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and Physiological

Trauma Research



Seize Your Journeys



Traumatic stress is found in many competent, healthy, strong, good people.  No one can completely protect themselves from traumatic experiences.  Many people have long-lasting problems following exposure to trauma.  Up to 8% of persons will have PTSD at some time in their lives. People who react to traumas are not going crazy.  What is happening to them is part of a set of common symptoms and problems that are connected with being in a traumatic situation, and thus, is a normal reaction to abnormal events and experiences.  Having symptoms after a traumatic event is NOT a sign of personal weakness.  Given exposure to a trauma that is bad enough, probably all people would develop PTSD.

By understanding trauma symptoms better, a person can become less fearful of them and better able to manage them. By recognizing the effects of trauma and knowing more about symptoms, a person will be better able to decide about getting treatment.







Spirituality and Trauma

Title: The effect of religious-spiritual coping on positive attitudes of adult
Muslim refugees from Kosovo and Bosnia.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Ai, Amy L.; Peterson, Christopher; Huang, Bu
Author Affiliation: U Michigan, Dept of Psychology, MI, US U Washington, Health
Sciences, WA, US
Source/Citation: International Journal for the Psychology of Religion; Vol 13(1)
Jan 2003, US: Lawrence Erlbaum; 2003, 29-47
Abstract/Review/Citation: Little empirical evidence is available about the use
of religious-spiritual coping and its impact in the positive attitudes of
predominantly Muslim war refugees from Kosovo and Bosnia. On the basis of S.
J. Lepore and G. W. Evans' (1996) notion about 4 coping resources and K. I.
Pargament's (1997) concept of religious-spiritual coping, this
hypothesis-driven study focused on the cognitive resources and additional
spiritual resources for coping. We collected information about religiosity,
war-related trauma, religious-spiritual coping, optimism, and hope from 138
17-79 yr old refugees from Kosovo or Bosnia recently resettled in Michigan and
Washington states. A path model demonstrated that optimism was positively
related to positive religious coping, which in turn was associated with
increased religiosity and higher education. Hope, in contrast, was positively
associated with education, and negatively associated with negative religious
coping, which in turn was predicted by more severe trauma. These findings are
discussed with respect to their theoretical and clinical implications as well
as the limitations of the study.

Title: The spiritual dimension of family life.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Walsh, Froma; Pryce, Julia
Author Affiliation: U Chicago, School of Social Service Administration, Chicago,
Source/Citation: Normal family processes:  Growing diversity and complexity (3rd
ed.)., New York, NY, US: Guilford Press; 2003, (xvii, 678), 337-372
Source editor(s): Walsh, Froma (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Spiritual beliefs and practices have anchored and
nourished families and their communities throughout history. At times of
crisis and adversity, spiritual beliefs and practices have fostered recovery
from trauma, loss and suffering. Today, the vast majority of families adopt
some form of expression for their spirituality. Yet mental health
professionals and social scientists have tended to neglect this vital
dimension in their understanding of family functioning and in the treatment of
distress. This chapter briefly examines the growing importance and diversity
of religion and spirituality for families and considers their influence in
family coping and resilience.

Title: Health care & spirituality:  Listening, assessing, caring.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Gilbert, Richard B.
Source/Citation: Amityville, NY, US: Baywood Publishing Co, Inc; 2002, (xix,
313) Death, value and meaning series.
Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents an anthology of the human predicament, the
health care professional's story, and the health care work place, brought
together around the common theme of spirituality, the spirit of the patient,
the spirit of the work place, and the spirit that transcends it all to give
meaning to it. The theme of this book is  listening, to the patient's whole
story;  assessing, or giving meaning in conversation with the patient; and 
caring, for the whole person and the whole story. Highlighting the important
drive of spirituality and spiritual awareness, this book addresses particular
professional groups (nurse, chaplain), gender and faith groupings (male,
female, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Native American, non-descript spirituality and
spiritual diversity), and a variety of patient types (trauma, medical,
gay/lesbian/transgendered, obstetrics, HIV/AIDS, addicted, Alzheimer's, the
dying adult and the dying child) bringing into these stories what spirituality is.
Notes/Comments: Introduction Section 1: Health care and spirituality: Professional perspectives A nurse's perspective Cynthia Russel A chaplain's perspective: The early years Richard Stewart Achaplain's perspective: The challenge for today Richard B. Gilbert A beginning examination of the spirituality of health care professionals David W. Adams and Rick Csiernik Section 2: Health care and spirituality: Belief system
perspectives Dying and grieving are journeys of the spirit John D. Morgan
Spiritual care in the new pluralistic context Edgar P. Senne The Roman
Catholic patient Joseph Driscoll The Jewish patient Jeffery Silberman Section
3: Health care and spirituality: Ethnic and gender perspectives The Native
American patient Gerry Cox The male patient Robert Miller The female patient
Karrie Oertli The gay-lesbian-bisexual-transgendered patient Sue Jelinek
Section 4: Health care and spirituality: Patient perspectives The medical
patient: Compassionate listening and spirit-mind-body care of medical patients
Laurel Arthur Burton The chronically ill patient John Vander Zee The HIV-AIDS
patient: Holier than thou Inge B. Corless The Alzheimer's patient Earl A.
Grollman The obstetrics patient Cathi Lammert The trauma patient Paul Bierlein
The addicted patient John A. Mac Dougall The terminally ill pediatric patient
Frances Dominica The terminally ill adult patient Jon Nyberg The victim of
domestic violence and sexual assault Sharon Gilbert and Richard B. Gilbert
Contributors Index

Title: The trauma patient.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Bierlein, Paul
Source/Citation: Health care & spirituality:  Listening, assessing, caring.,
Amityville, NY, US: Baywood Publishing Co, Inc; 2002, (xix, 313), 235-243
Death, value and meaning series.
Source editor(s): Gilbert, Richard B. (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: The focus of this chapter is to "visit" with
trauma patients--to listen with sensitivity and compassion, exploring the
spiritual themes and issues which the sudden encounter with pain, injury,
attack, or illness engenders within them. While these issues are examined
individually, they are in reality dynamically interwoven spiritual threads of
a whole person in crisis. This chapter discusses the role of the pastoral
counselor in providing spiritual support and responding to the spiritual needs
of the trauma patient, and how this can promote healing and recovery.

Title: Thriving after trauma: The experience of parents of murdered children.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Parappully, Jose; Rosenbaum, Robert; van den Daele, Leland; Nzewi, Esther
Source/Citation: Journal of Humanistic Psychology; Vol 42(1) Win 2002, US: Sage
Publications; 2002, 33-70
Abstract/Review/Citation: Psychological literature on trauma usually focuses on
pathology that results from trauma and pays little attention to positive
outcomes. This article presents a phenomenological inquiry into the
experiences of a profoundly traumatized group of people--parents whose son or
daughter has been murdered--to assess if they were able to experience a
positive outcome resulting from their trauma and to identify associated
processes and resources. Of 65 parents who volunteered, 16 (35-75 yrs old)
were selected to complete a questionnaire and were given in-depth,
semistructured interviews. The interview data, analyzed qualitatively, affirm
positive outcomes for these parents. Four processes--acceptance, finding
meaning, personal decision making, and reaching out to others in
compassion-and six resources--personal qualities, spirituality, continuing
bond with the victim, social support, previous coping experience, and
self-care-facilitate a positive outcome.

Title: Women, trauma and power:  The embodied experience of embracing personal
Author(s)/Editor(s): Hammes, Kathie Anne
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 62(10-B) May 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2002, 4817
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study is a phenomenological investigation of the
experience through which women uncover a sense of intrinsic strength. This
study involves 12 women who were self-identified trauma survivors between the
ages of 48 and 63. From the data, a sequential set of themes was derived that
described the embodied experience of embracing personal power for women who
are trauma survivors. These themes are: The Trauma Lens, in which personal
power became known against the backdrop of knowing powerlessness; Freedom of
Choice, the process of decision making played a key component in facilitating
the move from victim to survivor; Bodily Experience, the physical knowing of
personal power; Spirituality and Connectedness to Others and the essential
need of being connected to someone or something for support; The Lenses of
Personal Power, the insights gained by the knowing of personal power and
strength. The women acknowledged the trauma and other misfortunes within their
lives but chose to make use of those experiences. The resilience and courage
possessed by these women made them survivors. The attempt to change and create
meaning of the trauma transformed their tragedy into something useful, and
thus improved the quality of their life. Embracing personal power is a process
that involves a moment of knowing-one felt within the body, soul and mind.

Title: Religion, spirituality and coping in individuals with prior exposure to
Author(s)/Editor(s): Sewell, Kenneth Bates
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 62(11-B) Jun 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2002, 5391
Abstract/Review/Citation: The current study examined the impact of religious and
spiritual coping techniques, religious attitudes, and cognitive processing
deficits on measures of psychological distress and well being in individuals
with prior exposure to trauma and extreme stressors. Previous research has
found that the use of religious and spiritual coping techniques is often
related to improved psychological functioning above and beyond that accounted
for by the use of traditional coping strategies. The present study expands on
prior research by examining the combined predictive utility of several
different measures of spirituality and religion in a heterogeneous sample of
persons with prior trauma exposure, and by evaluating the role of cognitive
processing deficits in a sample with widely varying histories of prior trauma
exposure. Ninety-six college students with prior exposure to a traumatic event
were recruited from several undergraduate psychology classes, and asked to
complete questionnaires assessing demographic variables, trauma exposure,
coping, religious and spiritual attitudes and behaviors, psychological
well-being, and distress. Thirty-four of the original 96 participants
completed a modified Stroop task to assess cognitive interference to 'threat'
words.  Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that spiritual
and intrinsic religious variables were generally the best predictors of
well-being, distress, and resilience. Negative religious coping and intrinsic
religiousness were also significant predictors of psychological distress.
Significantly greater response latencies and processing interference were
found in the threat-word condition of the Stroop task.  The findings from the
current study are consistent with the extant literature and clearly support
the utility of spiritual and religious variables for predicting both
well-being and distress. In addition, the computed resilience score appears to
have promise for evaluating an individual's response to trauma.

Title: Individual differences in posttraumatic growth following bone marrow
Author(s)/Editor(s): Widows, Michelle Renee
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 62(11-B) Jun 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2002, 5398
Abstract/Review/Citation: Prior research suggests that the diagnosis and
treatment of cancer can result in the experience of positive outcomes, or
positive growth. Based on Schaefer and Moos' (1992) model of adaptation of
life crises, the current study examined the predictive utility of personality
traits, coping, and social support in accounting for variability in
posttraumatic growth and whether trauma appraisals, social constraint, and
mental health were associated with the degree of posttraumatic growth in
cancer patients who had undergone bone marrow transplantation. Participants
were 53 females and 19 males treated with BMT an average of 24 months
previously. Qualitative reports of posttraumatic growth were assessed through
a structured clinical interview. Quantitative reports of posttraumatic growth
and other psychosocial variables were assessed using standardized self-report
measures. Results indicated that 97% of BMT recipients reported at least one
positive outcome associated with their cancer and its treatment, with
participants reporting an average of four positive changes. Univariate
analyses confirmed predictions that increased posttraumatic growth would be
associated with more negative appraisals of the hospitalization for BMT and
greater use of approach-based coping strategies. Exploratory univariate
analyses also indicated that increased posttraumatic growth was also
associated with increased spirituality, decreased depression, a more
negatively biased recollection of pre-transplant psychological distress,
younger age, and less education (p's le; .05). Regression analyses indicated
that appraisal of emotional distress during transplant and pre-BMT avoidant
coping accounted for significant (p le; .05) variability in posttraumatic
growth scores above and beyond relevant demographic and medical variables.
Results of the current study provide preliminary evidence of the occurrence of
posttraumatic growth among patients treated for cancer and the relationship
between psychosocial variables and post-traumatic growth. These findings
highlight the need for further studies in this area and possible interventions
aimed at facilitating post-traumatic growth.

Title: The tie that binds: Sadomasochism in female addicted trauma survivors.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Southern, Stephen
Source/Citation: Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: Special Issue: Women and
sexual addiction.; Vol 9(4) 2002, United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis; 2002,
Abstract/Review/Citation: Women who develop addictive disorders to survive life
trauma present a wide array of variant and perverse behaviors. This overview
of sadomasochism examines the life trauma syndrome and the survival functions
of addictions including self-injurious behavior, eating disorder, and sexual
addiction. The etiology of sadomasochism is found in object relations damaged
by neglect or abuse. Sadomasochistic dynamics function like brainwashing to
oppress women in a subordinate position. Survivors turn childhood tragedy into
triumph through sadomasochistic re-enactments of life trauma. An omnibus,
developmentally-based psychotherapy for treating the ego states of female
addicted trauma survivors included abstinence from addictive behaviors,
abreaction of unresolved trauma, information reprogramming or reprocessing of
trauma-related cognitive distortions, acquisition of nonaddictive affect
regulation and self-management skills, prevention of relapse, and enhancement
of capacity for intimacy, creativity, and spirituality. Case studies are
presented to explore the types of sadomasochism and state-dependent treatment
recommendations across five life domains.

Title: The psychological and spiritual effects of child sexual abuse when the
perpetrator is a Catholic priest.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Bland, Michael J.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 63(4-A) Oct 2002, US: University Microfilms
International; 2002, 1253
Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the
negative, long-term psychological and spiritual effects of child sexual abuse
when the perpetrator was a Catholic priest. A total of 73 victims of childhood
clerical sexual abuse were surveyed, of which 48 responded (65.7%). In
addition, 110 adults from various Catholic parishes and schools were surveyed
of which 96 questionnaires were returned (87.2%). Data was collected from 144
participants and divided into three groups. Group 1 Abused By Priest (ABP) N =
48, Group 2 No Abuse (NA) N = 76, and Group 3 childhood sexual Abuse History
(AH) N = 20.  All participants completed a Background Data Questionnaire,
Religiosity Index, Spiritual Injury Scale, and Trauma Symptom Checklist-40
(TSC-40). Additionally, Group 1 participants completed a Sexual Abuse History
and Healing Questionnaire.  In a two-way analysis, F (1, 122), the ABP group
scored higher (p < .0005) as compared to the NA group regarding guilt over
past behaviors, Dissociation, Sexual Abuse Trauma Index, and Trauma Symptom
Checklist-40 (TSC-40) total score. Data approached statistical significance, 
F = 3.892, p = .051, indicating that there was no significant difference
between the two groups in attendance at religious services. However, there was
a significant difference (16.6%) between the two groups current religion.
Nearly 23% of individuals abused by a priest no longer identify with the Roman
Catholic religion despite having been raised Roman Catholic, as compared to a
5.2% decline in the group not abused.  In a three-way analyses F (2, 141) the
ABP group scored higher (P < .00244) as compared to the AH group and the NA
group regarding higher symptoms of grief, anger, a sense of meaninglessness,
feeling God treated them unfairly, dissociation, depression, sexual problems,
sleep disturbances, Sexual Abuse Trauma Index, and the total score on Trauma
Symptom Checklist-40.

Title: Transformation:  Creating the visible self in the aftermath of incest.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Vinson, Shoba S.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 63(4-B) Oct 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2002, 1781
Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of this study was to understand how women
survivors of childhood incest by the fathers or father figures heal from the
subsequent trauma to the self. The volunteer sample consisted of six
Caucasian, predominantly middle-class women who had experienced sexual,
physical, and psychological abuse. They ranged in age from 33 to 52 years. The
women were invited to describe their healing, and informal probes were used to
explore their responses. The initial interview lasted approximately two hours.
Follow-up interviews of similar duration were held with three women. Grounded
theory, a qualitative approach, was used to inductively build a theory of
healing from incest. As data were collected, concepts and relationships among
them were identified. These were provisionally tested through further specific
data collection, so the theory that developed was grounded in the data.
Findings reveal that the trauma of incest during developmental years leads to
the formation of the invisible self. Healing from such trauma involves four
overlapping processes of transformation from the invisible to the, visible
self: (1) Awakening to incest by becoming aware of the invisible self and its
symptoms; the use of symptom-focused strategies prior to awakening; and the
need to acknowledge the incest and/or its impact, (2) Understanding the self
impacted by incest by creating witness through self- and other-disclosure; and
understanding the profound effect of incest on the self, (3) Honoring the
intrapsychic self by validating and accepting self, including emotions;
grieving losses and accepting life; and coping and empowerment, and (4)
Healing the relational self by communicating with family members; forgiving
and reconciling; and changing the legacy in the families of procreation.
Conditions affecting self-transformation include abuse context, spirituality,
culture, time, support, motivation, choice, effort, maturity, and inner
strength.  The outcome of self-transformation includes peace; renewed
spirituality; capacity to integrate emotions into the self and a decrease in
emotional struggles; increase in self-worth; empowerment; relational healing;
and a growing sense of self. The transformation process is spiral, and occurs
at different levels over time. Despite extensive self-transformation, the
process is ongoing due to limitations posed by the incest trauma and ongoing

Title: How could God? Loss and the spiritual assumptive world.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Doka, Kenneth
Source/Citation: Loss of the assumptive world:  A theory of traumatic loss., New
York, NY, US: Brunner-Routledge; 2002, (xii, 246), 49-54 The series in trauma
and loss.
Source editor(s): Kauffman, Jeffrey (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: The goal of this chapter is to focus specifically on
the ways that loss challenges the spiritual assumptive world. The chapter
defines what it means to experience loss of the assumptive world, discusses
the spiritual impact of such a loss, and describes the ways that loss can
 cause individuals to question prior beliefs. A second issue is also
explored--how individuals can reconstruct their spirituality in the face of loss.

Title: The spiritual recovery manual:  Vedic knowledge and yogic techniques to
accelerate recovery.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Williams, Patrick Gresham
Source/Citation: Palo Alto, CA, US: Incandescent Press; 2002, (270)
Abstract/Review/Citation: This book is for addicts, codependents, adult children
of alcoholics--and their friends and family. It is for anyone who has
experienced trauma and for anyone that counsels or wants to better understand
addiction. It is for everyone who wants a better life. This manual will
accelerate your recovery and deepen your understanding of addiction. You will
learn how to revitalize your body, strengthen your mind, and lead a happy,
harmonious life. Based on a complete theory of human development, this manual
has vital information not included in other recovery books. It describes
practical knowledge and techniques--advanced recovery tools--in fifteen areas:
meditation; lifestyle; self-diagnosis; detoxifying; herbal healing; sense
therapy; food; exercise; yoga; advanced mental techniques; life-patterns;
intellect; group dynamics of consciousness; bliss; and relationships.

Title: Addiction and trauma recovery: Healing the body, mind and spirit.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Miller, Dusty; Guidry, Laurie
Author Affiliation: 7177, Serum osteocalcin levels in premenopausal rheumatoid
arthritis patients 
Source/Citation: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training; Vol 39(3)
Fal 2002, US: Div of Psychotherapy APA; 2002, 269-270
Abstract/Review/Citation: Review of book, Dusty Miller and Laurie Guidry (Aus.)
Addiction and Trauma Recovery: Healing the Body, Mind and Spirit. New York:
Norton, 2001, 288 pp. ISBN 0-393-70368-1. Reviewed by Judith Sprei.

