/Citation: Richard e Piggle; Vol 8(2) May-Aug 2000, Italy: Pensiero

Scientifico Editore sri; 2000, 181-190

Abstract/Review/Citation: Notes that the psychotherapy with heavily-

traumatized children and adolescents may present special difficulties, either of a

technical nature or connected with breaches in the therapist's mental

capacity to process the transferential relationship. These patients often

present problems related to the effect on the personality of their constant adaptation to a chronic anticipation of danger and abuse. In the analytic session, this tendency is expressed either in passive-aggressive modes of relating, or

in a numbed and dead atmosphere, in which both time and thought are felt to be

annihilated. In this deadlock, the therapist may feel compelled to introduce

external information concerning the traumatic abuse, which is a complex

question. The feeling of urgency may be linked to the therapist's need to

yield to the internal pressure of establishing a bearable dialog with the

patient regarding the unbearable aspects of his/her experience, to trigger the

process of unconscious symbolization. A clinical example illustrates the

author's theme. 



Title: Screening for trauma in children and adolescents: The validity of the

Traumatic Stress Disorder scale of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related

Emotional Disorders.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Muris, Peter; Merckelbach, Harald; Koerver, Petra;

Meesters, Cor

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Child Psychology; Vol 29(3) Sep 2000, US:

Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc; 2000, 406-413

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the validity of the Traumatic Stress Disorder

scale of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED; B.

Birmaher et al, 1997), a recently developed self-report questionnaire

measuring Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) defined anxiety disorders symptoms in

children. 996 normal school children (aged 7-19 yrs) completed the SCARED. Ss

who scored high on the SCARED Traumatic Stress Disorder scale (i.e., trauma

group; n = 43) and Ss who scored low on this scale (i.e., control group; n =

43) were then interviewed about their most aversive life event. In addition,

Ss completed self-report questionnaires of traumatic experiences and

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Results showed that Ss in

the trauma group more frequently reported life events that independent judges

considered to be 'potentially traumatic' than did control Ss. Furthermore, Ss

in the trauma group reported having experienced more traumatic incidents and

had higher scores on PTSD-related questionnaires compared with control Ss.

Moreover, trauma group Ss more frequently fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for PTSD

than did control Ss. The results of this study support the validity of the

Traumatic Stress Disorder scale of the SCARED.  ========================================


Title: Trauma and dissociation in delinquent adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Carrion, Victor G.; Steiner, Hans

Source/Citation: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent

Psychiatry; Vol 39(3) Mar 2000, US: Williams & Wilkins Co.; 2000, 353-359

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed history of trauma and dissociation in a group

of juvenile delinquents and how adolescents (aged 11-16 yrs) responded to a

structured interview for dissociative symptoms. 64 adolescents in juvenile

probation hall participated in 2 investigational sessions from 1996-1997. For

session 1 they answered the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Response

Evaluation Measure for Youth-71 (REMY-71), and the Weinberger Adjustment

Inventory. For session 2 they were given the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI)

and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders

(SCID-D). In this sample 28.3% met criteria for a dissociative disorder and

96.8% endorsed a history of traumatic events. There were significant positive

correlations between CTI and CTQ trauma scores and SCID-D and REMY-71

dissociative symptoms. All dissociative symptoms were endorsed, but

depersonalization was the most common experience. There was a lack of

congruence between the different methods of assessing dissociation. This study

provides support for an early link between history of trauma and dissociation.

Adolescents were able to answer questions from a structured interview

assessing dissociation. 



Title: Child abuse and neglect and the brain--A review.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Glaser, Danya

Source/Citation: Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied

Disciplines; Vol 41(1) Jan 2000, US: Cambridge Univ Press; 2000, 97-116

Abstract/Review/Citation: Explores the effects of child abuse and neglect

on the brain, excluding nonaccidental physical trauma to the brain. It

commences with a background summary of the nature, context, and some

deleterious effects of omission and commission within child maltreatment. Ontogenesis, or the development of the self through self-determination,

proceeds in the context of the nature-nurture interaction. As a prelude to

reviewing the neurobiology of child abuse and neglect, the next section is

concerned with bridging the mind and the brain. Here, neurobiological

processes, including cellular, biochemical, and neurophysiological processes,

are examined alongside their behavioural, cognitive, and emotional equivalents and vice versa. The stress response resulting from maltreatment is discussed.

Evidence is outlined for the buffering effects of a secure attachment on the

stress response. A discussion of the actual effects on the brain of child abuse

and neglect precedes a look at the manifestations of the stress response

including dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and parasympathetic and catecholamine responses. Evidence about reduction in

brain volume following child abuse and neglect is also outlined.  ========================================


Title: Practitioner review: The assessment and treatment of post-traumatic

stress disorder in children and adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Perrin, Sean; Smith, Patrick; Yule, William

Source/Citation: Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied

Disciplines; Vol 41(3) Mar 2000, US: Cambridge Univ Press; 2000, 277-289

Abstract/Review/Citation: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a syndrome

defined by the intrusive reexperiencing of a trauma, avoidance of traumatic

reminders, and persistent physiological arousal. PTSD is associated with high

levels of comorbidity and may increase the risk for additional disorders over

time. While controversies remain regarding the applicability of the PTSD

criteria to very young children, it has proved to be a useful framework for

guiding assessment and treatment research with older children and adolescents.

This article presents an overview of the literature on the clinical

characteristics, assessment, and treatment of PTSD in children and

adolescents. There is a large body of literature showing that many children do

suffer from PTSD or its symptoms following traumatic events. The PTSD

symptomatology can be reliably assessed through semistructured interview and

self-report measures, although the latter should not be used exclusively. A

multidimensional and sensitive approach to the collection of information is

strongly encouraged. The author concludes that there is general consensus

among trauma experts that cognitive behavioral therapy in the form of

prolonged therapeutic exposure and cognitive restructuring is the

"first-line" treatment for PTSD.     ========================================


Title: Compulsive cybersex: The new tea room.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Schwartz, Mark F.; Southern, Stephen

Source/Citation: Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: Special Issue: Cybersex:

The dark side of the force; Vol 7(1-2) 2000, US: Brunner/Mazel; 2000, 127-144

Abstract/Review/Citation: Cybersex has become the new tea room for meeting

anonymous partners and engaging in a fantasy world in which survivors of

childhood abuse escape the demands of daily life as well as the pain and shame

of past trauma. Compulsive cybersex is described as a survival mechanism

involving dissociative reenactment and affect regulation. Descriptive data

from a clinical population of cybersex abusers (aged 17-66 yrs) were reviewed

to construct four subtypes of cybersex addiction: male cybersex addicts,

female cybersex addicts, loner cybersex addicts, and paraphiliac cybersex

addicts. Treatment strategies for each of the subtypes are recommended.



Title: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and child witnesses to

mother-assault: A summary and review.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lehmann, Peter

Paper Number: 20000607

Source/Citation: Children & Youth Services Review: Special Issue: Woman

abuse and child protection: A tumultuous marriage (Part I).; Vol 22(3-4)

Mar-Apr 2000, US: Elsevier Science Inc; 2000, 275-306

Abstract/Review/Citation: There is growing appreciation that children who

witness mother-assault are traumatized and may exhibit symptoms of

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Twenty-eight clinical/descriptive and

empirical studies of child witnesses and six conceptual papers are reviewed in

which PTSD was assessed using clinical interviews or trauma-based instruments.

This review is divided into three main sections:(a) a definition of trauma and

rationale for its use, (b) a literature review of PTSD in child witnesses to

mother-assault, and (c) methodological issues and recommendations for

expanding practitioner and researcher knowledge.



Title: The long-term psychological effects of a disaster experienced in

adolescence: I: The incidence and course of PTSD.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Yule, William; Bolton, Derek; Udwin, Orlee; Boyle,

Stephanie; O'Ryan, Dominic; Nurrish, Julie

Source/Citation: Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied

Disciplines; Vol 41(4) May 2000, US: Cambridge Univ Press; 2000, 503-511

Abstract/Review/Citation: This paper is the first of a series reporting on the

long-term follow-up of a group of young adults who as teenagers had survived a

shipping disaster--the sinking of the "Jupiter" in Greek

waters--between 5 and 8 years previously. The general methodology of the

follow-up study as a whole is described, and the incidence and long-term

course of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). It is the first study of its

kind on a relatively large, representative sample of survivors, using a

standardized diagnostic interview, and comparing survivors with a community

control group. 217 survivors of the Jupiter disaster, and 87 young people as

controls, were interviewed using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale

(CAPS). Of the 217 survivors, 111 had developed PTSD at some time during the

follow-up period, compared with an incidence in the control group of 87. In

the large majority of cases of PTSD in the survivors for whom time of onset

was recorded, 110, onset was not delayed, being within 6 months of the

disaster. About a third of those survivors who developed PTSD recovered within

a year of onset, though another third were still suffering from the disorder

at the time of follow-up, between 5 and 8 years after the disaster.  ========================================


Title: The long-term psychological effects of a disaster experienced in

adolescence: II: General psychopathology.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bolton, Derek; O'Ryan, Dominic; Udwin, Orlee; Boyle, Stephanie; Yule, William

Source/Citation: Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied

Disciplines; Vol 41(4) May 2000, US: Cambridge Univ Press; 2000, 513-523

Abstract/Review/Citation: Children and adolescents exposed to trauma can

suffer major adverse psychological effects including not only post-traumatic

stress but also other psychological disorders. This study investigates the long-

term course of general psychopathology following trauma in adolescence using a

standardized diagnostic interview and comparisons with a matched control

group. 216 11-17 yr olds who had survived a shipping disaster--the sinking of

the "Jupiter" in Greek waters--between 5 and 8 years previously and

87 young people as matched controls were interviewed. The survivors showed

raised rates of diagnosis in a range of anxiety and affective disorders during

the follow-up period. The highest rates were among the survivors who had

developed Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and those survivors who had

not were generally similar to controls. Onset of anxiety and affective

disorders varied between being indefinitely close to the controls. Onset of

anxiety and affective disorders varied between the survivor and control groups

had lessened by the time of follow-up but were still apparent, due to

continuing distress among the survivors still suffering from PTSD, and to a

lesser extent among those who had recovered from PTSD. Generalizability of the

findings are discussed. 



Title: Defense styles and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Birmes, Philippe; Warner, Barbara Ann; Callahan, Stacey;

Sztulman, Henry; Charlet, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Laurent

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 188(5) May 2000,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000, 306-308

Abstract/Review/Citation: Evaluated defense styles that may indicate risk for

the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after

exposure to trauma among 25 trauma victims (aged 16-69 yrs). Ss were assessed

by a specific psychiatric trauma team. Ss completed the Traumatic Stress

Inventory Scale at Week 1. At the 2nd assessment during Week 2, the Ss

completed the 40-item Defense Style Questionnaire and the Impact of Event

Scale. Victims with PTSD had mature, neurotic, and immature defense scores not

significantly different from those without PTSD. However, the complete

assessment of each defense style showed that Ss with PTSD were significantly

more likely to use reaction formation than Ss without PTSD.  ========================================


Title: Outcomes of single versus multiple trauma exposure in a screening sample.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Green, Bonnie L.; Goodman, Lisa A.; Krupnick, Janice L.;

Corcoran, Carole B.; Petty, Rachel M.; Stockton, Patricia; Stern, Nicole M.

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 13(2) Apr 2000, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2000, 271-286

Abstract/Review/Citation: Most studies ignore prior trauma exposure when

evaluating outcomes of target events. This study explored symptom severity

associated with different types of traumatic experiences occurring alone and

with multiple exposure. The Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire

categorized 1,909 sophomore women (aged 17-24 yrs) into groups including no

trauma exposure, exposure to a serious non-Criterion A event only, exposure to

several unique noninterpersonal and interpersonal events, and exposure to

multiple interpersonal events. Women with noninterpersonal trauma did not

differ from those without trauma on the Trauma Symptom Inventory. Only

interpersonal trauma and non-Criterion A events were associated with elevated

symptoms; multiple-exposure participants had significantly higher symptoms

than all other groups. Complex trauma histories should be accounted for, even

in studies of one target event.     ========================================


Title: Child maltreatment, other trauma exposure and posttraumatic

symptomatology among children with oppositional defiant and attention deficit

hyperactivity disorders.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Ford, Julian D.; Racusin, Robert; Ellis, Cynthia G.;

Daviss, William B.; Reiser, Jessica; Fleischer, Amy; Thomas, Julie

Source/Citation: Child Maltreatment: Journal of the American Professional

Society on the Abuse of Children; Vol 5(3) Aug 2000, US: Sage Publications

Inc; 2000, 205-217

Abstract/Review/Citation: 165 consecutive child psychiatric outpatient

admissions (aged 6-17 yrs) with disruptive behavior or adjustment disorders

were assessed by validated instruments for trauma exposure and posttraumatic

stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and other psychopathology. Four reliably

diagnosed groups were defined in a retrospective case-control design:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder

(ODD), comorbid ADHD-ODD, and adjustment disorder controls. ODD and (although

to a lesser extent) ADHD were associated with a history of physical or sexual

maltreatment. PTSD symptoms were most severe if (a) ADHD and maltreatment

co-occurred or (b) ODD and accident/illness trauma co-occurred. The

association between ODD and PTSD Criterion D (hyperarousal/hypervigilance)

symptoms remained after controlling for overlapping symptoms, but the

association of ADHD with PTSD symptoms was largely due to an overlapping

symptom. These findings suggest that screening for maltreatment, other trauma

and PTSD symptoms may enhance prevention, treatment and research concerning

childhood disruptive behavior disorders.

Trauma and Adolescence IV


Title: Techniques and issues in abuse-focused therapy with children &

adolescents: Addressing the internal trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wieland, Sandra

Source/Citation: Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc; 1998, (xiv, 238) Interpersonal violence: The practice series, Vol. 22.

Abstract/Review/Citation: This book on abuse-focused therapy with children and adolescents refers to the internalization model, which was discussed in depth in the author's previous book, Hearing the Internal Trauma (1997). The model provides a framework to assist the therapist in understanding the effects of sexual abuse on the child or adolescent's internal sense of self and world even when a child or adolescent will not talk about their sexual abuse. In this book, the author concentrates on the application and techniques of the model and describes various methods of addressing and shifting abuse-related internalizations within the therapy along with useful techniques such as imaging, genograms, and timeliness.



