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Body Dysmorphia and Anxiety Disorders
Body Dysmorphic Disorder I
Body Dysmorphic Disorder II
Body Dysmorphic Disorder III
Body Dysmorphic Disorders
Body Dysmorphic Disorders and Adolescence
Body Dysmorphic Disorders and Attachment
Body Dysmorphic Disorders Template
Body Dysmorphic Disorders and Adulthood
Body Dysmorphic Disorders and Childhood
Body Dysmorphic Disorders and Consciousness
Body Dysmorphic Disorders and Depression
Body Dysmorphic Disorders and DID
Body Dysmorphic Disorders and EMDR
Body Dysmorphic Disorders and PTSD
Body Dysmorphic Disorders and Resilience
Body Dysmorphic Disorders and Self-Mutilization
Body Dysmorphic Disorders and Substance Abuse
Body Dysmorphic Disorders and Suicide
Body Dysmorphic Disorders and Trauma
Body Dysmorphic Disorders II
Body Dysmorphic Disorders III
Body Dysmorphia

Psychological

and Physiological

Trauma Research

 

 

Seize Your Journeys

 

_______________________

Traumatic stress is found in many competent, healthy, strong, good people.  No one can completely protect themselves from traumatic experiences.  Many people have long-lasting problems following exposure to trauma.  Up to 8% of persons will have PTSD at some time in their lives. People who react to traumas are not going crazy.  What is happening to them is part of a set of common symptoms and problems that are connected with being in a traumatic situation, and thus, is a normal reaction to abnormal events and experiences.  Having symptoms after a traumatic event is NOT a sign of personal weakness.  Given exposure to a trauma that is bad enough, probably all people would develop PTSD.

By understanding trauma symptoms better, a person can become less fearful of them and better able to manage them. By recognizing the effects of trauma and knowing more about symptoms, a person will be better able to decide about getting treatment.

_______________________

 

Body Dysmorphic Disorders

 

Diagnostic Features

The essential feature of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (historically known as dysmorphophobia) is a preoccupation with a defect in appearance (Criterion A).  The defect is either imagined, or, if a slight physical anomaly is present, the individual’s concern is markedly excessive (Criterion A).  The preoccupation must cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criterion B).  The preoccupation is not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g., dissatisfaction with body shape and size in Anorexia Nervosa) (Criterion C.).

            Complaints commonly involve imagined or slight flaws of the face or head such as hair thinning, acne, wrinkles, scars, vascular markings, paleness or redness of the complexion, swelling, facial asymmetry or disproportion, or excessive facial hair.  Other common preoccupations include the shape, size, or some other aspect of the nose, eyes, eyelids, eyebrows, ears, mouth, lips, teeth, jaw, chin, cheeks, or head.  However, any other body part may be the focus of concern (e.g., the genitals, breasts, buttocks, abdomen, arms, hands, feet, legs, hips, shoulders, spine, larger body regions, overall body size, or body build and muscularity).  The preoccupation may simultaneously focus on several body parts.  Although the complaint is often specific (e.g., “crooked” lip or a “bumpy” nose), it is sometimes vague (e.g., a “falling” face or “inadequately firm” eyes).  Because of embarrassment over their concerns or for other reasons, some individuals with Body Dysmorphic Disorder avoid describing their “defects” in detail and may instead refer only to their general ugliness.

            Most individuals with this disorder experience marked distress over their supposed deformity, often describing their preoccupations as “intensely painful,” “tormenting,” or “devastating.”  Most find their preoccupations difficult to control, and they may make little or no attempt to resist them.  As a result, they often spend hours a day thinking about their “defect,” to the point where these thoughts may dominate their lives.  Significant impairment in many areas of functioning generally occurs.  Feelings of self-consciousness about their “defect” may lead to avoidance of work, school, or public situations.

Associated Features and Disorders

            Frequent checking of the defect, either directly or in a reflecting surface (e.g., mirrors, store windows, car bumpers, watch faces) can consume many hours a day.  Some individuals use special lighting or magnifying glasses to scrutinize their “defect.”  There may be excessive grooming behavior (e.g. excessive hair combing, hair removal, ritualized makeup application, or skin picking).  Although the usual intent of checking and grooming is to diminish anxiety, be reassured about one’s appearance, or temporarily improve one’s appearance, these behaviors often intensify the preoccupation and associated anxiety.  Consequently, some individuals avoid mirrors, sometimes covering them or removing them from their environment.  Others alternate between periods of excessive mirror checking and avoidance.  Other behaviors aimed at improving the “defect” include excessive exercise (e.g., weight lifting), dieting, and frequent changing of clothes.  There may be frequent requests for reassurance about the “defect,” but such reassurance leads to only temporary, if any, relief.  Individuals with the disorder may also frequently compare their “ugly” body part with that of others.  They may try to camouflage the “defect” (e.g., growing a beard to cover imagined facials scars, wearing a hat to hide imagined hair loss, stuffing their shorts to enhance a “small” penis).  Some individuals may be excessively preoccupied with fears that the “ugly” body part will malfunction or is extremely fragile and in constant danger of begin damaged.  Insight about the perceived defect is often poor, and some individuals are delusional; that is, they are completely convinced that their view of the defect is accurate and undistorted, and they cannot be convinced otherwise.  Ideas and delusions of reference related to the imagined defect are also common; that is, individuals with this disorder often think that others may be (or are) taking special notice of their supposed flaw, perhaps talking about it or mocking it.

            Avoidance of usual activities may lead to extreme social isolation.  In some cases, individuals may leave their homes only at night, when they cannot be seen, or become housebound, sometimes for years.  Individuals with this disorder may drop out of school, avoid job interviews, work at jobs below their capacity, or not work at all.  They may have few friends, avoid dating and other social interactions, have marital difficulties, or get divorced because of their symptoms.  The distress and dysfunction associated with this disorder, although variable, can lead to repeated hospitalization and to suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, ad completed suicide.  Individuals with Body Dysmorphic Disorder often pursue and receive general medical (often dermatological), dental, or surgical treatments to rectify their imagined or slight defects.  Occasionally, individuals may resort to extreme measures (e.g., self-surgery) to correct their perceived flaws.

            Such treatment may cause the disorder to worsen, leading to intensified or new preoccupations, which may in turn lead to further unsuccessful procedures, so that individuals may eventually possess “synthetic” noses, ears, breast, hips, or other body pars, which they are still dissatisfied with.  Body Dysmorphic Disorder may be associated with Major Depressive Disorder, Delusional Disorder, Social Phobia, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.”

 American Psychiatric Association. 2000. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. p. 507-509.

 

 

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Eating Disorders

 “The Eating Disorders are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior.  This section includes two specific diagnoses, Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.  Anorexia Nervosa is characterized by a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight.  Bulimia Nervosa is characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications; fasting; or excessive exercise.  A disturbance in perception of body shape and weight is an essential feature of both Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.  An Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified category is also provided for coding behaviors that do not meet criteria for a specific Eating Disorder.

          Simple obesity is include in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) as a general medical condition but does not appear in DSM-IV because it has not been established that it is consistently associated with a psychological or behavioral syndrome.  However, when there is evidence that psychological factors are of importance in the etiology or course of a particular case of obesity, this can be indicated by noting the presence of Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition.

          Disorders of Feeding and Eating that are usually first diagnosed in infancy or early childhood (i.e., Pica, Rumination Disorder, and Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood) are included in the section “Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood.

 Anorexia Nervosa

 Diagnostic Features

The essential features of Anorexia Nervosa are that the individual refuses to maintain a minimally normal body weight, is intensely afraid of gaining weight, and exhibits a significant disturbance in the perception of the shape or size of his or her body.  In addition, postmenarcheal females with this disorder are amenorrheic.  (The term anorexia is a misnomer because loss of appetite is rare.)

          The individual maintains a body weight that is below a minimally normal level for age and height (Criterion A).  When Anorexia Nervosa develops in an individual during childhood or early adolescence, there may be failure to make expected weight gains (i.e., while growing in height) instead of weight loss.

Criterion A provides a guideline for determining when the individual meets the threshold for being underweight.  It suggests that the individual weigh less than 85% of that weight that is considered normal for that person’s age and height (usually computed using one of several published versions of the Metropolitan Life Insurance tables or pediatric growth charts.).  An alternative and somewhat stricter guideline (used in the ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for research) requires that the individual have a body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms/height in meters2) equal to or below 17.5kg/m2.  These cutoffs are provided only as suggested guidelines for eh clinician, since it is unreasonable to specify a single standard for minimally normal weight that applies to all individuals of a given age and height.  In determining a minimally normal weight, the clinician should consider not only such guidelines but also the individual’s body build and weight history.

Usually weight loss is accomplished primarily through reduction in total food intake.  Although individuals may begin by excluding from their diet what they perceive to be highly caloric foods, most eventually end up with a very restricted diet that is sometimes limited to only a few foods.  Additional methods of weight loss include purging (i.e., self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxative or diuretics) and increased or excessive exercise.)

Individuals with this disorder intensely fear gaining weight or becoming fat (Criterion B).  This intense fear of becoming fat is usually not alleviated by the weight loss.  In fact, concern about weight gain often increases even as actual weight continues to decrease.

The experience and significance of body weight and shape are distorted in these individuals (Criterion C).  Some individuals feel globally overweight.  Others realize that they are thin but are still concerned that certain parts of their bodies, particularly the abdomen, buttocks, and thighs are “to fat.”  They may employ a wide variety of techniques to estimate their body size and weight, including excessive weighing, obsessive measuring of body parts, and persistently using a mirror to check for perceived areas of “fat.”  The self-esteem of individuals with Anorexia Nervosa is highly dependent on their body shape and weight.  Weight loss is viewed as an impressive achievement and a sign of extraordinary self-discipline, whereas weight gain is perceived as an unacceptable failure of self-control.  Though some individuals with this disorder may acknowledge being thin, they typically deny the serious medical implications of their malnourished state.

In postmenarcheal females, amenorrhea (due to abnormally low levels of estrogen secretion that are due in turn to diminished pituitary secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone [PSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) is an indicator of physiological dysfunction in Anorexia Nervosa (Criterion D.)  Amenorrhea is usually a consequence of the weight loss but, in a minority of individuals, may actually precede it.  In prepubertal females, menarche may be delayed by the illness.

The individual is often brought to professional attention by family members after marked weight loss (or failure to make expected weight gains) has occurred.  If individuals seek help on their own, it is usually because of their subjective distress over the somatic and psychological sequelae of starvation.  It is rare for an individual with Anorexia Nervosa to complain of weight loss per se.  Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa frequently lack insight into, or have considerable denial of, the problem and may be unreliable historians.  It is therefore often necessary to obtain information form parents or other outside sources to evaluate the degree of weight loss and other features of the illness.”  p. 583-584.

 Bulimia Nervosa

 “Diagnostic Features

          The essential features of Bulimia Nervosa are binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight gain.  In addition, the self-evaluation of individuals with Bulimia Nervosa is excessively influenced by body shape and weight.  To qualify for the diagnosis, the binge eating and the inappropriate compensatory behaviors must occur, on average, at least twice a week for 3 months (Criterion C.)

          A binge is defined as eating in a discrete period of time an amount of food that is definitely larger than most individuals would eat under similar circumstances (Criterion A1.).  The clinician should consider the context in which the eating occurred—what would be regarded as excessive consumption at a typical meal might be considered normal during a celebration or holiday meal.  A “discrete period of time” refers to a limited period, usually less than 2 hours.  A single episode of binge eating need not be restricted to one setting.  For example, an individual may begin a binge in a restaurant and then continue it on returning home.  Continual snacking on small amounts of food throughout the day would not be considered a binge.

          Although the type of food consumed during the binge varies, it typically includes sweet, high-calorie foods such as ice cream or cake.  However, binge eating appears to be characterized more by an abnormality in the amount of food consumed than by a craving for a specific nutrient, such as carbohydrate.  Although individuals with Bulimia Nervosa consume more calories during an episode of binge eating than persons without Bulimia Nervosa consume during a meal, the fractions of calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate are similar.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa are typically ashamed of their eating problems and attempt to conceal their symptoms.  Binge eating usually occurs in secrecy, or as inconspicuously as possible.  An episode may or may not be planned in advance and is usually (but not always) characterized by rapid consumption.  The binge eating often continues until the individual is uncomfortably, or even painfully, full.  Binge eating is typically triggered by dysphoric mood states, interpersonal stressors intense hunger following dietary restraint, or feelings related to body weight, body shape, and food.  Binge eating may transiently reduce dysphoria, but disparaging self-criticism and depressed mood often follow.

          An episode of binge eating is also accompanied by a sense of lack of control (Criterion A2).  An individual may be in a frenzied state while binge eating, especially early in the course of the disorder.  Some individuals describe a dissociative quality during, or following, the binge episodes.  After Bulimia Nervosa has persisted for some time, individuals may report that their binge-eating episodes are no longer characterized by an acute feeling of loss of control, but rather by behavioral indicators of impaired control, such as difficulty resisting binge eating or difficulty stopping a binge once it has begun.  The impairment in control associated with binge eating in bulimia Nervosa is not absolute; for example, an individual may continue binge eating while the telephone is ringing, but will cease if a roommate or spouse unexpectedly enters the room.

          Another essential feature of Bulimia Nervosa is the recurrent use of inappropriate compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain (Criterion B).  Many individuals with Bulimia Nervosa employ several methods in their attempt to compensate for binge eating.  The most common compensatory technique is the induction of vomiting after an episode of binge eating.  This method of purging is employed by 80%-90% of individuals with Bulimia Nervosa who present for treatment of eating disorders clinics.  The immediate effects of vomiting include relief from physical discomfort and reduction of fear of gaining weight.  In some cases, vomiting becomes a goal in itself, and the person will binge in order to vomit or will vomit after eating a small amount of food.  Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa may use a variety of methods to induce vomiting, including the use of fingers or instruments to stimulate the gag reflex.  Individuals generally become adept at inducing vomiting and are eventually able to vomit at will.  Rarely, individuals consume syrup of ipecac to induce vomiting.  Other purging behaviors include the issue of laxatives and diuretics.  Approximately one-third of those with Bulimia Nervosa misuse laxatives after binge eating.  Rarely, individuals with the disorder will misuse enemas following episodes of binge eating, but this is seldom the sole compensatory method employed.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa may fast for a day or more or exercise excessively in an attempt to compensate for binge eating.  Exercise may be considered to be excessive when it significantly interferes with important activities, when it occurs at inappropriate times or in inappropriate settings, or when the individual continues to exercise despite injury or other medical complications.  Rarely, individuals with this disorder may take thyroid hormone in an attempt to avoid weight gain.  Individuals with diabetes mellitus and Bulimia Nervosa may omit or reduce insulin doses in order to reduce the metabolism of food consumed during eating binges.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa place an excessive emphasis on body shape and weight in their self-evaluation, and these factors are typically the most important ones in determining self-esteem (Criterion D).  Individuals with this disorder may closely resemble those with Anorexia Nervosa in their fear of gaining weight, in their desire to lose weight, and in the level of dissatisfaction with their bodies.  However, a diagnosis of Bulimia Nervosa should not be given when the disturbance occurs only during episodes of Anorexia Nervosa (Criterion E).”  p. 589-591

 

Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 2000. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

 

 

 

Body Dysmorphia

 

Body Dysmorphic Disorders II

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Record: 1

Title: Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in a German college

student sample.