Title: Healing from the body level up.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Swack, Judith A.
Source/Citation: Energy psychology in psychotherapy:  A comprehensive
sourcebook., New York, NY, US: W. W. Norton & Co, Inc; 2002, (xxxii, 432),
59-76 The Norton energy psychology series.
Source editor(s): Gallo, Fred P. (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Healing from the body level up (HBLU) is a holistic
psychotherapeutic system that simultaneously addresses the somatic,
psychological, and spiritual aspects of an issue. It is a methodology (not a
technique) in which the client uses muscle testing to formulate a goal,
identify what is interfering with reaching the goal, and select the best
intervention for clearing the interference. When the interference pattern
clears, it does so on the client's conscious, unconscious, body, and soul
levels as confirmed by muscle testing and measurable behavioral results. This
chapter discusses the development of HBLU methodology, describes working with
the client and discusses HBLU treatment for trauma. Additionally, the chapter
provides protocol for clearing blocked access to emotion patterns and the
protocol for clearing the suspicion of blocked memory of trauma pattern. HBLU
provides healing practitioners with a method for treating trauma rapidly,
effectively, and safely by aligning the conscious, unconscious, body, and soul
levels, recognizing structural elements of the damage patterns, following
specific protocols, and utilizing effective techniques.

Title: Seemorg Matrix Work-super(TM): The transpersonal energy psychotherapy.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Clinton, Asha Nahoma
Source/Citation: Energy psychology in psychotherapy:  A comprehensive
sourcebook., New York, NY, US: W. W. Norton & Co, Inc; 2002, (xxxii, 432),
93-115 The Norton energy psychology series.
Source editor(s): Gallo, Fred P. (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Seemorg Matrix Work (SMW)-super(TM ) utilizes the
movement of energy through the major energy centers of the body to remove the
negative aftereffects of trauma. In addition, it instills their positive
counterparts and nourishes spiritual development. A transpersonal
psychotherapy, it posits a new theory of trauma while incorporating some key
aspects of traditional psychotherapy into its theory and practice. SMW
consists of many protocols, matrices, meditations, processes, and practices.
When these methods are used is determined by a combination of intuition and
muscle testing, each verifying the other. This chapter discusses SMW
methodology and theory; the unconscious human connection in SMW; treating and
reuniting body, psyche, and spirit; and the therapeutic stance and goal of SMW. ========================================

Title: Dynamic Energetic Healing-super(TM): Trauma and soul work at the origins.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Hammond-Newman, Mary
Brockman, Howard
Author Affiliation: Private Practice, Salem, OR, US
Source/Citation: Energy psychology in psychotherapy:  A comprehensive
sourcebook., New York, NY, US: W. W. Norton & Co, Inc; 2002, (xxxii, 432),
116-131 The Norton energy psychology series.
Source editor(s): Gallo, Fred P. (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Dynamic Energetic Healing-super(TM ) (DEH) is an
innovative, client-centered model that blends the best of energy psychology
and the authors' backgrounds in process oriented theory, human development,
shamanism, hypnosis, and their individual eclectic spiritual paths. DEH guides
people to a place of thorough and complete emotional, mental, and spiritual
healing, as well as to a place of greater clarity regarding their life
purpose. DEH is as effective with couples, families, and communities as it is
with individuals. We have experimented with the energy tools, accessed our
intuition, listened intently to clients, and DEH has emerged from a
combination of these sources. Energy balancing strategies are incorporated
into strategies from the practitioners' previous therapy models to shift the
traumatic energy of past issues and complete the healing in the present. This
chapter discusses energetic origins, process oriented energy work, and
hypnosis. Additionally areas covered include the DEH model, working with
supernatural energies, and soul learnings and the gifts of a healing touch or
deep unconditional love.

Title: Spirituality and the maintenance of change: A phenomenological study of
women who leave abusive relationships.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Senter, Karolyn Elizabeth; Caldwell, Karen
Author Affiliation: Appalachian State U, Dept of Human Development &
Psychological Counseling, Boone, NC, US
Source/Citation: Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal; Vol
24(4) Dec 2002, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2002, 543-564
Abstract/Review/Citation: This phenomenological study of nine women who
successfully interrupted the cycle of domestic violence focused on their
spiritual experiences. Twelve integrated themes emerged to provide a composite
description of the process of leaving abusive relationships and maintaining
this change. The oppressive nature of the abusive relationships restricted
growth as safety and survival were prioritized over self-development. The
leaving process afforded opportunities for the redirection of energy and
intention. A complex set of actions moved the women from false beliefs and
assumptions about themselves and their circumstances to beliefs that
ultimately led to healing and new perspectives of self, life, God, and others.

Title: Thinking with your soul:  Spiritual intelligence and way it matters.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Wolman, Richard N.
Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: Harmony Books; 2001, (xii, 288)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Offers insights into spiritual intelligence and how
individuals can make it work for themselves. Spiritual intelligence is defined
as concerning the human capacity to ask ultimate questions about the meaning
of life and to experience simultaneously the seamless connection between all
individuals and the world. It is the author's view that everyone has spiritual
intelligence and that recognizing and working with it is important for a
person's total well-being. Focus is given to what the author has identified as
being the 7 factors that make up human spiritual experience and behavior.
Those 7 factors are divinity, mindfulness, intellectuality, community,
extrasensory perception, childhood spirituality, and trauma. Also, the
author's PsychoMatrix Spirituality Inventory, a system for evaluating the
levels and areas of spirituality in people's lives without reference to a
specific religious ideology, is discussed and included.

Title: Eating disorders:  The journey to recovery workbook.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Goodman, Laura J.; Villapiano, Mona
Source/Citation: Philadelphia, PA, US: Brunner-Routledge; 2001, (xvii, 220)
Abstract/Review/Citation: The authors take the reader on a journey toward mental
and physical health, as well as an important understanding of eating
disorders. This workbook encourages self-paced learning and practice. In
addition to the basic understanding of eating disorders and relationships with
food, the authors guide the reader through a greater consideration of body
image, compulsive exercising, and personal and societal relationships. This
workbook also explores complicated issues that have a direct effect on eating
disorders, including trauma, depression, abuse, and the media.

Title: A model of trauma with spirituality and religiosity: The mediating and
moderating effects of personal growth initiative and openness to experience.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Caldwell, Jodi Kristen
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 61(7-B) Feb 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2001, 3833
Abstract/Review/Citation: Spirituality and religiosity remain two diversity
variables that are little studied in relation to mental health. Researchers
and theorists in the area of trauma have proposed conflicting effects of
trauma on spirituality and religiosity. Although some studies show that
spirituality and/or religiosity increase following the experience of a
traumatic event, other studies show a decrease. Therefore this study proposed
that there are two intervening variables in these relationships: Personal
Growth Initiative (PGI) and Openness to Experience (OTE). Personal Growth
Initiative is the active seeking out of self-growth experiences. Openness to
Experience refers to the individual's receptiveness and valuing of diversity
of ideas and experiences. This study tested whether these intervening
variables mediated or moderated the relationship between trauma and
spirituality or trauma and religiosity. The following measures were used: The
Traumatic Experience Questionnaire (Vrana & Lauterbach, 1994), The
Spiritual Experience Index (Genia, 1997), Religious Commitment Inventory
(McCullogh, Worthington, Maxey & Rechal, 1997), the Personal Growth
Initiative Scale (Robitschek, 1998), and the Openness to Experience Scale of
the NEO-PI (Costa & Mc Crae, 1992). Participants were 249 undergraduate
students in psychology courses. Results indicated that only two models of
moderation were partially supported. For men, when trauma was viewed as a
dichotomous variable, the interaction between the presence of trauma and
Openness to Experience did appear to explain significant additional variance
in Spirituality. However, further examination revealed that this was likely an
artifact of the low number of men who reported having experienced no traumatic
events. For women, the interaction between Total Perceived Trauma and Openness
to Experience did explain significant additional variance in Spirituality. A
median split analysis suggested that the interaction is happening in such a
way that in order to obtain a high score on Spirituality, both Openness to
Experience and Total Perceived Trauma must also be high. Significant gender
differences were found in the relationships between some of the variables.

Title: Counselor reactions to clients traumatized by violence.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Jones, Karyn Dayle
Source/Citation: Faces of violence:  Psychological correlates, concepts, and
intervention strategies., Huntington, NY, US: Nova Science Publishers, Inc;
2001, (xxviii, 470), 379-388
Source editor(s): Sandhu, Daya Singh (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: The trauma of violence effects those who experienced
the trauma and many more. Counselors are among the many caregivers who may be
impacted by their work with trauma survivors. Whether identified as vicarious
traumatization, secondary traumatic stress, compassion fatigue,
countertransference or empathic strain, it is clear that professional
counselors may experience a variety of reactions associated with counseling
survivors. Counselor reactions may include symptoms similar to posttraumatic
stress disorder in addition to overidentification, avoidance, and the effects
of vicarious traumatization. These reactions greatly impact counselors and
their ability to effectively treat survivors. Personal counseling, balancing
work and leisure, spirituality, and supervision are ways counselors can become
aware of, work through, and cope with a normal reactions associated with
trauma work.

Title: Values, meaning and well-being:  Posttraumatic growth in women with
breast cancer.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Austin, Avis
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 61(9-B) Apr 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2001, 4963
Abstract/Review/Citation: Excluding skin cancers, breast cancer is the most
prevalent cancer in women in the United States. While a diagnosis of breast
cancer is often difficult, several people have remarked anecdotally that
'cancer is one of the best things that has happened in my life.' They report
growth and improved functioning above that prior to diagnosis. This study used
grounded theory analysis techniques to develop a model of growth after breast
cancer from a sample of twenty women. The volunteer participants (average age:
51.2, SD 7.6) completed Rokeach values sorts both pretest and posttest and,
additionally, submitted functioning ratings and journals on thoughts and
feelings about cancer by anonymous email twice per week for up to eight
months. For analysis, participants were divided into three groups: women
diagnosed within two years prior to study start (n = 8); those who were
diagnosed more than two years before the study began and were without active
disease currently (n = 8); and women who have incurred a recurrence of cancer
or metastasis (n = 4). Products of the analysis were two themes and a model
linking eight main categories. The two themes are: (1) search for positive
aspects of the cancer experience; and (2) understanding and replacing
unachieved expectations and goals. The main categories in the model are: (1)
Dealing with crisis; (2) Moving beyond cancer; (3) Examining trauma; (4) How
to prevent recurrence and what if it happens again? (5) Cancer is forever; (6)
Taking stock of outcomes; (7) Distilling insights and creating wisdom; and (8)
Reorganizing self and approach to life. From zero to four subcategories which
helped to define each main category. This model was compared to existing
theoretical models of posttraumatic growth. Several values shifts were noted
between pretest and posttest. For example, values decreasing in ranking for
women with metastasis were: faithfulness, family, freedom, happiness, personal
peace, health, intimacy, and loving, indicating that these values were
perceived as either unachievable or less important over the time of the study.
These same women increased their rankings of generosity, forgiveness,
pleasure, and spirituality, indicating that they were striving to reach or
maintain these values.

Title: The sun always comes out after it rains:  Exploring the experience of
AIDS caregivers (immune deficiency).
Author(s)/Editor(s): Cadell, Susan
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 61(10-A) May 2001, US: Univ Microfilms
International; 2001, 4177
Abstract/Review/Citation: This research was designed to explore the growth of
people who have cared for or about someone who has died of Acquired Immune
Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses or complications related to Human
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease. It consists of a cross-sectional study
of 176 bereaved caregivers of people with HIV disease, some of whom themselves
are HIV-positive. Measures were selected to assess demographics, creativity,
spirituality/religiosity, social support, depression, traumatic symptomatology
and postraumatic growth. A research model is tested which examines the
relationship of psychosocial resources and stressors to the post-traumatic
growth of the bereaved participants. In addition, seven caregivers
participated in unstructured interviews in order to provide descriptive data
with which to supplement the quantitative results.  The results demonstrate
that individuals scoring highest on measures of spirituality, reported the greatest positive changes after trauma. Support for the role of spirituality
was found in all the statistical tests as well as in the structural equation
model. The interview data further substantiated the importance of spirituality
in the process of growth. The structural equation model and the interview data
also demonstrated confirmation of the hypothesis that the carers with higher
reported levels social support would demonstrate higher post-traumatic growth.
The results further demonstrated that those individuals with higher levels of
post-traumatic stress symptoms reported the most growth after the death of the
care recipient; this result was the opposite of the hypothesized relationship.
This study provides a portrait of bereaved HIV carers in Canada and the
realities associated with that situation. The findings confirm the literature
that suggests that, in contrast to carers of people with other diseases, HIV
caregivers are younger, more often male, not necessarily a family member and
are often HIV-positive themselves. This portrait and the relationship of
spirituality, social support and trauma to growth have implications for social
workers in all practice areas. The importance of spirituality mirrors an
emerging area of interest in social work. The knowledge of factors that can
play a role in post-traumatic growth can contribute to the work of social
workers and others at any level of intervention.

Title: Vicarious traumatization in therapists:  Contributing factors, PTSD
symptomatology, and cognitive distortions.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Lugris, Veronica Maria
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 61(10-B) May 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2001, 5571
Abstract/Review/Citation: One hundred ninety-one licensed psychologists who work
with traumatized clients completed a survey that examines the impact of
personal and professional factors on vicarious traumatization. Quantitative
results indicated that therapists' personal variables of sex, personal trauma
history, and current stressfulness of personal trauma predict PTSD symptoms,
while variables that include vicarious exposure to trauma and perceived social
support predict hyperarousal symptoms and cognitive distortions above and
beyond the effects of therapists' personal variables. Qualitative results
revealed the importance of maintaining a balance between professional and
personal support, a holistic attention to body and mind that includes physical
exercise and self-care, spirituality and meditation, leisure activities,
cognitive strategies, and personal growth activities. Implications and
recommendations for future research are discussed.

Title: Psychotherapy and spirituality:  A paradigm for healing.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Lewis, Suzanne Lee
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 61(10-B) May 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2001, 5570
Abstract/Review/Citation: Lewis' exploratory study incorporates data from a case
study of a profoundly depressed woman suffering from dissociative identity
disorder to show how she is healed through a psychotherapeutic and spiritual
journey into her unconscious mind. The study vividly details the counseling
experiences that uncovered repressed memories of sexual and Satanic Ritual
Abuse, the core of this depression. Extensive first-person narrative is used
to illustrate how the woman was able to overcome the physical and emotional
revivifications of her trauma.  The study explores the use of two relatively
new techniques in spiritual counseling: the TheoPhostic method (Smith 1996),
which enables client and therapist to work together with God to reintegrate
dissociated 'parts' on a spiritual level; and Time Line Therapy (James and
Woodsmall 1988), a method for the visualization of personal time and memory
recall involving color, lack of color, and light. Both methods are proposed as
particularly effective in knowing about repressed and dissociated trauma
memories and in healing these severe traumas as caused by sexual and Satanic
Ritual Abuse.  Various standard counseling techniques of reframing, changing
history, discovering core beliefs, changing core beliefs and discovering
disowned parts of self are all demonstrated in this work. The not so standard
techniques used in this work involve the therapist and the client's reports of
finding external and internal spiritual guides along with a beautiful white
light that provided extraordinary resources in stopping the client's profound
and sometimes life threatening abreactions. The most significant and powerful
technique visualizing Divine Light shining on and penetrating each newly
conscious traumatized 'part' proved to be truly miraculous for the client. 
Using a double column format, the client's narrative is contextualized in
terms of both traditional (Janet, Charcot, Freud, Jung, Adler) and
contemporary (van der Kolk, Kluft, Putnam, Herman, Terr, LeDoux, James and
Smith) researchers. The contextualized material puts the client's behaviors
and feelings into a scholarly format that therapists and students will find
enriching and educational. The study is a pioneering work in spiritual

Title: The holy longing:  A psychological study of the religious impulse.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Zweig, Connie
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 62(1-B) Jul 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2001, 530
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examined attitudes toward the religious
impulse in the schools of depth psychology-Freudian, object relations,
Jungian, and archetypal-and in transpersonal psychology. The religious impulse
is defined as an individual's innate desire to commune with something greater
than the individual self; it is the longing to transcend the ego, to return to
the archetypal realm, or to experience union with God, depending on one's
language and frame of reference. Thus this study situated theorists with
divergent attitudes, who rarely appear together in the literature, in a kind
of dialogue with one another, not to reconcile them but to allow them to
challenge and extend each other.  It was not the aim of this work to reduce
the holy longing to a psychological complex or to a singular archetype.
Rather, it aimed, first of all, to acknowledge the pervasiveness and
worthiness of authentic religious desire, which has been overlooked by many
professionals in the psychological community and which could be of value to
both individual seekers and their mental health care practitioners. Second, it
aimed to point out some of the inherent psychological dangers of the holy
longing, which have been overlooked by many religious believers and spiritual
or transpersonal practitioners. Thus this study was an attempt to present both
the light side and the dark side of the holy longing.  Finally, this study
suggested that there is an archetypal basis for the spiritual impulse in human
beings, which can lead either to ecstatic, numinous experience, communion, and
compassion or to spiritual abuse, trauma, splitting, and despair. Thus the  holy longing is a two-faced archetype, with a light side and a dark side. A
deeper understanding of its dual nature will assist spiritual seekers, as well
as those seeking to treat them.

Title: Reading from the underside of selfhood:  Bonhoeffer and spiritual
formation (Dietrich Bonhoeffer).
Author(s)/Editor(s): Dahill, Lisa Elaine
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 62(3-A) Sep 2001, US: University Microfilms
International; 2001, 1080
Abstract/Review/Citation: For over fifty years, the legacy of Dietrich
Bonhoeffer has offered fruitful resources for Christian spiritual formation.
His example of self-sacrificing discipleship has inspired Christians in a
variety of contexts around the world in their own resistance to evil and
devotion to Jesus Christ. Yet for some readers, particularly those who suffer
abuse and other forms of violence, Bonhoeffer's widely-taught insistence on
self-sacrifice, on becoming a 'person for others,' may prove more harmful than
liberating. For those already socialized into self-abnegation, uncritical
applications of Bonhoeffer's teachings may in fact unwittingly reinforce
submission rather than resistance to evil. This dissertation explores
Bonhoeffer's understandings of selfhood and spiritual formation, both in his
own experience and writings and in light of the role of gender in
psycho-spiritual development. Following an introduction locating the project
within the discipline of Christian Spirituality, I provide an overview of
Bonhoeffer's experientially-shaped understanding of human selfhood and an
exploration of characteristic themes and loci within which he conceives of
spiritual growth, or conformation with Jesus Christ, taking place for the
Christian. The two chapters on Bonhoeffer trace these themes of selfhood and
spiritual formation broadly throughout his major writings. Next, I present the
insights of selected contemporary feminist psychologists in regard to gendered
patterns of self-formation, including the experience of women in abuse. This
chapter draws on the work of the Stone Center theorists, the Harvard research
team led by Carol Gilligan, psychoanalytic theorist Jessica Benjamin, and
trauma psychiatrist Judith Herman. The central constructive chapter, then,
creates a mediated conversation between Bonhoeffer and these feminist
psychologists specifically on the subject of the healthy Christian spiritual
formation of women in abuse, including not only dimensions of his thinking to
be critiqued from a feminist perspective but also important resources he
contributes toward a truly liberating Christian spirituality for those on the
underside of selfhood. The final chapter offers a concluding summary,
suggestions regarding the broader relevance of this study, and implications
for ministry. The insights for spiritual formation developed here provide
powerful proof of Bonhoeffer's continuing and concretely contextualized
relevance for readers across the full spectrum of human selfhood.