Title: Adolescent violence exposure and victimization at home: Coping and

psychological trauma symptoms.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Flannery, Daniel J.; Singer, Mark; Williams, Laura;

Castro, Peter

Source/Citation: International Review of Victimology; Vol 6(1) 1998, United Kingdom: A B Academic Publishers; 1998, 29-48

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the relationship between home violence exposure, victimization, and adolescent coping strategies, psychological trauma symptoms, and self-reported violent behavior. Data were collected from a sample of 3,734 14-19 yr olds. Ss reported exposure to violence and victimization at home, the frequency with which they used coping strategies to deal with feeling upset, how often they engaged in violence themselves, and psychological trauma symptoms. Results indicate that both males and females reported high rates of home violence exposure and victimization. High levels of violence exposure at home were associated with adolescents utilizing more adaptive and more coping strategies compared to adolescents in the low home violence exposure group. For both males and females, home violence exposure was also related to higher levels of psychological trauma symptoms including anger, depression, and post-traumatic stress. Average scores for violent behavior among adolescents in the high exposure group were more than 3 times higher for girls and 2 times higher for boys than scores for adolescents in the low exposure group. Females endorsed more internalizing and interpersonal coping strategies, while males endorsed more instrumental coping strategies. ========================================


Title: Stress and coping in children traumatized by war.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Green, Arthur H.; Kocijan-Hercigonja, Dubravka

Source/Citation: Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis; Vol 26(4) Win 1998, US: Guilford Publications; 1998, 585-597

Abstract/Review/Citation: This article focuses on the war in former Yugoslavia, which took place in Bosnia and Croatia, and its effects on the children and their families who were evaluated after their arrival as war refugees in Croatia and Slovenia. The article describes and provides case examples illustrating the wide variety of stressors inherent in the typical war

experiences of children, and how they impact on coping and contribute to

psychopathology. Effective intervention strategies designed to help the

children achieve mastery over war trauma are also described.  ========================================


Title: Post-traumatic stress reactions in children.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Street, Eddy; Sibert, Jo

Source/Citation: Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry; Vol 3(4) Oct 1998,

England: Sage Publications Ltd; 1998, 553-560

Abstract/Review/Citation: An audit of 55 children (aged 0-16 yrs) referred for medico-legal assessment following accidents is outlined. The children's reaction to the traumatic event is described. The variation of symptom range, intensity and duration is suggestive of a spectrum of stress reactions to traumatic events in which posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is at the extreme end. A number of symptoms not included in the Mental

Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) criteria for PTSD were identified. PTSD was established clinically only in the older age group. Parental responses to

their child's difficulties are described. The need for research into

developmental changes in children's reaction to trauma is highlighted.



Title: Realidad psiquica: Legado mitico transgeneracional./ Psychic reality:

Mythical transgerational inheritance.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Montevechio, Blanca

Source/Citation: Revista de Psicoanalisis; Vol 55(3) Jul-Sep 1998, Argentina: Asociacion Psicoanalitica Argentina; 1998, 727-731

Abstract/Review/Citation: Describes the poster assembled by collage during analysis by a 14-yr old male adolescent, suffering from hypomanic behavioral disorders. This poster helped the analyst understand the role of the repetition of traumatic situations transmitted through family relationships from generation to generation. Experiences that have not been processed in one generation return to the following generation through the designated patient (here, the 14-yr old analysand). Repetition occurs at an unconscious level that transcends the individual and constitutes a matrix that preserves mythical history, tying what is individual with what is interpersonal and transpersonal. The analysand described here experienced the trauma of the accidental death of a younger playmate in his presence: this repeated an unresolved trauma in the surviving patient's parents, whose son had acted out an "expulsion" of his playmate as the repetition of an abortion by his mother before his conception. The plastic images of the collage are an appropriate form of expression of this mythical, preverbal world. 



Title: Suicide attempts by jumping.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Joyce, John; Fleminger, Simon

Source/Citation: Psychiatric Bulletin; Vol 22(7) Jul 1998, England: Royal

College of Psychiatrists; 1998, 424-427

Abstract/Review/Citation: Jumping is a particularly lethal form of attempting suicide which results in high mortality and disfigurement, psychological trauma to patients and relatives and psychological issues to those professionals involved in the care of survivors. In a retrospective case note study over a 4 yr period, demographic information, mode of injury (fall from a height or in front of a moving object), and diagnosis was recorded for 61 patients (aged 15-82 yrs). Information on long- (length of history and previous suicide attempts) and short-term (precipitants, expression of

suicidal intent, prior symptoms and service contact) preceding history,

morbidity in the hospital (type and extent of injury), and ongoing

suicidality were recorded. Estimates of physical and mental disability at

discharge were also made. The results show that most of the patients were

suffering from a major psychiatric disorder and most were symptomatic and

expressing suicidal intent in the days and weeks prior to the incident but

jumped in spite of half being in contact with psychiatric services.  ========================================


Title: The syndrome of pure retrograde amnesia.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lucchelli, Federica; Muggia, Silvia; Spinnler, Hans

Source/Citation: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry; Vol 3(2) May 1998, United Kingdom: Psychology Press; 1998, 91-118

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reports 3 cases of pure retrograde amnesia (PRA) in 3 males (aged 15, 20, and 38 yrs). The sudden onset of PRA occurred after minor head trauma in 2 cases and after emotional stress in 1 case. No structural brain damage was apparent in any of the 3 patients. Evidence of a temporal gradient was found. A progressive recovery occurred in all 3 cases. Issues concerning the definition of PRA are addressed. A unitary, etiology-independent mechanism linking a welter of heterogeneous triggering conditions to the isolated outcome of retrograde amnesia is suggested.  Neuropsychological aspects of such a mechanism are envisaged. The contributions of PRA to neuropsychological research are discussed, in particular, the implicit vs explicit availability of past information, the architecture of remote memory archives, and the dissociation of anterograde and retrograde recall.  ========================================


Title: Prospective study of post-traumatic stress disorder in children involved in road traffic accidents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Baldwin, Sarah

Source/Citation: British Medical Journal; No 7173 Dec 1998, England: British Medical Assn; 1998, 1619-1623

Abstract/Review/Citation: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of severe psychological trauma--that is,posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD)--in children involved in everyday road traffic accidents. Ss

included 119 children aged 5-18 yrs involved in road traffic accidents and 66

children who sustained sports injuries. PTSD was found in 41 children involved in road traffic accidents but only 2 who sustained sports injuries. The presence of PTSD was not related to the type of accident, age of the child, or the nature of injuries but was significantly associated with sex, previous experience of trauma, and subjective appraisal of threat to life. None of these children had received any psychological help at the time of assessment. Conclusions indicate 1 in 3 children involved in road traffic accidents was found to suffer from PTSD when they were assessed 6 weeks after their accident. The psychological needs of such children after such accidents remain largely unrecognized. 



Title: Validez del Autoinforme en el Consumo de Bebidas Alcoholicas./

Self-report validity in the consumption of alcoholic drinks.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lopez, Jorge

Source/Citation: Revista Mexicana de Psicologia: Special Issue: ; Vol 15(1) Jun 1998, Mexico: Revista Mexicana de Psicologia; 1998, 19-25

Abstract/Review/Citation: Studied the validity of self-reports of alcohol

consumption in 1,582 male and female adolescents and adults seen in an

emergency room in Mexico. Data on blood alcohol levels, self-report of alcohol consumption in the previous 24 hrs, and clinical symptoms were obtained by semistructured interview and clinical examination. The results show that 33 percent of all patients report alcohol consumption prior to emergency room visit and 24 percent show elevated blood alcohol levels (10 mg/100 ml). The results also indicate that a higher incidence of self-report of alcohol consumption and positive blood alcohol levels in trauma victims compared to Ss with medical problems. A 90 percent sensitivity and 86 percent specificity rate are reported for trauma victims and a 88 percent sensitivity and 88 percent specificity rate for medical patients.  ========================================


Title: Maltreated adolescents: Victims caught between childhood and adulthood.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Rossman, B. B. Robbie; Rosenberg, Mindy S.

Source/Citation: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma: Special

Issue: ; Vol 2(1) 1998, US: Haworth Press; 1998, 107-129

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reviews literature on the developmental tasks of adolescence and the unique problems faced by adolescent victims of

maltreatment. The developmental domains addressed include cognition, identity, behavior and affect regulation, family and peer relationships, and sexuality. Research on the co-occurrence of multiple types of victimization is discussed. The relationship between multiple victimization and violent crime, with a focus on parricide, is examined. The authors call for greater attention to the assessment and study of multiple forms of maltreatment and its outcomes in adolescence, since adolescence is one of the least researched developmental periods in terms of single or multiple victimization. 



Title: Into the haunted house of mirrors: The treatment of multiply traumatized adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Marold, Donna B.

Source/Citation: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma: Special

Issue: ; Vol 2(1) 1998, US: Haworth Press; 1998, 253-272

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses the treatment of youth with histories of multiple victimization. A developmental treatment approach is presented based on Eriksonian theory that highlights particular difficulties abuse presents for a child's successful movement through different developmental stages. Interventions addressing these difficulties are also discussed with many case examples. Finally, the issue is raised concerning which multiple abuse victims can be helped by the therapeutic process.                                      ========================================


Title: Does PTSD transcend cultural barriers? A study from the Khmer Adolescent refugee project.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Sack, William H.; Seeley, John R.; Clarke, Gregory N.

Source/Citation: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent

Psychiatry; Vol 36(1) Jan 1997, US: Williams & Wilkins Co.; 1997, 49-54

Abstract/Review/Citation: Sought to determine whether the factor structure of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) syndrome in Cambodian refugee youth resembles earlier reported factor studies in Caucasian samples. 194 Khmer refugees (aged 13-25 yrs) who reported prior significant trauma (most of it massive war trauma as children) were administered the PTSD module of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents, as part of an epidemiological study on the effects of war on this group of refugees. Four factors were found: arousal, avoidance, intrusion, and numbing. A confirmatory factor analysis using data from the parents of this sample yielded a good fit for the 4-factor solution based on the youth data. The factor solution resembled those found in earlier studies on traumatized Caucasian and African-American adults. These results lend further credibility to the veracity of this diagnosis with refugee samples. PTSD as a result of prior war trauma appears to surmount the barriers of culture and language.                   ========================================


Title: Central American youth exposed to war violence.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Zea, Maria Cecilia; Diehl, Virginia A.; Porterfield, Katherine S.

Source/Citation: Psychological interventions and research with Latino

populations., Needham Heights, MA, US: Allyn & Bacon, Inc; 1997, (xx,

284), 39-55

Source editor(s): Garcia, Jorge G. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: contributes to the sparse literature on Central

American [child and youth] immigrants, perhaps the newest arrivals to the US / the personal histories of these immigrants are replete with war-related

experiences, traumatic stress associated with the event of crossing the

border, and the struggle of adjusting to a new culture / offer a model . . .

based on [the authors'] earlier research with this population, as well as on

related research by other authors, that includes risk and protective factors

mediating the trauma of war outcomes [negative socialization, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological symptoms]  ========================================


Title: Dissociative and sexual behaviors in children and adolescents with sexual abuse and psychiatric histories.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Friedrich, William N.; Jaworski, Theresa M.; Huxsahl, John E.; Bengtson, Brad S.

Source/Citation: Journal of Interpersonal Violence; Vol 12(2) Apr 1997, US: Sage Publications Inc; 1997, 155-171

Abstract/Review/Citation: Dissociative and sexual behaviors were assessed in a sample of 350 children (aged 7-18 yrs). Four groups were evaluated: a nonpsychiatric comparison sample (n = 75), a psychiatric sample with no history of sexual abuse (n = 165), a psychiatric sample with clear evidence of sexual abuse (n = 72), and another group for whom sexual abuse was likely but not substantiated (n = 38). All Ss completed the Trauma Symptom Checklist-Children (TSC-C) and a varying number completed the Rorschach and the MMPI. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), and the Child Dissociative Checklist (CDC). Mean differences on the Dissociation and Sexual Concerns subscales of the TSC-C existed between the nonpsychiatric and psychiatric groups. The Dissociation subscale was significantly correlated with MMPI Scale 8 and the CDC. Sexual Concerns were significantly related to sexual content on the Rorschach, CBC sex problems, and the CSBI. Duration and nature of abuse significantly contributed over and above age and gender in predicting total score on the Dissociation subscale.  ========================================


Title: Child report of treatment issue resolution: Pilot of a rapid assessment


Author(s)/Editor(s): Nelson-Gardell, Debra

Source/Citation: Child Abuse & Neglect; Vol 21(3) Mar 1997, US: Elsevier

Science Inc; 1997, 309-318

Abstract/Review/Citation: The goals of this project concerned the construction and pilot of a rapid assessment self-report measurement tool to be used with child and adolescent sexual abuse victims to ascertain the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic intervention. 103 10 to 17-yr-old girls who had been the targets of intrafamilial child sexual abuse (incest) participated in the research. Child and adolescent participants completed the draft instrument, the Child Report of Treatment Issue Resolution, as well as the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children and the Children's Social Desirability Questionnaire. The research participants' caretakers completed the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and a background questionnaire. Reliability of the study instrument was found to be .94. Content validity was quantified through a process of expert ratings of individual item relevance. Criterion and construct validity are supported by a substantial correlation between the study instrument and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (-.74) and a moderate correlation between the study instrument and the Child Behavior Checklist for Children (-.40). The correlation between the study instrument and the Children's Social Desirability Questionnaire (.45) did not provide evidence of discriminate validity.    ========================================


Title: Dissoziation und multiple Identitaet als Abwehr gegen die Grenzdiffusion zwischen Phantasie und Handlung. Aus der psychoanalytischen Behandlung einer Inzestpatientin./ Dissociation and multiple identity as a defense against diffusion of the boundary between fantasy and action with reference to the psychoanalytic treatment of an incest patient.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Thiel, Helmuth

Source/Citation: Psyche: Zeitschrift fuer Psychoanalyse und ihre Anwendungen; Vol 51(3) Mar 1997, Germany: J.G. Cotta'sche Buchhandlung Nachfolger GmbH; 1997, 239-252

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses the problems involved in the analytic treatment of severely traumatized incest patients. The author exemplifies such problematics with the detailed narrative of the psychotherapy of a young woman, sexually abused by both parents in infancy and adolescence and suffering from dissociative states. The author hypothesizes that devastating, protracted traumatization prevents the demarcation between fantasies and actual deeds. Dissociation and splitting represent a creative, although pathological attempt by the ego to protect the good self- and object parts, and not leave them at the mercy of the destructive parts of the personality. Thiel shows that consistent adherence to the rules of the analytic setting can help the patient overcome the blurring of the boundary between fantasy and action. (English abstract)            ========================================


Title: Monitoring youth behavior in response to structural changes: Alternative approaches for measuring adolescent drinking.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Grube, Joel W.

Source/Citation: Evaluation Review: Special Issue: Evaluation design for a

community trial to reduce alcohol-involved trauma: An environmental approach to prevention.; Vol 21(2) Apr 1997, US: Sage Publications Inc; 1997, 231-245

Abstract/Review/Citation: Random digit dial (RDD) telephone and

self-administered school-based surveys of drinking and drinking and driving

were compared for adolescents from two Northern California communities. The RDD and school-based surveys resulted in very different samples. The telephone sample contained a greater proportion of European Americans and a smaller proportion of Asian Americans and "other" ethnicities. Respondents to the telephone sample also tended to be older and of higher socioeconomic status (SES). The telephone survey captured very few school dropouts. Moreover, it resulted in lower self-reports of drinking and drinking and driving. Survey mode appeared to influence respondents equally; regardless of their gender, age, ethnicity, or SES.  ========================================


Title: Remembering and knowing the past: A case study of isolated retrograde amnesia.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Mantovan, Maria Cristina; Ferruzza, Emilia; Denes, Gianfranco

Source/Citation: Cortex; Vol 33(1) Mar 1997, Italy: Masson Italia Periodici;

1997, 143-154

Abstract/Review/Citation: Describes a 17-yr-old female S with no detectable brain pathology or psychological trauma who suddenly became amnesic for premorbid autobiographic events in the absence of any known precipitating event. Learning abilities as well as semantic knowledge were normal. Knowledge of facts and famous persons was good, although not perfect. Whether S suffered from organic or psychogenic isolated retrograde amnesia could not be established on the basis of available clinical and neuropsychological elements. Regardless of its etiology, S's case respects the boundaries between semantic and episodic memory and so gives further support to the distinction between these two memory systems.  ========================================


Title: Outcome of psychotherapy among early adolescents after trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Goenjian, Armen K.; Karayan, Ida; Pynoos, Robert S.;

Minassian, Dzovag; et al

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 154(4) Apr 1997, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 1997, 536-542

Abstract/Review/Citation: Evaluated the effectiveness of brief

trauma/grief-focused psychotherapy among 64 early adolescents exposed to the 1988 earthquake in Armenia. Posttraumatic stress and depressive reactions among treated and not treated Ss were evaluated pre- and postintervention, at 1.5 and 3 yrs after the earthquake, respectively. Severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms significantly decreased among the Ss given psychotherapy, while severity of these symptoms increased significantly among the Ss not treated with psychotherapy. The improvement in posttraumatic stress symptoms was attributable to improvement in all 3 symptom categories (intrusion, avoidance, and arousal) of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There was no change in severity of depressive symptoms among Ss given psychotherapy. However, depressive symptoms among Ss not treated with psychotherapy significantly worsened over time. The changes in severity of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms were positively correlated within both groups.                                     ========================================


Title: Behavior-descriptive data on cognitive, personality, and somatic residua after relatively mild brain trauma: Studying the syndrome as a whole: Erratum.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Nemeth, A. J.