Author(s): Bohne, Antje, Massachusetts General Hosp/Harvard Medical

School, OCD Clinic, Charlestown, MA, US

Wilhelm, Sabine, Massachusetts General Hosp/Harvard Medical School, OCD

Clinic, Charlestown, MA, US, wilhelm@psych.mgh.harvard.edu

Keuthen, Nancy J., Massachusetts General Hosp/Harvard Medical School,

OCD Clinic, Charlestown, MA, US

Florin, Irmela, Philipps-U Marburg, Fachbereich Psychologie, Marburg,

Germany

Baer, Lee, Massachusetts General Hosp/Harvard Medical School, OCD

Clinic, Charlestown, MA, US

Jenike, Michael A., Massachusetts General Hosp/Harvard Medical School,

OCD Clinic, Charlestown, MA, US

Address: Wilhelm, Sabine, Massachusetts General Hosp-East/Harvard

Medical School, OCD Clinic, 149 Thirteenth St, Charlestown, MA, US,

wilhelm@psych.mgh.harvard.edu

Source: Psychiatry Research, Vol 109(1), Jan 2002. pp. 101-104.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/522773/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0165-1781 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0165-1781(01)00363-8

Language: English

Keywords: prevalence; body dysmorphic disorder; self esteem;

depressive symptoms; obsessive-compulsive symptoms; skin picking

symptoms; college students

Abstract: The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) was

investigated in a non-clinical sample. 133 German college students

completed self-report questionnaires assessing BDD, self-esteem,

symptoms of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and skin picking.

Based on our data, seven participants (5.3%) satisfied DSM-IV BDD

criteria, Significant differences were found between students with and

without BDD in the number of endorsed obsessive-compulsive disorder

symptoms. Poor body image was associated with poor self-esteem, symptoms

of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. One student with BDD

also reported severe skin picking. In conclusion, BDD is a common

psychiatric disorder in college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Epidemiology; Major

Depression; Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; Self Esteem; Self Inflicted

Wounds

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: Germany

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20020403

Accession Number: 2002-02180-013

Number of Citations in Source: 26

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-02180-013

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-021

80-013">Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in a German college

student sample.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 2

Title: The case of Ted: Body dysmorphia in a male.

Author(s): Gubitosa, Nunzio, Private Practice, New York, NY, US

Source: Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy, Vol 19(1), 2002. pp. 79-84.

Publisher: US: International Universities Press

Publisher URL: http://www.iup.com

ISSN: 0736-508X (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: male professional athlete; body dysmorphia; eating

Abstract: Discusses the case of body dysmorphia in a 35-yr-old

male who was a former professional athlete. The patient presented with

symptoms of depression and difficulty in establishing an intimate

relationship. The author discusses the patient's long-standing

preoccupation with his body and physical appearance. This manifested in

a rigid and controlling approach to his eating: what he ate, the quality

of the ingredients, how the food was prepared, and what he would not eat

were all issues of significant concern. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Athletes; *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Eating Behavior;

*Psychoanalysis; Human Males

Classification: Eating Disorders (3260)

Psychoanalytic Therapy (3315)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20021204

Accession Number: 2002-06444-006

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-06444-006

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-064

44-006">The case of Ted: Body dysmorphia in a male.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 3

Title: Discussion: From a classical perspective.

Author(s): Kauff, Priscilla F., Cornell U, Weill Medical School,

NY, US

Source: Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy, Vol 19(1), 2002. pp. 85-89.

Publisher: US: International Universities Press

Publisher URL: http://www.iup.com

ISSN: 0736-508X (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: male professional athlete; body dysmorphia; eating;

classical perspective; psychoanalysis

Abstract: Comments on an article by N. Gubitosa, which presents

the case of a 35-yr-old male with dysmorphic disorder (see record

2002-06444-006). The current author suggests that the patient may be

more disturbed than the case study seems to suggest. It is argued that

the patient's level of anxiety, reflected in his "frantic" manner of

communication (as reported by the therapist), the fear that his body is

failing him, the fear of his competitive feelings that seems to have

increased to such a degree that he had to withdraw from his sports

career, and the growing concern with his physical appearance and food

preoccupation may indicate the presence of a serious underlying

pathological process. It is suggested that it is also possible that a

homosexual panic may be developing in the patient that is contributing

both to his anxiety and to the acceleration of his efforts to defend

against it. The meaning of the food preoccupation and

transference-countertransference issues are discussed. The author

believes that a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder with

depression and possible homosexual and paranoid elements should be

considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Athletes; *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Eating Behavior;

*Psychoanalysis; Human Males

Classification: Eating Disorders (3260)

Psychoanalytic Therapy (3315)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Document Type: Comment/Reply

Release Date: 20021204

Accession Number: 2002-06444-007

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-06444-007

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-064

44-007">Discussion: From a classical perspective.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 4

Title: Discussion: From an object relations perspective.

Author(s): Sarasohn, Kim, New York U, Ehrenkranz School of Social

Work, NY, US

Source: Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy, Vol 19(1), 2002. pp. 91-96.

Publisher: US: International Universities Press

Publisher URL: http://www.iup.com

ISSN: 0736-508X (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: male professional athlete; body dysmorphia; eating;

psychoanalysis; object relations

Abstract: Comments on an article by N. Gubitosa, which presents

the case of a 35-yr-old male with dysmorphic disorder (see record

2002-06444-006). The current author argues that though there are a

number of vantage points from which this case might valuably be

explored, a British object relations perspective, particularly the

thinking of M. Klein, H. Segal, and W. Bion, illuminates a predominance

of oral aggression, and a failure to internalize a positive and

nurturing object. This leads to an inability to metabolize envy and

aggression and, ultimately, inhibits the capacity for symbol formation,

which seems to impede the potential effectiveness of the treatment.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Athletes; *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Eating Behavior;

*Object Relations; *Psychoanalysis; Human Males

Classification: Eating Disorders (3260)

Psychoanalytic Therapy (3315)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Document Type: Comment/Reply

Release Date: 20021204

Accession Number: 2002-06444-008

Number of Citations in Source: 4

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-06444-008

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-064

44-008">Discussion: From an object relations perspective.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 5

Title: Discussion: From a self psychology perspective.

Author(s): Eldridge, Amy, Inst for Clinical Social Work, Chicago,

IL, US

Source: Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy, Vol 19(1), 2002. pp. 97-102.

Publisher: US: International Universities Press

Publisher URL: http://www.iup.com

ISSN: 0736-508X (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: male professional athlete; body dysmorphia; eating;

psychoanalysis; self psychology

Abstract: Comments on an article by N. Gubitosa, which presents

the case of a 35-yr-old male with dysmorphic disorder (see record

2002-06444-006). The current author responds to the article from the

point of view of self psychology. Specifically, the following questions

are addressed: (1) How do we understand the patient's problems within

the context of his history? (2) How do we understand his issues within

the context of self psychology? and (3) How can a therapist respond most

helpfully to him? As a self psychologist, the author examines the

patient's history, current struggles, and transferences with an eye

toward the quality of the relationships afforded while the self was

developing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Athletes; *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Eating Behavior;

*Psychoanalysis; *Self Psychology; Human Males

Classification: Eating Disorders (3260)

Psychoanalytic Therapy (3315)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Document Type: Comment/Reply

Release Date: 20021204

Accession Number: 2002-06444-009

Number of Citations in Source: 6

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-06444-009

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-064

44-009">Discussion: From a self psychology perspective.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 6

Title: Discussion: From a feminist psychoanalytic perspective.

Author(s): Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth

Bethelard, Faith

Source: Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy, Vol 19(1), 2002. pp. 103-110.

Publisher: US: International Universities Press

Publisher URL: http://www.iup.com

ISSN: 0736-508X (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: male professional athlete; body dysmorphia; eating;

feminist psychoanalysis

Abstract: Comments on an article by N. Gubitosa, which presents

the case of a 35-yr-old male with dysmorphic disorder (see record

2002-06444-006). The current authors address the question of

formulation. Young-Bruehl and Bethelard argue that Gubitosa seems to be

operating on the assumption that he is treating an eating disorder,

although he acknowledges that the patient presented with depression

along with his concern about his relationships. The patient's depression

is considered, and the case is discussed from a feminist psychoanalytic

perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Athletes; *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Eating Behavior;

*Feminist Therapy; *Psychoanalysis; Human Males

Classification: Eating Disorders (3260)

Psychoanalytic Therapy (3315)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Document Type: Comment/Reply

Release Date: 20021204

Accession Number: 2002-06444-010

Number of Citations in Source: 3

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-064

44-010">Discussion: From a feminist psychoanalytic perspective.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 7

Title: Ayaktan psikiyatrik hastalarda vücut dismorfik bozuklugu: Tani,

yasam boyu basska ruhsal hastalik varligi, demografik ve klinik

özellikler.

Translated Title: Body dysmorphic disorder in psychiatric

outpatients: Diagnosis, other psychiatric diagnosis, demographic and

clinical correlates.

Author(s): Askin, Rüstem, Selçuk U Meram, Tip Fak., Psikiyatri AD,

Konya, Turkey

Çilli, Ali Savas, Selçuk U Meram, Tip Fak., Psikiyatri AD, Konya, Turkey

Source: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Vol 13(3), 2002. pp. 197-203.

Publisher: Turkey: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi

Publisher URL: http://www.turkpsikiyatri.com/

ISSN: 1300-2163 (Print)

Language: Turkish

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; comorbidity; psychiatric

diagnoses

Abstract: Assessed the clinical and demographic properties and

comorbidity of 47 patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). 54

patients with BDD among 4,768 consecutive outpatients over a 5-yr period

were reviewed and invited for comprehensive re-examination. 47 patients

(mean age 23.1 yrs) were rediagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria for

BDD and comorbid lifetime psychiatric disorders using SCID-1. Results

show that the mean age of onset of BDD was 17.6 yrs. The face and nose

were the most common areas of concern, followed by hair loss/thinning,

legs/knees, hands, and thinness. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, major

depression, and social phobia were the most frequent additional lifetime

DSM-IV diagnoses. 11 patients had ideas of reference and 9 patients had

delusions of deformity or reference. Four patients had made suicide

attempts. It is concluded that BDD may be related to

obsessive-compulsive disorder in several aspects, including patterns of

comorbidity and symptom profile. These findings also support the idea

that BDD has a psychotic subtype that is closely related to the primary

disorder. BDD patients among the Turkish population have a symptom

profile similar to those in Western countries, except for lower suicide

attempts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image Disturbances;

*Comorbidity; *Mental Disorders

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Outpatient (60)

Location: Turkey

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20021106

Accession Number: 2002-04588-004

Number of Citations in Source: 29

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-04588-004

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-045

88-004">Ayaktan psikiyatrik hastalarda vücut dismorfik bozuklugu: Tani,

yasam boyu basska ruhsal hastalik varligi, demografik ve klinik

özellikler.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 8

Title: Cognitive approaches to obsessions and compulsions: Theory,

assessment, and treatment.

Author(s): Frost, Randy O., (Ed), Smith Coll, Dept of Psychology,

Northampton, MA, US

Steketee, Gail, (Ed), Boston U, School of Social Work, Boston, MA, US

Source: Amsterdam, Netherlands: Pergamon/Elsevier Science Inc, 2002.

xii, 516 pp.

ISBN: 0-08-043410-X (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: obsessive compulsive disorder; specific populations;

cognitive processes; spectrum disorders; cognitive therapy; OCD

spectrum; theory; assessment; treatment

Abstract: (from the cover) Assembles investigators responsible for

the development of cognitive therapy (and theory) for obsessive

compulsive disorder (OCD), as well as other researchers in the field to

write about cognitive phenomenology, assessment, treatment, and theory

related to OCD. The 1st section of the book describes the domains of

cognition in OCD, and the 2nd section outlines measurement strategies

where the efforts of an international working group of scholars to

develop measures of OCD cognition are described. Reviews of OCD

cognition in OCD spectrum disorders and in specific populations (e.g.,

elderly, children) are reviewed in subsequent sections. The role of

these cognitions and cognitive processes in treatment is described.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Cognitive Therapy; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder;

Cognitive Processes; Measurement; Theories; Treatment

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Release Date: 20020828

Accession Number: 2002-17459-000

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-174

59-000">Cognitive approaches to obsessions and compulsions: Theory,

assessment, and treatment.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 9

Title: Disorders of body image.

Author(s): Castle, David J., (Ed), Mental Health Research Inst,

Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Phillips, Katharine A., (Ed), Brown U School of Medicine, Providence,

RI, US

Source: Petersfield, England: Wrightson Biomedical Publishing, Ltd,

2002. xii, 164 pp.

ISBN: 1-87181-647-5 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: body image; disorders; body image disturbance;

dysmorphic; anorexia; bulimia nervosa; body dysmorphic disorder;

cultural influences; social & cultural perception; personality;

evolutionary context

Abstract: (from the cover) Each of us has a body image, positive

or negative according to our satisfaction with the way we look, the way

we think we look and the way we believe others view us, and influenced

by evolutionary pressures, by social or cultural perceptions of beauty,

and by our own personalities. Rates of body image dissatisfaction are

rising dramatically, with around half of us, men and women, expressing

dissatisfaction with our overall appearance. This book focuses on the

more problematic and pathological forms of body image disturbance,

ranging from dysmorphic concern, through anorexia and bulimia nervosa to

body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). These, too, are common debilitating, and

often secret conditions. The contributors provide a broad view of the

subject, bringing together issues pertaining to body image from the

disciplines of psychiatry, neurology, dermatology, cosmetic surgery,

psychology and anthropology. Early chapters assess the concept of body

image within neurological and evolutionary contexts and cultural

influences on our perceptions of beauty, disgust and self-loathing.

Chapters 4 to 10 focus on the clinical characteristics, causes and

strategic treatment of eating disorders, BDD and associated psychiatric

conditions in adults, adolescents and children. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Eating Disorders; Anorexia

Nervosa; Body Dysmorphic Disorder; Bulimia; Sociocultural Factors

Classification: Psychological & Physical Disorders (3200)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Release Date: 20020522

Accession Number: 2002-02970-000

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-029

70-000">Disorders of body image.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 10

Title: Innovations in clinical practice: A source book (Vol. 20).

Author(s): VandeCreek, Leon, (Ed), School of Professional

Psychology, Wright State U, Dayton, OH, US, leon.vandecreek@wright.edu

Jackson, Thomas L., (Ed), Aggression & Violence Prevention Consultants,

US, AvertViolence@aol.com

Address: VandeCreek, Leon, School of Professional Psychology,

3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy, Wright State U, Dayton, OH, US,

leon.vandecreek@wright.edu

Source: Sarasota, FL, US: Professional Resource Press/Professional

Resource Exchange, Inc, 2002. x, 501 pp.

ISBN: 1-56887-073-6 (looseleaf)

1-56887-074-4 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: clinical practice; professional development; community

interventions; assessment instruments; practice management; clinical

issues; mental health professionals

Abstract: (from the introduction) As in previous volumes,

Innovations in Clinical Practice: A Source Book (Volume 20) is organized

into five sections that reflect the diversity of contributions to the

series. The first section, "Clinical Issues and Applications", deals

primarily with therapeutic concerns. The second section addresses

"Practice Management and Professional Development" and is included

because of the increasing number of clinicians who work independently.

The third section includes "Assessment Instruments and Office Forms".

The instruments are primarily informal and designed to assist clinicians

in collecting information about clients. "Community Interventions" and

"Selected Topics" cover the fourth and fifth sections, respectively.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Clinicians; *Mental Health Personnel; *Professional

Development

Classification: Professional Psychological & Health Personnel Issues

(3400)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Release Date: 20031103

Accession Number: 2003-88018-000

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2003-880

18-000">Innovations in clinical practice: A source book (Vol. 20).</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 11

Title: Women's mental health: A comprehensive textbook.

Author(s): Kornstein, Susan G., (Ed), Virgnia Commonwealth U,

Medical Coll of Virginia, Div of Ambulatory Care Psychiatry, Richmond,

VA, US

Clayton, Anita H., (Ed), U Virginia Health System, Dept of Psychiatric

Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, US

Source: New York, NY, US: Guilford Press, 2002. xvii, 638 pp.