Title: Predictors of vicarious traumatization:  Female therapists for adult
survivors versus female therapists for child survivors of sexual
Author(s)/Editor(s): Trippany, Robyn Layton
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 62(3-A) Sep 2001, US: University Microfilms
International; 2001, 926
Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of the present study was to explore
individual and occupational variables that contribute to the experience of
vicarious traumatization (VT). More specifically, this research examined the
relationship of VT with personal and professional characteristics of sexual
trauma therapists. Furthermore, this research investigated differences in the
occurrence of VT between female therapists for adult survivors of sexual
trauma and female therapists for child survivors of sexual trauma. No
significant predictor relationship was found for the experience of VT with the
variables of personal trauma history, career longevity, client caseload,
spirituality, and participation in formal peer supervision. Additionally, no
significant differences for the experience of VT were found between therapists
for adult survivors versus therapists for child survivors of sexual

Title: Trauma, spirituality, and their relationship:  A qualitative
investigation of personal stories and process.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Seagraves, Patricia
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 62(3-B) Sep 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2001, 1597
Abstract/Review/Citation: The field of traumatology has been the subject of
considerable inquiry, however, most outcome studies have focused on PTSD,
which accounts for only 12% of those experiencing trauma (Bernat, Ronfeldt,
Calhoun, & Arias, 1998). The emergence of spirituality in the trauma
recovery process has been theorized (Brack, Brack & Hill-Carlson, 1997)
and empirically validated (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996; Wright, 1997), but
has received little attention in the trauma literature.  An investigation into
the experiences of trauma and spirituality was conducted with 154 graduate
students at a southeastern urban university. The purposes of the study were to
define the experiences and process of trauma and spirituality and to determine
if a relationship existed between the two. Participants completed the Trauma
and Spiritual Event Questionnaire (Brack, 1997), an open-ended survey in which
participants told their stories of trauma and spirituality and identified
their personal criteria for what constituted a traumatic or spiritual event.
The researcher used grounded-theory methodology (Strauss & Corbin, 1990)
to analyze the participants' stories. The results indicated that the
experience of trauma followed a specific sequence and resulted in four
outcomes: Open Wounds, Open Ended, Closure, and Conscious Growth. The
spiritual experiences were diverse and fell into five domains: Spiritual Loss
Experiences (transformation), Immediate Spiritual Experiences (transcendence),
Religious Experiences (references to a higher power), Community Service
Experiences (life impacting), and the Paranormal (unexplained phenomena). A
relationship was found to exist between the experiences of trauma and
spiritual loss as the precipitating events were identical in many cases and
the initial processes followed the same course. However, the outcomes differed
in the stories of spiritual loss because the traumatic experience was
transformed by a second unexpected and life-altering event, thus changing the
participants' perspective. What was once viewed as traumatic was now perceived
as a spiritual experience. This process of spiritual transformation was also
found to parallel the process of the trauma experience. The spiritual domains
of transcendence and community service were also found to have common features
with trauma.

Title: Trauma, consciousness, and spirituality:  Toward a theory of trauma in
its spiritual dimension.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Nace, Robert Frederick
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 62(4-B) Oct 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2001, 2071
Abstract/Review/Citation: This theoretical exploration of psychological trauma
developes the thesis that spirituality is an essential element in a
comprehensive understanding of the nature, the effects, and the process of
recovery from traumatic experience.  A review of the trauma literature in
psychology reveals a body of work demonstrating interactions between trauma
and spirituality or religion. However, definitions of spirituality and
religion used in this research vary substantially, and this variance raises
contentious ontological and axiological issues for research and theory in
psychology.  An exposition of Danial Helminiak's process theory of
spirituality as a specialization within psychology serves as the basis for
understanding spirituality as a dimension of psychological trauma.
Spirituality, here, is radically differentiated from religion. Equating human
spirit with human consciousness, Helminiak argues that human spirituality is
explained by an analysis of human consciousness as bimodal and as dynamically
structured by four operations: experiencing, understanding, judging, and
deciding. Human spirituality is conceived as the process-intrinsic to
consciousness-of generating structures of meaning and value. It is through
this process that trauma and spirituality interact.  The application of
Helminiak's theory of spirituality to the issue of trauma allows exploration
of the interactions of spirituality and trauma, provides a basis for
describing characteristic alterations in spirituality as a result of trauma,
and supports a three-stage model of recovery in the spiritual dimension.

Title: Elementary school counseling in the new millennium.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Sandhu, Daya Singh
Source/Citation: Alexandria, VA, US: American Counseling Association; 2001,
(xxv, 296)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Examines primary issues that affect elementary
school-age children. The book addresses the social and cultural complexities
that influence children's behavior and describes what can be done to help them
succeed in a rapidly changing world. The authors present counseling program
strategies, which are designed both to meet the special needs of K-6 students
and to maximize their potential by promoting personal growth,
self-determination, and self-respectibility. Topics discussed include creative
problem solving, play therapy and use of the creative arts in counseling,
parental collaboration, trauma counseling, resiliency and coping strategies,
the concerns of multiethnic and multiracial children, sexual orientation,
spirituality, and bullying.
Notes/Comments:  Foreword Preface Acknowledgments About the editor and
contributors Section I: Proactive counseling in the 21st century Introduction:
Challenges for elementary school counselors in the new millennium Daya Singh
Sandhu A model of school counseling: Using a proactive and positive approach
Alfiee M. Breland and Daya Singh Sandhu Navigating the quagmire of inherent
ethical dilemmas present in elementary school counseling programs Susan Norris
Huss Section II: Developmental needs of elementary school students
Interconnections among cognitive, physical, and social development Earl Folse
and Daya Singh Sandhu Play therapy in the elementary school Peterann M. Siehl
Creative arts in counseling with elementary school children: A user-friendly
approach J. Kelly Coker Using group rewards to influence prosocial behavior
and academic success: The school counselor as consultant and coordinator Craig
S. Cashwell, Tammy H. Cashwell and Amy L. Skinner Career development in the
elementary school Judith Emmett and Debra Preston Section III:
Crisis/intervention Creating developmental opportunity: Systemic and proactive
intervention for elementary school counselors Patrick Akos Encouragement
counseling for the discouraged child Robert J. McBrien Using the 4C's to
provide services for children of alcoholics in elementary school settings John
F. Arman, Emily Phillips and Robert McNair Counseling issues and programs for
children of divorce Pedro R. Portes, Daya Singh Sandhu and Jennifer A.
Vadeboncoeur A remedy for boys who bully: A gender-equal school environment
Elizabeth Clarke and Mark S. Kiselica Peervention: A practical approach to
preventing violence in elementary schools Andrew K. Tobias Section IV: Special
needs/concerns Counseling the special needs student Jackie M. Allen Counseling
children with learning disabilities Joyce Williams Bergin and James J. Bergin
Valuing human diversity: Counseling multiracial and multiethnic children
Eugenie Joan Looby Counseling immigrant children in school settings: What
school counselors should do Mei Tang Spirituality: Its place in counseling
children Mary Finn Maples Issues of difference: Gender, sexuality, and the
elementary school child Kathleen M. Kirby Professional responsibility to gay,
lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered (GLBT) youths and families Sue Strong and
Connie J. Callahan Section V: Technology and other resources for the
elementary school counselor School counselor technology competencies in the
new millennium Russell A. Sabella and J. Michael Tyler The elementary school
counselor's professional library Pamelia E. Brott elementary school-age
children; elementary school counseling; social issues; cultural complexities;
social complexities; counseling programs

Title: How to help people who dissociate.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Friesen, James G.
Source/Citation: Journal of Psychology & Christianity: Special Issue:
Dissociative Identity Disorder; Vol 19(2) Sum 2000, US: Christian Assn. for
Psychological Studies; 2000, 144-153
Abstract/Review/Citation: A comprehensive approach to treating dissociative
identity disorder (DID) clients is presented, based on The Life Model (Friesen
et al, 1999). 28 lessons about treating DID clients are briefly listed, in the
following areas: lessons about the environment, psychological lessons,
spiritual lessons, and lessons about programming. The results of 2 studies
about spiritual interventions are also included, which identify spiritual
interventions used by practicing DID counselors, and the reported
effectiveness of the interventions. In Exp 1, 66 Christian therapists who work
with trauma recovery clients completed surveys indicating which spiritual
interventions they used. In Exp 2, 102  Christian therapists who work with DID
clients were surveyed as to which spiritual interventions were effective. The
results indicate that it is routinely a standard practice for Christian
therapists to pray, and to expect God will be very active in the therapy they
carry out.

Title: Loss and trauma:  General and close relationship perspectives.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Harvey, John H.; Miller, Eric D.
Source/Citation: Philadelphia, PA, US: Brunner-Routledge; 2000, (xxv, 415)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Many of the losses we experience in life are natural
losses--loss of friends, health issues, death, divorce, loss of employment,
prejudice, and stigmatization. These events tax us most, and the process of
searching for and creating meaning is pervasive to life itself. This process
is found in the chapters of this handbook-style collection by scholars of the
 oss and trauma phenomena.  This interdisciplinary and international
resource combines more subtle losses such as those of prejudice and
stigmatization with traumas, death, or the loss of a close relationship. In
this way, the volume reveals continua of major loss, grief, and traumatic
events, while also showing the innate ability of humans to grow stronger and
gain hope in pursuing the meaning behind the loss experiences. The book begins
with a general analysis of loss and trauma concepts and then moves into an
analysis of loss and trauma in specific populations. Treatments to address
these specific populations and traumas are included. Covered next is the
daunting loss and trauma associated in close, personal relationships--both
romantic and familial. The book concludes with a commentary that considers
both the book's content and loss and trauma research in general.
Notes/Comments:  Preface Contributors' list Part I: General perspectives on loss, trauma, coping, and the positive impacts of loss From vulnerability to growth: Positive and negative effects of stressful life events John A. Updegraff and Shelley E. Taylor The other side of trauma: Towards a psychology of appreciation Ronnie Janoff-Bulman and
Andrea R. Berger Bereavement Beverly Raphael and Matthew Dobson Helping
victims of loss and trauma: A social psychological perspective Louis A.
Penner, John F. Dovidio and Terrance L. Albrecht Victim thinking Roy F.
Baumeister and Ellen Bratslavsky The ranking of personal grief: Death and
comparative loss Harvey Peskin Parallel selves as the end of grief work Aurora
Liiceanu Rational suicide David J. Mayo Part II: Loss and trauma associated
with specific populations The role of perceived control in coping with the
losses associated with chronic illness Suzanne C. Thompson and Diana J. Kyle
Coping as a "reality construction": On the role of attentive,
comparative, and interpretive processes in coping with cancer Dieter Ferring,
Sigrun-Heide Filipp Loss, adjustment, and growth after cancer: Lessons from
patients' children Beth Leedham and Beth Meyerowitz The few gains and many
losses for those stigmatized by psychiatric disorders Amerigo Farina The human
costs of organizational downsizing: The irrational effects of the justice
motive on managers, dismissed workers, and survivors Melvin J. Lerner
Transcending a lifetime of losses: The importance of spirituality in old age
Janet L. Ramsey and Rosemary Blieszner College student grief and loss Paul L.
Toth, Rex Stockton and Fredrick Browne On being homeless and mentally ill: A
multitude of losses and the possibility of recovery Gary A. Morse Part III:
Loss and trauma associated with close relationships Loss, resources, and
resiliency in close interpersonal relationships Stevan E. Hobfoll, Nicole
Ennis and Jennifer Kay Negotiating terminal illness: Communication, collusion,
and coalition in caregiving Carolyn Ellis Caregiver loss and quality of care
provided: Preillness relationship makes a difference Gail M. Williamson, David
R. Shaffer, and The Family Relationships in Late Life Project [University of
Georgia, Department of Psychology] Adjusting to infertility Antonia Abbey
Widowhood in later life Robert O. Hanson and Bert Hayslip, Jr. The loss of
loved ones: The impact of relationship infidelity Brock Boekhout, Susan S.
Hendrick and Clyde Hendrick Unyielding custody disputes: Tempering loss and
courting disaster Jacqueline L. Karkazis and Sharon L. Lazaneo Cognitive
interdependence and the experience of relationship loss Christopher R. Agnew
Part IV: Conclusion What's narrative got to do with it? Construction and
coherence in accounts of loss Robert A. Neimeyer and Heidi M. Levitt Index
prejudice & stigmatization & death & grief & general & close relationship perspectives on loss & trauma

Title: Transcending a lifetime of losses: The importance of spirituality in old age.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Ramsey, Janet L.; Blieszner, Rosemary
Source/Citation: Loss and trauma:  General and close relationship perspectives.,
Philadelphia, PA, US: Brunner-Routledge; 2000, (xxv, 415), 225-236
Source editor(s): Harvey, John H. (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: How does spirituality function in the lives of older
adults to enable them to cope successfully and age well? The authors suggest
that it is often helpful to interview strong and successful elderly survivors
themselves in order to learn the answer to this question. Such men and women
are models of resiliency whose lives can offer inspiration and encouragement
both to younger persons and to their contemporaries. They live among us as
persons who have transcended a lifetime of losses, learned to cope with
incredible difficulties, and gained deep understandings of life.  Topics
include: an illustrative study of spirituality and resilience; relationships
and spirituality in old age; and applications for clinical practice (cognitive
therapy, existential therapy, narrative therapy).

Title: Early posttraumatic interventions: Facilitating possibilities for growth.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Calhoun, Lawrence G.; Tedeschi, Richard G.
Source/Citation: Posttraumatic stress intervention:  Challenges, issues, and
perspectives., Springfield, IL, US: Charles C Thomas, Publisher; 2000, (xvii,
225), 135-152
Source editor(s): Violanti, John M. (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: There is evidence suggesting that the struggle with
highly challenging circumstances (e.g., earthquakes, fires, major
transportation accidents) can produce significant positive changes for persons
coping with trauma. The authors have termed these changes "posttraumatic
growth" (PTG).  PTG is positive change that an individual experiences as
a result of the struggle with a traumatic event. Although similar to concepts
such as hardiness and resilience, which describe persons who, in spite of
exposure to highly stressful life circumstances, nevertheless withstand or
bounce back psychologically without developing deficiencies or psychological
problems, PTG refers to something different. The experience of posttraumatic
growth is one in which the individual describes significant positive changes
arising from the struggle. The kinds of PTG reported tend to fall into 3
general categories: (1) changes in one's sense of self, (2) changes in
relationships with others, and (3) changes in one's spirituality or religion.
This chapter describes these 3 general domains of growth, and then discusses
how a PTG growth perspective might be applied in the context of posttraumatic

Title: Being Indian: Strengths sustaining First Nations peoples in Saskatchewan
residential schools.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Hanson, Isabelle; Hampton, Mary Rucklos
Source/Citation: Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health; Vol 19(1) Spr
2000, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier Univ Press; 2000, 127-142
Abstract/Review/Citation: This qualitative study asked the question: what were
the strengths that contributed to the survival of First Nations peoples during
their stay in residential schools? Six elders who are survivors of residential
schools in southern Saskatchewan were asked to respond in narrative form to
this research question. Analysis of interviews revealed that, drawing on
community-building skills of First Nations cultures, they created their own
community with each other within the confines of this oppressive environment.
The strengths they identified are consistent with sense of community
identified in community psychological literature, yet are also unique to First
Nation cultures. These strengths are: autonomy of will and spirit, sharing,
respect, acceptance, a strong sense of spirituality, humour, compassion, and
cultural pride. It is suggested that community-based mental health initiatives
which identify traditional sources of strengths within First Nations
communities will be most effective in promoting healing from residential
school trauma.

Title: Coping with the spiritual meaning of psychosis.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Murphy, Marcia A.
Source/Citation: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal; Vol 24(2) Fal 2000, US:
Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal; 2000, 179-183
Abstract/Review/Citation: This article presents a thematic analysis of the
meaning of psychosis. The analysis is based on 1st-person accounts of 8
persons suffering from serious mental illnesses. Based on these accounts the
author calls for an end to the estrangement between psychiatric rehabilitation
and the spiritual lives of people with mental illnesses by showing the
importance of an integrated approach to psychiatric care. The need for such an
approach is evident in the accounts of persons who experienced psychoses.
These survivors of trauma not experienced by many outside the psychiatric
community plead for careful consideration of their interpretation of psychotic
phenomenon. They report having adopted attitudes and lifestyles that have
given direction to their lives and strategies for survival.

Title: The path to wholeness: Effective coping strategies of African-American
adult survivors of childhood violent experiences.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Bryant, Thema Simone
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 60(8-B) Mar 2000, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2000, 4205
Abstract/Review/Citation: Far too many African-American children have been
victims and witnesses of physical and sexual violence. A retrospective
exploratory study of African-American adult survivors of childhood violent
experiences was conducted to determine the effectiveness of various coping
strategies. Seventy participants were recruited to form a community sample of
African-American adults. The coping strategies focused on were community
support, spirituality, creativity, and activism. While trauma history was
predictive of psychological adjustment, utilization of community support as a
coping strategy was predictive of lower symptoms of distress. Qualitative
analyses provided insight into the use of coping strategies and contextualized
their helpfulness within the theoretical framework of 'thriving'. The
investigator speaks to cultural influences on the body of trauma recovery
research, as well as cultural issues in methodology and interpretation. This
study provides an opportunity for the voices of African-American survivors to
be heard as they tell about their quest toward renewal and restoration.