Source/Citation: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology; Vol 12(1) 1997, US:

Pergamon Press c/o Elsevier Science Inc; 1997, 95

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reports the inadvertent omission of a footnote in the original article by A. J. Nemeth ( Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1996, Vol 11 [8], 677-695). The footnote states "The author gratefully

acknowledges the comments of Albert Kostlan, Ph.D., on a draft of this

article." (The following abstract of this article originally appeared in

record 84-12646.) Examined the cognitive, physical, personal, psychosocial,

and situational functioning of 21 17-47 yr old victims of mild traumatic brain

injury (MTBI). The Grounded Theory model was followed for data generation and retrospective analysis of records. Raw-score profiles consisting of

self-reports and reports of reliable observers tabulated on 20 behavioral

categories of cognitive, personality, and somatic dysfunction were studied

against the background of biographical and situational information. The

individually specific meaning of profile variables in the context of their

interaction with personality and life-situational factors (as uncovered

through comparative analysis of pre- and post-injury functioning is portrayed in excerpts from case studies).          ========================================


Title: Postconcussion syndrome occurs in children.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mittenberg, Wiley; Wittner, Michele S.; Miller, Lori J.

Source/Citation: Neuropsychology; Vol 11(3) Jul 1997, US: American Psychological Assn.; 1997, 447-452

Abstract/Review/Citation: The consensus of evidence published since 1924 suggests that parents report attention deficits, hyperactivity, or conduct disorder after pediatric head injury rather than postconcussion syndrome. In this study, the symptoms reported by children after mild (n = 38) and moderate-severe (n = 27) head trauma were compared to those reported after orthopedic injury (n = 47) and to adults matched for injury severity and chronicity by using a structured interview based on diagnostic criteria for postconcussion syndrome. Pediatric head trauma caused significantly more subjective symptoms after 6 weeks than orthopedic injury. These symptoms were related to head injury severity and the child's anxiety level. When assessed in a similar manner, children report postconcussion syndrome similar to that seen in adults.  ========================================


Title: Differing problem perceptions of staff, survivors, and significant others

after brain injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Malec, James F.; Machulda, Mary M.; Moessner, Anne M.

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 12(3) Jun 1997, US: Aspen Publishers Inc; 1997, 1-13

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the relationships of the perceptions of staff, survivors of brain injury (BI), and significant others (SOs) as

represented on their respective versions of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability

Inventory (MPAI) to each other, to psychometric markers of memory and

executive cognitive function, and to depression. 45-51 pairs of staff,

survivors, and SOs participated. Ss with BI, aged 17.5-72.4 yrs, were divided into either mild, moderate or severe BI groups. Ratings on staff, survivor, and SO forms of the MPAI, MPAI indicator of depression, Trailmaking Test and Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test were compared. Results show that staff and survivor MPAIs correlated moderately well with each other only for Ss identified as depressed by staff. SO MPAI summary scores correlated moderately well with staff MPAI scores for both depressed and nondepressed survivors. SO MPAI summary scores were more strongly related to those of staff than to those of survivors for nondepressed survivors. Survivors with impaired self-awareness were infrequently depressed and had more difficulty on a measure of executive cognitive function than did other survivors. Depressed survivors did not consistently over- or underestimate their level of disability relative to staff.  ========================================


Title: Relationship of two measures of injury severity to pediatric

psychological outcome 1-3 years after acute head injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Papero, Patricia H.; Snyder, Heather M.; Gotschall, Catherine S.; Johnson, Dennis L.; Eichelberger, Martin R.

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 12(3) Jun 1997, US: Aspen Publishers Inc; 1997, 51-67

Abstract/Review/Citation: Compared the strength of relationship of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) vs the ASCOT probability of survival (Ps) test, a

multidimensional trauma severity index, with a comprehensive range of core

areas of psychological functioning assumed to influence quality of life in

pediatric head injury survivors. The ordering effects of level of severity on

outcome were studied through analyses of variance for the GCS vs the Ps. 86 children, aged 6-15 yrs, with mild to severe traumatic brain injury were retrospectively recruited from consecutive head injury admissions for a 30-mo period and completed a battery of psychological assessments, including the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for ChildrenRevised (WISCR) and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklists. Results show significant correlations between each of the severity indices and the IQ and neuropsychological variables. Both Ps and GCS were able to distinguish between severe and lesser injury groups. Ps yielded a stronger pattern of correlations and a clearer step-wise separation of the injury severity levels on neuropsychological variables. Only the GCS was related to adaptive behavior. Neither severity index showed strong correlational patterns with behavioral or self-perception psychological domains.                                   ========================================


Title: Is there a specific trauma precipitating anorexia nervosa?

Author(s)/Editor(s): Schmidt, Ulrike; Tiller, J.; Blanchard, M.; Andrews, B.; et al

Source/Citation: Psychological Medicine; Vol 27(3) May 1997, US: Cambridge University Press; 1997, 523-530

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the role of life events and difficulties in the onset of anorexia nervosa (AN), specifically those of a sexual nature. 72 Ss with AN and 29 with bulimia nervosa (BN) were assessed with the life events and difficulties schedule (G. W. Brown and T. O. Harris, 1978), the year before onset was studied. All Ss were aged 15-25 yrs. Ss from 2 community cohorts served as controls. A new dimension to measure specific meaning of life events and difficulties which evoked sexual shame or disgust, called "pudicity" was developed. AN Ss, BN Ss and controls did not differ in the proportion of Ss with at least 1 severe event; however, significantly

more AN and BN Ss than controls had experienced a major difficulty. 67% of AN Ss and 76% of BN Ss had either a severe event or a marked difficulty during the year before onset. In AN and BN the most common serious life stresses before onset concerned close relationships with family and friends with BN patients being significantly more often than AN Ss directly involved in the problem. AN Ss had significantly more pudicity events before onset than BN Ss or controls.  ========================================


Title: Anxiety related to trauma-repairing surgery.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Sun, Jian; Chao, Jinlin; Wang, Huanlin; Xu, Yuliang

Fang, Wen; Zhang, Liguo; Zhang, Zhengwen; Mu, Chuanhong; Li, Youtian

Source/Citation: Chinese Mental Health Journal; Vol 11(3) 1997, China: Chinese Mental Health; 1997, 141-142

Abstract/Review/Citation: Studied anxiety caused by trauma-repairing surgery (T-RS). Human Ss: 40 Chinese male and female adolescents and adults (aged 17-77 yrs) (T-RS). Ss' anxiety status, traits and organic anxiety were assessed before and after the surgery. Correlations of age, sex, personality, education, and operation types (emergency and date settled operation) and anxiety were studied. Significant individual differences of anxiety were discussed. Tests used: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. (English abstract)



Title: Risk perception following exposure to a job-related electrocution

accident: The mediating role of perceived control.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Greening, Leilani

Source/Citation: Acta Psychologica; Vol 95(3) Apr 1997, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers BV; 1997, 267-277

Abstract/Review/Citation: Tested the role of perceived control as a significant mediation for the relation between mental stimulation and perceived risk for a lethal event. 16 employees (aged 14-48 yrs) of a recreational facility where a lifeguard was accidently electrocuted and 16 matched controls estimated their perceived risk for future electrocution events, how much personal control they believed they had over preventing future events, and the degree of clarity for mentally simulating future events. Although perceived control was not found to be a mediator for the relation between mental simulation and perceived risk as hypothesized, both mental simulation and perceived control accounted for a proportion of the variance in perceived risk for future electrocution events. The trauma group reported higher ratings for perceived risk and mental simulation of future events. However, the trauma group did not differ from the nontrauma group on perceived control over future events. Possible explanations for the relatively high degree of perceived control over future electrocution

events within the trauma group, in spite of their experience with a near-fatal electrocution event, are discussed.  ========================================


Title: The effects of stressor type on projected coping.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bjorck, Jeffrey P.; Klewicki, Lisa L.

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 10(3) Jul 1997, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 1997, 481-497

Abstract/Review/Citation: In previous analog research (Bjorck and L. H. Cohen, 1993), Caucasian college students' projected coping responses to major stressors differed as a function of stressor type (threat, loss, or

challenge). This finding was replicated in the present study with an

ethnoculturally diverse sample of 78 US college undergraduates. Because Bjorck and Cohen's findings might have been confounded by Ss' prior life experiences and/or differing perceptions of event controllability, these 2 dimensions were also assessed in the present study. Even after controlling for these 2 potential confounds, however, projected coping again differed as a function of stressor type. Effects of controllability and prior experience were also found. Results are discussed in terms of their application to coping processes in general and to coping with trauma in particular.  ========================================


Title: Effects of war trauma on Cambodian refugee adolescents' functional health and mental health status.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mollica, Richard F.; Poole, Charles; Son, Linda; Murray, Caroline C.; et al

Source/Citation: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent

Psychiatry; Vol 36(8) Aug 1997, US: Williams & Wilkins Co.; 1997,


Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the effect of war trauma on the functional health and mental health status of Cambodian adolescents living in a refugee camp on the Thai-Cambodian border. One adult (aged 18+ yrs) each from 1,000 households, and 182 adolescents (aged 12-13 yrs), along with 1 parent, were interviewed. Culturally sensitive instruments were used, including Cambodian versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Results show that parents and adolescents reported the latter as having experienced high levels of cumulative trauma, especially lack of food, water, and shelter. Mean total problem scores were in ranges similar to those of adolescents receiving clinical care in the US, Netherlands, and Israel. 53.8% had total problem scores in the clinical range by parent report on the CBCL and 26.4% by adolescent report on the YSR. The most commonly reported symptoms were somatic complaints, social withdrawal, attention problems, anxiety, and depression. The dose-effect relationship between cumulative trauma and symptoms was strong for parents reporting on the CBCL; the subscales on both the YSR and CBCL for Anxious/Depressed and Attention Problems revealed dose-effect associations. 



Title: A report of mental health care for the children who have fled to Ichikawa after the earthquake in Hanshin-Awaji.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Fukui, Tomomi; Safoh, Izumi; Yamagishi, Takao; Miyauchi, Yoko; Kanbayashi, Yasuko

Seller: National Inst of Mental Health, NCNP

Source/Citation: Journal of Mental Health; No 43 1997, Japan: National Inst of Mental Health - Japan; 1997, 91-104

Abstract/Review/Citation: The Board of Education of the City of Ichikawa

established a traveling educational guidance project in January of 1995 to

provide educational guidance and psychological support for 25 children, (24

elementary school children and 1 middle school child) who had fled to the city of Ichikawa from the disaster areas. The project, designed to help these children socially and psychologically, was conducted for 2 mo with the guidance personnel visiting the children's schools to meet with the school principals, the children's teachers, the children and their parents and relatives. 



Title: Biparental psychopathology and borderline personality disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Shachnow, Jody; Clarkin, John; DiPalma, Cynthia Smith; Thurston, Frances; et al

Source/Citation: Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes; Vol 60(2) Sum 1997, US: Guilford Publications; 1997, 171-181

Abstract/Review/Citation: Studied parental psychopathology and its correlation with disturbed family climate, disruptive and traumatic events among patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and the relationship between biparental psychopathology and the severity of BPD. Ss were 30 women (aged 16-30 yrs) with BPD and their 60 biological parents. Patients' Axis I and II diagnoses were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for Mental Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R). Patients and their parents also completed the Family Experiences Interview. Results show that mothers had high rates of depressive disorders; fathers had high rates of substance abuse and depressive disorders. There was an overall correlation between parental disorder and severity of BPD, but no first-order correlations between the number of ill parents and the incidence/severity of disruptive or traumatic developmental

events. In addition, there were several significant associations between

parental psychopathology and patient evaluations of family climate.  ========================================


Title: Remembering details in stories about childhood sexual abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lewis, Sarah F.; White, Hedy

Source/Citation: Journal of Genetic Psychology; Vol 158(3) Sep 1997, US: Heldref Publications; 1997, 377-379

Abstract/Review/Citation: Compared memory for peripheral details that were encoded prior to receiving traumatic or neutral information with memory for peripheral details that were encoded after Ss received the traumatic (childhood sexual abuse) or neutral information. Undergraduates read 1 of 2 narratives that differed only in the middle section, which presented central information. They were then given a free-recall task followed by a cued-recall task, and repeated the experimental tasks again 2 wks later. There was a 3-way interaction of central information, narrative section, and retention interval. Results suggest that the process of remembering the central information altered the strength of the previously encoded peripheral information.



Title: Sexual contact between children and adults: A life course perspective.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Browning, Christopher R.; Laumann, Edward O.

Source/Citation: American Sociological Review; Vol 62(4) Aug 1997, US: American Sociological Assn; 1997, 540-560

Abstract/Review/Citation: Collected data from the National Health and Social Life Survey to examine 2 competing models of the long-term effects on women (aged 18-59 yrs) of sexual contact (SC) in childhood. The psychogenic perspective (PP) conceptualizes adult-child SC as a traumatic event generating affect that must be resolved. Behavioral attempts to deal with this trauma can take opposing forms; some victims will engage in compulsive sexual behavior while others withdraw from sexual activity. The more severe the SC, the more adverse the long-term effects. From a life-course perspective, SC with an adult during childhood provides a culturally inappropriate model of sexual behavior that increases a child's likelihood of engaging in an active and risky sexual career in adolescence and adulthood, which create long-term adverse outcomes. There was evidence of heightened sexual activity in the aftermath of adult-child sex (predicted by both perspectives), but they found no evidence of a tendency to avoid sexual activity (predicted by both perspectives). Little evidence was found that the severity of the SC increases the likelihood of long-term adverse outcomes. In contrast, strong evidence was provided that sexual trajectories account for the association between adult-child SC and adult outcomes.



Title: Development and validation of a measure of adolescent dissociation: The Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Armstrong, Judith G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Carlson, Eve B.; Libero, Deborah Z.; Smith, Steven R.