ISBN: 1-57230-699-8 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: assessment & treatment of psychiatric disorders;

psychiatric consultation; psychobiology; psychosocial issues; health

policy issues; women

Abstract: (from the jacket) Over the past 2 decades, scientists

have made tremendous headway in conceptualizing and addressing the

mental health needs of women. This volume presents a comprehensive

overview of the current state of the field. The editors have assembled

an interdisciplinary group of expert contributors to review mental

health issues and disorders that are unique to women, more prevalent in

women, or expressed differently in women and men. Incorporating

psychobiological, psychosocial, and health policy perspectives, the book

offers rich insights to guide clinical practice and research. It

contains much of value both for readers with a background in women's

mental health and for those just beginning to explore this dynamic

field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Mental Disorders; *Professional Consultation;

*Psychiatry; *Psychological Assessment; *Treatment; Government Policy

Making; Health; Human Females; Psychobiology; Psychosocial Factors

Classification: Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Book Type: Textbook/Study Guide

Release Date: 20020410

Accession Number: 2002-02462-000

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-024

62-000">Women's mental health: A comprehensive textbook.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 12

Title: Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in a community sample of

women.

Author(s): Otto, Michael W., Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts

General Hosp, Dept of Psychiatry, Boston, MA, US, motto@partners.org

Wilhelm, Sabine

Cohen, Lee S.

Harlow, Bernard L.

Address: Otto, Michael W., Massachusetts General Hosp,

Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Program, WACC-812, Boston, MA, US,

motto@partners.org

Source: American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 158(12), Dec 2001. pp.

2061-2063.

Journal URL: http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/

Publisher: US: American Psychiatric Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.appi.org

ISSN: 0002-953X (Print)

1535-7228 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1176/appi.ajp.158.12.2061

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; anxiety disorders; major

depression; point prevalence; women

Abstract: Examined the prevalence and correlates of body

dysmorphic disorder, a debilitating and chronic condition characterized

by an imagined defect in appearance. Rates and diagnostic correlates of

body dysmorphic disorder were examined using data from the Harvard Study

of Moods and Cycles. In-person structured clinical interviews were used

to characterize the diagnostic status of a population-based,

cross-sectional sample of 318 depressed and 658 nondepressed women, aged

36-44 yrs old, from 7 Boston metropolitan area communities. The presence

of body dysmorphic disorder was significantly associated with major

depression and anxiety disorders. The overall point prevalence of body

dysmorphic disorder was 0.7% in these women. Results show that the

presence of body dysmorphic disorder was linked to the presence of major

depression and anxiety disorders, which is similar to findings in

clinical studies. Their estimate of the point prevalence of body

dysmorphic disorder is consistent with data from a community-based

sample of Italian women and suggests a prevalence similar to that of

other serious psychiatric disorders in women (e.g., schizophrenia and

drug abuse and dependence). These prevalence data encourage the further

development of treatment options for this debilitating condition.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Anxiety Disorders; *Body Dysmorphic Disorder;

*Epidemiology; *Human Females; *Major Depression

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20011212

Accession Number: 2001-09450-018

Number of Citations in Source: 23

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-094

50-018">Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in a community sample of

women.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 13

Title: Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the ugliest of them all? The

psychopathology of mirror gazing in body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Veale, David, U London, U Coll, Royal Free and U Coll

School of Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, London,

United Kingdom, david@veale.co.uk

Riley, Susan

Address: Veale, David, The Priory Hospital North London,

Grovelands House, The Bourne, Southgate, London, United Kingdom, N14

6RA, david@veale.co.uk

Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol 39(12), Dec 2001. pp.

1381-1393.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/265/descrip

tion#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0005-7967 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0005-7967(00)00102-9

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; mirror gazing; appearance;

behaviors

Abstract: Patients with Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) may spend

many hours in front of a mirror but little is known about the

psychopathology or the factors that maintain the behavior. A self-report

mirror gazing questionnaire was used to elicit beliefs and behaviors in

front of a mirror. Two groups were compared, which consisted of 55

controls and 52 BDD patients. Prior to gazing, BDD patients are driven

by the hope that they will look different; the desire to know exactly

how they look; a belief that they will feel worse if they resist gazing

and the desire to camouflage themselves. They were more likely to focus

their attention on an internal impression or feeling and on specific

parts of their appearance. They were also more likely to practise

showing the best face to pull in public or to use "mental cosmetic

surgery" to change their body image than controls. BDD patients

invariably felt worse after mirror gazing and were more likely to use

ambiguous surfaces such as the backs of CDs or cutlery for a reflection.

Mirror gazing in BDD consists of a series of complex safety behaviors.

It does not follow a simple model of anxiety reduction that occurs in

the compulsive checking of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The

implications for treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior; *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Mirror Image;

*Self Perception

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20011212

Accession Number: 2001-09468-001

Number of Citations in Source: 25

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-09468-001

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-094

68-001">Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the ugliest of them all? The

psychopathology of mirror gazing in body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 14

Title: Somatoform disorders: A topic for education.

Author(s): Phillips, K. A., Brown U School of Medicine, Butler

Hosp, Providence, RI, US

Castle, D. J.

Source: British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 179(5), Nov 2001. pp.

465-466.

Journal URL: http://bjp.rcpsych.org/

Publisher: United Kingdom: Royal College of Psychiatrists

Publisher URL: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/

ISSN: 0007-1250 (Print)

1472-1465 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1192/bjp.179.5.465

Language: English

Keywords: somatoform disorders; prevalence; disability; economic

burden; health services costs; neglect by psychiatrists; research;

training; clinical need

Abstract: Comments on the article by C. Bass et al (see record

2001-07805-004) which concluded that somatoform disorders are ignored by

psychiatrists and health service planners because of the nature of

diagnostic practice. The authors argue that Bass et al neglected to

mention one of the more common somatoform disorders called body

dysmorphic disorder, and that psychiatrists and other physicians need to

screen patients for this disorder so that effective treatment can be

provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Epidemiology; *Health Care Costs; *Psychiatrists;

*Somatoform Disorders; Economics; Psychiatric Training

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Document Type: Comment/Reply

Release Date: 20011128

Accession Number: 2001-09091-027

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-090

91-027">Somatoform disorders: A topic for education.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 15

Title: Somatoform disorders: A topic for education: Commentary.

Author(s): Phillips, K. A., Brown U School of Medicine, Butler

Hosp, Providence, RI, US

Castle, D. J.

Source: British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 179, Nov 2001. pp. 465-466.

Journal URL: http://bjp.rcpsych.org/

Publisher: United Kingdom: Royal College of Psychiatrists

Publisher URL: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/

ISSN: 0007-1250 (Print)

1472-1465 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1192/bjp.179.5.465

Language: English

Keywords: somatoform disorders; prevalence; disability; economic

burden; health services costs; neglect by psychiatrists; research;

training; clinical need

Abstract: Notes that although C. Bass et al (see record

2001-07805-004) point out, in their review on somatoform disorders, that

these disorders are common and cause severe disability, they neglected

to mention body dismorphic disorder. The present authors discuss mental

health issues with regard to this disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record

(c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Epidemiology; *Health Care Costs; *Psychiatrists;

*Somatoform Disorders; Body Dysmorphic Disorder; Economics; Psychiatric

Training

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Document Type: Comment/Reply; Letter

Release Date: 20020102

Accession Number: 2001-09569-030

Number of Citations in Source: 5

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-095

69-030">Somatoform disorders: A topic for education: Commentary.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 16

Title: Surgical and nonpsychiatric medical treatment of patients with

body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Katharine_Phillips@brown.edu

Grant, Jon

Siniscalchi, Jason

Albertini, Ralph S.

Address: Phillips, Katharine A., Butler Hosp, 345 Blackstone

Blvd., Providence, RI, US, Katharine_Phillips@brown.edu

Source: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry, Vol

42(6), Nov-Dec 2001. pp. 504-510.

Journal URL: http://psy.psychiatryonline.org/

Publisher: US: American Psychiatric Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.appi.org

ISSN: 0033-3182 (Print)

1545-7206 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1176/appi.psy.42.6.504

Language: English

Keywords: surgery; nonpsychiatric medical treatment; body

dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Assessed the nonpsychiatric treatment sought and

received by 289 individuals (aged 6-80 yrs) with body dysmorphic

disorder (BDD). Such treatment was sought by 76.4% and received by 66.0%

of adults. Dermatologic treatment was most often received (by 45.2% of

adults), followed by surgery (by 23.2%). These treatments rarely

improved BDD symptoms. Results were similar in children/adolescents.

These findings indicate that a majority of patients with BDD receive

nonpsychiatric treatment but tend to respond poorly. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Physical Treatment Methods;

*Surgery

Classification: Specialized Interventions (3350)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

School Age (6-12 yrs) (180)

Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Aged (65 yrs & older) (380)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20020306

Accession Number: 2002-10849-008

Number of Citations in Source: 38

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-108

49-008">Surgical and nonpsychiatric medical treatment of patients with

body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 17

Title: Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the largest of them all? The

features and phenomenology of muscle dysmorphia.

Author(s): Olivardia, Roberto, McLean Hosp, Biological Psychiatry

Lab, Belmont, MA, US, roberto_olivardia@hms.harvard.edu

Address: Olivardia, Roberto, Biological Psychiatry Lab, McLean

Hospital, 115 Mill St., Belmont, MA, US

Source: Harvard Review of Psychiatry, Vol 9(5), Oct 2001. pp. 254-259.

Journal URL: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/10673229.asp

Publisher: United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis

Publisher URL: http://www.taylorandfrancis.com/

ISSN: 1067-3229 (Print)

1465-7309 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1080/10673220127900

Language: English

Keywords: muscle dysmorphia; preoccupations; etiology; symptoms;

psychodiagnosis; treatment; comorbidities; bodybuilding; weightlifting

Abstract: Just when men thought that looking in the mirror was

safe, more and more of them are discovering that they don't like what

they see. For many men today, muscles--literally--make the man. Men in

the new millennium are becoming obsessed with their body image in higher

numbers than ever before and in ways different from those seen in women.

In 1997, the term "muscle dysmorphia" was coined for a form of body

dysmorphic disorder (BDD) previously referred to as "reverse anorexia"

or "bigorexia". As with many new diagnoses, there is much room for

misunderstanding and misconception. For one, this is a disorder seen

primarily in men, which is almost antithetical to how sufferers of

body-image disorders are perceived. Muscle dysmorphia is also commonly

misperceived as an attempt to pathologize the sport or hobby of

weightlifting or bodybuilding. Although muscle dysmorphia affects a

large number of men, it is found in only a small percentage of

weightlifters. This article looks at this disorder as a form of

preoccupation with behavioral manifestations. Diagnosis, etiology,

treatment and comorbid disorders are discussed. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Etiology; *Obsessions;

*Psychiatric Symptoms; Comorbidity; Psychodiagnosis; Treatment;

Weightlifting

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20011010

Accession Number: 2001-11554-005

Number of Citations in Source: 31

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-11554-005

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-115

54-005">Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the largest of them all? The

features and phenomenology of muscle dysmorphia.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 18

Title: Muscle dysmorphia: A South African sample.

Author(s): Hitzeroth, Volker, U Stellenbosch, Dept of Psychiatry,

Cape Town, South Africa

Wessels, Charmaine, U Stellenbosch, Dept of Psychiatry, Cape Town, South

Africa

Zungu-Dirwayi, Nompumelelo, U Stellenbosch, Dept of Psychiatry, Cape

Town, South Africa

Oosthuizen, Piet, U Stellenbosch, Dept of Psychiatry, Cape Town, South

Africa

Stein, Dan J., U Stellenbosch, Dept of Psychiatry, Cape Town, South

Africa, djs2@gerga.sun.ac.za

Address: Stein, Dan J., U Stellenbosch, Dept of Psychiatry, PO

Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, Cape Town, South Africa,

djs2@gerga.sun.ac.za

Source: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Vol 55(5), Oct 2001. pp.

521-523.

Journal URL:

http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1323-1316&site=1

Publisher: United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

Publisher URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

ISSN: 1323-1316 (Print)

1440-1819 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1046/j.1440-1819.2001.00899.x

Language: English

Keywords: muscle dysmorphia; body dysmorphic disorder; body

building; South Africa

Abstract: It has recently been suggested that muscle dysmorphia, a

pathological preoccupation with muscularity, is a subtype of body

dysmorphic disorder (BDD). There are, however, few studies of the

phenomenology of this putative entity. 28 amateur competitive body

builders (aged 17-40 yrs) in the Western Cape, South Africa, were

studied using a structured diagnostic interview that incorporated

demographic data, body-building activities and clinical questions

focusing on muscle dysmorphia and BDD. There was a high rate of muscle

dysmorphia in the sample (53.6%). Those with muscle dysmorphia were

significantly more likely to have comorbid BDD based on preoccupations

other than muscularity (33%). Use of the proposed diagnostic criteria

for muscle dysmorphia indicated that this is a common and relevant

entity. Its conceptualization as a subtype of BDD seems valid. The

disorder deserves additional attention from both clinicians and

researchers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Exercise; *Muscles

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: South Africa

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20020911

Accession Number: 2002-15698-013

Number of Citations in Source: 11

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-156

98-013">Muscle dysmorphia: A South African sample.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 19

Title: An assessment of body dysmorphic disorder in participants

seeking cosmetic surgery.

Author(s): Busto, Teresa, Hofstra U., US

Source: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

and Engineering, Vol 62(3-B), Sep 2001. pp. 1567.

Publisher: US: Univ Microfilms International

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN: 0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number: AAI3011894

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; cosmetic surgery

Abstract: The present investigation was designed to raise

consciousness with cosmetic surgeons about Body Dysmorphic Disorder

(BDD), with the implication that people may be pursuing the services of

a surgical professional (cosmetic surgeon) when perhaps they would be

better served by a mental health professional (psychologist,

psychiatrist, etc). One set of six participants who meet the criteria

for BDD and are pursuing/considering cosmetic surgery and one set of 78

participants who do not meet the criteria for BDD but are also

pursuing/considering elective cosmetic surgery have been given a series

of self-report measures to complete. A third set of 21 participants who

have been previously diagnosed with BDD and are referred for treatment

at Bio-Behavioral Institute will also be given the same series of

self-report measures to complete. This study utilized t-tests,

chi-square tests and supplemental analyses to analyze the data. It is

hypothesized that a percentage of participants who pursue/consider

cosmetic surgery will meet criteria for BDD. Dependent measures which

were used in this study included the Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Examination, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression

Inventory-II and the Overvalued Ideas Scale. The Multidimensional

Body-Self Relations Questionnaire as well as the Yale-Brown Obsessive

Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder were optional scales.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Plastic Surgery

Classification: Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Tests & Measures: Beck Anxiety Inventory

Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Dissertation Abstract; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20020109

Accession Number: 2001-95018-432

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-950

18-432">An assessment of body dysmorphic disorder in participants

seeking cosmetic surgery.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 20

Title: Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for body dysmorphic disorder: A

chart-review study.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Butler Hosp, Providence, RI, US,

Katharine_Phillips@brown.edu

Albertini, Ralph S.

Siniscalchi, Jason M.

Khan, Ajaz

Robinson, Marshall

Address: Phillips, Katharine A., Butler Hospital, 345 Blackstone

Blvd., Providence, RI, US, Katharine_Phillips@brown.edu

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 62(9), Sep 2001. pp.

721-727.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; pharmacotherapy; serotonin

reuptake inhibitors; treatment effectiveness; adolescents & adults

Abstract: Research on the pharmacotherapy of body dysmorphic

disorder (BDD) is limited. In this chart-review study of 90 outpatients

(aged 12-65 yrs)with BDD treated for up to 8 yrs by the 1st 2 authors,

response to a variety of medications, including augmentation strategies,

was assessed. The relapse rate with medication discontinuation was also

determined. All Ss received a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI), with

63.2% (55/87) of adequate SRI trials resulting in improvement in BDD

symptoms; similar response rates were obtained for each type of SRI.