Title: The impact of counseling battered women on the mental health of
Author(s)/Editor(s): Bell, Holly
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 60(9-A) Apr 2000, US: Univ Microfilms
International; 2000, 3525
Abstract/Review/Citation: Research to date has suggested that counselors who
work with trauma survivors are susceptible to secondary trauma, a form of
work-induced PTSD. This qualitative study focuses more broadly on how a
specific group of trauma counselors experienced their work, both positively
and negatively.  Thirty counselors of battered women, with a variety of
educational backgrounds, were asked about their experiences in a
semi-structured format in two interviews, approximately one year apart.
Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the constant
comparative method of grounded theory, whereby thematic material is compared
across subjects until theory emerges which best describes the aggregate data.
Only a few counselors seemed to be distressed at any given time. Five of the
thirty counselors seemed very stressed at the time of the second interview.
Six counselors seemed to be unfazed by stressful experiences. The majority of
counselors, nineteen in all, could name stressors, but felt they had adequate
personal and interpersonal resources for dealing with them. They identified
both positive and negative reactions to their work. Factors in counselors'
personal lives appeared to be at least as important as work stressors in
determining overall counselor stress. Further, counselors' perceived stress
was not static, but changed over time. Four counselors seemed less stressed at
the time of the first interview compared with the second; two seemed more.
Factors that seemed to make a difference in how stressed counselors described
themselves to be included their motivation for their work, how they appraised
stressors, how competent they felt coping with stress, how their
worldview/philosophy of life/spirituality functioned to buffer them from
stress, and how supported they felt. Several historical factors such as
personal experience and resolution of trauma and early role models of coping
also emerged. Finally, several demographic differences, such as ethnicity,
marital status, and childrearing status, emerged that correlated with stress
level. Particular configurations of these factors at a given period of time
contributed to counselor distress.  These factors suggest additional areas of
research into how counselors experience their work and ways to improve
screening, training, and supervising counselors of battered women.

Title: Spirituality in young adults at risk.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Schmidt, Cynthia Ann Wonsowicz
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 60(9-B) Apr 2000, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2000, 4908
Abstract/Review/Citation: The literature largely supports the association
between certain types of religiosity and low scores on measures of anxiety and
depression. Specifically, intrinsic religiosity, a collaborative religious
problem-solving style, and a nurturing concept of God (e.g., loving and
merciful images) have been examined. This study examined the hypothesis that
these types of religiosity would predict lower trauma symptoms of anxiety and
depression, as well as lower disruptions in cognitive schemas, in young adults
who were maltreated as children. An additional hypothesis was that endorsing a
punitive concept of God (e.g., cruel and damning images) would be associated
with greater trauma symptoms and greater disruptions in cognitive schemas. 370
undergraduates participated in this study. Results partially supported the
hypothesis that religiosity would help to protect mental health, based on
positive associations between the religiosity variables and schemas about
intimacy with others and esteem for others. Participants most strongly
endorsing a punitive concept of God reported the highest scores on depression,
after controlling for the extent of their childhood maltreatment. Endorsing a
punitive concept of God was also associated with disruptions in cognitive
schemas, both regarding oneself and regarding others, about safety, trust,
esteem, intimacy, and control. Results also supported Pargament's (1997)
coping mobilization hypothesis, that when individuals are experiencing the
greatest stress (consequently reporting higher symptomatology), they increase
their levels of religiosity to cope with their stressors. implications for
psychologists and religious helping professionals are discussed in terms of
identifying punitive thoughts about God as a 'red flag' that signals a need
for collaboration between the two professions.

Title: Getting loaded:  Adolescent girls' stories of substance abuse and
Author(s)/Editor(s): Pizer, Rebecca
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 60(9-B) Apr 2000, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2000, 4933
Abstract/Review/Citation: The goal of this study was to examine the experiences
of culturally diverse adolescent girls with substance abuse and recovery. The
professional literature on adult women's chemical dependency emphasizes the
significance of gender in all aspects of alcohol and other drug use as well as
its import in treatment. Also, the growing research on adolescent substance
abuse suggests that developmental factors distinguish young people who abuse
drugs from adult addicts in numerous ways. However, that literature generally
fails to address the issues of gender and culture, and little is known about
girls' subjective experiences of substance abuse.  This exploratory study
gathered information from eight adolescent girls who completed long-term
treatment at Thunder Road adolescent drug treatment program. Half of the
participants identified as Caucasian and the other half identified as girls of
color. Semi-structured interviews were employed to elicit participants'
perceptions. Qualitative analysis of the in-depth interviews produced several
prominent themes as well as three case studies.  Family problems such as
chemical dependency and parental absence were extremely common among
participants' families. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were also
prevalent. In addition, most participants suffered sexual trauma and
exploitation while they were seeking drugs or intoxicated. Substance use was
described as numbing the pain and shame from early and ongoing sexual trauma,
though it also increased the risks of exploitation and harm. Participants also
reported engaging in a variety of other risky behaviors besides substance
abuse such as stealing, fighting, and reckless driving. While racial
differences did not appear to be prominent in the group, class did emerge as a
differentiating factor with girls from poor families starting to use chemicals
earlier, staying in inpatient treatment longer, and coming from more chaotic
families. Participants' attempts to quit using drugs on their own were
unsuccessful prior to admission to drug treatment.  Increased parental limit
setting was necessary to motivate participants to enter treatment and stay
there. Every girl reported that family work during treatment improved her
family's functioning in the long term. Angry outbursts decreased, shameful
topics were brought out into the open, and communication generally improved.
Due to the coed nature of treatment, certain issues were inadequately
addressed such as girls' sexual behaviors, sexual identities, and shame.
However, participants used the Twelve Steps and other methods such as sober
friendships and spirituality to abstain from alcohol and other drugs and focus
on recovery.

Title:  Helping women recover: A comprehensive integrated treatment model.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Covington, Stephanie S.
Source/Citation: Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly; Vol 18(3) 2000, US: Haworth
Press Inc; 2000, 99-111
Abstract/Review/Citation: This article offers a brief overview of the treatment
history of women's addictions. It then provides a new model for treating women
(the Helping Women Recover program) that incorporates three theories: theory
of addiction; theory of women's psychological development; theory of trauma.
The structure and content of this gender-responsive treatment program is also
discussed with a focus on four areas: self, relationship, sexuality, and
spirituality.Helping Women Recover   is designed to be used in both
community-based and criminal justice-based programs for women.

Title: An exploratory study of student perceptions concerning their spiritual
formation within the Christian college experience.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Ma, Stella Y.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 60(11-A) Jun 2000, US: Univ Microfilms
International; 2000, 3931
Abstract/Review/Citation: Many Christian colleges and universities state that
the development of godly young adults to serve God and society is an essential
part of their mission. Limited information is available on how Christian
institutions impact students and accomplish this purpose. This study explored
students' perceptions of how their Christian college experience has influenced
their spiritual formation.  Christian higher education has historically played
a significant role in the development of leaders and teachers for church and
society. The development of student spirituality is still a relevant focus in
Christian higher education. A current concern in higher education is the
development of a seamless learning environment; one that integrates academic
and non-academic experiences, to impact the college student more
wholistically. Literature reviewed indicated the need for more assessment on
how the Christian college environment influences the student in the area of
spiritual formation  A total of 1,121 surveys were distributed at 18
institutions, representing 8 religious affiliations, between April and June
1999. Out of 980 surveys received, 953 were valid for analysis. The survey
instrument was developed from the preliminary survey results. The survey
looked at the impact of the Christian college experience on students, in terms
of how students perceived academic and non-academic factors, in relation to
their spiritual formation. Contact personnel at each site implemented the
survey instrument through either an academic or non-academic setting. The
results were analyzed using Pearson's, ANOVA, and Tukey's HSD post hoc test. A
brief content analysis of the text responses was done based mainly on
frequency counts. Survey results provided a descriptive profile of the average
student. The Pearson's test on the survey instrument showed high correlation
between the total scores and the academic and non-academic scores, and low
correlation between academic and nonacademic scores. The ANOVA findings showed
significant differences in the effects of individual campuses, institutional
religious affiliations, gender, and residential status on the spiritual
formation of students. Descriptive statistics on survey items provided some
trends of student perceptions on their Christian college experience. A lower
range of means was reported for academic items. The ten most influential
factors were relationships with peers, working through crisis or trauma,
practicing personal spiritual disciplines, praise and worship sessions, Bible
or theology classes, Christian college environment, involvement in student
ministry, being in an accountability or discipleship group, short-term
missions, and professor's impact or interaction in the class. Non-academic
factors were perceived to be more influential on spiritual formation than
academic factors, in terms of the means of survey items.  Some practical
applications, suggested from the findings, included the investigation of the
non-academic environment on individual campuses, investment in faculty
development, development of new programs, and improvement of existing courses
and programs. Limitations of this study were the use of a new

Title: Strategies for survival through healing among Native American women:  An
urban case study.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Mangelson Stander, Elon
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 61(2-A) Aug 2000, US: Univ Microfilms
International; 2000, 780
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study of Native American women residing in two
Utah cities was conducted to examine patterns of healing and recovery from
several types of personal trauma. The research was conducted using
ethnographic techniques including participant observation and in-depth
open-ended interviews. In addition, a preliminary comparative analysis was
made with a rural population on the Northern Cheyenne reservation in Montana.
Domestic abuse, sexual abuse, substance abuse, cultural oppression, grief and
rejection/abandonment were issues precipitating recovery among these American
Indian women. The pattern of recovery emerging from the study is a four stage
model. In Stage 1, women came to recognize the need for recovery. A parental
imperative to care for dependent children was an important force for women's
recognition of the need to change. A central motif of the model is a personal
commitment to survival through healing. Coming to this decision represents
Stage 2 and is essential for the recovery process to move forward.
Constituting Stage 3, strategies to direct and support the commitment to
recovery are then selected from resources available. Six strategies were most
salient. Spirituality and religion seemed to be the most indispensable
overall. Other strategies were education, formal recovery programs or
counseling, significant others or social networks, relocation, and
culture/roots. In Stage 4, recovery and healing results in self discovery,
improved self-esteem and improved social skills. Women also found themselves
taking on new roles as a result of recovery. Frequently, women in recovery
turned to community. New personal strengths and skills were used to enhance
community resources as they reached out to help others through a variety of
avenues including involvement in the public schools, community outreach
programs and those specifically targeting adult healing. Other issues
discussed are power and control, patterns of cultural revitalization and
resistance to cultural erosion and loss, generational patterns and urban  identity issues. The urban-rural comparison showed, among other findings,
variations in the pattern of religious affiliation. Higher percentages of
rural women were involved with traditional spiritual practices. Recovery
centers were more central to rural women's recovery compared to urban women.
(traditional religion, Native American Church, power, urban, reservation.)

Title: Women in recovery from alcohol:  Their perspectives.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Rankin, Carol S.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 61(2-B) Aug 2000, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2000, 817
Abstract/Review/Citation: There is limited information available to
rehabilitation counselors regarding women with alcohol problems. A review of
the literature shows that the needs of women who experience alcohol problems
have just begun to be identified. Much of what is known about alcohol problems
for women has been based on research about men and treatment efforts have
primarily been based on the disease/addiction/medical model. This model
incorporates the 12-step philosophy of AA. Although AA has had a significant  impact over the past 60 years, its relevance for women in general has been
questioned. The purpose of the present study was to better understand women's
experiences in recovery from alcohol.  In order to study women's experiences
and perceptions in-depth, a qualitative research approach was used. Since the
purpose of the present study was to explore experiences of women in recovery,
women who attended AA, women's AA, or Women For Sobriety made up the sample
for this study. A purposive sampling procedure was used. Face-to-face
tape-recorded interviews were conducted with a total of 10 women and inductive
analysis procedures were used to analyze the data.  Three major themes emerged
as a result of this study. The predominant theme that emerged from this study
was the importance of interpersonal processes/relationships for women in
recovery. Another theme that emerged identified the importance of feelings
related to pain, low self-esteem, and depression. The third theme that emerged
identified spirituality as an important recovery experience. Other topics that
were related to these women's experiences included the importance/impact of:
sexual trauma, counseling styles, family involvement, and perceived gender

Title: Existential/religious well-being as moderating variables in adjustment of
adults sexually abused as children.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Middleton, Kenneth C.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 61(4-B) Oct 2000, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2000, 2212
Abstract/Review/Citation: Personal characteristics of existential well-being and
religious well-being were examined for their relationship to severity of child
sexual abuse and the long-term psychological effects of that abuse. It was
hypothesized that existential well-being and religious well-being would lessen
the impact of the traumagenic dynamics of stigmatization, betrayal,
powerlessness, and traumatic sexualization in abuse victims.  Subjects
included 983 respondents (76.4% female) from 4 U.S. metropolitan areas. Five
hundred seventy-five of the subjects (58.5%) reported being sexually abused as
a child. No direct measures of existential or religious well-being were
available in the data set. Adapted, indirect measures were developed through
correlation statistics by comparing available items from several instruments
in the data set with the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (Paloutzian & Ellison,
1982). The results indicated that existential well-being was significantly
related to severity of abuse, and that increased existential well-being was
associated with fewer distress symptoms in adults sexually abused as children
across several levels of severity of abuse. These findings are congruent with
current models showing the positive impact of

 increased existential well-being
on victims of non-sexual trauma. The results further indicated that spiritual
well-being had no clear association with severity of abuse nor distress
symptoms in adults sexually abused as children.

Title: Utilizing religious resources in the treatment of dissociative trauma
symptoms: Rationale, current status, and future directions.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Rosik, Christopher H.
Source/Citation: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation: Special Issue:  ; Vol
1(1) 2000, US: Haworth Medical Press; 2000, 69-89
Abstract/Review/Citation: The religious faith and spirituality of patients
suffering from dissociative disorders has a vital though often undervalued
role to play in the treatment process. This article examines some reasons for
this state of affairs, provides a rationale and strategy for the assessment of
patient religiousness, and suggests some practical avenues for utilizing the
religious and spiritual dimension in psychotherapy. Concluding recommendations
derived from this analysis for the dissociative disorders field are presented.

Title: Clergy sexual abuse of women:  A specialized form of trauma.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Flynn, Kathryn Ann
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 61(5-A) Dec 2000, US: Univ Microfilms
International; 2000, 1751
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study was designed to examine the possibility of
trauma in the lives of women who were sexually abused by clergy. Interpersonal
violence in religious settings is not easily understood because methodological
research issues make the problem difficult to accurately assess. Anecdotal
literature likens clergy sexual abuse to familial incest. Therefore, the
following research question was considered: Is a trauma model a valid
theoretical construct with which to study women sexually abused by clergy? In
what ways is the model informed by clergy specific factors? Twenty-five women
from eleven different states participated in a semi-structured interview. A
five part interpretative process was used in the analysis for indication of
classical and complex trauma symptoms. The study was not clinical in the sense
of being diagnostic, epidemiological, or therapeutic in its design. Rather, it
was a narrative research effort to allow the women's expression of personal
experiences guide the analysis. Both classical and complex posttraumatic
symptoms were found in the data. Participants exhibited symptoms that strongly
corresponded with and met classical and complex trauma criteria used. 
Clergy-specific aspects were found in the antithetical nature of the
relationship, an intensified captivity experience, and extreme isolation
related to the lack of 'context' for expression of the problem. Lack of church
institutional recognition of the problem and communal support for victims and
the deprivation of religious, social and cultural 'context' intensified trauma
symptoms. Shifts in participants' meaning systems, from formal systems of
transcendence to complex spirituality emphasizing relational interpersonal
factors, were prominent in the narratives.  Recommendations include
interdisciplinary educational emphasis as primary to creating a 'context' and
the development of support systems. Findings suggest that educational efforts
may be more productive if they target potential victims and society outside of
religious institutions. Existing church measures did not appear to affect
prevention and were found non-responsive to victim needs. Re-conceptualization
of clergy sexual abuse as trauma producing using an interpersonal violence
paradigm and expansion of current sexual abuse trauma theory to include women
abused by clergy is recommended.

Title: Moral and spiritual issues following traumatization.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Sparr, Landy F.; Fergueson, John F.
Source/Citation: Psychiatry and religion:  The convergence of mind and spirit.,
Washington, DC, US: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.; 2000, (xx, 196), 109-123
Issues in psychiatry.
Source editor(s): Boehnlein, James K. (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Highlights the importance of including religious and
spiritual considerations in comprehensive psychiatric formulations. The
authors specifically focus on the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder,
because the complex existential and spiritual issues associated with trauma
and loss are central to both religious faith and the process of posttraumatic
recovery. During and after traumatic events, individuals frequently report
great cognitive dissonance between what they observe and experience in reality
and what they previously believed were stable, secure, and predictable
relationships, not only with other individuals but also with the supernatural
or the metaphysical. The person recovering from trauma does not have to be
religious in a formal sense to experience this dissonance. Including religious
and spiritual perspectives in the clinical assessment of patients takes into
account the effects of philosophical viewpoints, cultural values, and social
attitudes on disease. In recent decades, psychotherapeutic emphasis has moved
from classic psychodynamic conflicts over sexual and aggressive strivings
toward a focus on self-affirmation and on existential issues that have been
raised in connection with 20th-century wars and calamities.

Title: Physician-assisted suicide: A choice against meaning.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Long, Jerry L. JR
Source/Citation: International Forum for Logotherapy; Vol 23(1) Spr 2000, US:
Viktor Frankl Inst of Logotherapy; 2000, 5-13
Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses the author's 7-stage model of crisis
intervention, applicable to persons who may be contemplating
physician-assisted suicide and entitled: "Logotherapeutic Transcendental
Crisis Intervention.' The stages of the model are described, from crisis onset
to transcending the trauma. The author stresses his belief that every human
being has positive choices even in dire adversity, and suggests that choosing
life holds the potential for activating spirituality and affording the
opportunity for discovering meaning in life. V. Frankl's life is briefly
discussed as an example of this view.

Title: EMDR in the treatment of adults abused as children.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Parnell, Laurel
Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: W. W. Norton & Co, Inc; 1999, (xiv, 222)
Abstract/Review/Citation: This book shows therapists how to integrate eye
movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) into abuse treatment so that
adults who have been abused as children clear their trauma more rapidly,
escape falling into the victim mentality, and proceed to lead full, productive
lives. For therapists already familiar with EMDR, it covers the primary
treatment issues and symptomatology of these clients and specific alterations
of the standard EMDR protocol. For therapists experienced with treating abuse
survivors, it introduces a safe and effective way to process trauma. The
author teaches many techniques to help the therapist when an impasse is
reached and also provides a selection of treatment choices. She demonstrates
how EMDR can be used in the beginning phase of therapy for ego strengthening
and the development and installation of resources. This prepares clients for
trauma processing in the middle phase. In the end phase, clients integrate
their experiences and often feel an awakening of their creativity and
spirituality. Cases are used throughout to provide therapists with a deeper,
more grounded understanding of different kinds of abuse cases and their
Notes/Comments:  Introduction Acknowledgments Part I: Treating adults abused as children with EMDR The EMDR model Primary treatment issues and symptomatology Important considerations in using EMDR with adults abused as children Adjunctive therapeutic tools Part II: The phases and organization of EMDR sessions and treatment The beginning phase: Assessment, preparation, and ego strengthening The middle phase:
Processing and integration The end phase: Creativity, spirituality and
integration Part III: Tools and techniques for individual EMDR processing
sessions Beginning EMDR processing sessions The middle EMDR processing
sessions Suggestions for closing incomplete sessions and helping clients
manage between sessions Part IV: Cases Case sessions demonstrating various
techniques Christina References Index treatment issues & symptomatology of
eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, adults abused as children

Title: Trauma and loss in native North America: An ethnocultural perspective.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Stamm, B. Hudnall; Stamm, Henry E.
Source/Citation: Honoring differences: Cultural issues in the treatment of
trauma and loss., Philadelphia, PA, US: Brunner/Mazel, Inc; 1999, (xxvii,
299), 49-75 Series in trauma and loss.
Source editor(s): Nader, Kathleen (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Draws from scientific research, traditional stories,
and ethnohistory to discuss trauma and loss within the Native North American
culture. Place and time, in consideration of the importance of land,
community, and spirituality, are outlined. Next, the authors discuss the
interrelated issues affecting health and interventions. Important beliefs and
ceremonies are detailed. Finally, the problems of native life and the
challenge of balancing culture and science is examined.