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 185(8) Aug 1997, US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1997, 491-497

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study describes the initial reliability and

validity data on the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES), a

screening measure for pathological dissociation during adolescence. The A-DES showed good scale and subscale reliability, and, as hypothesized, increased scores were associated with reported trauma in a patient population. A-DES scores were able to distinguish 13 adolescents (aged 12-18 yrs) with dissociative disorder from a normal sample and from a patient sample with a variety of diagnoses.  ========================================


Title: Differences between Black and White students in the effect of parental separation on school grades.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Smith, Thomas Ewin

Source/Citation: Journal of Divorce & Remarriage; Vol 27(1-2) 1997, US:

Haworth Press Inc; 1997, 25-42

Abstract/Review/Citation: Effects of parental separation on self-reported school grades are examined in a sample of 1,709 7th and 9th grade public school students, 44.5% of whom are Black. A significant statistical interaction between parental separation and race reveals a marked Black/White difference in the effect of the timing of separation on grades. Only separation after the 2nd grade has a significant negative effect on the White students, while only separation before kindergarten has a significant negative effect on the Black students. It is tentatively concluded that the White students have been negatively affected by conflict between their parents and/or emotional trauma associated with separation, while the Black students have been negatively affected mainly by structural weakness of the mother-only family as an economic unit and/or agency of socialization.  ========================================


Title: Predicting PTSD in trauma survivors: Prospective evaluation of

self-report and clinician-administered instruments.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Shalev, Arieh Y.; Freedman, Sara; Peri, Tuvia;

Brandes, Dalia; Sahar, Tali

Source/Citation: British Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 170 Jun 1997, England: Royal College of Psychiatrists; 1997, 558-564

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the ability of commonly used questionnaires and a structured clinical interview to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in recent trauma survivors. The Impact of Event Scale (IES), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (SANX), and the Peritraumatic Dissociation Questionnaire (PDEQ) were administered 1 wk posttrauma to 207 traumatized individuals (aged 16-65 yrs) recruited from a general hospital emergency room. The IES, the SANX, the civilian version of the Mississippi Rating Scale for Combat Related PTSD (MISS), and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) were administered 1 mo and 4 mo posttrauma. Receiver operator characteristic analysis was used with these data. Results show that all questionnaires were better than chance at predicting PTSD. The PTSD-focused questionnaires (IES and MISS) were not better than the more general ones at predicting PTSD. No difference in predictive value was found when questionnaires were carried out

1 wk or 1 mo after a trauma. Recovery was better predicted than PTSD, and the CAPS was a better predictor than were the questionnaires. It is suggested that the use of psychometrics and clinical interviews to predict PTSD should be guided by clinical relevance and by the availability of resources.



Title: A family survives genocide.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Weine, Stevan; Vojvoda, Dolores; Hartman, Stephen;

Hyman, Leslie

Source/Citation: Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes; Vol 60(1) Spr 1997, US: Guilford Publications; 1997, 24-39

Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents a case study of a family from

Bosnia-Herzegovina who were driven from their home by Serbian forces and

"ethnically cleansed." The family eventually escaped to Croatia and

were later resettled in the US where they were referred to the authors (a

group of mental health professionals) who conducted clinical, testimony, and

research work with them. Details on this clinical work from both the parents'

and the 14- and 16-yr-old children's perspectives are presented. The authors discuss the results of genocidal trauma to families, trauma-related

psychiatric disorders, intergenerational phenomena, communication in survivor families, and treatment implications from a family systems perspective.



Title: Not without a trace: Resilience and remembering among Bosnian refugees (commentary on "A family survives genocide").

Author(s)/Editor(s): Jenkins, Janis H.

Source/Citation: Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes; Vol 60(1) Spr 1997, US: Guilford Publications; 1997, 40-43

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the S. Weine et al discussion on the experiences of a Bosnian family that survived genocide. The

author ponders the horrors of such experiences, noting the extraordinary

resilience that such refugees tend to show. The mental health community is

urged to not only continue to document and treat such individuals, but also to provide preventative mental health care by speaking out against ethnic

violence and genocide.                     ========================================


Title: Stress-related disorders in African-American children.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bell, Carl C.

Source/Citation: Journal of the National Medical Association; Vol 89(5) May 1997, US: National Medical Association; 1997, 335-340

Abstract/Review/Citation: Children exposed to traumatic stress are vulnerable to a variety of stress-related disorders other than classical post-traumatic stress disorder. Case histories of 6 10-25 yr olds are presented to illustrate some of the diversity of how traumatic stress may manifest in children. African American children are the main focus of this article as political, economic, social, and morbidity and mortality indicators suggest that African-American children are at high risk for exposure to potentially

traumatic stressors. Different presentations of traumatic stress are discussed in an effort to broaden our understanding of the outcome of traumatic stress to fully help traumatized children.                     ========================================


Title: Diagnose trauma: Die schwierigkeit der unterscheidung zwischen erinnerung und fantasie./ Establishing trauma: The difficulty distinguishing between memories and fantasies.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Person, Ethell Spector; Klar, Howard

Source/Citation: Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie; Vol 47(3-4) Mar-Apr 1997, Germany: Georg Thieme Verlag; 1997, 97-107

Abstract/Review/Citation: This paper is intended as a contribution to

understanding why, up until recently, there have been so few case reports of actual abuse and its sequelae in the psychoanalytic literature. Psychoanalytic insights into the nature of psychic reality, while indispensable to the evolution of psychoanalytic thinking, have nonetheless had the adverse effect of collapsing any distinction between unconscious fantasies and repressed memories. A report is presented of an adult analysis that illustrates the recovery of a dissociated memory of sexual abuse that occurred during adolescence, as a springboard to discussing problems analysts have had in dealing with trauma theoretically. It is hypothesized that repressed memories and unconscious fantasies can often be distinguished insofar as they may be stored or encoded differently, and that consequently the sequelae of trauma and fantasy often, but not always, can be disentangled. Different modes of encoding trauma and some different ways of remembering, re-experiencing, and re-enacting it are described. Finally, it is suggested why traumatic memories are increasingly accessible to patients today. 



Title: System intervention trauma to child sexual abuse victims following


Author(s)/Editor(s): Henry, Jim

Source/Citation: Journal of Interpersonal Violence; Vol 12(4) Aug 1997, US: Sage Publications Inc; 1997, 499-512

Abstract/Review/Citation: Explores whether societal system interventions in intrafamily child sexual abuse cases affect the level of trauma experienced in child victims after their disclosures. 81 sexually abused children (aged 9-19 yrs) were selected from 3 counties that have contrasting societal system interventions. Each child's court case was reviewed and data were gathered from the documented legal proceedings, police reports, and social service sections contained in the individual record. Three testing instruments were administered during a semistructured interview to measure the level of trauma and to determine the amount of societal system intervention stress experienced by each child. Results of the study indicate that the number of investigatory interviews children experienced and a trusting relationship with a professional were statistically significant predictors of trauma scores. Other major system interventions, testifying and removal of child from home, were not statistically correlated to trauma scores. The majority of children found the system a positive support in assisting them with the stress of intervention and personal loss.  ========================================


Title: Clinical description of children's anxiety during the Gulf War.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Al-Khawaja, Jasem M. A.

Source/Citation: Psychological Reports; Vol 80(3, Pt 1) Jun 1997, US:

Psychological Reports; 1997, 733-734

Abstract/Review/Citation: Interviews were carried out with 322 children, ages 5-16 yrs, to examine the association of war experience and their anxiety. Body language was used as indicator of anxiety. Girls showed significantly more discrete body movements than boys.                                 ========================================


Title: An interim report on the development of the Psychological Trauma and

Resources scales.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Holmes, George R.; Forand, Angela Q.; Myers, deRosset Jr.; Leonhardt, Tami V.

Source/Citation: Psychological Reports; Vol 80(3, Pt 1) Jun 1997, US:

Psychological Reports; 1997, 819-831

Abstract/Review/Citation: Developed and tested the William S. Hall Psychiatric Institute Psychological Trauma and Psychological Resources Scales as a preliminary measure for the assessment of psychological trauma and psychological health from a developmental perspective. This article (1) discusses the various rationales leading to the development of the scales, (2) provides a factor-analysis of responses of 336 14-46 yr olds, and (3) addresses current and planned efforts to establish reliability and validity of a more refined version.                   ========================================


Title: Detection of malingering on the Halstead-Reitan Battery: A


Author(s)/Editor(s): McKinzey, R. K.; Russell, Elbert W.

Source/Citation: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology; Vol 12(6) 1997, US:

Pergamon Press c/o Elsevier Science Inc; 1997, 585-589

Abstract/Review/Citation: Using the Halstead-Reitan Battery profiles of 796 people, a formula for the detection of malingering was cross-validated to assess the false positive rate. Subjects included normals, psychiatric cases and all major types of organics. The formula incorrectly designated 27% of the sample as fakers (i.e., as false positives). Of the 120 head trauma cases, 27 (22.5%) obtained Fake scores, while 93 (77.5%) were correctly assessed as not malingering.  ========================================


Title: Personality disorder following neurocysticercosis and emotional trauma: A case report.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Singh, Amool R.; Mehra, Rajesh; Banerjee, K. R.

Source/Citation: Social Science International; Vol 13(1-2) Jan 1997, India:

Social Science International; 1997, 57-62

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reports on a 19.5-yr-old girl with a history of

seizures during childhood due to neurocysticercosis and emotional trauma

during adolescence due to the death of her father, who reported to the clinic primarily for adjustment problem mostly accompanied by her mother. As per mother, the S was apparently normal a year back but gradually, she displayed an unusually high degree of attention seeking behavior such as temper tantrums, fears and accusations only to be the center of attention, even in a negative manner. During mental status examination, the S was observed to be using lots of gestures and dramatic punctuation, and used sweet, polished and colorful language during the interview. No perceptual disturbance was found. Psychological testing didn't suggest any possibility of organic involvement. The S underwent weekly psychotherapy sessions for 6 mo which resulted in a significant improvement in her overall behavior.  ========================================


Title: Validity of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire in an adolescent

psychiatric population.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bernstein, David P.; Ahluvalia, Taruna; Handelsman, Leonard

Source/Citation: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent

Psychiatry; Vol 36(3) Mar 1997, US: Williams & Wilkins Co.; 1997, 340-348

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the validity of a recently developed

maltreatment inventory, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), in a sample of adolescent psychiatric patients. 398 adolescents (aged 12-17 yrs) admitted to the inpatient service of a private psychiatric hospital were given the CTQ as part of a larger test battery. Structured interviews were also conducted with the primary therapists of 190 of the Ss to obtain ratings of abuse and neglect based on all available data, including clinical interviews with patients and their relatives and information from referring clinicians and agencies. Principal-components analysis of CTQ items yielded 5 rotated factors: emotional abuse, emotional neglect, sexual abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. The internal consistency of the CTQ factors was extremely high both in the entire sample and in subgroups. When CTQ factor scores were compared with therapists' ratings, relationships between the 2 sets of variables were highly specific, supporting the convergent and discriminant validity of the CTQ. Finally, when therapists' ratings were used as the validity criterion, the CTQ exhibited good sensitivity for all forms of maltreatment, and satisfactory or better levels of specificity.  ========================================


Title: Children in a violent society.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Osofsky, Joy D.

Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press; 1997, (xiv, 338)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Emphasizing the need for early intervention and prevention, this book examines the impact of violence exposure on children and youth, discusses several existing programs, and proposes new approaches to the problem. Recommending crucial steps to stem the tide of violence and enhance the safety of future generations, this volume will be of interest to mental health practitioners, developmental researchers, sociologists, educators, law enforcement personnel, and policy makers.

Notes/Comments: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) 300 I: Scope of the problem

Children and youth violence: An overview of the issue Joy D. Osofsky Exposure and response to community violence among children and adolescents Esther J. Jenkins and Carl C. Bell What children can tell us about living in a war zone James Garbarino and Kathleen Kostelny Firearm injuries affecting U.S. children and adolescents Katherine Kaufer Christoffel Media violence and youth John P. Murray The experience and effects of violence in infancy Charles H. Zeanah and Michael S. Scheeringa Incubated in terror: Neurodevelopmental factors in the "cycle of violence" Bruce Perry The development of violence and crime as it relates to security of attachment Peter Fonagy, Mary Target, Miriam Steele and Howard Steele II: Prevention and intervention programs for children and families exposed to violence Interventions with parents and caregivers of children who are exposed to violence Betsy McAlister Groves and Barry Zuckerman Experiencing violence in a developmental context Steven Marans and Anne Adelman The trauma/grief-focused group psychotherapy module of an elementary school-based violence prevention/intervention program Lisa Murphy, Robert S. Pynoos and C. Boyd James The Violence Intervention Project for Children and Families Joy D. Osofsky Perceptions of violence: Children, parents and police officers Ana C. Fick, Joy D. Osofsky and Marva L. Lewis Violent cities, violent streets: Children draw their neighborhoods Marva L. Lewis and Joy D. Osofsky Cops and kids: Issues for community policing Pamela Jenkins, Ruth Seydlitz, Joy D .Osofsky and Ana C. Fick Prevention and policy: Directions for the future Joy D. Osofsky Index impact of violence exposure & prevention & intervention programs, children & youth & their families



Title: Experiencing violence in a developmental context.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Marans, Steven; Adelman, Anne

Source/Citation: Children in a violent society., New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press; 1997, (xiv, 338), 202-222

Source editor(s): Osofsky, Joy D. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: How a child makes sense of violence he or she has witnessed and the particular meanings that emerge over time as the child begins to digest and to organize fragments of traumatic memory are embedded in a developmental matrix. The authors argue that in order to understand both the child's greatest areas of vulnerability to trauma and the phase-specific attempts at restitution and/or symptom formation, it is essential that the clinician consider nodal developmental constellations as they determine the specific experience of each individual child. Violence is discussed in the context of the following developmental groups: infants and toddlers, preschoolers, school-age children, and adolescents.  ========================================


Title: The assessment of object relations phenomena in adolescents: TAT and Rorschach measures.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kelly, Francis D.

Source/Citation: Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers; 1997, (xiii, 210) The LEA series in personality and clinical psychology.

Abstract/Review/Citation: This book offers a comprehensive paradigm for

assessing object relations functioning in disturbed younger and older

adolescents using TAT and Rorschach measures. It gives a sense of how object relations functioning is manifest in different disorders, and illuminates how scores on object relations measures are converted into a therapeutically relevant diagnostic matrix and formulation. The book reflects one school of contemporary thought in projective assessment that advocates a more phenomenological, theory-based approach to test application and interpretation.The author presents detailed cases of a range of disorders including anorexia nervosa, borderline state, depressive disorders, and trauma. A major concern is demonstrating the utility and validity of 2 object representation measures, The Mutuality of Autonomy Scale and The Social Cognition Object Relations Scale, that are the main ones employed in the assessment of adolescents.

Notes/Comments: Preface Introduction Diagnostic difficulties in adolescent psychiatry: Limitations of DSM-IV and the role of projective tests in developmental assessment Object relations assessment and functioning in adolescence: Theoretical and clinical considerations Object representation assessment in adolescence: TAT and Rorschach research in relation to different clinical populations Object representation scales The assessment of object representation in normal adolescents Introduction to clinical case illustrations Pathways of trauma: The impact of chronic, complex abuse and neglect experiences on object representations and relatedness From assessment to treatment planning: The development of the psychodynamic formulation Object representation and changes in clinical functioning: Positive and negative therapeutic sequelae in adolescence Concluding observations and remarks References Author index Subject index object relations assessment using TAT & Rorschach measures, adolescents with mental disorders



Title: Adolescent psychiatry, Vol. 21: Developmental and clinical studies.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Flaherty, Lois T.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

Source/Citation: Hillsdale, NJ, US: The Analytic Press, Inc; 1997, (xv, 505)

Annals of the Amerian Society for Adolescent Psychiatry.

Abstract/Review/Citation: This volume of Adolescent Psychiatry begins with a section of papers that covers aspects of adolescent development and psychopathology. Topics explored by the contributors include: adolescents and authority; adolescents and disaster; adolescent awareness of the past; adolescent daughters of divorce; parent loss; adolescent schizophrenia; and adolescent mood disorders. Sections on assessment, issues in psychotherapy, and training round out a balanced survey of the field. This volume is intended for child and adolescent therapists and all students of early development.