Discontinuation of an effective SRI resulted in relapse in 83.8% (31/37)

of cases. Response rates to selective SRI augmentation were

clomipramine, 44.4% (4/9) of trials; buspirone, 33.3% (12/36) of trials;

lithium, 20.0% (1/5); methylphenidate, 16.7% (1/6); and antipsychotics,

15.4% (2/13) of trials. These findings suggest that a majority of BDD

patients improve with an SRI and that all SRIs appear effective. Certain

SRI augmentation strategies may be beneficial. The high relapse rate

with SRI discontinuation suggests that long-term treatment is often

necessary. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Drug Therapy; *Serotonin

Reuptake Inhibitors; *Treatment Effectiveness Evaluation

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Outpatient (60)

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

School Age (6-12 yrs) (180)

Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Aged (65 yrs & older) (380)

Methodology: Empirical Study; Treatment Outcome/Clinical Trial

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20011205

Accession Number: 2001-09201-010

Number of Citations in Source: 37

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-092

01-010">Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for body dysmorphic disorder: A

chart-review study.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 21

Title: The etiology of body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Rivera, Ricardo Pérez, U Buenos Aires, School of

Medicine, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Borda, Tania

Address: Rivera, Ricardo Pérez, Av. Del Libertador, 930

4to.-2do.cuerpo, C1001ABW Capital Federal, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Source: Psychiatric Annals, Vol 31(9), Sep 2001. pp. 559-563.

Publisher: US: SLACK

Publisher URL: http://www.slackinc.com/

ISSN: 0048-5713 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; history; phenomenology;

psychosocial aspects; neurobiology; genetics; pathophysiology;

prefrontal cortex; basal ganglia

Abstract: This article discusses the historical, phenomenologic,

psychological, and sociocultural aspects of body dysmorphic disorder

(BDD). Also, these aspects of the disorder are linked to its

neurobiological bases, which include include genetics, pathophysiology,

and brain structure. From a genetic standpoint the heritability of BDD

and related disorders is highlighted. With regard the pathophysiology of

BDD, evidence of patients' responses to medications that change the

availability of serotonin in the body, suggests that disturbed brain

chemistry plays an important role in BDD. From a structural perspective,

certain brain structures are implicated in BDD, including prefrontal

cortex and basal ganglia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all

rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Neuropathology; Basal

Ganglia; Genetics; History; Phenomenology; Prefrontal Cortex;

Psychosocial Factors

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20011031

Accession Number: 2001-18750-004

Number of Citations in Source: 34

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-187

50-004">The etiology of body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 22

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder: A review of conceptualizations,

assessment, and treatment strategies.

Author(s): Cororve, Michelle B., Texas A & M U, College Station,

TX, US

Gleaves, David H., dhg@tamu.edu

Source: Clinical Psychology Review, Vol 21(6), Aug 2001. pp. 949-970.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/652/descrip

tion#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0272-7358 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0272-7358(00)00075-1

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; treatment; assessment

Abstract: This paper reviews the current literature regarding

conceptualizations of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), the development of

assessment tools, and treatment outcome. Although BDD has been viewed as

a variant of an eating disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, or a

somatoform disorder, it appears best conceptualized as a body image

disorder with social, psychological, and possibly biological influences.

Assessment instruments with acceptable psychometric properties have been

developed to specifically assess BDD (e.g., the Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Examination and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for

Body Dysmorphic Disorder). Examination and the initial results from

uncontrolled and controlled treatment research suggest that cognitive

behavioral treatments for BDD may be as effective as those for possibly

related disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder and bulimia

nervosa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Psychodiagnosis; *Treatment

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Tests & Measures: Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20010808

Accession Number: 2001-01993-006

Number of Citations in Source: 59

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-019

93-006">Body dysmorphic disorder: A review of conceptualizations,

assessment, and treatment strategies.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 23

Title: Cognitive and behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: A

comparative investigation.

Author(s): Khemlani-Patel, Sony, Hofstra U., US

Source: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

and Engineering, Vol 62(2-B), Aug 2001. pp. 1087.

Publisher: US: Univ Microfilms International

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN: 0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number: AAI3006666

Language: English

Keywords: cognitive behavior therapy; exposure and response

prevention; body dysmorphic disorder; treatment duration

Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the

systematic application of a combination of cognitive therapy and

exposure and response prevention and compare it to a regime of exposure

and response prevention alone. A total of 17 participants were recruited

and 10 completed the protocol. Participants were randomly assigned to

two treatment conditions. Group 1 received four weeks of Beckian

cognitive treatment (3x a week for 90-minute sessions), followed by four

weeks of in-vivo exposure and response prevention (3x a week for

90-minute sessions); Group 2 eight weeks of in-vivo exposure and

response prevention (3x a week for 90-minute sessions). A two week

baseline phase and a follow-up session 6 weeks post-treatment were

included for both groups. This study is a mixed factor design with two

independent variables, "treatment" and "time." Various self-report and

interview based measures were administered on a regular basis to assess

treatment outcome. Repeated measures multiple analysis of variance

(MANOVA) and reliable change index scores to evaluate clinical

significance were employed. Results indicate that all patients

significantly improved as a function of time. A combination of cognitive

and behavioral therapy was not significantly better than behavioral

therapy only. When cognitive and behavioral therapy were compared, no

significant differences appeared. Four weeks of intensive cognitive or

behavioral therapy resulted in significant improvement on measures of

overall BDD symptoms, anxiety, depression, but not on satisfaction with

various body parts, maladaptive appearance concerns and social

avoidance/distress. Eight weeks of a combined versus a single intensive

treatment approach resulted in significant improvement on all measures

except satisfaction with various body parts. Improvement on symptom

measures and overvalued ideation were clinically significant. Obsessive

compulsive disorder and mood disorders were the most prominent co-morbid

conditions. Participants did not generalize gains to symptoms left

untreated. Future research evaluating variables which influence

treatment outcome, such as readiness for change and co-morbid

personality and delusional disorders would be beneficial. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Cognitive Therapy; *Exposure

Therapy; *Treatment Duration

Classification: Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Dissertation Abstract; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20020109

Accession Number: 2001-95016-420

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-950

16-420">Cognitive and behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: A

comparative investigation.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 24

Title: Prevalence and clinical features of body dysmorphic disorder in

adolescent and adult psychiatric inpatients.

Author(s): Grant, Jon E., U Minnesota School of Medicine, Dept of

Psychiatry, Minneapolis, MN, US, grant045@umn.edu

Kim, Suck Won

Crow, Scott J.

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 62(7), Jul 2001. pp.

517-522.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; prevalence; underdiagnosis;

psychiatric inpatients; adolescents; adults

Abstract: The rate of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in inpatient

psychiatric settings and the nature of the presenting complaints are

unknown. Because of the shame and humiliation that BDD Ss suffer, the

authors hypothesized that, unless specifically screened for at the time

of admission, BDD would be underdiagnosed in psychiatric inpatients. 101

consecutive adult patients and 21 consecutive adolescent patients

presenting for psychiatric inpatient admission participated in the

study. Ss completed the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, a brief

self-report measure that screens for BDD, and a follow-up interview was

conducted using a reliable clinician-administered semistructured

diagnostic instrument for BDD. Data concerning current diagnoses, number

of hospitalizations, number of suicide attempts, and current level of

functioning were also obtained. 16 of the 122 Ss were diagnosed with

BDD. None of the Ss with BDD had been diagnosed with BDD by their

treating physician during hospitalization. All 16 Ss reported that they

would not raise the issue with their physician unless specifically asked

due to feelings of shame. These preliminary results suggest that BDD, an

underrecognized and often severe psychiatric disorder, may be relatively

common in the psychiatric inpatient setting. (PsycINFO Database Record

(c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Diagnosis; *Epidemiology;

*Hospitalized Patients; *Psychiatric Patients

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Inpatient (50)

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20010829

Accession Number: 2001-01982-004

Number of Citations in Source: 20

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-019

82-004">Prevalence and clinical features of body dysmorphic disorder in

adolescent and adult psychiatric inpatients.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 25

Title: Olfactory reference syndrome: Diagnostic criteria and

differential diagnosis.

Author(s): Lochner, Christine, U Stellenbosch, Dept of Psychiatry,

MRC Unit on Stress & Anxiety Disorders, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Vythilingum, Bavanisha

Stein, Dan J.

Source: Primary Care Psychiatry, Vol 7(2), Jul 2001. pp. 55-59.

Journal URL: http://www.librapharm.com/

Publisher: United Kingdom: LibraPharm

Publisher URL: http://www.librapharm.com/

ISSN: 1355-2570 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1185/135525701750384464

Language: English

Keywords: olfactory reference syndrome; diagnostic criteria;

differential diagnosis

Abstract: Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) has been defined as a

psychiatric condition that is characterized by persistent preoccupations

about body odor accompanied by persistent shame and embarrassment.

Patients' degree of insight varies and, although the symptoms may not be

recognized as unreasonable or excessive, there is often significant

accompanying shame and distress as well as avoidance behavior and social

isolation. ORS has not (yet) been included in the DSM and, given that

its primary symptoms may be found in various other disorders,

differential diagnosis can be problematic. Using an illustrative case of

ORS, this article reviews those disorders that can arguably be

differentiated from ORS (including body dysmorphic disorder,

hypochondriasis, social anxiety disorder, avoidant personality disorder,

obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depression with social withdrawal

and delusional disorder [somatic type]). (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Differential Diagnosis; *Olfactory Perception;

*Psychodiagnosis; *Syndromes

Classification: Vision & Hearing & Sensory Disorders (3299)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20010912

Accession Number: 2001-11218-003

Number of Citations in Source: 27

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-112

18-003">Olfactory reference syndrome: Diagnostic criteria and

differential diagnosis.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 26

Title: PANDAS variant and body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Mathew, Sanjay J.

Source: American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 158(6), Jun 2001. pp. 963.

Journal URL: http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/

Publisher: US: American Psychiatric Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.appi.org

ISSN: 0002-953X (Print)

1535-7228 (Electronic)

Document Link URL:

http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/158/6/963

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1176/appi.ajp.158.987.963

Language: English

Keywords: major depression; body dysmorphic disorder;

streptococcal infection; pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric

disorders; paroxetine treatment; penicillin treatment; obsessive

compulsive symptoms

Abstract: Presents the case of a 19-yr-old male with recurrent

major depression and body dysmorphic disorder who experienced an

exacerbation of symptoms after a streptococcal infection, a variant of

pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with

streptococcal infections (PANDAS). The S also reported repeated checking

behavior and a previous psychiatric hospitalization for similar

psychiatric problems corresponding to a sore throat. During the previous

hospitalization, the S's symptoms had improved after penicillin

treatment and paroxetine therapy. During the present hospitalization,

the S tested negative for streptococcal infection and was successfully

treated with paroxetine. The authors argue that the S met some criteria

for PANDAS and that his first admission might have been triggered by

streptococcal infection. At the second hospitalization, there was

serological evidence for remote, but not acute, infection. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Drug Therapy; *Infectious

Disorders; *Paroxetine; *Penicillins; Immunology; Major Depression;

Neuropsychiatry; Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Classification: Psychological & Physical Disorders (3200)

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Inpatient (50)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Document Type: Letter

Release Date: 20010822

Accession Number: 2001-11196-022

Number of Citations in Source: 1

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-111

96-022">PANDAS variant and body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 27

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents: A diathesis-stress

model of etiology.

Author(s): Fernandez-Tyson, Terri Lyn, Arizona State U., US

Source: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and

Social Sciences, Vol 61(10-A), May 2001. pp. 3906.

Publisher: US: Univ Microfilms International

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN: 0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number: AAI9990735

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; adolescents; diathesis stress

etiological model

Abstract: With psychiatric citations describing symptomatology

dating back at least one hundred years, Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)

is certainly not new. Despite the long history, this disorder was only

recently added to the psychiatric literature. Researchers also have long

neglected this disorder and while recent studies have begun to address

symptomatology and treatment of BDD, few have attempted to quantify both

the nature and development of this disorder. This study not only

reviewed the literature on the nature and the development of BDD, but

sought to investigate the diathesis stress etiological model. To do

this, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, Body Dysmorphic

Disorder Examination - Self Report, Multidimensional Body Self Relations

Questionnaire, Appearance Schema Inventory, Millon Adolescent Clinical

Inventory, Life Experiences Survey, Physical Experiences Survey,

Pubertal Development Scale, and a Family History Questionnaire were

administered to 40 male and female adolescents and their parents. The

results provided limited support for the diathesis stress model.

Evidence existed to support the presence of the three components of this

model: response sterotypy, inadequate homeostatic restraint, and

exposure to activating situations. The results have clear implications

for future research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005

APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Diathesis Stress Model;

*Etiology

Classification: Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Tests & Measures: Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Dissertation Abstract; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20011010

Accession Number: 2001-95007-006

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-950

07-006">Body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents: A diathesis-stress

model of etiology.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 28

Title: Successful treatment of nondelusional body dysmorphic disorder

with olanzapine: A case report.

Author(s): Grant, Jon E., U Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis,

MN, US

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 62(4), Apr 2001. pp.

297-298.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: delusional body dysmorphic disorder; olanzapine; drug

treatment

Abstract: Reports the case of a female 46 yr old with delusional

body dysmorphic disorder treated with olanzapine. The S was diagnosed

with alcohol dependence and bipolar II disorder. The delusional body

dysmorphic disorder symptoms responded to olanzapine monotherapy for 3

wks, and these symptoms were still in remission at 8-wk followup.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Drug Therapy; *Neuroleptic

Drugs; *Olanzapine

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Document Type: Letter

Release Date: 20010606

Accession Number: 2001-06641-015

Number of Citations in Source: 13

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-066

41-015">Successful treatment of nondelusional body dysmorphic disorder

with olanzapine: A case report.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 29

Title: Gender-related differences in the onset of panic disorder.

Author(s): Barzega, Giulio, U Turin, Psychiatry Unit, Dept of

Neurosciences, Turin, Italy

Maina, Giuseppe, U Turin, Psychiatry Unit, Dept of Neurosciences, Turin,

Italy

Venturello, Sara, U Turin, Psychiatry Unit, Dept of Neurosciences,

Turin, Italy

Bogetto, Filippo, U Turin, Psychiatry Unit, Dept of Neurosciences,

Turin, Italy

Address: Barzega, Giulio, U Turin, Dept of Neurosciences,

Psychiatry Unit, Via Cherasco 11-10126, Torino, Italy

Source: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol 103(3), Mar 2001. pp.

189-195.

Journal URL: http://www.blackwellmunksgaard.com/actapsych

Publisher: United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

Publisher URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

ISSN: 0001-690X (Print)

1600-0447 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1034/j.1600-0447.2001.00194.x

Language: English

Keywords: gender-related differences; premorbid conditions; role

of triggering events; onset of panic disorder; family history of

psychiatric disorders; life events; outpatients

Abstract: Investigated gender-related differences in premorbid

conditions and in the role of triggering events in the onset of panic

disorder (PD). 184 outpatients with a principal diagnosis of PD (DSM-IV)

were evaluated with a semi-structured interview to generate Axis I and

Axis II diagnoses according to DSM-IV, to collect family history of

psychiatric disorders and life events. The statistical analysis was

performed comparing men and women. Men and women showed similar age at

onset of PD. A family history of mood disorders characterized females.

Men had higher rates of cyclothymia, body dysmorphic disorder and

depersonalization disorder preceding PD, while women had higher rates of

bulimia nervosa. Dependent and histrionic PDs were more common among

women, while borderline and schizoid PDs were more common among men.