Title: Vicarious traumatization, spirituality, and the treatment of sexual abuse
survivors: A national survey of women psychotherapists.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Brady, Joan Laidig; Guy, James D.; Poelstra, Paul L.; Brokaw, Beth Fletcher
Source/Citation: Professional Psychology: Research & Practice; Vol 30(4) Aug
1999, US: American Psychological Assn.; 1999, 386-393
Abstract/Review/Citation: Should psychotherapists limit their clinical work with
trauma survivors to avoid being traumatized themselves? Vicarious
traumatization (VT--the symptoms similar to posttraumatic stress disorder and
the disruption in cognitive schemas reported in clinicians who are exposed to
the trauma material of their clients--was assessed in a national survey of
1,000 women psychotherapists. Therapists with higher levels of exposure to
sexual abuse material reported significantly more trauma symptoms but no
significant disruption of cognitive schemas. Spiritual well-being, a key area
thought to be damaged by VT, was found to be higher for those clinicians who
saw more sexual abuse survivors.

Title: Indigenous models of healing and sexuality: Restoring sexual balance.
Author(s)/Editor(s): DeLugach, Steven P.
Source/Citation: Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity; Vol 6(2) 1999, US:
Brunner/Mazel; 1999, 137-150
Abstract/Review/Citation: The traditional values, beliefs, and practices of
Indigenous peoples hold ancient wisdom regarding healing and healthy
sexuality. Dominant cultural values, beliefs, and practices have helped
devalue and dehumanize intimacy and sexuality. Current literature on healthy
sexuality has its roots in the pathologies of sexual abuse, marital conflict,
and sexual dysfunction. Indigenous models of healing and healthy sexuality can
complement this body of knowledge while leading the way to a reconnection of
sexuality and spirituality. This article explores specific concepts and tools
for recovery from sexual addiction and trauma without exploiting Indigenous
people or sacrificing their identity and history.

Title: Soul pain and the therapeutic use of ritual.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Fisher, Maggie; Francis, Brother OSB
Source/Citation: Psychodynamic Counselling; Vol 5(1) Feb 1999, England:
Routledge Journals; 1999, 53-72
Abstract/Review/Citation: This paper will explore the relationship between
ritual and transformation. It will show how a therapist and a monk work
together to create sacred spaces in which individuals can experience
transformation of and through their personal histories, linking their past,
present and future to address their soul pain through ritual. It is
illustrated with case studies which will demonstrate the phases of ritual work
which are collectively important as part of the psychodynamic therapeutic

Title: Addressing spiritual and religious issues of clients with a history of
psychological trauma.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Grame, Carolyn J.; Tortorici, Joseph S.; Healey, Bede J.; Dillingham, John H.; Winklebaur, Philip
Source/Citation: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic; Vol 63(2) Spr 1999, US:
Menninger Foundation; 1999, 223-239
Abstract/Review/Citation: Underscores the growing necessity for psychotherapists
and clergy to collaborate in the treatment of clients with psychological
trauma. The authors provide a literature review and draw on their personal
treatment experience to illustrate the spiritual and religious issues of
clients and the necessity for spiritual and religious assessment and treatment
plans for this population. The following 4 theories that highlight the
body-soul connection involved in psychological trauma are briefly presented:
(1) attachment theory, (2) self psychology theory, (3) Thomas Aquinas's
theology of embodiment, and (4) object relations theory. The need for
cross-professional training for both psychotherapists and clergy is suggested.

Title: Spiritual resources in family therapy.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Walsh, Froma
Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: Guilford Publications, Inc; 1999, (xvi, 301)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Spirituality is a powerful dimension of human
experience, with growing importance and diversity in today's changing world.
Yet it has long been regarded as off-limits in clinical training and practice,
leaving most therapists and counselors blind to its significance and reluctant
to approach it. Many have regarded clients' spirituality as a private matter
not to be intruded on and best left to clergy, pastoral counselors, or faith
healers. Some have worried that therapists might impose their own convictions
on vulnerable clients. Others fear the intensity of feelings and conflicts
that can be aroused by delving into spiritual issues.  This volume is
intended as a sourcebook to inform and inspire mental health, health care,
pastoral, and human service professionals of all disciplines about this
dimension in clinical work with couples and families. The aim of this book is
to open family therapy practice to spirituality: to explore clients' spiritual
beliefs and practices, to understand those that have constrained clients'
growth, and to tap resources for resilience and transformation.
Notes/Comments:  Part I: Overview Religion and spirituality: Wellsprings for healing and resilience Froma Walsh Opening family therapy to spirituality Froma Walsh Part II: Spiritual resources in families: Tapping into the wellsprings Spirituality, suffering, and beliefs: The soul of healing with families Lorraine M. Wright The stresses of poverty
and the comfort of spirituality Harry J. Aponte Spirituality and religion:
Implications for psychotherapy with African American clients and families
Nancy Boyd-Franklin and Tonya Walker Lockwood Religion and spiritual folk
traditions in immigrant families: Therapeutic resources with Latinos Celia
Jaes Falicov Three spiritual perspectives on resilience: Buddhism,
Christianity, and Judaism Steven J. Wolin, with Wayne Muller, Fred Taylor and
Sybil Wolin "Honor thy father and thy mother": Intergenerational
spirituality and Jewish tradition Mona DeKoven Fishbane Feet planted firmly in
midair: A spirituality for family living Herbert Anderson Part III:
Spirituality and family therapy: Bridging the divide Morality and spirituality  in therapy William J. Doherty Healing from trauma: The quest for spirituality
Mary Jo Barrett Opening therapy to conversations with a personal God Melissa
Elliott Griffith Releasing the soul: Psychotherapy as a spiritual practice
Richard C. Schwartz Stretching to meet what's given: Opportunities for a
spiritual practice Kathy Weingarten Heart and soul: Spirituality, religion,
and rituals in family therapy training Janine Roberts Spirituality expressed
in community action and social justice: A therapeutic means to liberation and
hope Alice de V. Perry and John S. Rolland Index spirituality in couples &
family therapy

Title: Healing from trauma: The quest for spirituality.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Barrett, Mary Jo
Source/Citation: Spiritual resources in family therapy., New York, NY, US:
Guilford Publications, Inc; 1999, (xvi, 301), 193-208
Source editor(s): Walsh, Froma (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses spiritual aspects in recovery from trauma in
treatment. Topics include: love and knowledge; integrating spiritual meaning
and value into treatment; and conscious spirituality (stage 1: creating a
context for change, stage 2: challenging patterns and expanding realities,
stage 3: consolidation).

Title: The roles of sense of coherence, spirituality, and religion in responses
to trauma.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Racklin, Joseph Michael
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 59(9-B) Mar 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1999, 5106
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study investigated the salutogenic or
health-causing roles of sense of coherence, spiritual orientation, and the
importance of organized religion in responses to traumatic exposure. Sense of
coherence determines to what extent an individual is capable of understanding
the nature of stressors, believes appropriate coping resources are available,
and finds coping worthwhile. Path analysis was employed to examine the causal
relationships between traumatic exposure, sense of coherence, spiritual
orientation, and the importance of organized religion on the relative presence
or absence of PTSD symptoms following traumatic exposure. Hypotheses were
derived from theory and research pertaining to sense of coherence,
spirituality and religion, and the emerging literature on trauma resiliency.
An ethnically-diverse sample of 210 adults completed the Traumatic Events
Questionnaire, the Orientation to Life Questionnaire, the Spiritual
Orientation Inventory, the Religious Importance Scale, the PTSD Checklist, and
a demographic questionnaire that inquired about religious affiliation,
religious attendance, and spiritual practice. Statistical analyses found
positive correlations between sense of coherence and spiritual orientation;
neither was significantly associated with religious importance. Sense of
coherence and religious importance were inversely related to PTSD symptoms,
and spiritual orientation was positively associated with PTSD symptoms. Path
analysis was conducted and a non-recursive, causal model of PTSD resiliency
was proposed. Sense of coherence was found to mitigate PTSD symptoms after
traumatic exposure. Increased levels of traumatic distress caused increases in
spiritual orientation and decreases in religious importance. Fostering
spiritual orientation decreased traumatic distress by buttressing sense of
coherence. Religious importance without an intrinsic spiritual component did
not strengthen sense of coherence and thus did not lower traumatic distress.
Ancillary analyses found that 85.7% of the sample experienced at least one
traumatic event in their lifetime. The lifetime PTSD prevalence for the sample
was 22.4%. No gender or ethnicity differences were noted for traumatic
exposure or PTSD symptoms. Sense of coherence did not differ by gender or
ethnicity. Spiritual orientation was significantly higher among women, but no
ethnicity differences were observed. Religious importance was significantly
higher for non-Caucasian subjects, but no gender differences were found. These
findings suggest that the adverse effects of traumatic exposure are mitigated
by stronger sense of coherence levels. If distressed by traumatic symptoms,
however, turning toward spirituality reduces traumatic distress by reinforcing
sense of coherence levels. The study provides evidence for the inclusion of
spirituality in models of health, prevention strategies, and treatment
interventions. Clinical and public policy implications are addressed.
Limitations are discussed and recommendations for further study are offered.

Title: Male sexual orientation among religious men: A discriminant function
Author(s)/Editor(s): Born, James Lewis
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 59(12-B) Jun 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1999, 6509
Abstract/Review/Citation: The ecological changes of human society especially in
Western civilization via scientific, industrial, and technological revolutions
have altered the foundations of what &ldquo;masculinity&rdquo; means
in the 1990's. This study was designed to discriminate and predict three
masculine sexual orientation groups based upon father-son relations, gender,
religious spirituality, psychological maltreatment/abuse, and shame. Data were
obtained from 92 male volunteer participants (gay = 32, heterosexual = 32,
x-gay = 28) who identify as Christians or who affiliate with a Christian
organization. Instruments used were the Boyhood Gender Conformity Scale
(BGCS), the Father Forgiveness Perception Scale (FFPS), the Home Environment
Questionnaire (HEQ) (i.e., Child Abuse Trauma Scale), Internalized Shame Scale
(ISS), the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid (KSOG), the Parental
Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ), the Personal Information
Questionnaire (PIQ), the Religious Identification and Commitment Scale (RICS),
and the Sexual Trauma Scale (STS). The KSOG, PIQ, and group affiliation
provided three criterion variables. Total scores on the BGCS, HEQ, ISS, PARQ,
and RICS provided five predictor variables. The PIQ provided demographic
 nformation for descriptive analysis, group profiles, and group homogeneity.
The PIQ and two experimental scales (FFPS &amp; STS) added alternative
predictors. Two discriminant functions were generated. The first function,
Wilks' Lambda =.39, Chi Square (10) = 67.43,p=.001, accounted for 61% of the variance of group membership. The second function, Wilks' Lambda =.68, Chi Square (4) = 28.01,
p=.001 accounted for 39% of the variance of group membership. The BGCS, ISS, and HEQ were related to the first function. The RICS and PARQ were related to the second function. The BGCS exerted the strongest influence of the first discriminant function,
r =.87. The RICS exerted the strongest influence on the second discriminant function, r=.80. The first function discriminated between heterosexual subjects and the other two
groups. The second function discriminated between the gay and x-gay subjects.
Overall the two discriminant functions correctly classified the participants
77% of the time versus about 35% chance classification. Sixty-nine percent
n = 22) of the gay participants, 84% (n = 27) of the heterosexual participants, and 79% (n = 22) of the x-gay participants were correctly classified. The findings indicate that boyhood masculine gender nonconformity is a strong indicator of adult homosexuality (gay &amp; x-gay) and that high Christian religious commitment and identity is a strong
indicator of the x-gay homosexual population.

Title: The resilient psychotherapist: An heuristic inquiry into vicarious
Author(s)/Editor(s): Bennett-Baker, Alethea Anne
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 60(1-B) Jul 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1999, 0357
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study evolved from a desire to understand the
experience of vicarious traumatization, the transformation experienced in the
self of the therapist as a result of empathic engagement with clients' trauma
material. The study was conducted utilizing the heuristic design and
methodology. The findings of this study were based on data analyzed from
interviews with 13 psychotherapists, including licensed psychologists, social
workers, and counselors, between the ages of 36 and 58. The composite
depiction of psychotherapists' experience supports the data that vicarious
traumatization is characterized by the following: PTSD-like symptoms, based on
clients' material; feelings of self-doubt; a tendency to pull away from
primary relationships; and a cathartic release after talking with colleagues
who understand vicarious traumatization as a normal reaction to doing trauma
therapy. The findings offered information to psychotherapists, mental health
supervisors, and consultants, extending their knowledge. Finally, implications
of the data included: the need for more graduate education about trauma,
trauma therapy, and vicarious traumatization; the importance of effective
supervision in ameliorating the adverse effects of vicarious traumatization;
the most effective ways of coping with vicarious traumatization; and how some
therapists transform this experience into an opportunity for personal and
professional growth. Five themes permeated the experience of these
psychotherapists: (1) Vicarious traumatization is a normal reaction to doing
trauma therapy; (2) Vicarious traumatization will change you, as a person and
as a therapist; (3) Therapists gained a new awareness of the preciousness of
relationships; (4) Therapists learned to transform vicarious traumatization in
the midst of the session; that is, they developed the ability to change the
painful experience of listening to trauma material into an experience of
healing for their clients and themselves; and (5) Spirituality is the bridge
to healing. In the final chapter, a discussion, summary, implications, and
recommendations for further research are provided.

Title: Ancient communion: Guidance from the ancestors. an Indian grandmother and
granddaughter sharing stories on native spirituality and western science:
Toward a theory of wholeness.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Mitchell-Fire Moon, Tandie Vera
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 60(2-B) Aug 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1999, 0874
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study seeks to address the causes and potential
solutions to the divisiveness and human destructiveness to humanity and the
environment now reflected on a planetary scale. The research question is: How
can Native American values enhance western thinking for the purpose of greater
individual and planetary health? Fundamental research has been to develop the
concept of status quo; Integrity; as a model to explore various
western concepts and Native knowledge as inter-facing systems. The model's
formula integrates three major scientific theories--;Relativity and
Quantum Physics and Chaos, as a demonstration of the product of doing
integrative thinking and research. Applying knowledge of Lakota Visionary
Black Elk and other indigenous world views, this has evolved into a Unified
Perceptual Field&mdashToward a Theory of Wholeness.&rdquo; Study's goal is to utilize knowledge gained from this process to create greater positive choice in our fives, by designing systems that are highest functioning&mdash;creating greatest fulfillment,
health and wholeness in the individual and the society. Methods of looking at
data and wisdom in this study are the intuitive and analytical methodologies as defined in the Integrity Model. Part I, Visions and Stories from the DREAMTIME, reflects
these knowledge quests. Within Part II, Native BASKETWEAVER Weaving New
Realities, the thesis statement contains three major validations to emerge
from this study: (1) The exploration inward reveals the deepest core
of the material universe as the foundational, most subtle, powerful,
infinitesimal quantum level of creation that we experience as our spiritual
nature. (2) Trauma of physical impact by action, thought or word at
early stages of human development disfigures the natural pattern of harmony,
which is set into the biology/physiology-magnified and amplified in adult
life, and mirrored out into space/time. (3) Early disturbance of
one's perceptual intention (will/desire) weakens or breaks the natural
underlying energy pattern, which is the root cause of all addictions later in
life. Addressing and rectifying this becomes society's greatest
responsibility. The heart of this dissertation is the dialogue between an Old,
innocent <italic> and</italic> wise Grandmother who passes down to
her granddaughter stories filled with awe and great wonderings. about the
mysteries of Life. A dialogue that shares visions and stories of the past and
how they are alive today in our own experiences. It is from this central
Heart-Spirit place the Integrity Model has evolved and taken form, providing new views that support the Old Ways of Honoring All Our Relations.

Title: Proud skin: A woman's experience of living from the incest scar. A
phenomenological investigation of incest-healed.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Supan, Marita-Constance
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 60(2-B) Aug 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1999, 0844
Abstract/Review/Citation: A phenomenological research model guided the
exploration of essential qualities and meanings which comprise a woman's
experience of living from the incest scar&mdash;that is, the experience of
incest-healed. A search of published literature revealed no studies in this
area. Co-researchers consisted of 6 women, ages 30 to 62, who experienced
early-onset (before puberty), chronic (lasting more than a year) incest, and
who describe themselves as now living from the incest scar. Expressive
representations and open-ended interviews provided data, which were analyzed
according to phenomenological methods and processes. Findings reveal that the
incest scar is so integral to participants' experience that it constitutes the
existential reality out of which life is lived. The scar is described as an on-going, conscious transformation of the incest wound from an other-inflicted outrage that rends the self to a condition of wholeness constructed by intentionality and self-processes: It is experienced as the central seam where fragments of the self have been
'stitched' to consciousness through integrating the memories, feelings, and meanings connected with incest. Thus, the scar holds in creative tension the dialectics of incest trauma, and connects the self with streams of experience and energy which impel it toward wholeness. Living from the scar involves a spiraling evolution, which takes place in a relational matrix, and is expected to continue throughout life. Living from
the incest scar is characterized by authenticity, self-intimacy, and agency. The locus of control is internal, and the role of intentionality is prominent: To the extent that awareness and self-responsibility are maintained, behavioral reenactments and intrusive and somatic symptoms are minimal. As incest-wound-transformed, the scar contains the wound's violence, pain, and lasting loss, and simultaneously imposes limits on its multilayered effects. Participants manage neurophysiological difficulties and state-dependent memory through consciousness and choice. Having relinquished the myths of
invulnerability and of a safe society, they seek truth and advocate for the
oppressed. The cost of heightened social awareness is mediated by a
spirituality grounded in surrender to the Mystery of Transformation. Clinical
and social implications are suggested.