Notes/Comments: In memoriam: Richard C. Marohn (1934-1995) In memoriam: Herman D. Staples (1918-1994) Part I. Development and psychopathology A hierarchical model of adolescent development: Implications for psychotherapy Charles M. Jaffe The awareness of the past in adolescence Claude Villeneuve Adolescence, authority, and change Philip Katz Adolescents and disaster Max Sugar Breaking up or breaking away: The struggle around autonomy and individuation among adolescent daughters of divorce Elizabeth Perl Parent loss in childhood and adult psychopathology Benjamin Garber Thought disorders in adolescent schizophrenia: Toward an integrative model John Port, Martin Harrow, Thomas Jobe and Darin Dougherty The family perceptions of young adults with putative risk for schizophrenia Linda M. Perosa, Robert Simons and Sandra L. Perosa Adolescent mood disorders Lynn E. Ponton Part II. Assessment Hearing the S.O.S.: Assessing the lethality of a youth in distress Ghislaine D. Godenne Use of structured assessment tools in clinical practice Mark D. Weist and Mary E. Baker-Sinclair On the uses and misuses of psychoeducational evaluations Jonathan Cohen Part III. Issues in psychotherapy Adolescent analyzability reconsidered Michael G.

Kalogerakis Failures in everyday psychotherapy Richard C. Marohn Self

psychology perspectives on adolescents Gustavo Lage The psychotherapeutic pathway to adaptive individuation for adolescents confronting conflict Paul V. Trad Part IV. Interventions for violence and trauma Intervening against violence in the schools Mark D. Weist and Beth S. Warner The game's the thing: Play psychotherapy with a traumatized young adolescent boy Steven M. Weine Part V. Special section on training Report of the Accreditation Council on Fellowships in Adolescent Psychiatry Richard Rosner Adolescent psychiatry training: Guidelines for child and adolescent psychiatry residents, general psychiatry residents, and medical students Robert L. Hendren, Marie Armentano, Simeon Grater, Edwin J. Mikkelsen, Richard Sarles and Adrian Sondheimer The authors Contents of volume 1-20 Index issues of development & psychopathology & assessment & psychotherapy in adolescent psychiatry



Title: Adolescents and disaster.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Sugar, Max

Source/Citation: Adolescent psychiatry, Vol. 21: Developmental and clinical studies., Hillsdale, NJ, US: The Analytic Press, Inc; 1997, (xv, 505), 67-81 Annals of the Amerian Society for Adolescent Psychiatry. Source editor(s): Flaherty, Lois T. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Focuses on how adolescents react to disaster, what interferes with the expression of their reaction, and what therapists can do for them. Literature on the adolescent and disaster is reviewed, postdisaster symptomatic behavior, denial, and clinical diagnoses resulting from disaster trauma are discussed. The chapter concludes with an examination of influences on adolescent psychosocial development and countertransference problems with therapists.  ========================================


Title: The game's the thing: Play psychotherapy with a traumatized young

adolescent boy.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Weine, Steven M.

Source/Citation: Adolescent psychiatry, Vol. 21: Developmental and clinical studies., Hillsdale, NJ, US: The Analytic Press, Inc; 1997, (xv, 505), 361-386 Annals of the Amerian Society for Adolescent Psychiatry. Source editor(s): Flaherty, Lois T. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: The author uses a case of a traumatized early

adolescent boy whom he treated with psychotherapy to illustrate some

particular ways in which play psychotherapy may be used in the treatment of a traumatized individual. The treatment he devised for this adolescent uses both traditional and novel play psychotherapeutic approaches. Competitive athletic games are used as the major psychotherapeutic activity. The case discussion (aspects of play in competitive athletic games, therapeutic functions of play and the dilemmas of the therapist) focuses on the trauma as the predominant etiological contributant to the patient's difficulties.



Title: Traumatic experiences: The early organization of memory in school-age children and adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Pynoos, Robert S.; Steinberg, Alan M.; Aronson, Lisa

Source/Citation: Trauma and memory: Clinical and legal controversies., New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press; 1997, (xv, 552), 272-289 Source editor(s): Appelbaum, Paul S. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: There are 2 trends currently working to unduly

restrict discussions of traumatic memories. Recent judicial controversies

concerning "repressed memories," "delayed memories" and "false memory syndromes" have resulted in social polarization over the veracity of presumed traumatic memories among adults and the reliability of young children's recall of traumatic experiences.  At the same time, there have been efforts to conceptualize traumatic memories in neurobiological terms as involving an extreme consolidation of memory due to danger or fear-induced, augmented stimulation of endogenous stress hormones. Both the vehement polarization of opinion and the biological reductionism profoundly underrepresent the extraordinary complexity of traumatic experiences and the extreme activity of children's minds in the experience and remembering of traumatic events. This chapter will present clinical and research material gathered from traumatized school age children and adolescents to elucidate this contention.  Topics discussed include: the convergence of internal and external dangers, the complexity of traumatic experiences, the role of memory markers in episodic memory of trauma, self-protective mechanisms in remembering and recounting traumatic experiences: weakened versions, intervention fantasies, and selected developmental issues in children's traumatic memories.  ========================================


Title: Memories of trauma in the treatment of children.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Sauzier, Maria C.

Source/Citation: Trauma and memory: Clinical and legal controversies., New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press; 1997, (xv, 552), 378-393 Source editor(s): Appelbaum, Paul S. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This chapter focuses on children whose presentation in the course of ongoing treatment led to the questioning of whether unsuspected early trauma had to be considered and explored. These situations raise issues on many levels. Clinically relevant observations and questions are addressed as they pertain to the presentation of the 6-, 10-, and 16-yr-old patients described. These kinds of cases also raise questions of technique, such as how to handle the sense of emergency in the therapist; how and when to involve the parents; when to involve Child Protective Services; whether and how to change the therapist-patient interaction to a more directive, evaluative one; or when and whether to request a consultation or make a referral to a trauma expert. The goal of this chapter is to offer a point of view integrating dynamic child psychiatry and trauma-focused approaches.  ========================================


Title: Brain imaging and behavioral outcome in traumatic brain injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bigler, Erin D.

Source/Citation: Childhood traumatic brain injury: Diagnosis, assessment, and intervention., Austin, TX, US: PRO-ED, Inc; 1997, (x, 342), 7-29

Source editor(s): Bigler, Erin D. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: The task of this review is to update the reader on cellular-level pathology in traumatic brain injury and advances in brain

imaging of cerebral trauma.           ========================================


Title: Neuropsychological consequences of traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lord-Maes, Janiece; Obrzut, John E.

Source/Citation: Childhood traumatic brain injury: Diagnosis, assessment, and intervention., Austin, TX, US: PRO-ED, Inc; 1997, (x, 342), 101-114 Source editor(s): Bigler, Erin D. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: The intent of this chapter is to review the literature on the advances derived from the study of neuropsychology and the associated neuroscientific information related to cognitive function and dysfunction in school-age children and adolescents (6 to 18 yrs of age) who have experienced some form of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Developments in assessment for individuals with acquired cerebral trauma as well as implications for learning and the cognitive sequelae will be included.  The chapter examines the following topics: behavioral and cognitive outcomes with TBI; age differences with TBI; learning disorders and brain dysfunction; hemispheric specialization with TBI; recent developments in TBI assessment and Wechsler Scale classification with TBI.  ========================================


Title: The shared experience of illness: Stories of patients, families, and

their therapists.

Author(s)/Editor(s): McDaniel, Susan H.; Hepworth, Jeri; Doherty, William Joseph

Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: Basic Books, Inc; 1997, (xii, 378)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This volume shows the powerful benefits that can emerge when therapists acknowledge illness as a vital part of everyone's psychology. The authors invited therapists who work with individuals and families experiencing chronic illness and disability to describe clinical cases that illustrate their approach to medical family therapy.  Case studies dealing with a range of illnesses show how the therapists' own experiences of illness are relevant to their care of others--and how these

experiences can be used to form a healing bond in therapy.

Notes/Comments: The shared emotional themes of illness Susan H. McDaniel, Jeri Hepworth and William J. Doherty Part I: Illness in children and adolescents Whispers of illness: Secrecy versus trust Judith Landau A birth gone awry Jo Ellen Patterson Working together to get control: Treating encopresis Alan D. Lorenz The child in the therapist and the old man in the child: Psychosomatic symptoms and children David V. Keith "So that they don't need me anymore": Weaving migration, illness, and coping Celia Jaes Falicov The girl who went on strike: A case of childhood diabetes Felise B. Levine Two families, two stories: Courage and chronic illness Kathy Cole-Kelly A double life: Adolescent trauma Barry J. Jacobs Part II: Illness in young adulthood Controlled bleeding: Counseling hemophiliacs David M. Rosenthal Infertility: A couple and a therapist consider the meaning of children Mimi Meyers Mothering without a mother: Pregnancy loss Barbara A. Gawinski Facing yourself in your work: A young man with head and neck cancer William N. Friedrich Coming to peace: Dialogues on survival, suffering, and death Melissa Elliott Griffith and James L. Griffith A journey with hope, fear, and loss: Young couples and cancer John S. Rolland The family left out and the family included: Two outcomes for "schizophrenia" Lyman C. Wynne The two-way mirror in my therapy room: AIDS and families Jeri Hepworth "Do you need to know?": Genetic testing for Huntington's disease Susan K. Sobel Multiple illnesses, repeating nightmares John Byng-Hall Part III: Illness in middle adulthood Can anyone help me? The story of a woman with breast cancer Karen Weihs The denial of death: A case of stomach cancer David B. Seaburn The feminization of a medical marriage: Collaborative opportunities in cardiac rehabilitation Wayne M. Sotile Mothers aren't supposed to get sick: A case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder Nancy Brown Ruddy When it never stops hurting: A case of chronic pain Sylvia Shellenberger and Gregory L. Phelps On not taking illness too seriously: Aging with diabetes Donald S. Williamson Turning powerlessness into opportunity: A case of bipolar affective disorder Michael R. Fox Multiple sclerosis, beliefs, and families: Professional and personal stories of suffering and strength Lorraine M. Wright Trapped inside a body without a voice: Two cases of somatic fixation Susan H. McDaniel Coping with an insoluble problem: Renal failure Peter Steinglass Unspeakable pain: The impact of stroke on the family William B. Gunn, Jr. Part IV: Illness in older adulthood Finding the person in dementia: Experiences in a group for persons with Alzheimer's disease Wayne Caron A lesson on love: Caring for the terminally ill Maria A. Batlle-Santiago "He's sick, but I'm the one who hurts": Our work with a medically ill older couple Stephen C. Basler and Deborah A. King Learning from my grandmothers: A case of polymyalgia rheumatica Nancy K. Newman Rigidity in the family: A case of Parkinson's disease William J. Doherty Contributors Index healing benefits of shared experience of illness in medical family therapy, therapists & their patients, case studies



Title: Psychobiological effects of sexual abuse. A longitudinal study.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

Source/Citation: Psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder., New York, NY, US: New York Academy of Sciences; 1997, (xv, 550), 150-159 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 821.

Source editor(s): Yehuda, Rachel (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Recent associations between maltreatment experiences and biological effects promise to inform basic questions. How are behavioral and cognitive symptoms related to biological dysfunctions? How similar are the biological effects of maltreatment with those of other traumatic stressors, such as combat, accidents, and disasters? How reversible are biological effects? Do different types of maltreatment, such as sexual and physical abuse, have differential effects on a given biological system? Can biological abnormalities be used as forensic evidence? Can biological measures predict diagnosis and treatment response or suggest new forms of treatment? Do trauma-associated biological alterations produce a different "type" of individual?  To answer these questions, the chapter presents a longitudinal study on the psychobiological effects of sexual abuse in 164 6-15 yr old girls. Results from the study regarding hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation, catecholamine levels, immune function, hormone/behavior correlations, and pathological dissociation are discussed.                                  ========================================


Title: Preliminary evidence for abnormal cortical development in physically and sexually abused children using EEG coherence and MRI.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Teicher, Martin H.; Ito, Yutaka; Glod, Carol A.;

Andersen, Susan L.; et al

Source/Citation: Psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder., New York, NY, US: New York Academy of Sciences; 1997, (xv, 550), 160-175 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 821.

Source editor(s): Yehuda, Rachel (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Physical or sexual abuse during childhood has been associated with the development of an array of psychiatric disorders including multiple personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, and refractory psychosis. Childhood physical abuse may also sensitize patients to the later development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We postulated that early deprivation or abuse could result in neurobiological abnormalities responsible for subsequent psychiatric disorders. We hypothesized that early childhood abuse or trauma could affect the development of the cerebral cortex and limbic system. The research presented examines the developmental effects of physical and sexual abuse in children, adolescents, and adults abused in childhood.



Title: Issues in the developmental neurobiology of traumatic stress.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Pynoos, Robert S.; Steinberg, Alan M.; Ornitz, Edward M.; Goenjian, Armen K.

Source/Citation: Psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder., New York, NY, US: New York Academy of Sciences; 1997, (xv, 550), 176-193 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 821.

Source editor(s): Yehuda, Rachel (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: The authors recently presented a developmental psychopathology model of traumatic stress in childhood. Such a model emphasizes the complex interrelationship of trauma and developmental progression and the essential linkage between disrupted and normal development. Analogously, investigation of the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among children and adolescents will need to be embedded in a neurodevelopmental framework. This paper provides an overview of selected areas of neurodevelopment and recent findings relevant to this research enterprise.  A key feature of the authors' developmental model of childhood traumatic stress is the prominent role assigned to the trauma-related formation of expectations, as these are expressed in the thought, emotion, behavior, and biology of the developing child. Such traumatic expectations dramatically alter the sense of safety and security of the environment and interpersonal life and the child's sense of personal integrity. Ultimately, a comprehensive neurodevelopmental approach to traumatic stress among children and adolescents will place such investigation within the broader context of the child's evolving capacity for appraising, processing, and responding to danger, trauma, and posttrauma reminders.  Topics discussed include: a neurodevelopmental perspective; overview of developmental neurobiology; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis alterations among adolescents 5 yrs after the 1988 earthquake in Armenia; modulation of startle in PTSD; developmental considerations in future studies of trauma-related effects on children's information processing; behavioral animal models of PTSD; and an evolutionary biology perspective.  ========================================


Title: Becoming and being a woman.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lax, Ruth F.

Source/Citation: Northvale, NJ, US: Jason Aronson, Inc; 1997, (xvi, 253)

Abstract/Review/Citation: The chapters in this book present an evolving

conception of female psychosexual development based on analytic child

observation, the findings stemming from child analysis, and, most important,

the analysis of women. As the author examines such critical challenges as

pregnancy (and, in case of the analyst, its impact on the transferential

role), the birth of a defective child, the masochistic surrender, the

menopausal phase, and old age, Dr. Lax teases out both the individual and

cultural roots of women's resolutions--adaptive and pathologic--to the

conflicts they face at pivotal points in the life cycle.  Accordingly, she

addresses and illustrates with generous clinical material the intrapsychic

struggles that arise from non-integrated maternal and paternal

identifications, and also exposes the inhibitions imposed by powerful gender

stereotypes on a woman's capacity to form a self-image conducive to the

pursuit of her goals and ideals.