Life events showed a significant role in precipitating PD onset in

women. Premorbid clinical conditions of PD seem to differentiate between

males and females in the role of precipitating events. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Human Sex Differences; *Onset (Disorders); *Panic

Disorder; *Patient History; *Premorbidity; Experiences (Events)

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Outpatient (60)

Location: Italy

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20030108

Accession Number: 2002-15528-005

Number of Citations in Source: 41

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-155

28-005">Gender-related differences in the onset of panic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 30

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Brown U, School of Medicine &

Butler Hosp, Providence, RI, US, Katharine_Phillips@brown.edu

Crino, Rocco D.

Address: Phillips, Katharine A., MD Butler Hospital, 345

Blackstone Blvd., Providence, RI, US, Katharine_Phillips@brown.edu

Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry, Vol 14(2), Mar 2001. pp. 113-118.

Journal URL: http://www.co-psychiatry.com/

Publisher: US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Publisher URL: http://www.lww.com/

ISSN: 0951-7367 (Print)

1473-6578 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1097/00001504-200103000-00003

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; physical appearance; poor

quality of life; treatment response; serotonin reuptake inhibitors;

cognitive behavioral therapy

Abstract: Body dysmorphic disorder, a distressing and impairing

preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance, is an

intriguing and under-recognized disorder that has only recently been

systematically studied. Recent research findings indicate that body

dysmorphic disorder is relatively common, causes notable distress and

impairment in functioning, and is associated with markedly poor quality

of life. Available data on treatment response, while still limited,

suggest that serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and cognitive-behavioral

therapy are often effective for body dysmorphic disorder. Further

research is needed on all aspects of this understudied and severe mental

disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Quality of Life; *Self

Concept; *Treatment Outcomes; Cognitive Therapy; Serotonin Reuptake

Inhibitors

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer-Reviewed Status-Unknown; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20011128

Correction Date: 20050912

Accession Number: 2001-05493-002

Number of Citations in Source: 56

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-054

93-002">Body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 31

Title: The media's representation of the ideal male body: A cause for

muscle dysmorphia?

Author(s): Leit, Richard Alan, The American U., US

Source: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

and Engineering, Vol 61(8-B), Mar 2001. pp. 4413.

Publisher: US: Univ Microfilms International

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN: 0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number: AAI9983666

Language: English

Keywords: mass media; muscular body ideal; muscle dysmorphia; male

models; advertisements; body satisfaction; body consciousness; dysphoric

mood

Abstract: This research examined the media's representation of the

ideal male body in two studies. The first study looked at Playgirl

centerfolds to determine if the models had become more muscular over the

magazine's 25-year history. It was found that the centerfolds had become

more muscular over the years, suggesting an increasingly muscular

cultural male body ideal. The second study examined the effects of

exposing college men to advertisements that exploit this muscular body

ideal. A control group viewed neutral advertisements while the

experimental group viewed muscular men featured in advertisements. It

was hypothesized that the experimental group would show generally lower

body satisfaction, higher body consciousness, and a more dysphoric mood

than the control group. In this study, the experimental group showed a

greater discrepancy between their current and ideal body shape but this

group did not demonstrate the other hypothesized associations. However,

sexual orientation was found to be an important moderator variable of

differences in body satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005

APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image; *Human Males;

*Mass Media; *Physique; Advertising; Major Depression

Classification: Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Dissertation Abstract; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20010718

Accession Number: 2001-95004-226

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-950

04-226">The media's representation of the ideal male body: A cause for

muscle dysmorphia?</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 32

Title: Dsymorphophobia and taphephobia: Two hitherto undescribed forms

of insanity with fixed ideas.

Author(s): Morselli, Enrico, ljerome@home.com

Jerome, Laurence, (Trans)

Source: History of Psychiatry, Vol 12(45,Pt1), Mar 2001. pp. 103-114.

Publisher: US: Sage Publications

Publisher URL: http://www.sagepublications.com/

ISSN: 0957-154X (Print)

1740-2360 (Electronic)

Language: English

Keywords: dysmorphophobia; pathogenesis; mental illness; body

dysmorphic disorder; self attitudes

Abstract: This article provides the first readily available

English translation of Enrico Morselli's classic article in which he

coins the term "dysmorphophobia." Biographical details of Morselli's

professional career and his clinical work provide further insight into

Morselli's conceptual models. Reference is made to V. Magnan and the

'Degeneration Theory of Mental Illnesss' and as a counterpoint to the

evolution of Morselli's thinking regarding pathogenesis of mental

illness. Morselli's views of the symptom of dysmorphophobia are compared

to the current nosological view of the Body Dysmorphic Disorder and are

shown to still be very much in keeping with current views of this

symptom of pathological attitudes towards the self. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Mental Disorders; *Self

Concept

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20010718

Accession Number: 2001-07665-005

Number of Citations in Source: 9

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-076

65-005">Dsymorphophobia and taphephobia: Two hitherto undescribed forms

of insanity with fixed ideas.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 33

Title: Fatal body dysmorphic disorder by proxy.

Author(s): Atiullah, Naureen, Brown U School of Medicine,

Providence, RI, US

Phillips, Katharine A.

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 62(3), Mar 2001. pp.

204-205.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder by proxy resulting in suicide,

63-yr-old male with repetitive intrusive thoughts

Abstract: Discusses the case of a 63-yr-old male with body

dysmorphic disorder (BDD) by proxy. The S presented with a chief

complaint of repetitive intrusive thoughts that he had caused his

daughter's hair to thin. He was hospitalized, and then treated in a

partial hospital setting, with drugs that included paroxetine,

sertraline, clonazepam, and lorazepam. After 5 wks the S was discharged,

stating that he was feeling improved. Several weeks later he committed

suicide. This case of BDD by proxy is notable for the patient's feelings

of shame, severe distress, and impaired functioning, which are common

characteristics of BDD, as well as its fatal outcome. Although BDD

appears to be relatively common, only a few cases of BDD by proxy have

been reported. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Suicide; *Thought

Disturbances; Body Image Disturbances; Physical Appearance

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Document Type: Letter

Release Date: 20010418

Accession Number: 2001-00750-012

Number of Citations in Source: 13

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-007

50-012">Fatal body dysmorphic disorder by proxy.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 34

Title: A clinical validation of the Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire.

Author(s): Jorgensen, Lisa, Curtin U, Perth, Australia

Castle, David

Roberts, Clare

Groth-Marnat, Gary

Source: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 35(1), Feb

2001. pp. 124-128.

Journal URL:

http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0004-8674&site=1

Publisher: United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

Publisher URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

ISSN: 0004-8674 (Print)

1440-1614 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1046/j.1440-1614.2001.00860.x

Language: English

Keywords: validity & reliability of Dysmorphic Concern

Questionnaire, relationship to depressed mood & social phobia &

obsessive-compulsive symptomatology, 18-58 yr old psychiatric inpatients

Abstract: Addressed the concept of dysmorphic concern as a symptom

that may exist in a number of disorders. The aims of the study were to:

(1) validate a recently developed questionnaire that measures dysmorphic

concern, the Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ); and (2) evaluate

the relationship of dysmorphic concern to depressed mood, social phobia,

and obsessive-compulsive symptomatology. 65 psychiatric inpatients

(18-58 yrs old) were diagnosed using the computerized version of the

Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-A). They then

completed the DCQ, and questionnaires measuring body dysmorphic disorder

(the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination, BDDE), depression, social

phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The DCQ was found to be

a reliable and valid instrument that is sensitive to dysmorphic concern.

Furthermore, although dysmorphic concern was associated with body

dysmorphic disorder (BDD), depression, social phobia and OCD, only the

score from the BDDE predicted DCQ score. Finally, BDD symptomatology was

best defined by the presence of negative body beliefs as measured by the

DCQ. The DCQ is a quick and efficient means of identifying dysmorphic

concern in those who present with depression, OCD, social phobia or BDD.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Depression (Emotion);

*Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; *Social Phobia; *Test Validity; Body

Image Disturbances; Comorbidity; Psychiatric Patients; Questionnaires;

Symptoms; Test Reliability

Classification: Clinical Psychological Testing (2224)

Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Inpatient (50)

Location: Australia

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20010328

Accession Number: 2001-14699-019

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-146

99-019">A clinical validation of the Dysmorphic Concern

Questionnaire.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 35

Title: Delusionality and response to open-label fluvoxamine in body

dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Butler Hosp, Providence, RI, US

McElroy, Susan L.

Dwight, Megan M.

Eisen, Jane L.

Rasmussen, Steven A.

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 62(2), Feb 2001. pp. 87-91.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine, delusional &

nondelusional 20-53 yr olds with body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Available data suggest that the delusional variant of

body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a type of delusional disorder, may

respond to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and that delusionality

(lack of insight) in BDD may improve with SRI treatment. However, this

research has been hampered by the lack of a reliable and valid scale to

assess delusionality. 30 Ss (21 women, 9 men; aged 20-53 yrs) with BDD

were prospectively treated with open-label fluvoxamine for 16 wks. Ss

were assessed at regular intervals with the Brown Assessment of Beliefs

Scale (BABS), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD

(BDD-YBOCS; a measure of BDD severity), and other instruments. The BABS

is a reliable and valid 7-item, semistructured, clinician-administered

scale that assesses current delusionality. 63% of BDD Ss responded to

fluvoxamine. Delusional and nondelusional Ss had similar improvement in

BDD symptoms. In addition, insight significantly improved in both

delusional and nondelusional Ss. Baseline BABS scores did not contribute

significantly to endpoint BDD-YBOCS scores in a regression analysis.

Degree of delusionality did not predict fluvoxamine response, and

delusionality significantly improved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005

APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Delusions; *Drug Therapy;

*Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors; Fluvoxamine

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Outpatient (60)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Tests & Measures: Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

Conference: Annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association,

151st, May, 1998, Toronto, ON, Canada

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20010321

Accession Number: 2001-14679-003

Number of Citations in Source: 27

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-146

79-003">Delusionality and response to open-label fluvoxamine in body

dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 36

Title: Predictive validity of the Overvalued Ideals Scale: Outcome in

obsessive-compulsive and body dysmorphic disorders.

Author(s): Neziroglu, Fugen, Inst for Bio-Behavioral Research,

Great Neck, neziroglu@aol.com

Stevens, Kevin P.

McKay, Dean

Yaryura-Tobias, Jose A.

Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol 39(6), 2001. pp. 745-756.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/265/descrip

tion#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0005-7967 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0005-7967(00)00053-X

Language: English

Keywords: Overvalued Ideas Scale; body dysmorphic disorder;

obsessive compulsive disorder; predictive validity; treatment outcome;

response to behavioral therapy

Abstract: Two studies were conducted to examine the extent to

which the Overvalued Ideas Scale (OVIS) predicts treatment response.

Study 1 examined the response to behavioral therapy in 20 17-53 yr olds

with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Residual gain scores showed a

significant correlation between treatment outcome for compulsions and

pretreatment OVIS scores. Pretreatment OVIS scores were not

significantly correlated with residual gains in obsessions. The

predictive utility of the OVIS was superior to a single item assessment

of overvalued ideas available on the Yale Brown Obsessive Scale in

predicting outcome for compulsions. Study 2 examined the response to

behavioral therapy in 30 18-47 yr with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a

condition ostensibly linked to OCD and presumed to present with higher

levels of overvalued ideas. Residual gains scores showed a significant

relationship between obsessions and OVIS, but not for compulsions. As in

Study 1, the predictive utility of the OVIS was superior to the single

item assessment. Taken together, the results show that the OVIS is

predictive of treatment outcome, and the predictive value depends on

which symptoms are used to assess outcome, and is more effective in

predicting outcome than a widely-used single item assessment. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Obsessive Compulsive

Disorder; *Rating Scales; *Statistical Validity; *Treatment Outcomes;

Behavior Therapy

Classification: Clinical Psychological Testing (2224)

Behavior Therapy & Behavior Modification (3312)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20010620

Accession Number: 2001-07147-009

Number of Citations in Source: 47

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-071

47-009">Predictive validity of the Overvalued Ideals Scale: Outcome in

obsessive-compulsive and body dysmorphic disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 37

Title: Introduction: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity--an

emerging synthesis.

Author(s): Thompson, J. Kevin, Department of Psychology, University

of South Florida, Tampa, FL, US, jthomps1@luna.cas.usf.edu

Address: Thompson, J. Kevin, jthomps1@luna.cas.usf.edu

Source: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment. Thompson, J. Kevin (Ed)

; pp. 1-20.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2001. vii, 505

pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

ISBN: 1-55798-324-0 (paperback)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10502-001

Language: English

Keywords: body image; eating disorders; obesity; etiology; onset;

comorbidity; theories; assessment; treatment; gender; ethnicity; body

image disturbances

Abstract: (from the chapter) A wealth of recent research from

diverse regions of psychology indicates the critical role of body image

issues in the onset and maintenance of eating disorders and obesity.

Leading researchers now believe that assessing and treating body image

issues should be integral aspects of assessment and clinical management

of eating disorders and obesity. This book aims to synthesize theory,

data, and practice with regard to body image as it relates to specific

body image disturbances (BIDs) and also as it relates to the assessment

and treatment of eating disorders (EDs) and obesity. This is done both

in chapters specifically devoted to body image and in chapters that

describe assessment procedures for EDs and obesity and interventions for

these disorders, such as those on cognitive-behavioral treatments. This

introductory chapter is designed primarily to offer a broad overview of

the history and recent developments that have led to the integration of

body image into assessment and treatment programs for eating and

weight-related problems. A secondary goal is to examine briefly the

particular role of gender and ethnicity in body image and eating-related

disorders. I will conclude the chapter with a discussion of the general

scope and organization of this book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005

APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image; *Eating Disorders; *Obesity; *Theories;

Body Dysmorphic Disorder; Comorbidity; Etiology; Human Sex Differences;

Onset (Disorders); Psychological Assessment; Racial and Ethnic

Differences; Treatment

Classification: Psychological & Physical Disorders (3200)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20040531

Accession Number: 2004-14112-001

Number of Citations in Source: 85

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2004-141

12-001">Introduction: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity--an

emerging synthesis.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 38

Title: Theories of body image disturbance: Perceptual, developmental,

and sociocultural factors.

Author(s): Heinberg, Leslie J., Department of Psychiatry and

Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine,

Baltimore, MD, US

Source: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment. Thompson, J. Kevin (Ed)

; pp. 27-47.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2001. vii, 505

pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

ISBN: 1-55798-324-0 (paperback)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10502-002

Language: English

Keywords: body image disturbance; theories; etiology; perception;

development; sociocultural factors; child sexual abuse victimization

Abstract: (from the chapter) Theories of body image disturbance

(BID) can be divided for discussion into three major categories:

perceptual, developmental, and sociocultural. The last two focus on a

more subjective aspect of body image than does the first theory. The

distinction between developmental and sociocultural factors, although

useful in organizing a discussion, is to some degree artificial because

the factors can interact to influence and maintain BID in a particular

individual. Researchers in the field of BID generally delineate between

perceptual and subjective aspects of body image. In the first section, I

will review research supporting the perceptual theories of BID. These

include cortical deficits, adaptive failure, and perceptual artifact

theories. Then, under subjective aspects of individual etiology, I will

address aspects of developmental theory (i.e., the effects of early

maturation and of teasing). I also will describe in brief the influence

of sexual abuse on the development of BID. The next section will focus

on sociocultural theory. This analysis will review socioculturally

endorsed ideals, feminist theories, the influence of gender roles and

the mass media, and laboratory studies. Finally, other socioculturally

based theories will be discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005

APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Etiology; *Theories;

Attitudes; Child Abuse; Physical Development; Sexual Abuse;

Sociocultural Factors; Victimization

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20040531

Accession Number: 2004-14112-002

Number of Citations in Source: 88

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2004-141

12-002">Theories of body image disturbance: Perceptual, developmental,

and sociocultural factors.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 39

Title: Assessing body image disturbance: Measures, methodology, and

implementation.