Title: Religious, spiritual, and exceptional experiences in trauma treatment: A
clinical training model (mental health professionals).
Author(s)/Editor(s): Bennet, Michelle E.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 60(6-B) Jan 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1999, 2933
Abstract/Review/Citation: Since 1992, the American Psychology Association has
recognized the importance of religion, spiritual, and cultural experiences and
beliefs in ethical guidelines for clinical treatment. In 1994, the
intersection of religious, spiritual, exceptional experiences and dissociation
was recognized in the DSM-IV. However, professional literature describing the
convergence of these phenomenon in treatment is relatively unknown. In
addition, there is no literature which specifically addresses training for
differential decision making and interventions regarding these areas in the
treatment of trauma survivors. This study reviews the empirical studies and
clinical literature describing the phenomenology and context of the religious,
spiritual and exceptional (R/S/E) experiences and their interaction in the
treatment of trauma and dissociation. The author then presents a conceptual
training model for mental health professionals. This training model will: (1)
review what is known from empirical studies and clinical literature; (2)
present and compare current clinical theories and conceptualizations about the
overlap in these areas; (3) discuss assessment and differential diagnosis; (4)
discuss decision making, specific interventions, and the evaluation of these
interventions in treatment; (5) outline theoretical controversies in the
field; and (6) consider the impact of the demands of trauma treatment the
impact of controversies about R/S/E issues and experiences on the professional
and personal life of the clinician. A model for evaluation of the training is
described, and directions for further research and development are

Title: A qualitative analysis of cultural treatment components for Mexican male
perpetrators of partner abuse. (men).
Author(s)/Editor(s): Welland-Akong, Christauria G.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 60(6-B) Jan 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1999, 2967
Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of this two-part study was to identify
culturally-specific components to be integrated into domestic violence
treatment for Latino men. The study focused on Mexican immigrant men who were
court-ordered to domestic violence treatment, and who attended
Spanish-language groups in Southern California. The first part, a survey of
159 men, provided a previously unknown demographic and risk factor profile of
the population. The second part consisted of 12 in-depth qualitative
interviews with men selected from the survey respondents, who had completed at
least 40 weeks of treatment. The survey results demonstrated that the great
majority of Mexican immigrants mandated to treatment had low income and low
educational achievement. The median age of offenders was higher than expected
(34 years), given the overall youthfulness of the Latino population. Most men
had both experienced and witnessed violence as children. Alcohol abuse was
very prominent among respondents. The 12 interviewees strongly emphasized the
rigid male gender roles ( machismo) that influenced their behavior, providing
support for the sociocultural theory of domestic violence. The men also
described the modeling effect of a violent childhood environment, supporting
social learning theory. Almost all of the men underwent psychological trauma
as children, and most participants met criteria for alcohol abuse or
dependence prior to treatment. The participants were very grateful for the personal transformation that treatment had initiated. They also confirmed
current research on the efficacy of an empathic and respectful therapeutic
approach. Therapist ethnicity was not found to be important, although
participants stated that therapists should be fluent in Spanish and
well-versed in Mexican culture. The culturally-specific components to be
included in treatment curricula that the participants identified were:
transformation of male gender roles; parenting education; ethnic and gender
discrimination, relationship stress secondary to immigration; open discussion
of relationship sexual abuse; and the inclusion of spirituality. Clinicians
should be aware of clients' trauma issues and the need to screen for alcohol
abuse, and should try to incorporate the suggested treatment components into
programs. Therapists should also be screened for cultural knowledge and
respectful therapeutic style. Much further research is required on Latino
domestic violence offenders.

Title: Grief, loss, and bereavement: An overview.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Abi-Hashem, Naji
Source/Citation: Journal of Psychology & Christianity; Vol 18(4) Win 1999,
US: Christian Assn. for Psychological Studies; 1999, 309-329
Abstract/Review/Citation: This article presents a general view of the topic of
grief by defining the common terminology, discussing the nature and types of
losses, listing the variety of grief reactions, and describing the factors
that determine the severity of bereavement. The article also addresses the
question of morbidity and mortality of grief, throws a light on the emerging
topic of traumatic grief where elements of trauma and a devastating loss are
both present, and finally reviews the steps toward healing and grief
resolution. A special emphasis is given to the communal, spiritual, and
cultural aspects of mourning and a few suggestions are offered to the
caregivers who are involved in grief and bereavement counseling.

Title: Refugee trauma versus torture trauma: A retrospective controlled cohort
study of Tibetan refugees.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Holtz, Timothy H.
Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 186(1) Jan 1998,
US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998, 24-34
Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined anxiety symptoms, affective disturbances,
somatic complaints, and social impairment in 35 refugee Tibetan nuns and lay
students (mean age 25.8 yrs) who were arrested and tortured in Tibet and 35
nontortured matched controls (mean age 25.1 yrs). The prevalence of symptom
scores in the clinical range for both cohorts was 41.4% for anxiety symptoms
and 14.3% for depressive symptoms. The torture survivors had a statistically
significant higher proportion of elevated anxiety scores than did the
nontortured cohort. This was not true for elevated depressive scores. Results
suggest that torture has long-term consequences on mental health over and
above the effects of being uprooted, fleeing one's country, and living in
exile as a refugee, though the additional effects were small. Political
commitment, social support in exile, and prior knowledge of and preparedness
for confinement and torture in the imprisoned cohort served to foster
resilience against psychological sequelae. The contribution of Buddhist
spirituality plays an active role in the development of protective coping
mechanisms among Tibetan refugees.

Title: Healing conversations:  Therapy & spiritual growth.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Barnes, Dorothy; Earle, Ralph
Source/Citation: Downers Grove, IL, US: InterVarsity Press; 1998, (168)
Abstract/Review/Citation: This book is the story of D. Barnes's journey through
therapy. Anger, painful memories, destructive family patterns, and her
unwillingness to trust and confide in others were all part of her voyage. Each
chapter offers an inside look from the therapist's point of view.
"Ralph's note" gives insights from therapist Dr. R. Earle, who helps
us understand her emotional and spiritual growth from a professional's

Title: Intergenerational responses to the persecution of the Baha'is of Iran.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Ghadirian, Abdu'l-Missagh
Source/Citation: International handbook of multigenerational legacies of
trauma., New York, NY, US: Plenum Press; 1998, (xxiii, 710), 513-532 The
Plenum series on stress and coping.
Source editor(s): Danieli, Yael (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of this chapter is threefold: (1) to
examine the nature and characteristics of persecution and suffering in the
light of the current knowledge and the Baha'i teachings as well as to
elaborate on tests and trials in personal development and the role of
empowerment in overcoming personal adversities; (2) to explore the
psychological as well as spiritual dimensions of adversity and martyrdom and
to dispel myths and misconceptions about them; and (3) to elaborate on the
recent persecution of the Baha'is of Iran as an example of human rights
violations in the land where the religion was born. With this in mind, the
author sets out a general outline of the physical and psychological aspects of
persecution and suffering. He then examines the concept of suffering and
martyrdom by bringing individual cases from the lives of persecuted Baha'is of
Iran as tangible examples of human atrocities. A study is presented in which
19 children, 2 grandchildren and 8 wives of victims who were killed by the
Islamic Revolutionary Government of Iran responded to structured
questionnaires about the impact of persecution and martyrdom.

Title: Psychological trauma: Posttraumatic stress disorder and spirituality.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Wilson, John P.; Moran, Thomas A.
Source/Citation: Journal of Psychology & Theology; Vol 26(2) Sum 1998, US:
Rosemead School of Psychology; 1998, 168-178
Abstract/Review/Citation: Traumatic life events impact the body, self-structure,
and soul of the survivor. Accordingly, the authors submit that overwhelmingly
traumatic events adversely affect not only the psychological dimension of the
self but also the faith systems and spirituality which give meaning to one's
life. This article examines the effect of severe trauma and posttraumatic
stress disorder (PTSD) on human spirituality and faith. The psychological
trauma caused by natural disasters, accidental disasters, disasters of human
origin, and violence often leaves the spiritual domain in disarray. The
article offers practical considerations for mental health practitioners and
pastoral counselors from whom the victims of severe trauma seek help. Since
various religions and belief systems can facilitate recovery from significant
psychological trauma and PTSD, the authors encourage those who respond to
victims of trauma to develop a holistic model of treatment designed to
revitalize, transform, and heal their clients.

Title: Spirituality, resilience, and narrative: Coping with parental death.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Angell, G. Brent; Dennis, Brent G.; Dumain, Lisa E.
Source/Citation: Families in Society; Vol 79(6) Nov-Dec 1998, US: Manticore
Publishers; 1998, 615-630
Abstract/Review/Citation: This article considers the therapeutic use of
reminiscence and storytelling in the bereavement process of an adult-child
adjusting to the death of a parent. Founded on the client's journey of
adjustment, the work looks at how the individual reconfigures and incorporates
the trauma of loss into a narrative of personal and spiritual resiliency
wherein the goal is discovery rather than recovery.

Title: The Perceived Benefit Scales: Measuring perceived positive life changes
after negative events.
Author(s)/Editor(s): McMillen, J. Curtis; Fisher, Rachel H.
Source/Citation: Social Work Research; Vol 22(3) Sep 1998, US: National Assn of
Social Workers; 1998, 173-186
Abstract/Review/Citation: If social work researchers are to accurately describe
the psychosocial functioning of clients who experience negative events, they
need to consider positive as well as negative outcomes. Here, new measures of
self-reported positive life changes after traumatic stressors are introduced.
416 adults (mean age 40.79 yrs) served as subjects. Factor analyses suggest
that the Perceived Benefit Scales consist of eight subscales: lifestyle
changes; material gain; and increases in self efficacy, family closeness,
community closeness, faith in people, compassion, and spirituality. Internal
consistency and test-retest coefficients range from adequate to excellent. The
scales correlate with indicators of severity and differ by type of negative
event experienced.

Title: Vicarious traumatization, spirituality and the treatment of adult and
child survivors of sexual abuse: A national survey of women psychotherapists.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Brady, Joan Laidig
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 58(9-B) Mar 1998, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1998, 5107
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study of psychotherapists was designed to
empirically measure the consequences of conducting psychotherapy with sexual
abuse survivors. This entailed an examination of therapists' vicarious
traumatization, including the impact of conducting child versus adult
treatment, and the influence of conducting psychotherapy with sexual abuse
survivors on therapists' spirituality. A national survey was conducted of 1000
women psychotherapists who were either members of the American Professional
Society on the Abuse of Children or members of the American Psychological
Association with a specialty in psychotherapy. The survey consisted of items
related to demographic data, therapists' work-related experience, training,
and exposure to sexual trauma both professionally and personally. Vicarious
traumatization was assessed using the Impact of Event Scale to measure
intrusion and avoidance trauma symptoms and the TSI Belief Scale to assess
disturbances in cognitive schemas. Spirituality measures included in the
survey were the Spiritual Well-Being Scale and the Gorsuch Adjective
Checklist. An overall return rate of 50.1% was obtained. Therapists who were
exposed to more sexual abuse, as determined by psychotherapy hours spent with
survivors and graphic details of abuse in their sessions, reported
significantly more trauma symptoms on the Impact of Event Scale. However, no
such relationship was found for disruption of cognitive schemas as measured by
the TSI Belief Scale. No difference was found on these measures between those
who treated more child sexual abuse survivors and those who treated more adult
sexual abuse survivors. Respondents who saw more sexual abuse survivors
received higher spiritual well-being scores and reported experiencing
God/Higher Power to be more potent and relevant. A discussion of these results
is included.

Title: Connected responses: Non-dissociated responses to emotional pain.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Sackett, Brian Edward
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 59(5-B) Nov 1998, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1998, 2432
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study hypothesized and showed the existence of
Connected Responses (CRs) to strong emotional pain--CRs were non-dissociated
responses, with continuous awareness in at least one sensing mode (cognitive,
affective, or perceptual). Characteristics included sensitivity to suffering
as well as to other emotions, to body responses, to one's witnessing self, and
some transcendent awareness. Connected and dissociated responses, along with
predisposing factors, were contrasted. The study targeted spiritual emergence
populations, because of high dissociation incidence, and the possibility that
members had learned to cope with dissociation. The researcher distributed 180
questionnaires, including the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and 9
questions based on CR hypotheses, and conducted in-depth interviews with 8
participants with the most frequent CR answers from 48 returned
questionnaires. The methodology included reenactment interviewing, a
psychodrama derivative, to obtain in-depth research material. Results showed
the existence of several different connected responses. Strong cognitive
responses were the one CR characteristic shared by all participants. Second
most frequent (all but one participant) categories were awareness of body,
feelings, and connection with observing self. Those participants most able to
control being connected or dissociated were 38 years or older, had strong
awareness of observing self, cognitive, affective, and body responses, and
connection to God or Spirit. Going through each reenactment interview twice
added depth and insight to participant's information. Reenactment interviewing
was itself a positive clinical intervention, promoting connected responses.
Several new models were proposed. CRs fit on the dissociation/association
continuum, and extended the normal consciousness boundary in more aware,
healthier directions. Staying aware of one's thoughts, emotions, body
sensations, observing self, and emotional pain provided opportunity for deeper
felt connection with Spirit. Reenactment interviewing and detailing of CR
continuum should benefit abuse and trauma survivors. The
staying-connected-with-pain path to God opens transpersonal realms to more

Title: Grief as a transcendent function and teacher of spiritual growth.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Chen, Li-chu
Source/Citation: Pastoral Psychology; Vol 46(2) Nov 1997, US: Human Sciences
Press Inc/Plenum Publishing Corp; 1997, 79-84
Abstract/Review/Citation: Death is an inevitable phase of life, and so is grief.
This paper attempts to pinpoint the enormous potential of grief in advancing
our spiritual growth. Jung  (1971) states that when encountering a crisis such
as loss, the unconscious often breaks through to help us with new adjustments,
whereby a transcendent function takes place. Instead of becoming an emotional
trauma, grief can transcend our everyday experiences and awaken us to our
spiritual essence.

Title: Psychospiritual transformation and the healing process: An assessment on
well-being, critical life events, and trauma in relation to spiritual groups.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Dreshman-Chiodo, Janice L.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 57(10-A) Apr 1997, US: University Microfilms
International; 1997, 4416
Abstract/Review/Citation: The present research examined the effects of
psychospiritual work in relation to the healing and transformational process
of an individual. The research involved administration of questionnaires to
test the following hypotheses: (a) What were the effects of participation in
spiritual groups on individual well-being? (b) Was there a relationship
between well-being and a critical life event? (c) Was there a relationship
between well-being and childhood or adolescent trauma? The Spiritual
Well-Being Scale (SWB) developed by Paloutzian and Ellision (1982) and the
Omega Home Environment Questionnaire (HEI) developed by Ring (1992) were used
in the research study. A Demographic Information Questionnaire and Interview
Questions designed by the researcher (1995) were also used in the research
study. Statistical analyses of the data did not support a relationship between individual well-being and spiritual groups. However, the results did indicate
statistical significance between well-being and a critical life event. A total
of 52.40% of participants reported critical life events influenced their
spiritual beliefs and their lives. A statistical significance was indicated
between well-being and childhood and/or adolescent trauma. The significance
suggested individuals with a higher sense of well-being may have been better
able to withstand trauma. There was a negative correlation between age and
childhood trauma and/or abuse which suggested younger participants were more
likely to report childhood abuse and/or adolescent trauma. The findings of
this research with this sample population indicated gender was significant in
several areas. In relation to childhood and/or adolescent trauma; males
reported more neglect than females. Female participants reported more positive
religious, existential and spiritual well-being than male participants.
Contents of major themes from interviews suggested (a) increased feelings of
belonging, feeling a sense of community, (b) a sense of unity with the
environment, and (c) increased connectedness with others because of
participation in the groups. Interviewed participants identified themselves as
more spiritual than religious. Findings of this research indicated several
areas which future studies could explore; such as populations of different
ages with educational and mental health applications. Further implications of
this research led to developing a new paradigm for healing that could be
implemented in educational settings.

Title: Interacting with trauma: Child protective service workers' responses to
working with child abuse and neglect.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Rogentine, Kristin Louise
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 57(10-B) Apr 1997, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1997, 6590
Abstract/Review/Citation: Child abuse is an increasingly prevalent and serious
problem in today's society. Though there has been much research conducted
examining the effects of child abuse on the child victim, there has been
little focus on how the professionals who intervene are impacted. Because
these professionals have such a critical role in protecting children, it is
important to have an understanding of the unique stressors they face and how
these could impact their effectiveness. The present study, in qualitative
format, sought to understand the impact continual exposure to child abuse and
neglect has upon Child Protective Service (CPS) workers. Specific areas of
inquiry included CPS workers' affective reactions, experience of secondary
trauma, countertransference responses, interrelation of past life experience
and intervention style, and characteristic coping strategies. Twelve Child
Protective Service workers were recruited from Alameda and Contra Costa
Counties in Northern California. They each participated in an hour long
semi-structured interview designed by the researcher to probe their thoughts,
feelings and coping strategies in response to working with abuse and neglect.
They were also each administered the Maslach Burnout Inventory at the end of
the interview. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, then
analyzed for thematic content. Several themes were identified from the
interviews. All the subjects were intensely impacted by the nature of their
work; many spoke of strong feelings of sadness, grieving, guilt, anger and
fear. There appeared to be two styles of responding to the stress of the job,
to either become overinvolved or depersonalizing and angry at the clients.
This may vary within subjects depending on the dynamics of a particular case,
but can lead to overexhaustion, burnout and clinical insensitivity. Several
subjects described how being of a different race and social class distanced
them from the reality of their client's situation and the experience of their
pain. Both primary trauma and secondary trauma were described by some of the
subjects as a result of their work, with some enduring post-traumatic symptoms
evident. Those who appeared to cope better had a better split between work and
personal life, more outside interests, a strong network of family and friends,
and a strong sense of spirituality. All subjects experienced lack of support
from their departments, which has a strong exacerbating influence on
experience of stress. The findings from this study show that CPS workers are
indeed strongly affected by the difficult nature of their work. They have
strong emotional reactions which are dealt with differently by each
individual. It is important for these emotional reactions to be analyzed and
understood so the workers may make objective decisions regarding their cases,
unclouded by their own feelings and reactions and general burnout. The agency
should be structured so that staff are encouraged to process and work through
their emotional reactions.

Title: The healing of American Indian/Alaska Native men at mid-life.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Small, Clayton John
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 58(1-A) Jul 1997, US: University Microfilms
International; 1997, 0102
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study explored the challenges in 'wellness' for
American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) men at mid-life. Specifically, the
questions asked were: (a) what are the factors that cause AI/AN men at
mid-life to seek a 'wellness' path? (b) what are the recommendations for AI/AN
  men, including the development of a healing model? The following barriers for I/AN men seeking a wellness path include: multi-generational trauma,
unresolved pain passed from one generation to the next in a family, community,
or population, and cultural oppression, of one culture by another in a manner
that restricts or prohibits the practices upon which the first culture is
based. The historical context of trauma for AI/AN men emerges into a sense of
hopelessness, alcohol and other drug abuse, violence, and/or cultural shame
that often lead to early death. Additionally, unresolved issues with AI/AN
fathers is presented as a cause which leads men to continue to live the image
of 'macho man.' The research methodology used was heuristic inquiry, a
qualitative approach that combines the personal experience and insight of the
researcher with his interpretations of the phenomenon being studied. The
findings from four in-depth interviews of 'well' AI/AN men at mid-life were
connected with 80 surveys from AI/AN men attending a national wellness
conference, the review of literature, and my own interpretations as an AI/AN
man on a wellness path at mid-life. Five themes emerged from the
investigation: (a) alcohol and other addictions, (b) multi-generational trauma
and cultural oppression, (c) father-son relationships, (d) spirituality, and
(e) role modeling and service to the community. Healing models from the
literature review were integrated with the afore-mentioned themes. The result
is a model describing the healing journey of AI/AN men entitled, 'The Good
Road of Life.' The model utilizes AI/AN ledger art and Trickster stories to
symbolically describe four stages of wellness for men. 'The Good Road of Life'
model answers the research questions and helps fill the void in research on
AI/AN men.