Notes/Comments:  Acknowledgments Introduction Freud's views and

the changing perspective on femaleness and femininity: What my female

analysands taught me The effect of the analyst's pregnancy on the patient:

Transference and countertransference manifestations evoked by the analyst's pregnancy The birth of an impaired child; aspects of mother-child interaction; mother's narcissistic trauma The rotten core: Legacy of mother's depression Girl's primary and secondary genital feelings and anxieties "A Child is Being Beaten": Mother's role in the formation of a woman's superego An imaginary brother: Conflicting pathways to womanhood contribute to splits in the ego ideal Masochism in women: The role of internalization and ego psychological considerations The menopausal phase: Crisis, danger, opportunity Growing older; getting old; psychic reality in aging In conclusion . . . References Credits Index psychoanalytic perspective on challenges in psychosexual development across life cycle, females



Title: After the crash: Assessment and treatment of motor vehicle accident


Author(s)/Editor(s): Blanchard, Edward B.; Hickling, Edward J.

Source/Citation: Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association; 1997, (ix, 353)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Involvement in motor vehicle accidents (MVA) is a widespread experience for Americans. Moreover, a large-scale survey has shown that MVAs are the most frequent trauma for American males and second most frequent trauma for American females. Another large-scale survey found that MVAs were the single leading cause of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the general population. Yet very little is known about the assessment and treatment of road crash survivors, and few studies have looked at the psychological and psychosocial effects of surviving an accident. This book describes the details of a 5-yr study of MVA survivors in the Albany, New York area and discusses MVA related PTSD. This volume will appeal to a broad audience of practitioners, researchers, and physicians; attorneys who handle MVA survivor cases; and those interested in public safety issues.

Notes/Comments: Prologue: The case of Mary J. Section one: Quantifying the problem Introduction and overview The magnitude of the problem What percentage of MVA survivors develop PTSD? Section two: Psychological effects of MVAs The Albany MVA Project What are the psychosocial effects of MVAs on accident survivors? Who develops PTSD from MVAs? What is the short-term history of MVA-related PTSD and what predicts remission? Delayed-onset PTSD from MVAs The role of physical injury in the development and maintenance of PTSD among MVA survivors

The role of litigation in the remission of MVA-related PTSD Acute stress

disorder among MVA survivors Psychophysiological assessment with MVA survivors Section three: Treatment for survivors The psychological treatment of PTSD: An overview and review The treatment of MVA-related PTSD: A review of the literature The Albany MVA Treatment Project A closer look at psychological treatment: The treatment manual (and more) Summary and conclusions References Appendixes Appendix A: Motor vehicle accident interview Appendix B: Motor vehicle accident follow-up interview Appendix C: Home practice relaxation tape Index About the authors psychosocial effects & treatment of accident-related PTSD, adolescent & adult survivors of motor vehicle accidents, 5- yr study  ========================================


Title: The Traumatic Events Screening Inventory: Assessing trauma in children.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Edwards, Jason H.; Rogers, Karen C.

Source/Citation: Out of darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family

violence., Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc; 1997, (xi, 332),


Source editor(s): Kantor, Glenda Kaufman (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: In this pilot study, The Traumatic Events Screening Inventory (TESI) was administered to mothers & 26 children ranging from 7 to 18 yr olds. It is the purpose of this chapter to discuss the TESI in detail and present preliminary child trauma clinical research using this instrument. Preliminary research suggest high levels of endorsement by both children and parents of child exposure to potentially traumatic events. One third of children and parents endorsed child exposure to more than six potentially traumatic events. It is possible that the high rates of exposure to traumatic events are reflective of children who reach clinical status.

Children not referred for mental health services may have much lower rates of exposure to traumatic events.                        ========================================


Title: Surviving abuse dating relationships: Processes of leaving, healing, and moving on.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Rosen, Karen H.; Stith, Sandra M.

Source/Citation: Out of darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family

violence., Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc; 1997, (xi, 332),


Source editor(s): Kantor, Glenda Kaufman (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examines the processes of disentangling from abusive premarital relationships and discusses how women are able to heal and to move on in their lives after leaving. Twenty-two women participated in this study. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 32 when they began their violent dating relationship. The physical abuse ranged from moderate to severe. All women reported experiencing verbal and emotional abuse in addition to physical trauma and psychological symptoms. The interviewer asked questions about participants' expectations for their relationships, how their relationships began, circumstances surrounding violent incidents, how they responded to and made sense of the violence, and what role family and friends played throughout the process. This study confirms the notion hypothesized by others that becoming a battered woman and leaving a violent relationship is a process. Disentanglement processes tended to move the women toward self-agency and empowerment. Paradigmatic shifts were usually accompanied by a last straw event, which provided the final impetus to leave the relationship.  ========================================


Title: Childhood adversity and adult psychiatric disorder in the US National

Comorbidity Survey.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kessler, Ronald C.; Davis, C. G.; Kendler, K. S.

Source/Citation: Psychological Medicine; Vol 27(5) Sep 1997, US: Cambridge Univ Press; 1997, 1101-1119

Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents survey data on the associations between retrospectively reported childhood adversities and subsequent onset and persistence of Mental Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) disorders. The data come from Part II of the US National Comorbidity Survey in which 26 adversities were considered in 5877 Ss aged 15-54 yrs, including loss events, parental psychopathologies, interpersonal traumas and other adversities (e.g. natural disaster). Results show that these adversities were consistently associated with onset, but not persistence, of DSM-III-R mood disorders, anxiety disorders, addictive disorders and acting out disorders. Most bivariate associations with onset attenuated in models that controlled for clustering of adversities and for lifetime co-morbidities among psychiatric

disorders. Multivariate effects of adversities in logistic models were

additive. An analysis of time decay showed that the effects of childhood

adversities on disorder onset persist beyond childhood. The existence of

strong clustering among childhood adversities and lifetime co-morbidity among adult disorders means caution is needed in interpreting results of previous single-adversity single-disorder studies as documenting unique effects of specific childhood adversities on specific adult disorders.              ========================================


Title: Child abuse: New directions in prevention and treatment across the


Author(s)/Editor(s): Wolfe, David A.; McMahon, Robert Joseph

Peters, Ray DeV.

Source/Citation: Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc; 1997, (xiv, 293) Banff international behavioral science series, Vol. 4.

Abstract/Review/Citation: The emphasis throughout the book is on prevention and treatment approaches for child physical and sexual abuse across the life span. This emphasis is accompanied by current psychological perspectives concerning the causes and treatment of different forms of child maltreatment. Each chapter offers a critical review of current findings and discussion of emerging theories, applications, and future directions related to various aspects of child physical and sexual abuse. The information is intended for researchers, practitioners, and students in behavioural sciences and should be of special interest to persons involved in various levels of intervention, such as social workers, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and other mental health professionals.

Notes/Comments: The Banff Conferences on Behavioural Science Part 1: Prevention and treatment of child physical abuse Marital conflict, abuse, and adversity in the family and child adjustment: A developmental psychopathology perspective E. Mark Cummings Child physical abuse: Review of offender characteristics Joel S. Milner and Cynthia Dopke Children and youth who witness violence: New directions in intervention and prevention Marlies Sudermann and Peter Jaffe A cognitive behavioral

approach to understanding and treating parents who physically abuse their

children Sandra T. Azar Interrupting the cycle of violence: Empowering youth to promote healthy relationships David A. Wolfe, Christine Wekerle, Deborah Reitzel-Jaffe, Carolyn Grasley, Anna-Lee Pittman and Andrea MacEachran The prenatal early infancy project: Preventing child abuse and neglect in the context of promoting maternal and child health David Olds Part 2: Prevention and treatment of child sexual abuse Trauma-specific therapy for sexually abused children Lucy Berliner Treating adults severely abused as children: The self-trauma model John Briere Psychotherapy with sexually abused boys William Friedrich The emergence of sexual abuse treatment models within First Nations communities Edward A. Connors and Maurice L. B. Oates, Jr. Sexually abused children as witnesses: Progress and pitfalls Louise Sas Index About the editors About the contributors prevention & treatment approaches for child sexual & physical abuse throughout life span.



Title: Patterns of symptomatology and patterns of torture.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Cunningham, Margaret; Cunningham, John D.

Source/Citation: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 31(4)

Aug 1997, Australia: Blackwell Science Asia; 1997, 555-565

Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of this study was: (i) to examine the incidence of psychological and medical symptomatology, torture and related trauma in a sample of 191 refugee clients (aged 15-75 yrs) of the Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors (STARTTS) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia; and (ii) to identify patterns of current symptoms, patterns of torture and trauma experiences and the relationships between symptoms and experiences. Analysis of STARTTS client records permitted the coding of the presence/absence of 41 medical and psychological symptoms and of 33 torture and trauma experiences. Six factors were extracted for both the symptoms and trauma experiences; the 1st symptom factor was labelled 'core posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)'. Threats and humiliation, and being forced to watch others being tortured best predicted scores on this factor. Although core PTSD is the dominant factor in symptomatology, comorbidity is high, with another 3 symptom factors emerging as meaningful.



Title: Traumatization in refugees.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Cernovsky, Zack Zdenek

Source/Citation: Clinical disorders and stressful life events., Madison, CT, US: International Universities Press, Inc; 1997, (xxx, 416), 71-85 International Universities Press stress and health series, Monograph 7. Source editor(s): Miller, Thomas W. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Recurring nightmares are an important diagnostic marker in the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This chapter reviews statistical research on the content and emotional aspects of the escape nightmares of 17-71 yr old Czechoslovak refugees from the part of Europe once controlled by the former Soviet Union. The studies were carried out in the period before the collapse of the Soviet Union.  In these studies on refugees, within the first 2 yrs after escape, more than 50% reported escape nightmares. After 10 yrs in the host country, more than 80% reported having experienced the escape nightmare at least once. The peak incidence was within the 1st 4 yrs following escape, with a subsequent gradual decrease to very low levels.            ========================================


Title: Posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): DeBellis, Michael D.

Source/Citation: Handbook of prevention and treatment with children and

adolescents: Intervention in the real world context., New York, NY, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 1997, (xv, 656), 455-494

Source editor(s): Ammerman, Robert T. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: In this chapter, the assessment and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will be discussed, keeping in mind that the assessment and treatment of acute stress disorder (ASD) is similar except for the duration of symptoms. Childhood trauma has a traumatic and a developmental impact. There is little published information on PTSD in

children and adolescents. This is especially true of interpersonal traumatic

experience(s). The epidemiology, causes and consequences, interventions, and treatment(s) of PTSD and ASD in the real world will be reviewed. The review will include information from the adult PTSD literature. Then, practical

clinical information on PTSD in children and adolescents will be presented. ========================================


Title: Dissociation in children and adolescents: A developmental perspective.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Putnam, Frank W.

Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press; 1997, (viii, 423)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This volume provides a developmental approach to understanding, diagnosing, and treating pathological dissociation in children and adolescents. It describes an array of diagnostic and treatment techniques and includes reproducible copies of three validated dissociation scales. After reviewing the nature and effects of childhood trauma, and considering an array of maltreatment outcomes, the volume introduces an empirically grounded model of pathological dissociation. The author incorporates what is currently known about the psychobiology of multiple personality disorder and other dissociative disorders, as well as the effects of trauma on cognition, memory, and behavior, and shows how pathological dissociation can contribute to a core set of developmental disruptions.  This book is a resource for clinicians working with children and adolescents, as well as for students of psychology, psychiatry, and related mental health fields. It serves as a supplementary text in undergraduate and graduate level courses in developmental and abnormal psychology.

Notes/Comments:  Introduction The nature and effects of childhood trauma and maltreatment Influential factors and common themes in maltreatment outcomes Introduction to dissociation Pathological dissociation Trauma, dissociation, and memory Toward a model of pathological dissociation The "discrete behavioral states" model The developmental basis of dissociation Dissociative and altered states in everyday life Dissociative presentations: Clinical vignettes Clinical phenomenology and diagnosis Philosophy and principles of treatment Individual therapy Dissociative families and

out-of-home placements Psychopharmacology Appendix 1. Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) Appendix 2. Child Dissociative Checklist (CDC), Version 3.0 Appendix 3. Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES), Version 1.0 developmental approach to understanding & diagnosing & treating pathological dissociation in children & adolescents



Title: Developmental perspectives on trauma: Theory, research, and


Author(s)/Editor(s): Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

Source/Citation: Rochester, NY, US: University of Rochester Press; 1997, (xvii, 613) Rochester symposium on developmental psychology, Vol. 8.

Abstract/Review/Citation: The goal of this volume is to examine trauma and development from a lifespan perspective. In addition to grappling with how trauma itself is experienced at various stages of development, it is equally necessary to understand how the experience of trauma during various developmental periods affects adaptation over time.  Chapters span the range from infancy through adulthood. Proximal experiences of trauma, such as maltreatment and parental divorce, as well as more distal influences of trauma, such as community violence and war, are examined. Moreover, the role of early trauma in contributing to later difficulties in personal, social, and biological functioning is discussed. Finally, specific therapies designed to

ameliorate the effects of having experienced trauma, as well as more

broad-based preventive efforts and recommendations for social policy

initiatives are among the intervention strategies discussed.

Notes/Comments:  List of contributors Preface A developmental perspective on the childhood impact of crime, abuse, and violent victimization David Finkelhor and Kathy Kendall-Tackett Toward an integrative theory of trauma: A dynamic-maturation approach Patricia McKinsey Crittenden Early interpersonal trauma and later adjustment: The mediational role of rejection sensitivity Geraldine Downey, Hala Khouri and Scott I. Feldman The effects of trauma on children: Conceptual and methodological issues Ariana Shahinfar and Nathan A. Fox Growing up in a socially toxic environment James Garbarino Community and domestic violence exposure: Effects on development and psychopathology Joy D. Osofsky and Michael S. Scheeringa Long-term effects of massive trauma: Developmental and psychobiological perspectives Margaret O'Dougherty Wright, Ann S. Masten, Andrea Northwood and Jon J. Hubbard Child maltreatment as an illustration of the effects of war on development Dante Cicchetti, Sheree L. Toth and Michael Lynch How the experience of early physical abuse leads children to become chronically aggressive Kenneth A. Dodge, Gregory S. Pettit and John E. Bates Characteristics of sexual abuse trauma and the prediction of developmental outcomes Penelope K. Trickett, Allan Reiffman, Lisa A. Horowitz and Frank W. Putnam Pathways to violence in teen dating relationships David A. Wolfe and Christine Wekerle Incest, attachment, and developmental psychopathology Pamela C. Alexander and Catherine L. Anderson The role of early trauma in males who assault their wives Donald G. Dutton and Amy Holtzworth-Munroe Mediators of the effects of child maltreatment on development adaptation in adolescence Byron Egeland Some costs of coping: Stress and distress among children from divorced families Robert Emery and Mary Jo Coiro Resiliency partnership-directed intervention: Enhancing the social competencies of

preschool victims of physical abuse by developing peer resources and community strengths John Fantuzzo, Kathleen Coyle Coolahan and Andrea DelGaudio Weiss Intervention with children who experience trauma Lucy Berliner Children's reports of personal events Stephen J. Ceci, Helene Hembrooke and Maggie Bruck The sequelae of childhood sexual abuse: Implications of empirical research for clinical, legal, and public policy domains Heather O'Bierne Kelly and N. Dickon Reppucci The continuum of harm: Girls and women at risk for sexual abuse across the lifespan Laura McCloskey Index of authors Index of subjects developmental perspective on trauma experience & adaptation & intervention across the lifespan.