Author(s): Thompson, J. Kevin, Department of Psychology, University

of South Florida, Tampa, FL, US, jthomps1@luna.cas.usf.edu

Address: Thompson, J. Kevin, jthomps1@luna.cas.usf.edu

Source: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment. Thompson, J. Kevin (Ed)

; pp. 49-81.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2001. vii, 505

pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

ISBN: 1-55798-324-0 (paperback)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10502-003

Language: English

Keywords: body image disturbance; psychological assessment; body

image measures; methodology; eating disorders; obesity; body dysmorphic

disorder; comorbidity

Abstract: (from the chapter) The development of theoretical

conceptualizations and treatment strategies for body image disturbance

(BID) has been paralleled by the construction of a wealth of

methodologies designed to assess some aspect of the complex construct of

body image (Altabe & Thompson, 1995). In this chapter I will provide a

broad overview of these measurement indices and their use, in particular

for individuals with eating disorders (EDs), obesity, body dysmorphic

disorder, and clinically significant levels of BID. A number of other

comprehensive reviews have offered a detailed analysis of measurement

procedures and methodological issues pertaining to assessment (e.g.,

Cash & Brown, 1987); these articles provide useful ancillary reading to

some of the areas covered in this chapter. At the outset, I will address

the definitions of different aspects of the overall construct of body

image. I will also review the most widely used and psychometrically

sound assessment measures, and I will mention briefly new, potentially

fruitful, procedures. In the second section, I will examine

methodological issues regarding the appropriate use of the measures I

reviewed in the first section. Finally, I will offer specific

recommendations for creating a clinical assessment battery. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image; *Methodology;

*Psychological Assessment; *Psychometrics; Comorbidity; Eating

Disorders; Obesity

Classification: Clinical Psychological Testing (2224)

Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20040531

Accession Number: 2004-14112-003

Number of Citations in Source: 109

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Cut and Paste: <A

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12-003">Assessing body image disturbance: Measures, methodology, and

implementation.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 40

Title: The treatment of body image disturbances.

Author(s): Cash, Thomas F., Old Dominion U, Dept of Psychology,

Norfolk, VA, US

Source: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment. Thompson, J. Kevin (Ed)

; pp. 83-107.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2001. vii, 505

pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

ISBN: 1-55798-324-0 (paperback)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10502-004

Language: English

Keywords: body image disturbances; treatment; cognitive behavioral

body image therapy

Abstract: (from the chapter) Our society's unrelenting emphasis on

physical appearance drives many people's pursuits of physical

perfection. They are consumers of the newest fashions in clothing, the

latest promises of lasting weight loss, the exercise products and

programs for attaining the "right shape," and ultimately the sculpting

services of cosmetic surgeons. One would think that with all these tools

for transforming appearance, people would like their looks. But this

could not be further from the truth. Body image disturbances range from

relatively benign discontent with some physical feature to an obsessive,

perhaps delusional, conviction that one's appearance is grotesque. A

negative body image is a prevalent problem today, and its possible

psychological solutions are just beginning to emerge. The principal

purpose of this chapter is to foster a practical understanding of body

image, its dysfunctions, and its treatment. I will first establish

conceptual and empirical foundations for clinicians working with a range

of clients with body image problems. Then I will delineate my program of

cognitive-behavioral body image therapy (Cash, 1991, 1995; Cash & Grant,

1995). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image; *Cognitive

Behavior Therapy

Classification: Cognitive Therapy (3311)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20040531

Accession Number: 2004-14112-004

Number of Citations in Source: 87

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12-004">The treatment of body image disturbances.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 41

Title: Issues in the assessment and treatment of body image disturbance

in culturally diverse populations.

Author(s): Altabe, Madeline N., Department of Psychology,

University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, US

Source: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment. Thompson, J. Kevin (Ed)

; pp. 129-147.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2001. vii, 505

pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

ISBN: 1-55798-324-0 (paperback)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10502-006

Language: English

Keywords: body image disturbances; psychological assessment;

treatment; racial and ethnic difference; cross cultural differences

Abstract: (from the chapter) It is important to understand the

factors associated with body image in diverse populations. However, most

of the previous research on body image has focused on Caucasian samples.

Therefore, models developed to understand body image disturbance may or

may not apply to diverse populations. The cultural ideals of thinness

may represent a causal factor in the etiology of eating disorders and

body image disturbance. The sociocultural model of body image states

that the prevalence of eating disorders and body image disturbance in

Western countries is partially attributable to cultural ideals of beauty

that value thinness. There is a need to explore cultural factors in body

image for both practical and theoretical considerations. The literature

I will review in this chapter will aid in this exploration. I will

examine two general types of cross-cultural comparisons: Caucasians

compared with non-Caucasians living in Western countries (other

English-speaking nations and Europe) and Caucasians compared with native

inhabitants of non-Western countries. Finally, I will discuss issues in

research, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance in diverse

populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image; *Psychological

Assessment; *Racial and Ethnic Differences; *Treatment; Cross Cultural

Differences

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20040531

Accession Number: 2004-14112-006

Number of Citations in Source: 36

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12-006">Issues in the assessment and treatment of body image disturbance

in culturally diverse populations.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 42

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder: Assessment and treatment.

Author(s): Rosen, James C., Department of Psychology, University of

Vermont, VT, US

Source: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment. Thompson, J. Kevin (Ed)

; pp. 149-170.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2001. vii, 505

pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

ISBN: 1-55798-324-0 (paperback)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10502-007

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; psychological assessment;

treatment; body dissatisfaction; disease course; cognitive behavior

therapy

Abstract: (from the chapter) Body dissatisfaction is so common

today that it has become a normal sign of living in a society that

glorifies beauty, youth, and health. Yet some people develop an

excessive preoccupation with their physical appearance to the point that

it causes them real distress or disability. The diagnostic category that

can accommodate such people is body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). The

purpose of this chapter is to describe the clinical features of BDD and

its development and treatment, although empirical information on these

topics is very limited at the present time. Detailed recommendations are

given for cognitive-behavior therapy. Intervention consists of cognitive

restructuring of private body talk and undue importance given to

physical appearance, exposure to avoided body image situations, and

response prevention of body checking and grooming behaviors. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image; *Disease Course;

*Psychological Assessment; *Treatment; Cognitive Behavior Therapy;

Dissatisfaction

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20040531

Accession Number: 2004-14112-007

Number of Citations in Source: 52

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12-007">Body dysmorphic disorder: Assessment and treatment.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 43

Title: Treatment of body image disturbance in eating disorders.

Author(s): Thompson, J. Kevin, Department of Psychology, University

of South Florida, Tampa, FL, US, jthomps1@luna.cas.usf.edu

Heinberg, Leslie J., Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences,

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, US

Clarke, Alicia J., Department of Psychology, Towson State U, Towson, MD,

US

Address: Thompson, J. Kevin, jthomps1@luna.cas.usf.edu

Source: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment. Thompson, J. Kevin (Ed)

; pp. 303-319.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2001. vii, 505

pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

ISBN: 1-55798-324-0 (paperback)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10502-012

Language: English

Keywords: body image disturbances; eating disorders; comorbidity;

treatment; body dissatisfaction; treatment efficacy; appearance issues;

anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa

Abstract: (from the chapter) In this chapter, we will focus

exclusively on treating appearance issues as they occur within the

context of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The role of body

dissatisfaction in the development of eating disturbance appears to have

strong empirical support. It seems timely to offer a review of the

particular methods researchers and clinicians have used to modify body

image in eating disorders. The review of this area will consist of four

parts. First, we will offer a review of treatment outcome studies,

focusing on the use of techniques specifically targeting appearance

concerns and the measurement of the effectiveness of these procedures in

modifying body image related dependent variables. Second, many potential

strategies for managing body image have not received sufficient

empirical testing, yet these treatments may be evaluated in the future

and are also being used in individual cases by many clinicians.

Therefore, we will provide a brief overview of these methods. Third, we

will offer a review of the primary or secondary prevention approaches to

eating disorders, along with a discussion of other possible sources of

intervention, such as parents or partners of at-risk individuals.

Fourth, we will offer suggestions for implementing strategies in

clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Comorbidity; *Eating

Disorders; *Physical Appearance; *Treatment; Anorexia Nervosa; Body

Image; Bulimia; Dissatisfaction; Treatment Outcomes

Classification: Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20040531

Accession Number: 2004-14112-012

Number of Citations in Source: 48

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12-012">Treatment of body image disturbance in eating disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 44

Title: Pharmacologic treatments for eating disorders.

Author(s): Crow, Scott J., Department of Psychiatry, University of

Minnesota, MN, US

Mitchell, James E., Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota,

MN, US

Source: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment. Thompson, J. Kevin (Ed)

; pp. 345-360.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2001. vii, 505

pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

ISBN: 1-55798-324-0 (paperback)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10502-014

Language: English

Keywords: eating disorders; body image disturbances; drug therapy;

drug efficacy; multimodal approach with psychotherapy

Abstract: (from the chapter) A large and complex literature has

developed concerning pharmacotherapy of eating disorders, and the

literature clearly suggests that pharmacologic treatments can be

effective for both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). When

reviewing the existing literature, it quickly becomes apparent that the

majority of research conducted so far (particularly the majority of

reports finding medications efficacious) has involved the study of

individuals with BN. However, recently AN has been a more active focus

for psychopharmacologic treatment research. In this chapter we will

review the published studies of pharmacologic treatment for eating

disorders that have included a placebo control or comparison group.

Also, we will touch briefly on some of the uncontrolled trials of

various agents for these disorders. Finally, we will review and discuss

the existing studies from the perspective of clinical relevance and

provide practical guidelines to aid the clinician in treating these

individuals. Throughout this chapter we will also focus on the efficacy

of medications in treating disturbance of body image. In spite of the

general clinical perception that these medications are helpful for body

image disturbance, there is limited evidence in the literature to

support this conclusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all

rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Drug Therapy; *Eating

Disorders; *Multimodal Treatment Approach; *Treatment Outcomes;

Comorbidity; Drugs; Psychotherapy

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20040531

Accession Number: 2004-14112-014

Number of Citations in Source: 45

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12-014">Pharmacologic treatments for eating disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 45

Title: Assessment of psychological status among obese persons.

Author(s): Faith, Myles S., Obesity Research Center, St. Luke's

Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University College of Physicians and

Surgeons, New York, NY, US

Allison, David B., Obesity Research Center, St. Luke's Roosevelt

Hospital, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New

York, NY, US

Source: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment. Thompson, J. Kevin (Ed)

; pp. 365-387.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2001. vii, 505

pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

ISBN: 1-55798-324-0 (paperback)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10502-015

Language: English

Keywords: obesity; psychological assessment; psychological status;

psychopathology; comorbidity; binge eating; body image disturbance;

emotional disturbance

Abstract: (from the chapter) This chapter consists of two

sections. In the first section, we will present a literature review on

the relationship between psychopathology and obesity. Using a "zoom

lens" approach, this section gradually identifies the subgroups of obese

individuals that experience greater emotional disturbance, as well as

their discriminating clinical features. The section begins at the

broadest and least exclusionary level by examining the association

between obesity and psychopathology in community samples. It then

focuses on studies using clinical samples. Finally, the section zooms in

on binge eating and body image disturbance and their relevance to

psychopathology. We end the section with a brief discussion on causal

models of emotional disturbance in obesity. In the second section, we

make recommendations for a meaningful psychological assessment. We

review clinically relevant constructs, along with some instruments for

their assessment. Throughout the chapter, our focus is on adults.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Comorbidity; *Obesity; *Psychological Assessment;

*Psychopathology; Affective Disorders; Binge Eating; Body Dysmorphic

Disorder

Classification: Clinical Psychological Testing (2224)

Eating Disorders (3260)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20040531

Accession Number: 2004-14112-015

Number of Citations in Source: 120

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12-015">Assessment of psychological status among obese persons.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 46

Title: Improving body image in obesity.

Author(s): Rosen, James C., Department of Psychology, University of

Vermont, VT, US

Source: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment. Thompson, J. Kevin (Ed)

; pp. 425-440.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2001. vii, 505

pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

ISBN: 1-55798-324-0 (paperback)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10502-017

Language: English

Keywords: obesity; body image; body image group therapy; treatment

outcomes; assessment; psychodiagnosis; body image disturbance;

comorbidity; intervention

Abstract: (from the chapter) The purpose of this chapter is to

review the assessment of body image in obesity. Recognizing that weight

reduction is not always the complete answer to body image

dissatisfaction, practical guidelines for psychological techniques,

which can be used in conjunction with weight control or by themselves,

will be given. The most consistent psychosocial consequence of obesity

is body image dissatisfaction. Not only is this a frequent motivation

for weight reduction attempts, but body dissatisfaction can be a cause

of significant distress and impairment. Research on the effectiveness of

body image therapy (BIT) indicates that it is possible to help obese

persons to change their body image attitudes and behavior using a

strictly psychological approach, without any intervention to change

eating, exercise, or weight. Although treatment outcome is encouraging

in the short-term, the long-term effectiveness of BIT in obesity is

unknown. Body image is a man's issue too, but so far, all treatment

outcome studies with normal and overweight subjects have been conducted

on women. The benefits or disadvantages of integrating BIT into other

obesity treatment programs is unknown. The significance of negative body

image for obesity itself in terms of response to obesity treatment is

unknown. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image; *Comorbidity; *Group Psychotherapy;

*Intervention; *Obesity; Body Dysmorphic Disorder; Psychodiagnosis;

Psychological Assessment; Treatment Outcomes

Classification: Group & Family Therapy (3313)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20040531

Accession Number: 2004-14112-017

Number of Citations in Source: 42

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12-017">Improving body image in obesity.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 47

Title: Assessment and treatment of morbid obesity.

Author(s): Fettes, Patricia H., Department of Psychiatry and

Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, US

Williams, Donald E., Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo

Clinic, Rochester, MN, US

Source: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment. Thompson, J. Kevin (Ed)

; pp. 441-459.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2001. vii, 505

pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

ISBN: 1-55798-324-0 (paperback)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10502-018

Language: English

Keywords: morbid obesity; body image; psychological assessment;

treatment; morbidity; mortality; psychosocial factors; psychopathology;

comorbidity; body image disturbance; occupational aspects

Abstract: (from the chapter) Morbid obesity (MO) is a serious and

potentially deadly problem that until the past few decades received

little attention in the scientific literature. However, there has been a

dramatic increase in research on the phenomenology and treatment of

severe weight disturbance recently, possibly because of the development

of relatively safe and effective surgical treatments for MO. The outcome

of this increased attention has been a growing awareness that morbid

obesity is qualitatively different from less severe forms of obesity and

requires special attention in both assessment and treatment. The purpose

of this chapter is to provide a practical outline for the assessment and

treatment of MO from the perspective of the consulting mental health

professional. We begin with a brief review of the literature on MO, with

specific attention to morbidity and mortality, as well as psychosocial

characteristics of morbidly obese patients. We will then discuss the

various characteristics of the morbidly obese individual, including

psychopathology, body image disturbance, and the social and occupational

aspects relevant to this population. We will devote the rest of the

chapter to assessment and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005

APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Comorbidity; *Obesity; *Psychological Assessment;

*Severity (Disorders); *Treatment; Body Dysmorphic Disorder; Death and

Dying; Occupational Status; Psychopathology; Psychosocial Factors

Classification: Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20040531

Accession Number: 2004-14112-018

Number of Citations in Source: 51

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12-018">Assessment and treatment of morbid obesity.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 48

Title: Psychogenic excoriation: Clinical features, proposed diagnostic

criteria, epidemiology and approaches to treatment.