Title: Developing, implementing, and evaluating a program to prepare a church
congregation for facility relocation.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Mcquitty, Eric Andrew
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 58(3-A) Sep 1997, US: University Microfilms
International; 1997, 0932
Abstract/Review/Citation: The author defined the emotional and spiritual
challenges faced by a church that relocates its facilities, designed a program
of preparation to minimize the trauma of change while maximizing its benefits
to the congregation, and evaluated the program's effectiveness after the move
took place. A literature search combined with a biblical survey revealed 3
main phases through which relocating organizations pass: the current zone, the
transformation zone, and the future zone. A congregational survey and
interviews with seven pastors of relocated churches were used to identify the
specific emotional and spiritual issues in each phase and the tasks involved
in resolving them. A program of 11 events to prepare the congregation to
negotiate those issues successfully was designed, implemented, and evaluated.
The hypothesis of the study that the emotional and spiritual trauma caused by
relocation in a church congregation can be ameliorated successfully through a
carefully crafted program of preparation was confirmed.

Title: Finding the plentifulness in the darkness: Transforming trauma into gift.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Parappully, Jose
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 58(5-B) Nov 1997, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1997, 2694
Abstract/Review/Citation: Psychological literature on trauma in general focus on
the pathology that results from trauma. Too little attention is paid to the
positive, regenerative power of traumatic experiences. This study is a
phenomenological inquiry into the experiences of a profoundly traumatized
group of people--parents whose son or daughter is murdered--, to assess if
they are able to experience a positive transformation resulting from their
trauma and to identify the processes and resources which facilitate this
transformation. Participants are 16 parents selected from 65 who completed a
questionnaire 'Human Tragedy and Parental Suffering.' Data, collected through
in-depth, semi-structured interviews and analyzed qualitatively using
techniques suggested by M. B. Miles & A. M. Huberman (1994), affirm a
positive transformation. Four processes--acceptance, finding meaning, personal
decision, and reaching out to others-- and 7 resources--spirituality,
continuing bond with victim, personal qualities, previous coping experience,
self-care, compassion, and social support--facilitate this transformation. A
holistic process of transformation of trauma which integrates these processes
and resources, directions for further research, and helpful ways of responding
to victims of trauma are presented. This study is of particular use to
therapists, clergy, law-enforcement personnel and others involved in the
healing and rehabilitation of trauma victims, and in particular, to survivors
of homicide victims.

Title: Sexual abuse in the lives of women diagnosed with serious mental illness.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Harris, Maxine; Landis, Christine L.
Source/Citation: Amsterdam, Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers; 1997,
(xix, 391) New directions in therapeutic interventions, Vol. 2.
Abstract/Review/Citation: Although a substantial amount of media and
professional attention has been devoted to the incidence of sexual abuse in
the population at large, the plight of those who have suffered abuse and are
seriously mentally ill has largely been ignored. Divided into various parts,
this important and distinctive work offers chapters on theory and assessment
of the abused women, including the services that are available and
recommendations for improvement; treatment, including inpatient treatment and
cognitive-behavioral approaches; and policy and research, which deals with the
prevalence and impact of physical and emotional abuse on severely mentally ill
women. There is also a section devoted to case studies.  The material is
intended for clinicians, policymakers, and researchers, as well as the
interested lay-reader.
Notes/Comments:  Introduction to the series Preface List of contributors I: Theory and assessment Modifications in service delivery for women diagnosed with severe mental illness who are also the survivors of sexual abuse trauma Maxine Harris The interface of homelessness, addictions and mental illness in the lives of trauma survivors Catherine M. Anderson and Katherine B. Chiocchio Assessment of trauma in women psychiatric patients Anna M. Spielvogel and Alexia K. Floyd II: Treatment A
cognitive-behavioral approach Kim T. Mueser and Kathryn L. Taylor A social skills approach to trauma recovery for women diagnosed with serious mental illness Heather Stowe and Maxine Harris Inpatient treatment of psychiatric women patients with trauma Joanne Wile III: First person accounts The victimization of women with mental illness by treaters: A historical perspective Jeffrey L. Geller, Joanne Nicholson and Amy Traverso On being invisible in the mental health system Ann Jennings As told to: Sharon's story,
Cheryl's story, Constance's story, Barbara's story John D. Dende, Carolyn
Duca, Margaret Hobbs, and Christine L. Landis The house on Phillips Avenue Rae
E. Unzicker IV: Policy and research A question of illness, injustice, or both?
Mary Anne Reilly New directions for treatment research on sequelae of sexual
abuse in persons with severe mental illness Stanley D. Rosenberg, Robert E.
Drake and Kim T. Mueser Prevalence and impact of sexual and physical abuse in
women with severe mental illness Lisa A. Goodman, Melanie Johnson, Mary Ann
Dutton and Maxine Harris V: Special Issues Care of clinicians doing trauma
work Ellen Arledge Blanchard and Mirta Jones Sexual trauma and African
American women Bronwen L. Millet Spirituality in trauma recovery for people
with severe mental disorders Roger D. Fallot Trauma and trauma recovery for
dually diagnosed male survivors David W. Freeman and Roger D. Fallot Index
theories & assessment & treatment & personal accounts of &
policy & research & special issues in sexual abuse, females diagnosed
with serious mental illness

Title: Spirituality in trauma recovery for people with severe mental disorders.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Fallot, Roger D.
Source/Citation: Sexual abuse in the lives of women diagnosed with serious
mental illness., Amsterdam, Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers; 1997,
(xix, 391), 337-355 New directions in therapeutic interventions, Vol. 2.
Source editor(s): Harris, Maxine (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: This chapter examines the role of religion and
spirituality in women's coping with and recovery from trauma, including trauma
from various forms of abuse, mental illness, and substance addiction.

Title: The spiritual challenge of violent trauma.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Garbarino, James
Source/Citation: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry; Vol 66(1) Jan 1996, US:
American Orthopsychiatric Assn; 1996, 162-163
Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the discussion by D. Kozaric-Kovacic et al
regarding the psychological sequelae of rape, torture, and traumatization of Bosnian and Croatian women. The author discusses 2 principal components of trauma, overwhelming arousal and overwhelming negative cognitions, and discusses the metaphysical and spiritual nature of negative cognitions. The author argues that, although most
interventions directed at trauma focus on some combination of its
physiological and psychological effects, the place to begin treatment is with
the metaphysical and spiritual challenges of trauma.

Title: Positive outcomes in families following traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Author(s)/Editor(s): Adams, Neil
Source/Citation: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy; Vol
17(2) Jun 1996, Australia: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family
Therapy in c/o; 1996, 75-84
Abstract/Review/Citation: In an earlier paper, the relationship between
spirituality, science and therapy was explored. In this paper, spirituality is
discussed in a more clinical context. Family response to trauma is outlined,
concentrating on the area of acquired brain injury, and several models of
adaptation are reviewed. There appear to be commonalities in response to
different types of trauma. However in the area of acquired brain injury,
positive outcomes have been under-reported in the literature which has focused
for various reasons on maladaptation. In viewing response to trauma as
involving both the potential for positive transformation as well as suffering
and burden, concepts of V. E. Frankl (1963) and C. W. Jung (1959), spiritual
belief and 'near death experience' are discussed. Examples of how families
find meaning and positively appraise their experience of acquired brain injury
are given.

Title: Spiritual challenges to children facing violent trauma.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Garbarino, James; Bedard, Claire
Source/Citation: Childhood: A Global Journal of Child Research; Vol 3(4) Nov
1996, England: Sage Publications; 1996, 467-478
Abstract/Review/Citation: Reviews research and theory dealing with the
intersection of the developmental psychology of trauma and spirituality. The
authors assert that the experience of childhood traumatization functions as a  kind of "reverse religious experience," a process combining overwhelming arousal and overwhelming cognitions that threatens core "meaningfulness" for the child. The role of religion in spiritual development is reviewed, and some general principles for better understanding the role of spirituality in the traumatization and healing of children are
suggested. The discussion is based upon the authors' formal and informal
fieldwork and research with children in war zones, violent youth and street
children in several regions of the world over the last 10 yrs, in which trauma
and spiritual development have been a major focus.

Title: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and spiritual
Author(s)/Editor(s): Parnell, Laurel
Source/Citation: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology; Vol 28(2) 1996, US:
Journal of Transpersonal Psychology; 1996, 129-153
Abstract/Review/Citation: Describes how eye movement desensitization and
reprocessing (EMDR) functions therapeutically and explores some of the
psychospiritual potentials that may be associated with its use. Topics include
the origins and development of EMDR, theories about how EMDR works, the use of
EMDR to accelerate information processing of traumatic memories, candidates
for EMDR, limitations of EMDR, the EMDR therapist, and the structure of an
EMDR session. Psychospiritual topics discussed include EMDR and Vipassana
meditation, trauma and transformation, EMDR and the wisdom of insecurity, the
development of a felt sense of truth, EMDR and psychological memory, EMDR and
forgiveness, EMDR and profound experiences of love for self and others,
increased creative expression and heightened sense of well-being, paranormal
experiences, and self-awareness.

Title: Posttraumatic stress, mental health professionals, and the clergy: A need
for collaboration, training, and research.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Weaver, Andrew J.; Koenig, Harold G.; Ochberg, Frank M.
Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 9(4) Oct 1996, US: Kluwer
Academic/Plenum Publishers; 1996, 847-855
Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses the need for improved collaboration between
the clergy and the mental health professionals in the assessment and treatment
of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite limitations in training,
clergy act as front-line mental health workers for millions of Americans, many
of whom have suffered psychological trauma. Americans have very high rates of
church, temple, and mosque involvement and there is strong empirical evidence
that faith involvement has positive benefits for many of these people.
Although most clergy receive some training in counseling very few mental
health specialists receive training in any aspect of religion or spirituality.
Contemporary mental health professionals need to appreciate diverse religious
understandings of healing and spirituality when working with the traumatized
and develop a creative dialogue with religious communities.

Title: Semper fidelis: The experience of healing from ritual abuse.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Kay, Jeffrey Ames
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 55(7-B) Jan 1995, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1995, 3016
Abstract/Review/Citation: This is a study of the healing experiences of people
who remembered being physically and sexually abused repeatedly by a group
during childhood and remembered some of this abuse being justified by the
perpetrators as part of a ritual or as serving an apparently religious
purpose. Nine participants were referred by their current individual
psychotherapists, who attested that the metabolism of the trauma was no longer
the primary focus of treatment. Participants were posed an open-ended question
about their experiences of healing from ritual abuse, and then five more
specific questions. Five topics emerged as having been addressed at length by
at least five participants in response to the open-ended question. They are:
(1) the nature and impact of the abuse; (2) the history and evaluation of
structured therapy; (3) receiving witness, affirmation and connection; (4)
grieving; and (5) affirming oneself. Responses to the follow-up questions
concern (1) the most important healing experiences; (2) the search for
meaning; (3) an important healing encounter; (4) turning points in healing and
(5) additional healing resources required. The Discussion focuses on (1) grief
for the tortured and murdered in the past as a foundation for the love of the
living; (2) the role of spirituality in enabling survivors and their helpers
to remain connected with one another and able to contain their pain; and (3)
the need for healing centers for ritual abuse survivors.

Title: A phenomenological study of six Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction
Syndrome survivors.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Aikman, Linda Poling
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 55(11-A) May 1995, US: University Microfilms
International; 1995, 3412
Abstract/Review/Citation: The study examines the experience of Chronic Fatigue
Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS) survivors following the onset of the
disease. The subjects are three female and three male adult volunteers from
the CFIDS support group located in southeastern Ohio. All have been diagnosed
with CFIDS according to the case definition of the Centers for Disease Control
and all had CFIDS from four to 17 years. Following a pilot study which
included five adults and one adolescent survivor, an in-depth interview was
developed to elicit the lived experience of the survivors. Two interviews were
conducted with each participant with each interview lasting from ninety to one
hundred twenty minutes. The interviews were conducted seven to ten days apart
in deference to each participant's health status. Data interpretation
indicates that CFIDS survivors suffer from the effects of trauma and the loss
of basic assumptions. Therefore, CFIDS survivors find the diagnostic and
treatment process difficult and frequently humiliating. While they value the
support of the medical community, significant others, and friends, they no
longer expect to find support from anyone. In fact, survivors seldom discuss
their illness with others unless they are also CFIDS survivors. Survivors feel
that every aspect of their lives has been affected by their disease, resulting
in a loss of trust in their own ability to respond adequately to the world.
Those survivors who have adjusted more appropriately to the trauma effects of
the disease and have experienced less debilitating relapses appear to be those
who have learned to respond to relapse symptoms more quickly, rebuilt basic
assumptions by developing a personal sense of spirituality, and discovering
positive aspects of having the disease.

Title: Parental loss of a child: A comparison of sudden illness, accident, or
the suicidal death of a child.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Marmer, Melinda Ann
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 56(3-B) Sep 1995, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1995, 1704
Abstract/Review/Citation: The death of a child has been considered the most
difficult bereavement, with long reaching psychological devastation on the
parent (Rando, 1986; Sanders, 1993). The sudden and traumatic death of a child
further complicates the grief response. Furthermore, the bereavement
literature has proposed that grief and mourning following the suicidal death
of a child is atypical compared to other kinds of sudden death (Cain, 1972;
Dunne, McIntosh, & Dunne-Maxim, 1987). This study compared 118 parents who
experienced the sudden death of their child from illness (n =18), accident (n
= 45) or suicide (n = 55). There were 90 females and 28 male subjects. All
subjects were administered the Grief Experience Inventory (Sanders, Mauger,
& Strong, 1985), and the Bereaved Parents' Questionnaire (Marmer, 1994).
The primary hypothesis which predicted that the suicide group would experience
greater overall grief compared to the other two groups was not supported. The
second hypothesis predicting that the suicide group would experience more
social isolation and stigma was not supported. However, parents in the suicide
group felt blamed for their child's death more than the other two groups (p
<). The third hypothesis which predicted that the suicide group would have
greater guilt responses was supported by the GEI and the BPQ (p <).  However, it was unexpected that parents in the illness group would score
significantly higher than parents in the accident group. The last hypothesis
which predicted that parents in the suicide group would have greater
interference in parenting surviving children was not supported. Other related
aspects of parental bereavement, such as suicidal ideation, gender
differences, the experience of trauma, and spirituality were also examined.
Across groups, 46.6% of all parents reported suicidal ideation following the
death, regardless of cause of death. Gender differences were also identified,
with mothers experiencing greater despair, rumination, and so

Title: Positive transformations after extreme trauma.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Baures, Mary Margaret
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 56(3-B) Sep 1995, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1995, 1691
Abstract/Review/Citation: Twenty individuals who were successful in the wake of
an extreme adult trauma were interviewed to understand what contributed to
their positive transformation. The major finding of this study is that all the
survivors, in contrast to repressing the trauma, transformed themselves around
its horror. A number of attitudes, behaviors, coping skills and cognitive
abilities which may have contributed to their becoming wiser, more human and
more compassionate than prior to the trauma were identified. The survivors in
this study used creativity to create a new reality, to convert pain and waste
into truth and beauty, to give the dead a posthumous life, and to create a
symbolic immortality. They aligned themselves with forces larger than
themselves (some called these forces spirituality, others God, others
mysticism, others fate), and brought their strength to others who were
suffering what they suffered. Some form of denial allowed them to pace
themselves through the process of adjusting to catastrophic loss. They focused
on hopeful visions of the future, not on what they could no longer do or have.
They accepted what they could not change and changed what they could. They
became skillful at both agency and communion or independence and intimacy.
They could reflect on the limits of their basic premises and balance different
points of view. These cognitive abilities included the ability to choose an
attitude toward their suffering, to make a conscious decision to give up
bitterness and hate, and to give up previous expectations for their lives.
They accepted the dark parts of life--disease, accidents, death--without being
defeated by them. Direct contact with the dark parts of life seemed to
motivate them to create a world where tragedy is not the final experience.

Title: Dancing with the dark side: A qualitative study of the life reports of
men who have experienced sexual abuse.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Arbaugh, Thomas, Jr.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 56(3-A) Sep 1995, US: University Microfilms
International; 1995, 0824
Abstract/Review/Citation: The life experiences of six men who have been involved
in situations which would be considered sexually abusive are examined in this
study. The men have provided rich descriptions from which themes have emerged
demonstrating ways they have coped with their experiences of sexual abuse and
other life trauma. The reports were then examined using the characteristics of
wellness in the life tasks of spirituality, self-regulation, work, friendship,
and love. The six volunteers who met the initial selection criteria shared
their life reports in two taped interviews using a semi-structured approach.
The interviews were transcribed and examined for themes and categories. The
interviews were also examined for characteristics of wellness. A theme which
emerged from the life reports of the subjects is that of coping through the
ability to maintain an awareness of the experience, accept what one can, and
continue personal, emotional, and spiritual growth. This directly related to
the second theme of dancing with the dark side. This theme emerged as the men
expressed abilities to learn and grow from the negative experiences as well as
the good experiences in their lives. Some of the participants reported that
they were able to function successfully while experiencing great pain and
difficulties in their lives. Dancing with the dark side of their experiences
was an important factor in the ability of these men to cope with their earlier
sexual abuse. Suggestions for counselors include taking into account the
uniqueness of the individual and his experience, exploring family
relationships and examining the use of substances. Suggestions for future
research include exploration of an individual's ability to draw positive
aspects from negative experiences and exploration of the effects of education
on a person's ability to cope with a traumatic experience.