Title: Toward an integrative theory of trauma: A dynamic-maturation approach.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Crittenden, Patricia McKinsey

Source/Citation: Developmental perspectives on trauma: Theory, research, and intervention., Rochester, NY, US: University of Rochester Press; 1997, (xvii, 613), 33-84 Rochester symposium on developmental psychology, Vol. 8. Source editor(s): Cicchetti, Dante (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Trauma is one possible response to extreme and extraordinary threat. As a consequence, it is often treated as requiring a special body of knowledge for both prevention and treatment. In this chapter, the author takes an alternative perspective in which trauma is considered to be one point on a continuum of response to threat. From this perspective, danger is considered to be a part of every life, with moments of crisis punctuating the more ordinary flow of events. The continuum ranges from adaptation that is protective to learned helplessness in which one ceases futile attempts to protect oneself. In between are various defensive strategies some of which can be considered indicative of a mental state of trauma. Topics addressed in the chapter include: attachment theory and an integrative approach, evolution and the biology of organization around danger, developmental change in processing information and constructing protective strategies, individual differences in using information about danger and protection, the process of adaptation to crisis events, examples of variation in the process of adaptation, and treatment.  ========================================


Title: Early interpersonal trauma and later adjustment: The mediational role of rejection sensitivity.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Downey, Geraldin; Feldman, Scott I.

Source/Citation: Developmental perspectives on trauma: Theory, research, and intervention., Rochester, NY, US: University of Rochester Press; 1997, (xvii, 613), 85-114 Rochester symposium on developmental psychology, Vol. 8. Source editor(s): Cicchetti, Dante (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: A central question in the field of developmental psychopathology is: What is the psychological legacy of maltreatment? Numerous studies have documented the behavioral sequelae of maltreatment, which include impaired functioning across the social and personal domains. Nonetheless, the field has made little headway in identifying the specific psychological mediators of these behavioral effects. Over the past few years, the authors have been developing and testing a theory that addresses this question. They contend that the core psychological message that various forms of maltreatment convey to children is that of rejection. This message leads children to develop a heightened sensitivity to rejection. They have termed this disposition "rejection sensitivity," and have begun to document how it undermines relationships and impairs functioning in both college students and early adolescents. To date, their studies have focused primarily on

documenting the role of rejection sensitivity in fostering a hostile and

aggressive interpersonal style, which can promote violence in peer and

romantic relationships. This chapter describes their theoretical model and

the program of research is being undertaken to test and refine the model.



Title: Long-term effects of massive trauma: Developmental and psychobiological perspectives.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Hubbard, Jan J.

Source/Citation: Developmental perspectives on trauma: Theory, research, and intervention., Rochester, NY, US: University of Rochester Press; 1997, (xvii, 613), 181-225 Rochester symposium on developmental psychology, Vol. 8. Source editor(s): Cicchetti, Dante (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This chapter addresses the question of how massive trauma experiences may affect development, with a specific focus on studies of Khmer-American adolescents and young adults who as children survived massive trauma resulting from the war in Cambodia during the Pol Pot regime of 1975 to 1979 and its aftermath. Psychobiological as well as developmental perspectives are emphasized. Massive trauma is defined and potential developmental sequelae are discussed, as well as historical approaches to the study of massive trauma and child development. Methodological issues for the study of extensive trauma in childhood are examined, followed by a review of recent research on factors related to the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in child survivors of massive trauma. Physiological, cognitive, and psychosocial adaptational systems are discussed in relation to stress responses in children and what may happen when stress is extreme, repeated, or prolonged. Psychological and psychophysiological findings from studies of Cambodian youth are then described in detail. 



Title: Characteristics of sexual abuse trauma and the prediction of

developmental outcomes.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Trickett, Penelope K.; Reiffman, Allan; Horowitz, Lisa A.; Putnam, Frank W.

Source/Citation: Developmental perspectives on trauma: Theory, research, and intervention., Rochester, NY, US: University of Rochester Press; 1997, (xvii, 613), 289-314 Rochester symposium on developmental psychology, Vol. 8. Source editor(s): Cicchetti, Dante (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of the study reported in this chapter is to examine the characteristics of the sexual abuse experience in a sample of girls and female adolescents and to see how these characteristics are related to developmental outcomes in these girls. The sample consisted of 77 6-16 yr old females who had been abused by a family member and were taking part in a longitudinal study of the impact of sexual abuse on psychological and biological development. Information about the characteristics of abuse was obtained from the Caseworker Abuse History Questionnaire. Problem behaviors and psychopathology were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents, respectively. The following variables were examined: severity of abuse, age of onset of abuse, duration of abuse, perpetrator characteristics, physical violence, and multiple

perpetrator.  Findings indicate that, for this sample, it is not appropriate to consider "father or father figure" to be a unitary construct when considering the impact on the development of sexually abused girls. Here, "biological father" is a powerful predictor of maladaptive developmental outcome and especially "acting-out or externalizing problems. The other abuse characteristic that predicts more severe developmental outcomes is "abuse count" or severity of the abusive act.



Title: Pathways to violence in teen dating relationships.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wolfe, David A.; Wekerle, Christine

Source/Citation: Developmental perspectives on trauma: Theory, research, and intervention., Rochester, NY, US: University of Rochester Press; 1997, (xvii, 613), 315-341 Rochester symposium on developmental psychology, Vol. 8.

Source editor(s): Cicchetti, Dante (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: From a developmental psychopathology viewpoint, violence in adolescent dating relationships may be partially understood in terms of relationship models based on early experiences of child maltreatment. Adolescence marks the transitional period where the interpersonal goal is to establish affective ties independent of the family; therefore, it is likely that the cumulative effects of exposure to and experience of violence as a child can be observed during the dating stage. The cycle of violence hypothesis gets "put to the test" as young adults move away from their family system and milieu. After developing some of the theoretical structure supporting this connection, we discuss some of our ongoing research involving both community (high school students) and "identified" samples (youth receiving protective services) in which childhood experiences of maltreatment are strongly associated with problems in current relationships.  Topics addressed include: forming intimate relationships during adolescence (social dating and relationship expectations, the emergence of abusive relationship patterns), pathways to relationship violence: a developmental psychopathology perspective (the significance of past maltreatment experiences, interpersonal adjustment, personal resources, relationship conflict and abuse), and prevention implications.



Title: Incest, attachment, and developmental psychopathology.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Alexander, Pamela C.; Anderson, Catherine L.

Source/Citation: Developmental perspectives on trauma: Theory, research, and intervention., Rochester, NY, US: University of Rochester Press; 1997, (xvii, 613), 343-377 Rochester symposium on developmental psychology, Vol. 8. Source editor(s): Cicchetti, Dante (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: It is argued in this chapter that the onset of incest, its maintenance, and its short-term and long-term impacts can best be investigated and understood from a perspective which takes into account the nature of the parent-child relationships preceding and following the onset of abuse, the overall family context, and the developmental context of the abuse and its subsequent effects. Attachment theory, combined with family systems theory, offers testable hypotheses which can have important implications for the prevention of incest and the treatment of its effects.



Title: Mediators of the effects of child maltreatment on developmental

adaptation in adolescence.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Egeland, Byron

Source/Citation: Developmental perspectives on trauma: Theory, research, and intervention., Rochester, NY, US: University of Rochester Press; 1997, (xvii, 613), 403-434 Rochester symposium on developmental psychology, Vol. 8. Source editor(s): Cicchetti, Dante (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: The study reported in this chapter examines the long-term consequences of various aspects of maltreatment (types, chronicity, and severity) across the range of behavior problems and psychopathology. Data for the study comes from the Mother-Child Project, a longitudinal study of children and their families originally drawn from a high risk poverty population. A sample of 267 low-income mothers pregnant with their 1st child were enrolled during pregnancy and have been followed for 19 yrs. Outcomes to assess the effects of maltreatment included academic achievement, behavior problems, psychiatric disorders, and adolescent adjustment. Measures included the Child Behavior Checklist, the Adolescent Health Survey, the Woodcock Johnson Psycho-Educational battery, and the K-SADS Diagnostic Interview.  Results indicate that children who were maltreated in the early years had a variety of problems in adolescence. Maltreatment was strong associated with school failure, drug and alcohol problems, and a variety of behavior problems including serious psychopathology.



Title: The continuum of harm: Girls and women at risk for sexual abuse across the lifespan.

Author(s)/Editor(s): McCloskey, Laura

Source/Citation: Developmental perspectives on trauma: Theory, research, and intervention., Rochester, NY, US: University of Rochester Press; 1997, (xvii, 613), 553-578 Rochester symposium on developmental psychology, Vol. 8. Source editor(s): Cicchetti, Dante (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: The argument of this chapter is that sexual abuse of children and women has common origins in the culture and psyche. Sexual abuse colors the life trajectories of females in our own society. Sexual abuse is a term that encompasses a wide span of experiences, but for girls and women it has its roots in the sexualization of their humanity; transforming femaleness to a fetish. The sequelae associated with sexual victimization are inextricably tied to the culturally constructed categories of gender. Topics discussed include: perpetrators of child sexual abuse and rape against women, sequelae of child sexual abuse and adult rape, longitudinal outcomes of sexual abuse, resiliency among sexual abuse survivors, and multilevel approaches to the study of sexual abuse.  ========================================


Title: Remembering early experiences during childhood: Are traumatic events


Author(s)/Editor(s): Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Goodman, Gail S.; Quas, Jodi;

Bidrose, S.; Ablin, D.; Craw, S.

Source/Citation: Recollections of trauma: Scientific evidence and clinical

practice., New York, NY, US: Plenum Press; 1997, (xii, 600), 417-423 NATO ASI series: Series A: Life sciences, Vol. 291.

Source editor(s): Read, J. Don (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This chapter examines children's recall of the

invasive and stressful fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) procedure through interviews conducted following very long delays. The VCUG is used to diagnose problems such as genitourinary anomalies, urinary tract obstruction, or vesicoureteral reflux in children with urinary tract infections. 29 children from the ages of 29 mo to 95 mo were interviewed about the VCUG. Age at the time of the interview was 41 mo-163 mo. Interviews included free recall, prompts, enactment with anatomically detailed dolls, and direct (specific and misleading) questions. The delays in the time between the VCUG and the interview ranged from 9 mo to 69 mo. The clearest effect on whether or not children remembered the VCUG in the study was the age of the child at the time of the event. The findings suggest that painful, stressful, and even traumatic experiences appear no more likely to traverse the barrier of infantile amnesia than many other early experiences.



Title: The handbook of infant, child, and adolescent psychotherapy, Vol. 2: New directions in integrative treatment.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mark, Bonnie S.; Incorvaia, James A.

Source/Citation: Northvale, NJ, US: Jason Aronson, Inc; 1997, (xvi, 512)

Abstract/Review/Citation: New Directions in Integrative Treatment offers

professional writings of child, adolescent, and family specialists in the

areas of psychiatry, psychology, clinical social work, education, and child

development. The contributions span the globe as they include authors from

Europe as well as across the US. The book also spans the theoretical gamut of psychodynamic thinking from classical, object relations, and self psychology, to a more recent approach called integration psychotherapy. This latter approach, while using a psychodynamic underpinning, includes techniques from other schools such as cognitive behavioral, developmental, and family systems, as indicated in working with the patient.

Notes/Comments: Preface Acknowledgments Contributors Part I: Treatment issues in psychotherapy with children Opportunities for preventing problems in the parent-child relationship T. Berry Brazelton Psychotherapy for children with nonverbal learning disabilities Joseph Palombo and Anne Hatcher Berenberg Psychoeducational psychotherapy: An alternative form of therapy for the learning disabled child/adolescent James A. Incorvaia Three theoretical views of the treatment of a six-year-old Esther Fine and Sidney Fine Tools of play therapy Carol A. Francis Sibling rivalry: The role of the sibling in the unconscious Robert J. Neborsky Part II: Treatment issues in working with abuse, trauma, and neglect Remembering Iphigenia: Voice, resonance, and a talking cure Carol Gilligan A multimodal approach for working through a therapeutic impasse in the case of childhood sexual abuse Bonnie S. Mark and Robert Anderson Generations after the Holocaust: Multigenerational transmission of trauma Deborah Berger-Reiss Memory, trauma, and psychotherapy Daniel J. Siegel Part III: Treatment issues in working with adolescents Joys and pains in treating adolescents in psychotherapy Irving H. Berkovitz Snow White: The treatment of a young woman with Crohn's disease Rita Lynn The death of a parent: The spirit of healing through individual and group therapy Bonnie S. Mark The unborn mind of the therapist: Psychotherapy and the Buddhist traditions Shelley Albanati Treating shame in adolescence: Integrating intersubjectivity, object relations, and mind-body healing Nancy P. VanDerHeide and Ronald A. Alexander Part IV: Treatment issues in working with parents and families The transmission of womanhood from mother to daughter Bertrand Cramer The father-infant toddler group S. Robert Moradi Parenting as a function of the adult self Paul Ornstein and Anna Ornstein A wrinkle in the sheets: An overview of parent treatment through couples therapy Walter E. Brackelmanns Chronic disconnections: Three family contexts Irene Pierce Stiver A multigenerational inquiry into the relationship between mothers and daughters Barbara Zax and Stephan Poulter Perpetually battling parents Carl F. Hoppe Index integrative psychotherapy, infants & children & adolescents & their families.



Title: Psychopathology as adaptive development along distinctive pathways.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Fischer, Kurt W.; Ayoub, Catherine; Singh, Ilina;

Noam, Gil; Maraganore, Andronicki; Raya, Pamela

Source/Citation: Development & Psychopathology; Vol 9(4) Fal 1997, US:

Cambridge Univ; 1997, 729-748

Abstract/Review/Citation: Contrary to the standard assumption that

psychopathology stems from developmental immaturity (retardation, fixation,

regression), people diagnosed with psychopathology typically develop along

distinctive pathways in which they build complex, advanced skills. These

pathways are based on adaptation to trauma or to problems in

affective-cognitive (AC) regulation, such as those in autism. They do not fit

normative developmental frameworks. Research has characterized several types of distinctive pathways, especially those arising from maltreatment; they are marked by normal developmental complexity but distinctive AC organization. In one study sexually abused depressed adolescent girls admitted for treatment in a mental hospital described themselves-in-relationships with age-appropriate, complex developmental levels equal to those of both nonabused depressed girls and other adolescents. At the same time, they showed a powerful negativity bias contrasting with the positivity biases of other girls. Many of them produced dramatic switches in AC organization across assessments contrasting with the similar organization showed by other girls. In another study toddlers from maltreating families showed a consistent negativity bias in play and representations of interactions.