Author(s): Arnold, Lesley M., U Cincinnati, Medical Ctr,

Cincinnati, OH, US, arnoldlm@email.uc.edu

Auchenbach, Megan B.

McElroy, Susan L.

Source: CNS Drugs, Vol 15(5), 2001. pp. 351-359.

Journal URL: http://www.adis.com/page.asp?objectID=40

Publisher: New Zealand: Adis International

Publisher URL: http://www.adis.com

ISSN: 1172-7047 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: psychogenic excoriation; scratching; picking; skin;

dermatology clinic patients; anxiety disorders; obsessive compulsive

behavior; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Abstract: Discusses psychogenic excoriation (PEX). PEX is

characterized by excessive scratching or picking of normal skin or skin

with minor surface irregularities. PEX is estimated to occur in 2% of

dermatology clinic patients and is associated with functional

impairment, medical complications such as infection, or substantial

distress. Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with PEX, particularly

mood and anxiety disorders, is common. Ss with PEX frequently have

comorbid disorders in the compulsivity-impulsivity spectrum, including

obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, substance use

disorders, eating disorders, trichotillomania, kleptomania, compulsive

buying, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, and borderline

personality disorder. The few studies of the pharmacological treatment

of PEX have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake

inhibitors. Other pharmacological treatments that have been successful

in case reports include doxepin, clomipramine, naltrexone, pimozide, and

olanzapine. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Anxiety; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; *Scratching;

*Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors; *Skin Disorders

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20010815

Accession Number: 2001-17962-001

Number of Citations in Source: 36

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62-001">Psychogenic excoriation: Clinical features, proposed diagnostic

criteria, epidemiology and approaches to treatment.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 49

Title: Somatoform and factitious disorders.

Author(s): Iezzi, Tony, Victoria Hosp, London Health Sciences Ctr,

London, ON, Canada

Duckworth, Melanie P.

Adams, Henry E.

Source: Comprehensive handbook of psychopathology (3rd ed.). Sutker,

Patricia B. (Ed); Adams, Henry E. (Ed)

; pp. 211-258.

New York, NY, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2001. xviii, 970

pp.

ISBN: 0-306-46490-X (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: somatoform disorders; factitious disorders; diagnosis;

clinical description; treatment

Abstract: (from the chapter) Clinical descriptions, diagnostic

requirements, theoretical issues, and relevant research pertaining to

the identification and management of somatoform and factitious disorders

are reviewed. Subcategories of the disorders--their specific etiologies,

associated pathologies, and treatment--are also addressed. These include

undifferentiated somatoform disorder, conversion disorder, pain

disorder, hypochondriasis, body dysmorphic disorder, somatoform disorder

not otherwise specified, and factitious disorder not otherwise

specified. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Factitious Disorders; *Psychodiagnosis; *Somatoform

Disorders; *Treatment

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Book Type: Handbook/Manual

Release Date: 20010711

Accession Number: 2001-01406-009

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06-009">Somatoform and factitious disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 50

Title: Serotonergic drugs and the treatment of disorders related to

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Series Title: Clinical practice;; no. 51

Author(s): Hollander, Eric, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Dept of

Psychiatry, Seaver Autism Research Ctr, New York, NY, US

Allen, Andrea

Source: Current treatments of obsessive-compulsive disorder (2nd

ed.). Pato, Michele Tortora (Ed); Zohar, Joseph (Ed)

; pp. 193-220.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychiatric Association, 2001. xiii, 252

pp.

ISBN: 0-88048-779-8 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: diagnosis and treatment of disorders related to

obsessive compulsive disorder; serotonergic drugs

Abstract: (from the chapter) This chapter addresses diagnostic

considerations and treatment approaches for disorders related to

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although there is currently debate

about which disorders are most closely related to OCD, the most current

evidence linking these disorders to OCD is presented. Body dysmorphic

disorder, trichotillomania, depersonalization disorder, Tourette's

syndrome, and eating disorders are discussed, and case management

summaries for two disorders are described. A review of past and common

pitfalls are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all

rights reserved)

Subjects: *Drug Therapy; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; Body

Dysmorphic Disorder; Depersonalization; Eating Disorders; Gilles de la

Tourette Disorder; Serotonin; Trichotillomania

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Book Type: Handbook/Manual

Release Date: 20010523

Accession Number: 2001-06598-011

Number of Citations in Source: 142

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98-011">Serotonergic drugs and the treatment of disorders related to

obsessive-compulsive disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

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Record: 1

Title: Clinical and subclinical body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Altamura, Carlo, altamura@ospedalesacco.lom.it

Paluello, Michela Minio

Mundo, Emanuela

Medda, Stefania

Mannu, Piero

Address: Altamura, Carlo, U Milan, Istituto di Scienze

Biomediche,Ospedale "Luigi Sacco", Via G. B. Grassi 74, 20157, Milano,

Italy, altamura@ospedalesacco.lom.it

Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, Vol

251(3), 2001. pp. 105-108.

Journal URL:

http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,4-40109-70-10655

25-0,00.html

Publisher: Germany: Springer

Publisher URL: http://www.springeronline.com

ISSN: 0940-1334 (Print)

1433-8491 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1007/s004060170042

Language: English

Keywords: demographic characteristics; clinical characteristics;

body dysmorphic disorder; subclinial body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Defined the main demographic and clinical

characteristics of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) and subclinical BDD

(sBDD) in a sample derived by a screening survey done on a population of

individuals referring to aesthetical medicine centers. 487 Ss referring

to hospital centers for aesthetical medicine were administered the

SCID-I and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale adapted for BDD.

The sample was thus sub-divided in 3 sub-samples: (1) BDD, (2)

sub-clinical BDD, and (3) controls. The main demographic and clinical

variables were considered and compared between the BDD and the sBDD

samples. As previously reported, the prevalence of BDD and sBDD was 6.3%

and 18.4%, respectively. The most frequent comorbid diagnosis in both

BDD and sBDD patients and their relatives was Obsessive-Compulsive

Disorder (OCD). A higher severity of symptoms was found in male BDD

patients, while no gender-related differences were found in the sBDD

group. Suicidal ideation was found in 12.1% of the sBDD and in 49.7% of

the BDD patients. These results support the hypothesis of BDD and sBDD

belonging to the OCD spectrum, and appear to advise long-term follow-up

studies on the course and the prognosis of sBDD. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Demographic Characteristics

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: Italy

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20011010

Accession Number: 2001-11775-002

Number of Citations in Source: 21

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75-002">Clinical and subclinical body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 2

Title: Visible disfigurement.

Author(s): Rumsey, Nichola, U of the West of England, Dept of

Psychology, Bristol, United Kingdom

Source: Health psychology, Vol. 8. Comprehensive clinical

psychology. Johnston, Derek W. (Ed); Johnston, Marie (Ed); Bellack, Alan

S. (Ed); Hersen, Michel (Ed)

; pp. 575-593.

Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 2001. xxiii,

723 pp.

ISBN: 0-08-043934-9 (paperback)

Language: English

Keywords: visible disfigurement; health care psychology;

treatment; psychosocial aspects; body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: (from the chapter) This chapter describes the current

state of knowledge, research, and practice relating to the problems

experienced by people with visible disfigurements. Over the years,

professionals working in this area have struggled to formulate a working

definition which reflects appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria.

One particular area of debate centers on body dysmorphic disorder (BDD),

in which the sufferer is considered to have grossly exaggerated negative

feelings about an imagined or very minor physical defect. Although some

of the problems reported by dysmorphophobics are similar to those with

clearly visible disfigurements, other aspects of the condition (e.g.,

behavior patterns and response to treatment) set BDD apart. For the

purpose of this chapter, findings related to research and practice

concerning "people with one or more visible physical characteristic(s)

perceived by the self and others as 'different' or 'abnormal' compared

with societal and cultural norms" have been included. Disfigurement is

not a glamorous speciality. It does not easily attract funding for

treatment and research. However, considerable benefit could be derived

from the involvement of psychologists in raising awareness, changing

attitudes, and in the provision of care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Clinical Psychology; *Health Care Psychology; *Physical

Disfigurement; *Psychosocial Factors; *Treatment; Body Dysmorphic

Disorder

Classification: Health Psychology & Medicine (3360)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20010725

Accession Number: 2001-07021-025

Number of Citations in Source: 53

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21-025">Visible disfigurement.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 3

Title: The meaning of the 'Body' on the treatment of eating-disordered

patients.

Author(s): Kearney-Cooke, Ann, Cincinnati Psychotherapy Inst,

Cincinnati, OH, US

Source: Hungers and compulsions: The psychodynamic treatment of eating

disorders and addictions. Petrucelli, Jean (Ed); Stuart, Catherine (Ed)

; pp. 163-168.

Lanham, MD, US: Jason Aronson, Inc, 2001. xxix, 392 pp.

ISBN: 0-7657-0318-1 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: body image; body dysmorphic disorder; mental

representation; developmental process; eating disorders; physical body;

physical self; phantom limb

Abstract: (from the chapter) Slade describes body image as the

"picture we have in our minds of the size, shape, and form of our bodies

and the feelings we have concerning these characteristics." From such

phenomena as phantom limb, eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder,

and depression, we know that body image is based on the physical self

but is not synonymous with it. We know the translation from the physical

body to the mental representation of the body is a complex and

emotionally charged developmental process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Cognitive Processes;

*Developmental Stages; *Eating Disorders

Classification: Psychological & Physical Disorders (3200)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20021023

Accession Number: 2002-17224-012

Number of Citations in Source: 6

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24-012">The meaning of the 'Body' on the treatment of eating-disordered

patients.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 4

Title: Clinical features and diagnosis of hypochondriasis.

Author(s): Starcevic, Vladan, U Belgrade School of Medicine,

Belgrade, Yugoslavia

Source: Hypochondriasis: Modern perspectives on an ancient

malady. Starcevic, Vladan (Ed); Lipsitt, Don R. (Ed)

; pp. 21-60.

New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press, 2001. xiv, 402 pp.

ISBN: 0-19-512676-9 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: clinical features of somatoform disorders &

hypochondriasis & differential diagnosis in relation to fear vs

suspicion of disease & resistance to medical reassurance &

hypochondriacal behaviors

Abstract: (from the chapter) This chapter presents the essential

clinical features of hypochondriasis, grouped into components. These

components are as follows: (1) usually multiple, often vague, but

sometimes quite specific bodily symptoms; (2) preoccupation with one's

body, bodily symptoms, and matters of health and disease; (3) fear that

a serious disease is already present; (4) suspicion that a serious

disease is already present; (5) resistance to routine medical

reassurance; and (6) hypochondriacal behaviors, most typical of which

are persistent reassurance-seeking and health-checking. The

heterogeneity of the clinical presentation of hypochondriacal patients

is largely a consequence of the fact that the components of

hypochondriasis are not present to the same degree in all patients.

Thus, some hypochondriacal patients are characterized more by excessive

disease worries and fears, while hypochondriacal suspicions are more

prominent in other patients. The differential diagnosis of

hypochondriasis encompasses organic diseases and many mental disorders,

including psychoses, depressive illness, several anxiety disorders

(panic disorder, phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder), personality

disorders, other somatoform disorders (somatization disorder and body

dysmorphic disorder), and malingering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Differential Diagnosis; *Hypochondriasis; *Psychiatric

Symptoms; *Somatoform Disorders; Comorbidity; Fear; Medical Treatment

(General); Resistance

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20010328

Accession Number: 2001-00239-002

Number of Citations in Source: 116

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39-002">Clinical features and diagnosis of hypochondriasis.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 5

Title: A retrospective review of clinical characteristics and treatment

response in body dysmorphic disorder versus obsessive-compulsive

disorder.

Author(s): Saxena, Sanjaya, U California Neuropsychiatric Inst,

Dept of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, OCD Research Program, Los

Angeles, CA, US

Winograd, Arie

Dunkin, Jennifer J.

Maidment, Karron

Rosen, Richard

Vapnik, Tanya

Tarlow, Gerald

Bystritsky, Alexander

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 62(1), Jan 2001. pp. 67-72.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: clinical characteristics & symptom severity & treatment

response, patients with body dysmorphic vs obsessive-compulsive disorder

Abstract: Retrospectively compared clinical characteristics,

symptom severity, and treatment response of body dysmorphic disorder

(BDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ss were 107 consecutive

patients with OCD (96 Ss) or BDD (11 Ss) treated openly for 6 wks with

intensive CBT, medication, and psychosocial rehabilitation. All Ss were

assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS),

Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Hamilton Rating Scale for

Anxiety (HAM-A), and Global Assessment Scale (GAS). BDD and OCD Ss had

similar sex ratio, age, treatment duration, prevalence of comorbid major

depression, and pretreatment Y-BOCS and GAS scores. BDD Ss had

significantly higher pretreatment HAM-D and HAM-A scores. The

proportions of Ss treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and

antipsychotics did not differ between groups. Both groups improved with

treatment, with significant changes in Y-BOCS, HAM-D, HAM-A, and GAS

scores. Change in Y-BOCS did not differ between groups, but changes in

HAM-D and HAM-A were significantly greater in BDD than in OCD Ss. While

BDD may be associated with greater severity of depressive and anxiety

symptoms than OCD, this study suggests that BDD may respond to

intensive, multimodal treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA,

all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Client Characteristics;

*Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; *Psychiatric Symptoms; *Treatment

Outcomes; Severity (Disorders)

Classification: Psychological & Physical Disorders (3200)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Tests & Measures: Global Assessment Scale

Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression

Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

Methodology: Empirical Study; Longitudinal Study; Retrospective Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20010307

Accession Number: 2001-16755-017

Number of Citations in Source: 33

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55-017">A retrospective review of clinical characteristics and treatment

response in body dysmorphic disorder versus obsessive-compulsive

disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 6

Title: Somatization disorder.

Series Title: Review of psychiatry; vol. 20, no. 3

Author(s): Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio, Georgetown U, School of

Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry, Washington, DC, US

Wise, Thomas N.

Source: Somatoform and factitious disorders. Phillips, Katharine A. (Ed)

; pp. 1-26.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychiatric Association, 2001. xviii, 181

pp.

ISBN: 1-58562-029-7 (paperback)

Language: English

Keywords: somatization disorder; somatization; psychosomatic

medicine; psychiatry; treatment; disease course

Abstract: (from the chapter) The somatoform disorders include not

only somatization disorder, but also hypochondriasis, undifferentiated

somatoform disorder, conversion disorder, pain disorder, and body

dysmorphic disorder. In this overview, somatization disorder refers to

the DSM diagnosis, which is characterized by a lifetime history

beginning before age 30 of seeking treatment for or becoming impaired by

multiple physical complaints that cannot be fully explained by a general

medical condition, or are in excess of what would be expected from

examination, and are not intentionally feigned as seen in malingering or

factitious disorders. However, where indicated, the broader concept of

somatization as defined previously is also referred to. Somatization

disorder is a chronic and serious psychiatric disorder that frustrates

patients, their families, and their physicians. Its chronic course and

focus on somatic symptoms can lead to needless medical evaluations and

potentially dangerous, unwarranted interventions. It is essential for

physicians in all specialties to recognize this disorder and to

understand its course. The treatment should consist of a conservative

medical approach, with vigorous treatment of comorbid disorders such as

depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Disease Course; *Psychosomatic Medicine; *Somatization

Disorder; *Treatment; *Somatization; Psychiatry

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20010530

Accession Number: 2001-06682-001

Number of Citations in Source: 83

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82-001">Somatization disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 7

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder.