Title: The relationship of role problems, work trauma, cynicism, social support,
and spiritual support to the physical and mental health, work performance, and
absenteeism of correctional officers.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Seifert, Mary Kathryn
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 56(5-B) Nov 1995, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1995, 2919
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study was concerned with the effects of work role
problems and stress in correctional institutions on the physical and emotional
well-being and work performance of correctional officers. Using a self-report
questionnaire which incorporated measures of perceived social support at home
and at work, spiritual support, cynicism, role problems, and work and non-work
trauma (experience and fears of physical violence), the relationship between
these variables and measures of physical and emotional well-being and
supervisor's ratings of work performance and reported absenteeism was examined
in a sample of 153 correctional officers. Physical well-being was measured by
the reported frequency of occurrence of a variety of designated symptoms
(e.g., headaches, gastrointestinal problems, chest pain/heart problems, etc.)
during the preceding six months. The Global Severity Index of the Brief
Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) was used as the measure of emotional
distress. Non-work trauma (but not work trauma), cynicism (Social Beliefs
Scale, Martinkowski, 1993), role problems (Occupational Role Questionnaire,
Osipow & Spokane, 1987) and the interaction between perceived social
support at home and at work each accounted for significant amounts of variance
in emotional distress. Those who reported low social support both at home and
at work reported the highest levels of emotional distress. Also, the
interaction between cynicism and perceived support at work accounted for a
significant portion of the variance in physical symptomatology. Those who were
low in cynicism and perceived the highest levels of social support at work
reported the lowest frequency of symptoms of illness. Supervisors' ratings of
work performance were not predicted by any of the predictors variables in the
multiple regression analysis but did vary significantly with race, with African American officers receiving lower ratings. Also of note, African American officers scored significantly higher in cynic

Title: Healing the divided self:  Clinical and Ericksonian hypnotherapy for
post-traumatic and dissociative conditions.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Phillips, Maggie; Frederick, Claire
Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: W. W. Norton & Co, Inc; 1995, (xix, 371)
Abstract/Review/Citation: [This book provides] a step-by-step guide for the use
of hypnotic techniques in the treatment of the entire spectrum of dissociative
[and post-traumatic] disorders.  The authors synthesize traditional and
Ericksonian styles of hypnosis in practical methods. Detailed instructions are
given for utilizing hypnotherapeutic techniques for beginning treatment, ego
strengthening, uncovering and abreaction, the reworking of uncovered material,
the facilitation of the integrative process, the creation of a new identity,
and the enhancement of spiritual development. Close attention is given to
common pitfalls of therapy and how to avoid them, as well as how to deal with
them effectively when they occur.  The authors have carefully considered
the integration of various hypnotherapeutic techniques and the patient's
internal resources with valuable external resources. The roles of adjunctive
therapies, such as medication and hospitalization, body-oriented therapies,
family and group approaches, and support groups, in the implementation of the
treatment plan are thoroughly explored.
Notes/Comments:  Foreword by Stephen Gilligan Foreword by John G. Watkins and Helen H. Watkins Acknowledgments Introduction What is the divided self? Getting started: Preparing the patient for hypnotherapy Stages of treatment and beginning work with hypnosis Working with the divided self: The use of ego-state therapy Mobilizing inner resources during stages I and II Accessing the origins of dissociative symptoms and
related resources Resolving dissociated experiences Integration and new
identity during later stages of treatment Dissociative symptoms in disguise
Transference and countertransference issues Obstacles to treatment
Reenactments of trauma Emergencies, crises, and special problems Mobilizing
external resources Spirituality and the generative self References Index
traditional & Ericksonian hypnotherapy techniques, patients with
dissociative & posttraumatic disorders, guide

Title: Native American postcolonial psychology.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Duran, Eduardo; Duran, Bonnie
Source/Citation: Albany, NY, US: State University of New York Press; 1995,
(xvii, 227) SUNY series in transpersonal and humanistic psychology.
Abstract/Review/Citation: This book presents a theoretical discussion of
problems and issues encountered in the Native American community from a
perspective that accepts Native knowledge as legitimate. Native American
cosmology and metaphor are used extensively in order to deal with specific
problems such as alcoholism, suicide, family, and community problems. The
authors discuss what it means to present material from the perspective of a
people who have legitimate ways of knowing and conceptualizing reality and
show that it is imperative to understand intergenerational trauma and
internalized oppression in order to understand the issues facing Native
Americans today. It is our hope that this discussion will be useful to
therapists, counselors, paraprofessionals, academics, students, and community
activists, advocates, and consultants.

Title: Memory and abuse:  Remembering and healing the effects of trauma.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Whitfield, Charles L.
Source/Citation: Deerfield Beach, FL, US: Health Communications, Inc; 1995,
(xviii, 375)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Remembering what happened in any traumatic experience
is basic and crucial to healing. For over 100 yrs the memory of abuse
survivors has been questioned and challenged by all sorts of people, ranging
from perpetrators to family members. More recently, this memory has been
challenged by a combination of accused family members, their lawyers and a few
academics who claim the existence of a "false memory syndrome."
Charles Whitfield . . . brings his clinical experience and knowledge about
traumatic memory to examine, explore and clarify this critical issue that
threatens to invalidate the experience of survivors of trauma and handcuff the
helping professionals who assist them as they heal. This [book] provides . . .
information for anyone affected by a traumatic experience. "Memory and
Abuse" is a practical reference book for therapists and counselors,
providing guidelines to help fine tune their skills in assisting trauma
survivors in their recovery.
Notes/Comments:  List of figures and tables Foreword Introduction The "false memory" debate The process of remembering: A psychology of memory Memory and experience Wounding and memory The forgotten difference: Ordinary memory versus traumatic memory A brief history of child abuse How common is traumatic forgetting? Does denial mean "false memory syndrome"? Retractors and other "false"
accusers: Sorting out untrue from true memory Traumatic forgetting:
Repression, dissociation and denial Dissociation Denial Verifying and
corroborating a memory Admission by the abuser or co-abuser Internal
verification and corroboration of traumatic memory Projecting the pain The
competent helping professional and the troubled helping professional Some
guidelines for assisting with memories of trauma A memory-based suit against
therapists by a family member Two similar lawsuits with opposite results The
baby and the bathwater Memory and traumatic stress--Part one Memory and
traumatic stress--Part two Recovery Remembering what happened Naming the
mistreatment and abuse Memory and validation Spirituality and memory
Appendixes References Resources for information and networking Index memory
& treatment of childhood trauma & abuse, survivors, guide

Title: Spirituality, science and therapy.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Adams, Neil
Source/Citation: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy; Vol
16(4) Dec 1995, Australia: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family
Therapy in c/o; 1995, 201-208
Abstract/Review/Citation: Explores the shift from dichotomies of
therapy/spirituality to the convergence of science and religion. Various
therapists suggest that some form of religious/spiritual input during the
training of psychiatrists and therapists will produce useful information
during patient assessments. However, barriers to an integration between
therapy and spirituality include the quest for scientific status and
authenticity in new disciplines, confusion of spirituality and religion,
therapist bias against organized religion, and the historical split between
science and religion. Science and spirituality are no longer seen as
diametrically opposed or mutually exclusive. The links between spirituality
and psychological healing are apparent in psychoanalytic therapy. There is a
need for a closer integration between family therapy and spirituality, which
may apply to family adaptation following trauma.

Title: Self-care for trauma therapists: Ameliorating vicarious traumatization.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Pearlman, Laurie Anne
Source/Citation: Secondary traumatic stress:  Self-care issues for clinicians,
researchers, and educators., Lutherville, MD, US: The Sidran Press; 1995,
(xxiii, 279), 51-64
Source editor(s): Stamm, B. Hudnall (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: those who voluntarily engage empathically with
survivors to help them resolve the aftermath of psychological trauma open
themselves to a deep personal transformation / this transformation includes
personal growth, a deeper connection with both individuals and the human
experience, and greater awareness of all aspects of life / the darker side of
the transformation includes changes in the self that parallel those
experienced by survivors themselves / conceptualize these latter changes
within Constructivist Self Development Theory . . . as vicarious
traumatization / vicarious traumatization is a process of change resulting
from empathic engagement with trauma survivors / it can have an impact on the
helper's sense of self, world view, spirituality, affect tolerance,
interpersonal relationships, and imagery system of memory / outlines the areas
impacted by vicarious traumatization and suggests self-care strategies that
apply to each area of disruption / these self-care recommendations for
therapists working with trauma survivors are based in theory, in the
suggestions made by the many therapists who have attended our vicarious
traumatization workshops, and in self-report data from a broad range of mental
health professionals / these strategies fall within the personal,
professional, and organizational realms / some address the prevention or
minimization of vicarious traumatization, others relate to self-care for the
vicariously traumatized therapist

Title: Defining God or a Higher Power: The spiritual center of recovery.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Finnegan, Dana G.; McNally, Emily B.
Source/Citation: Spirituality and chemical dependency., New York, NY, US:
Harrington Park Press/Haworth Press, Inc; 1995, (xiv, 216), 39-48
Source editor(s): Kus, Robert J. (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: explore a process central to recovery from the
spiritual trauma of alcoholism--that of defining God or a Higher Power /
examine people's cultural and personal histories and contexts for this
process, the steps they take to create or find this definition, and the
importance of this process and this definition to their recovery / clinical
implications and suggestions will be provided to assist clinicians in helping
alcoholic clients on their journey to recovery

Title: Countertransference in the treatment of war veterans.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Maxwell, Michael J.; Sturm, Cynthia
Source/Citation: Countertransference in the treatment of PTSD., New York, NY,
US: The Guilford Press; 1994, (xxv, 406), 288-307
Source editor(s): Wilson, John Preston (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: discusses countertransference in the treatment of war
veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the impact of
countertransference on technical dilemmas facing the therapist / represents an
outgrowth of [the authors'] collective clinical experience with veterans of
World War II, Korea, Vietnam and the Persian Gulf / countertransference
blocks to triage work / countertransference blocks to establishing the
therapeutic relationship / gender issues in establishing a therapeutic
relationship / role of countertransference in uncovering versus containing the
trauma story / countertransference and the management of role boundaries /
countertransference reappraisal and reconstruction / meaning and spirituality
 / therapist self-care and personal transformation

Title: Integrating sex therapy and addiction recovery.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Heilakka, Stephen
Source/Citation: Outpatient treatment of sex and love addicts., Westport, CT,
US: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc; 1993, (vi, 164),
Source editor(s): Griffin-Shelley, Eric (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: [discusses] the idea that sexuality can meet a variety
of needs, including inner child needs from our past, adult needs in our
present, and spiritual needs for our future  / the intense power of our
sexuality can also lead to feelings of terror and awe / reflects on the
 mpact of Victorian and Puritanical heritages on our views of sexuality and
the emphasis on the act of sex rather than on sexuality / such a sex-negative
approach leads to objectification, dependency, and shame / healthy sexuality
has a sex-positive view that emphasizes the process and developmental issues /
similarly, Twelve Step fellowships for sexual compulsives advocate a
sex-positive view that focuses on relationships and spirituality, and
downplays the importance of the act of sex / takes sexual addiction a bit
further and looks at it as a symptom of childhood sexual trauma / explains how
a Twelve Step approach allows for the necessary safety, boundaries, corrective
emotional experiences, learning about intimacy and relationships, and
attention to the inner child that will produce recovery and healing

Title: Posttraumatic stress disorder.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Foy, David W.; Drescher, Kent D.; Fitz, Allan G.; Kennedy, Kevin R.
Source/Citation: Clinical handbook of pastoral counseling, Vol. 2., Mahwah, NJ,
US: Paulist Press; 1993, (viii, 741), 621-637 Studies in pastoral psychology,
theology, and spirituality.
Source editor(s): Wicks, Robert J. (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: acquaint pastors with current information about PTSD
[posttraumatic stress disorder], including its primary symptoms and related
traumatic experiences / provide distinctions between "normal"
traumatic crisis reactions and pathological adjustment to assist clergy in
making screening assessments regarding the need for professional referral /
several theological implications of traumatic experiences will be presented,
along with pastoral responses which may help trauma survivors to work through
their experiences / an "anti-burnout survival kit" is offered for
pastors who are heavily engaged in ongoing ministry to trauma survivors

Title: Posttraumatic therapy.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Ochberg, Frank M.
Source/Citation: International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes., New
York, NY, US: Plenum Press; 1993, (xxxiii, 1011), 773-783 The Plenum series on
stress and coping.
Source editor(s): Wilson, John Preston (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: [discuss] the foundation of PTT [posttraumatic
therapy] and clarify some of the clinical techniques that stand upon this
foundation / education [reading the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders) together] / introducing civil and criminal law /
discussing psychobiology / promoting holistic health [physical activity,
nutrition, humor, spirituality, social integration, posttraumatic family
therapy] / psychotherapy [presents a] set of guidelines to assist clinicians
in working with the intricacies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD),
especially for professionals with little experience in treating victims of
massive trauma

Title: The role of trauma in spiritual development.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Decker, Larry R.
Source/Citation: Journal of Humanistic Psychology: Special Issue: Trauma and
transcendence; Vol 33(4) Fal 1993, US: Sage Publications Inc; 1993, 33-46
Abstract/Review/Citation: Argues that regardless of the presence or absence of
trauma-produced personality deterioration, there will be an increase in the
search for an expanded and more meaningful perspective of existence as a
result of a traumatic experience. Spiritual development is seen as a necessary
result of trauma regardless of the presence or absence of trauma-produced
psychological difficulties. The trauma survivor's increased interest/request
for purpose and meaning may not immediately result in improved psychological
functioning, but that interest/request needs to be taken into account if
clinical treatment is to be comprehensively effective. It is suggested that a
possible framework for this increased interest and need for spiritual
perspectives may be found in the understanding of alchemy.

Title: Beliefs, post-traumatic stress disorder, and mysticism.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Decker, Larry R.
Source/Citation: Journal of Humanistic Psychology: Special Issue: Trauma and
transcendence; Vol 33(4) Fal 1993, US: Sage Publications Inc; 1993, 15-32
Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses 3 related approaches to understanding
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The idea that trauma disrupts belief
systems is widely accepted. However, it may be that beliefs founded on the
inner realizations are less disrupted by trauma than are beliefs formed from
interaction with the environment. Some of the psychological attempts to
interweave spiritual understanding with psychological thought are examined in
relationship to traumatic experience. Finally, the mystical perspective is
recommended not only as a way of understanding internally based beliefs but as
an important process for all therapists working with the traumatized.

Title: Reclaiming women's bodies: A feminist perspective on eating disorders.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Kuba, Sue A.; Hanchey, Susan Gale
Source/Citation: Feminist perspectives on addictions., New York, NY, US:
Springer Publishing Co, Inc; 1991, (xv, 222), 125-137
Source editor(s): Van Den Bergh, Nan (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: the feminist therapist confronting the reality of an
eating disorder is faced with a multifaceted addiction / personal, social and
family factors create a self-destructive process underlying anorexia, bulimia
and compulsive eating / effective therapeutic treatment requires the
recognition of eating disorders as illnesses of women that are best healed by
the community of women created in group psychotherapy / new advances in
developmental theories of women require that rigid treatment approaches be
discarded / the feminist therapist replaces trauma with a multilayered
approach to treatment encompassing family intervention and creative
therapeutic techniques / body image work, grief and anger management, as well
as the introduction of women's herstory, are advantageous in meeting the
challenge / the individual development of self will occur as eating-disordered
women, under the guidance of feminist therapists, are able to free themselves
from the modern-day bondage of thinness / integration of a feminist approach
[supportive-nurturing environment, group treatment as method of choice, family
treatment] / sociocultural therapy [body image work, excercise, grief work,
anger work, women's culture and herstory, spirituality]

Title: Post-traumatic therapy.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Ochberg, Frank M.
Source/Citation: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training: Special
Issue: Psychotherapy with victims; Vol 28(1) Spr 1991, US: Division of
Psychotherapy, A.P.A.; 1991, 5-15
Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses the normalization, collaborative and
empowering, and individuality principles as fundamental to posttraumatic
therapy. The author describes 4 categories of techniques used in residential
and outpatient settings with victimized, traumatized clients. These include
education (introducing civil and criminal law, discussing psychobiology);
holistic health (physical activity, humor, nutrition, spirituality); methods
that enhance social support and social integration; and therapy. Posttraumatic
therapy approaches its conclusion when clients show lessened symptoms, a sense
of mastery and control, and, most significantly, a shift from victim to
survivor status.

Title: Outreach to ex-cult members: The question of terminology.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Langone, Michael D.; Chambers, William V.
Source/Citation: Cultic Studies Journal; Vol 8(2) 1991, US: American Family
Foundation; 1991, 134-150
Abstract/Review/Citation: Measured ex-cultists' opinions about various terms
used to describe religious cults. 108 Ss responded to a questionnaire rating
how well "walk-aways" (individuals who have simply left religious
cults) would relate to a list of 20 terms. The Ss did not endorse any term.
Terms traditionally employed by anti-cult educational organizations were not
rated as highly as innovative terms, such as "psychological abuse,"
'trust abuse," and "spiritual abuse." A principal components
analysis of the ratings revealed the presence of 5 components: (1) Mind
Control, (2) Social Manipulation, (3) Group Intensity, (4) Trauma, and (5)
Abuse. Factor analysis showed that Ss perceived Components 4 and 5 to be more
acceptable than Components 1-3. Manipulation is a common theme throughout the
list of terms suggested by the Ss themselves (e.g., enmeshment, dysfunctional
organizations, and predatory spirituality).

Title: God is a trauma:  Vicarious religion and soul-making.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Mogenson, Greg
Source/Citation: Dallas, TX, US: Spring Publications, Inc; 1989, (vi, 167)
Abstract/Review/Citation: This book, despite its title, is not a theology book.
It is not a book about God as God.  In identifying the two words
"God" and "trauma," I wish to focus attention on the
religious dimension of the psychology of those overwhelming events we describe
as traumatic.  A principal theme we shall pursue through the pages of this
book is the impact on the soul of monotheistic theology's noname God.  What
happens to the soul when it reflects upon its problems in the terms of so
absolute and generic a spirit?  Does it assist the soul in its soul-making? 
Does it help the soul to "mediate events" and to "make
differences between ourselves and everything that happens"?  Or does it
galvanize those events with the numinous sheen of the unapproachably holy? 
Does invoking the name of the Lord preserve the overwhelming quality of
overwhelming events, embedding the traumatic?
Notes/Comments:  Acknowledgments Introduction The God-trauma The wrath of God The suffering God Monotheism, trauma, and the failure of calf-making C. S. Lewis's theodicy of pain Masochism and mysticism Schizoid defenses Incarnation and the bomb Healing through heresy Gnosticism Trauma in transference Romanticism The pleasure of
dis-carnation Baptism Normal unhappiness Dreams Deliver us from salvation
Repeating, imagining, and making a crust The crust around the pleasure
principle Nietzsche's body Death-drive and transference Homogeneity,
homoeroticism, and homeopathy The trauma of incarnation and the sur-natural
soul Chronicity Refusing incarnation The fallacy of susceptibility
Traumatology Gnostic transference Phone home! Fatality The end?

Title: Crises and spiritual growth.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Howe, Leroy T.
Source/Citation: Pastoral Psychology; Vol 36(4) Sum 1988, US: Human Sciences
Press Inc/Plenum Publishing Corp; 1988, 230-238
Abstract/Review/Citation: Contends (a) that every crisis can arouse a fresh
awareness of the transcendent source of and goal for every human life and (b)
that in the trauma that every crisis brings, the opportunity is given to
reassess one's life principles in the direction of a more encompassing and
adequate set of values, informed by a deeper faith. For such reassessment to
occur, however, there must be willingness to call into question one's whole
life, and not just those decisions contributing to the specific crisis. This
conviction is elaborated on in 2 sections: the first discusses the role of the
pastor in crisis intervention, and the second advances the claim that
exacerbating a sense of crisis for the sake of facilitating people's growth in
faith is the uniquely pastoral contribution to helping people in crisis.

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