Title: Development and the fragmented self: Longitudinal study of dissociative symptomatology in a nonclinical sample.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Ogawa, John R.; Sroufe, L. Alan; Weinfield, Nancy S.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Egeland, Byron

Source/Citation: Development & Psychopathology; Vol 9(4) Fal 1997, US:

Cambridge Univ; 1997, 855-879

Abstract/Review/Citation: Dissociative behaviors and their relation to both the self and self-organization were examined using the developmental

psychopathology perspective. Ss were 168 18-19 yr olds considered high-risk for poor developmental outcomes at birth due to poverty. It was investigated whether trauma, sense of self, quality of early mother-child relationship, temperament, and intelligence were related to dissociative symptomatology measured at 4 times across 19 yrs. Age of onset and chronicity and severity of trauma were highly correlated and predicted level of dissociation. Both the avoidant and disorganized patterns of attachment were strong predictors of dissociation. Dissociation in childhood may be a more normative response to disruption and stress, while dissociation in adolescence and young adulthood may be more indicative of psychopathology. Preliminary support was found for a model proposed by G. Liotti (1992) that links disorganized attachment, later trauma, and dissociation in adulthood. Strong support was found for N. Waller, F. W. Putnam, and E. B. Carlson's (1996) contention that psychopathological dissociation should not be viewed as the top end of a continuum of dissociative symptomatology, but as a separate taxon that represents an extreme deviation from normal development.  ========================================


Title: Beziehungsdynamik nach Misshandlung und sexuellem Missbrauch./ The dynamics of relations after maltreatment and sexual abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bauer, Maria Anna; Freund, Susanne

Source/Citation: Zeitschrift fuer Individualpsychologie; Vol 22(4) 1997,

Germany: Ernst Reinhardt Verlag; 1997, 300-312

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses the sequelae of child and adolescent sexual abuse and physical maltreatment. Victims' experiencing of oneself and their attempts at coping are discussed. By use of a therapy section the manifestation of trauma within therapy is illustrated and the transference and countertransference process is considered. Considerations are presented regarding the accompanying psychotherapy with parents who themselves were physically and/or sexually misused in their own childhood. A life style is outlined in which from the own son a compensation of the early experiences of violence is hoped for and in which the trauma is reenacted if the child does not comply with these role expectations.  ========================================


Title: Determinants and mental health effects of dream recall among children

living in traumatic conditions.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Punamaeki, Raija-Leena

Source/Citation: Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams; Vol 7(4) Dec 1997, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers ; 1997, 235-263

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined whether the repression, mood congruent memory, and salience models would explain the frequency of diary recorded dream recall in 2 groups: a trauma group of 268 Palestinian 6-15-yr-olds living in a politically violent area in Gaza, and a comparison group of 144 6-15-yr-olds living in a peaceful area in Galilee. In general, the more Ss were exposed to trauma, the more frequently they recalled their dreams: the trauma group reported more dreams than the comparison group, and, within the trauma group, Ss who were repeatedly exposed to traumatic events recalled more dreams than Ss exposed to fewer traumatic events. Of the 3 models of dream recall, 2 were supported. First, salient (bizarre, emotional, narratively coherent) dreams were more frequently recalled, and, second, those in which the dream mood (atmosphere and feeling) was congruent with waking mood were more frequently recalled. However, contrary to expectations, repressive coping strategies (paralysis, denial, numbing) were associated with more frequent dream recall. Although dream recall was correlated with problems in psychological adjustment, the relationship was symptom specific: frequent dream recall shielded children from somatic and anxiety symptoms but made them more susceptible to depressive symptoms.                ========================================


Title: Factors protecting against the development of adjustment difficulties in young adults exposed to childhood sexual abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lynskey, Michael T.; Fergusson, David M.

Source/Citation: Child Abuse & Neglect; Vol 21(12) Dec 1997, US: Elsevier

Science Inc; 1997, 1177-1190

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined factors (i.e., characteristics of the abuse, parental bonding, parental characteristics, and adolescent peer affiliations) which discriminated young people exposed to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who developed psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties in young adulthood (by age 18 yrs) from those who did not. Data were gathered on a birth cohort of 1,025 New Zealand children studied from birth to the age of 18 yrs. Just over 10% of the cohort reported CSA. Those reporting CSA were at increased risks of a range of difficulties at age 18 (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, other substance abuse/dependence, postsexual abuse trauma, attempted suicide). However, not all of those exposed to CSA developed difficulties and approximately a quarter of those exposed to CSA did not meet criteria for any adjustment difficulty. The extent of adjustment difficulties in those exposed to CSA was influenced by 2 additional factors: (a) the extent of affiliations with delinquent or substance using peers in adolescence; and (b) the extent of paternal care or support in childhood.  ========================================


Title: Social support and psychological distress in Kuwaiti boys and girls

exposed to the Gulf crisis.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Llabre, Maria M.; Hadi, Foaziah

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Child Psychology; Vol 26(3) Sep 1997, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc; 1997, 247-255

Abstract/Review/Citation: Tested hypotheses about the role of social support in the relation between trauma from the Gulf crisis experience and psychological or health distress 2 years after the crisis. Participants were 151 Kuwaiti boys and girls exposed to high or low levels of trauma during the crisis. Participants were administered the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Index (PTSDI), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and measures of social support and health complaints. Children exposed to high levels of trauma had higher PTSDI and CDI scores and more health complaints than controls. Social support did not mediate the relation between trauma and distress. However, social support and sex functioned jointly as moderators of trauma on distress. Social support was shown to buffer the effect of trauma in girls but not in boys. Boys, however, reported lower levels of support than girls. The findings underscore the importance of the appropriate model specification in studies of stress and social support.                                      ========================================


Title: A partial cross-validation of a Halstead-Reitan Battery malingering


Author(s)/Editor(s): McKinzey, R. K.; Russell, Elbert W.

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology; Vol

19(4) Aug 1997, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger; 1997, 484-488

Abstract/Review/Citation: Using the Halstead-Reitan Battery profiles of 796 people (aged 14-78 yrs), a formula for the detection of malingering was

partially cross-validated to assess the false positive rate. Ss included

normals, psychiatric cases, and persons with all major types of brain

disorder; none of the Ss had any reason to malinger. The formula incorrectly

designated 32% of the sample as fakers (i.e., as false positives). Of the 120

head-trauma cases, 39 (32%) obtained Fake scores, whereas 81 (67%) were correctly assessed as not malingering. Due to these results, the authors recommend that psychologists needing an accurate measure of malingering should use the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. The correlation of the results of the formula (SCORE) and the severity of the profile (as measured by the Average Impairment Rating) was high, suggesting that future attempts at neuropsychological malingering formulas should include matching for severity of test performance.



Title: Traumas and other adverse life events in adolescents with alcohol abuse and dependence.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Clark, Duncan B.; Lesnick, Lynne; Hegedus, Andrea M.

Source/Citation: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent

Psychiatry; Vol 36(12) Dec 1997, US: Williams & Wilkins Co.; 1997,


Abstract/Review/Citation: Determined the relationships among adolescent alcohol use disorders and a broad range of traumas and adverse life events. Ss were 132 adolescents with alcohol dependence, 51 adolescents with alcohol abuse, and 73 adolescents recruited from the community as a control group. Trauma history was assessed by a semistructured interview and other adverse life events by questionnaire. Traumatic events reflecting interpersonal violence had occurred in many of the Ss with alcohol dependence. Ss with alcohol abuse or dependence, compared with control Ss, were 6-12 times more likely to have a physical abuse history and 18-21 times more likely to have a sexual abuse history. Sexual abuse was more common in females, and victimization by other violent acts was more common in males. Many other adverse life events were also significantly more common in the alcohol use disorder groups, including having a close friend die, arguments within the family, and legal

difficulties. Results demonstrate that trauma and other adverse life events

are strongly associated with alcohol use disorders in adolescents. Clinical

screening of adolescents with alcohol use disorders for a range of traumatic

events is recommended.                  ========================================


Title: Secondary trauma: Assessing inter-generational transmission of war

experiences with a modified Stroop procedure.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Motta, Robert W.; Joseph, Jamie M.; Rose, Raphael D.; Suozzi, John M.; Leiderman, Laura J.

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychology; Vol 53(8) Dec 1997, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1997, 895-903

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed intergenerational transmission of war

experiences using a modified Stroop task. Adult children of war veterans and

those of nonveterans named the colors in which war related words were printed. They also named the colors of neutral, positive, and obsessive compulsive disorder related words in addition to color naming a series of zeros contained on a control card. All participants completed the MMPI-II PTSD Scale, the Impact of Event Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. A statistically significant difference between the children of veterans and nonveterans was found only on the Stroop card containing war related words. Results suggest that the modified Stroop task is a sensitive measure that may have value in assessing transmission of war experiences from parents to children.



Title: Health care utilization and history of trauma among women in a primary care setting.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Sansone, Randy A.; Wiederman, Michael W.;

Sansone, Lori A.

Source/Citation: Violence & Victims; Vol 12(2) Sum 1997, US: Springer

Publishing Co.; 1997, 165-172

Abstract/Review/Citation: Participants were 150 women seen consecutively by a family physician in an HMO setting for nonemergent medical care. Each participant completed a questionnaire that explored 3 areas of trauma. 12 mo after the administration of the questionnaire, medical records of each participant were reviewed for several measures of health care utilization (i.e., number of telephone contacts, physician visits, ongoing prescriptions, acute prescriptions, specialist referrals). Age, education, and current marital status were unrelated to medical utilization. Participants' acknowledged history of physical and emotional abuse significantly correlated with most measures of health care utilization, whereas sexual abuse generally did not. The implications of these findings are discussed.



Title: Psychoanalytische Therapie bei sexuell missbrauchten Jugendlichen./

Psychoanalytic therapy with adolescent victims of sexual abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hirsch, Mathias

Source/Citation: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie; Vol 46(10) Dec 1997, Germany: Verlag Vanderhoeck & Ruprecht GmbH & Co. KG; 1997, 681-695

Abstract/Review/Citation: Sexual abuse as an extreme childhood trauma produces distorted object-images, introjections of violence which reproduce the trauma permanently through symptoms and acting-out. Although the traumatic power should be relived in transference, psychoanalytic therapy does not always mean permanent interpretation of transference; rather, a supporting, confirming, and valuing activity is indicated. The following scopes can be differentiated: idealization, changing the therapeutic object into a triangulating one; negative transference of an archaic destructive mother imago, but also of the traumatic object, setting free hidden aggressive affects; and emergance of the specific sexual trauma in transference and counter-transference. In the whole course of therapy, especially at the end, working through guilt-feelings, shame and mourning permits separation from the traumatic objects, although the danger of returning to them, often represented by the actual objects, does not guarantee full success in all cases.  ========================================


Title: The psychological impact of sexual assault: A study of female attenders of a sexual health psychology service.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Petrak, Jenny; Doyle, Anne-Marie; Williams, Lisa;

Buchan, Lisa; Forster, Greta

Source/Citation: Sexual & Marital Therapy; Vol 12(4) Nov 1997, United

Kingdom: Carfax Publishing Limited; 1997, 339-345

Abstract/Review/Citation: Describes the nature of sexual assaults and subsequent psychological difficulties in 32 females (aged 15-42 yrs) referred over a 1 yr period to clinical psychologists in an East London genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic. All case notes of women referred to a clinical psychologist were reviewed. Data were collected on demographic factors, previous assault and psychiatric history, characteristics of sexual assault, outcome, and psychological presentation. The findings are consistent with research from the US suggesting a high level of psychological distress in women following rape and sexual assault. Almost all women seen reported emotional difficulties characterized by low mood, anxiety, tension, and tearfulness. Other interpersonal difficulties included self-blame and self-disgust. A large proportion of women are attending the sexual assault service having experienced repeated histories of sexual assault. Medical services need to be prepared to deal with the immediate and long-term effects of sexual assault and have access to professional psychological support.



Title: Long-term outcome of motor vehicle accident injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mayou, Richard; Tyndel, Sally; Bryant, Bridget

Source/Citation: Psychosomatic Medicine: Special Issue: Consultation-liaison (C/L) psychiatry.; Vol 59(6) Nov-Dec 1997, US: Williams & Wilkins Co.; 1997, 578-584

Abstract/Review/Citation: Defined the psychological outcome at 5 years of a sample of non-head-injured motor vehicle accident victims and identified baseline predictors. Self-report questionnaires were completed by 111 consecutive Ss (aged 17-69 yrs) who had been injured in a motor vehicle accident 5 yrs earlier and who had been assessed previously in a prospective 1-yr study. Although most Ss reported a good outcome, a substantial minority described continuing social, physical, and psychological difficulties and a quarter of those studied suffered phobic anxiety about travel as a driver or passenger. There was little change in quality of life outcome and effects on travel between assessments at 3 mo, 1 yr, and 5 yrs. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remained approximately 10% throughout the follow-up; most early cases had remitted by 5 yrs, and a similar number of delayed new onsets had occurred between 1 yr and 5 yrs. PTSD at 5 yrs was predicted by physical outcome and by postaccident intrusive memories and emotional distress. Compensation proceedings were initiated by 66 Ss and were often prolonged and a cause of distress. There were no significant associations with outcome. Trends for a poor outcome in claimants may be due to their having more serious physical problems. 



Title: Los Angeles Symptom Checklist: Psychometric evidence with an adolescent sample.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Foy, David W.; Wood, Jenifer L.; King, Daniel W.;

King, Lynda A.; Resnick, Heidi S.

Source/Citation: Assessment; Vol 4(4) Dec 1997, US: Psychological Assessment Resources Inc; 1997, 377-384

Abstract/Review/Citation: The Los Angeles Symptom Checklist is a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general distress that has been used with a variety of adult trauma populations. This study provided psychometric support for the instrument's use with adolescents. The sample consisted of 639 high school students (average age 16.9 yrs). Internal consistency estimates were .90 and .95 for the 17-item PTSD index and the 43-item full-scale index, respectively. When mean scores were compared across trauma exposure groups, results were supportive of the LAS's ability to detect symptoms of posttrauma sequelae. Confirmatory factor analysis findings supported 3 highly correlated factors representing the Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) symptom categories of reexperiencing, avoidance and numbing, and arousal.                               ========================================


Title: Psychological debriefing for victims of acute burn trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Turnbull, G.; Busuttil, W.; Pittman, S.

Source/Citation: British Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 171 Dec 1997, England: Royal College of Psychiatrists; 1997, 582

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by J. I. Bisson et al (1997) concerning psychological debriefing for acute burn victims. It is argued that the study may influence clinicians not to practice psychological debriefing. The author's view is that psychological debriefing can only be of benefit when survivors sense that their trauma is over and when they begin to feel safe again. 



Title: "Randomised controlled trial of psychological debriefing for victims

of acute burn trauma": Reply.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bisson, J. I.; Jenkins, P. L.

Source/Citation: British Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 171 Dec 1997, England: Royal College of Psychiatrists; 1997, 583

Abstract/Review/Citation: Replies to the comment by G. Turnbull et al (1997) on the J. I. Bisson et al (1997) article concerning psychological debriefing for acute burn patients. The authors acknowledge the shortcomings of their research but feel discarding of the results would be unscientific. Psychological debriefing is considered to be a classic example of an innovation that has come into practice without an adequate research base. It is also noted that the main conclusions of the study are consistent with results of 2 other published (M. Hobbs et al, 1996; C. Lee, 1996) randomized controlled trials of individual psychological debriefing.  ========================================


Title: "Randomised controlled trial of psychological debriefing for victims

of acute burn trauma": Comment.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kraus, R. P.

Source/Citation: British Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 171 Dec 1997, England: Royal College of Psychiatrists; 1997, 583

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by J. I. Bisson et al (1997) concerning psychological debriefing for acute burn victims. It is argued that psychological debriefing, on its own, will not suffice to give such patients the ego strength to deal effectively with the ongoing suffering of a burn injury. Observations concerning the coping of burn victims are presented.



Title: "Randomised controlled trial of psychological debriefing for victims

of acute burn trauma": Comment.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Reiss, David; Leese, Morven

Source/Citation: British Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 171 Dec 1997, England: Royal College of Psychiatrists; 1997, 583-584

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the study by J. I. Bisson et al (1997) concerning psychological debriefing for acute burn victims. Concerns about aspects of the methodology which led to the finding that the debriefed group did not benefit and may actually have had a poorer outcome are discussed. It may be that had the study continued recruiting patients according to its random protocol the background differences between the 2 groups would have diminished and the outcome find