Series Title: Review of psychiatry; vol. 20, no. 3

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Brown U, School of Medicine,

Providence, RI, US

Source: Somatoform and factitious disorders. Phillips, Katharine A. (Ed)

; pp. 67-94.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychiatric Association, 2001. xviii, 181

pp.

ISBN: 1-58562-029-7 (paperback)

Language: English

Keywords: psychosomatic medicine; body dysmorphic disorder;

treatment; psychiatry

Abstract: (from the chapter) Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an

intriguing and relatively common somatoform disorder that has been

described around the world for more than a century. BDD often causes

severe distress and notably impaired functioning, and it can lead to

suicide. However, this disorder is typically underrecognized in clinical

settings. BDD is defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) as a preoccupation with an imagined defect in

appearance; if a slight physical anomaly is present, the person's

concern is markedly excessive. The preoccupation causes clinically

significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other

important areas of functioning, and it cannot be better accounted for by

another mental disorder, such as anorexia nervosa. Although BDD is

classified as a somatoform disorder, its delusional variant is

classified as a psychotic disorder (a type of delusional disorder,

somatic type). Research on BDD has dramatically increased in recent

years, and much has been learned about its clinical features and

treatment. Although BDD is often difficult to treat, available treatment

strategies are very promising. Given how distressing BDD can be, and the

profound disability it can cause, it is important for clinicians to

screen patients for this disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005

APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Psychosomatic Medicine;

*Treatment; Psychiatry

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20010530

Accession Number: 2001-06682-003

Number of Citations in Source: 87

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82-003">Body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 8

Title: Eingebildete Häß1ichkeit: Die Körperdysmorphe Störung aus

psychologischer Sicht.

Translated Title: Imagined ugliness: Body dysmorphic disorder from

a psychological view.

Author(s): Stangier, Ulrich, Institut für Psychologie der J. W.

Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Hungerbühler, Regine, Institut für Psychologie der J. W.

Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Address: Stangier, Ulrich, Institut fur Psychologie der J. W.

Goethe-Universitat Frankfurt am Main, Georg-Voigt-Str. 8, D-60054,

Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Source: Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie:

Forschung und Praxis, Vol 30(2), 2001. pp. 77-83.

Publisher: Germany: Hogrefe & Huber

Publisher URL: http://www.hhpub.com

ISSN: 1616-3443 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1026//1616-3443.30.2.77

Language: German

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; physical appearance; imagined

defect

Abstract: Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is

characterized by all excessive and distressful preoccupation with an

imagined defect in physical appearance. Objective: The current knowledge

about this disorder is reviewed. Method: The findings of recent research

on BDD are examined. Results: Currently classified as a somatoform

disorder, BDD also shares similarities with other disorders defined as

obsessive-compulsive spectrum. It is probably more common than generally

realized. High comorbidity rates have been found with depression,

anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder. With regard to its etiology,

somatic and cognitive-behavioral theories are presented. Preliminary

results of treatment studies indicate that cognitive-behavioral

approaches might be effective in reducing symptoms. Conclusion: The

fragmentary understanding of the etiology and the development of

treatment approaches might be improved using research methods of

clinical and experimental psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005

APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image Disturbances;

Anxiety; Depression (Emotion); Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Methodology: Empirical Study; Qualitative Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Document Type: Original Journal Article

Release Date: 20040628

Accession Number: 2003-06954-001

Number of Citations in Source: 30

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54-001">Eingebildete Häß1ichkeit: Die Körperdysmorphe Störung aus

psychologischer Sicht.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 9

Title: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment.

Author(s): Thompson, J. Kevin, (Ed), Department of Psychology,

University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, US, jthomps1@luna.cas.usf.edu

Address: Thompson, J. Kevin, jthomps1@luna.cas.usf.edu

Source: Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2001.

vii, 505 pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

ISBN: 1-55798-324-0 (paperback)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10502-000

Language: English

Keywords: body image; eating disorders; body image disturbances;

etiological factors; sociocultural factors; assessment; treatment;

comorbidity; obesity

Abstract: (from the preface) I have had the opportunity to work

with many individuals with some manifestation of an eating disturbance,

including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, obesity, and binge eating

disorder. These interactions led to an awareness of the particular

problems encountered by these patients. This book brings together the

findings from my own collaborations with colleagues, along with those

from many noted researchers in the field. Body image is of central

importance in the effective assessment and management of eating

disorders (EDs) and obesity. Thus, body image became a major unifying

theme of the book. A 2nd reason for undertaking this work was to provide

empirically supported information about the most effective assessment

and treatment strategies for body image disturbance, EDs, and obesity.

With regard to assessment, this has resulted in an emphasis on

psychometrically sound assessment instruments, interview methodologies,

and medical evaluation of physical status. With regard to treatment, the

emphasis is on cognitive-behavioral and pharmacologic interventions,

although other approaches are also discussed, because

cognitive-behavioral and pharmacological therapies have the most

empirical support. One goal was to provide information at differing

levels of clinician sophistication. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005

APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image; *Eating

Disorders; *Obesity; *Treatment; Comorbidity; Etiology; Psychological

Assessment; Sociocultural Factors

Classification: Psychological & Physical Disorders (3200)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Release Date: 20040531

Accession Number: 2004-14112-000

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12-000">Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 10

Title: Points of view: Stories of psychopathology.

Author(s): Mitchell, James E., U North Dakota, Medical School, Dept

of Neuroscience, ND, US

Source: New York, NY, US: Brunner-Routledge, 2001. xix, 222 pp.

ISBN: 1-58391-005-0 (paperback)

Language: English

Keywords: stories of experience of & with psychopathology

Abstract: (from the cover) Designed to provide students with

illustrative examples of individuals with different forms of

psychopathology for various levels of experience and training. The

stories are written to illustrate the key elements of psychopathology

for psychiatric illnesses. These are set against the backdrop of the

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV)

criteria and each is written from 2 perspectives, the perspective of the

individual and that of someone within his or her environment. This

design was chosen to illustrate how people with these disorders think

and feel as well as how they appear to those around them. The emphasis

is on the difficulties experienced by people with psychiatric illness,

and also on the adverse impact these illnesses have on others.

This text may be of value and interest to descriptive psychopathology

students, psychiatric residents, medical students, graduate students in

psychology and psychiatry, students in various related mental health

fields, including psychiatric nursing, social work, and counseling, and

all preparing for a career in the mental health profession. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Narratives; *Psychopathology

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Authored Book; Print

Release Date: 20010110

Accession Number: 2000-14399-000

Number of Citations in Source: 138

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99-000">Points of view: Stories of psychopathology.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 11

Title: Somatoform and factitious disorders.

Series Title: Review of psychiatry; vol. 20, no. 3

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., (Ed), Brown U, School of

Medicine, Providence, RI, US

Source: Washington, DC, US: American Psychiatric Association, 2001.

xviii, 181 pp.

ISBN: 1-58562-029-7 (paperback)

Language: English

Keywords: hypochondriasis; somatization disorder; conversion

disorder; body dysmorphic disorder; factitious disorders; psychosomatic

medicine; psychiatry

Abstract: (from the foreword) The somatoform

disorders--somatization disorder, undifferentiated somatoform disorder,

conversion disorder, pain disorder, hypochondriasis, and body dysmorphic

disorder (BDD)--involve a focus on bodily/somatic complaints. A general

medical condition, substance use, or another mental disorder does not

fully account for the physical symptoms or concerns, and the physical

symptoms are not intentionally produced (unlike factitious disorders).

Although it is often said that the common feature of these disorders is

the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical

condition, this is not the case for BDD, which instead consists of a

preoccupation with a perceived appearance flaw. Factitious disorders are

characterized by physical or psychological symptoms are intentionally

produced or feigned by the patient in order to assume the sick role.

This book provides a clinically-focused overview of these complex

disorders. Undifferentiated somatoform disorder (a residual category for

somatoform presentations that do not meet criteria for somatization

disorder or another somatoform disorder) and pain disorder are not

included. As the following chapters illustrate, most of the somatoform

disorders appear to be relatively common in psychiatric and other

medical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Factitious Disorders; *Psychosomatic Medicine;

*Somatoform Disorders; Body Dysmorphic Disorder; Conversion Disorder;

Hypochondriasis; Psychiatry; Somatization Disorder

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Release Date: 20010530

Accession Number: 2001-06682-000

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82-000">Somatoform and factitious disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 12

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder: Diagnostic controversies and treatment

challenges.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Butler Hosp, Body Dysmorphic

Disorder, Providence, RI, US

Source: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, Vol 64(1), Win 2000. pp.

18-35.

Journal URL:

http://www.guilford.com/cgi-bin/cartscript.cgi?page=pr/jnme.htm&dir=peri

odicals/per_psych&cart_id=300044.6910

Publisher: US: Guilford Publications

Publisher URL: http://www.guilford.com

ISSN: 0025-9284 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: diagnostic & treatment challenges & controversies,

patients with body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing,

impairing, and relatively common yet underrecognized disorder. This

article discusses the following diagnostic controversies and challenges

associated with BDD: the underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of BDD, the

relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder, the

relationship between BDD and depression, the delusionality controversy,

and whether BDD can be diagnosed in children and adolescents. This

article also discusses treatment controversies and challenges associated

with serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antipsychotics, cognitive-behavioral

therapy, approaches to treatment-resistant BDD, and getting reluctant

patients to accept psychiatric treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Diagnosis; *Treatment

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Conference: Annual Menninger Winter Psychiatry Conference, 21st,

Mar, 1999, Park City, UT, US

Conference Notes: This article is based on a presentation at the

aforementioned conference.

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000401

Accession Number: 2000-13775-002

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75-002">Body dysmorphic disorder: Diagnostic controversies and treatment

challenges.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 13

Title: Diagnostische Erfassung der Körperdysmorphen Sto-5rung Eine

Pilotstudie.

Translated Title: Assessment of body dysmorphic disorder: a pilot

study.

Author(s): Stangier, Ulrich, Institut für Psychologie der

Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-U, Frankfurt, Germany

Hungerbühler, Regine

Meyer, Annerose

Wolter, Manfred

Address: Stangier, Ulrich, Institut für Psychologie der

Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-U, Frankfurt, Germany

Source: Nervenarzt, Vol 71(11), Nov 2000. pp. 876-884.

Journal URL:

http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,4-40109-70-10035

95-0,00.html

Publisher: Germany: Springer

Publisher URL: http://www.springeronline.com

ISSN: 0028-2804 (Print)

1433-0407 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1007/s001150050678

Language: German

Keywords: assessment; body dysmorphic disorder; obsessive

compulsive symptoms; body image disorders; disfigurement; social phobia;

comorbid depressive disorders; rating scales

Abstract: Examines the possible benefit of specific instruments in

the discrimination of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and other body

image disorders. 13 patients with BDD, 13 with disfiguring defects, and

21 with no significant impairment of appearance were recruited from

dermatological outpatients on the basis of semistructured diagnostic

interviews and clinical ratings of disfigurement. Structured interviews

were conducted to determine comorbidity with depressive disorders and

social phobia and to obtain a clinical rating of obsessive compulsive

symptoms using the modified version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive

Compulsive Scale for body dysmorphic disorders. In addition, the Beck

Depression Inventory, the Social Phobia Scale, and the Social

Interaction Anxiety Scale were completed. Patients with BDD differed

significantly from disfigured and unimpaired patients in obsessive

compulsive symptoms, in particular obsessions, and the discrepancy

between personal and clinical rating of disfigurement. Comorbidity with

depressive disorders was significantly increased. The results support

the utility of specific diagnostic instruments and indicate the

particular importance of obsessive compulsive symptoms in BDD. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image Disturbances;

*Measurement; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; *Physical Disfigurement;

Comorbidity; Major Depression; Obsessions; Rating Scales; Social Phobia

Classification: Clinical Psychological Testing (2224)

Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Tests & Measures: Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20011212

Accession Number: 2001-07334-001

Number of Citations in Source: 30

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-073

34-001">Diagnostische Erfassung der Körperdysmorphen Sto-5rung Eine

Pilotstudie.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 14

Title: Social anxiety disorder: How to help.

Author(s): Zal, H. Michael, Philadelphia Coll of Osteopathic

Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, US

Source: Drug Benefit Trends, Vol 12(10), Oct 2000. pp. 5BH-10BH.

Publisher: US: CMP Health Care Media Group

Publisher URL: http://cmphealth.com

ISSN: 1080-5826 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: features & differential diagnosis & treatment of social

anxiety disorder or social phobia & comorbid disorders

Abstract: Social anxiety disorder, or social phobia, causes

emotional suffering and interferes with work, play, and social

functioning. There is comorbid overlap with other mental disorders, such

as depression, substance abuse, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety

disorder. In the differential diagnosis, the clinician should consider

normal shyness, panic disorder, agoraphobia, simple phobia, body

dysmorphic disorder, and schizophrenia. Social anxiety disorder begins

at an average age of 13 yrs (rarely after 25) and is a lifelong

condition. Psychotherapy, behavior therapy, and psychopharmacologic

therapy are effective. The serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which are

generally well tolerated, are considered 1st-line therapy. An

integrated, individualized treatment plan is needed. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Comorbidity; *Differential Diagnosis; *Social Anxiety;

*Social Phobia; *Treatment

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20010613

Accession Number: 2001-14263-002

Number of Citations in Source: 30

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63-002">Social anxiety disorder: How to help.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 15

Title: Principal and additional DSM-IV disorders for which outpatients

seek treatment.

Author(s): Zimmerman, Mark, Bayside Medical Building, Providence,

RI, US

Mattia, Jill I.

Source: Psychiatric Services, Vol 51(10), Oct 2000. pp. 1299-1304.

Journal URL: http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/

Publisher: US: American Psychiatric Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.appi.org

ISSN: 1075-2730 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1176/appi.ps.51.10.1299

Language: English

Keywords: axis I disorder, motivation to seek treatment,

outpatients

Abstract: Determined which axis I psychiatric disorders motivate

patients to seek treatment. 400 outpatients at a hospital-affiliated,

community-based, psychiatric clinical practice were interviewed with the

Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of

Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). For patients with more than 1 disorder,

the diagnoses were assigned as principal or additional according to the

DSM-IV convention of whether it was the patient's stated primary reason

for presenting for treatment or was an additional disorder. For all

current disorders, patients were asked whether the symptoms of each

diagnosed disorder were a reason, or 1 of the reasons, for seeking

treatment. Nearly all patients with major depression wanted treatment

for this disorder, and more than 85% of patients with panic disorder,

posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder

indicated that the symptoms of these disorders were a reason for seeking

treatment. Half to two-thirds of patients with social phobia,

obsessive-compulsive disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, body

dysmorphic disorder, and substance use disorders reported that the

symptoms of these disorders were a reason for seeking treatment. Only

30% of those with specific phobia indicated that their phobic fears were

a reason for seeking treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA,

all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Health Care Seeking Behavior; *Mental Disorders;

*Motivation

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Outpatient (60)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Tests & Measures: Brief Symptom Inventory

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20010124

Accession Number: 2000-02602-010

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02-010">Principal and additional DSM-IV disorders for which outpatients

seek treatment.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 16

Translated Title: A self-rating scale of body image.

Author(s): Lu, Longguang, Nanjing Medical U, Brain Disorders Hosp,

Nanjing, China

Chen, Tunong

Cheng, Jianguo

Lin, Wangui

Source: Chinese Mental Health Journal, Vol 14(5), Sep 2000. pp. 299-302.

Publisher: China: Chinese Mental Health

Publisher URL: http://www.camh.org.cn/

ISSN: 1000-6729 (Print)

Language: Chinese

Keywords: construction & reliability & validity of Chinese

Self-Rating Scale of Body Dysmorphic Disorder, patients with neurosis vs

body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Constructed and tested the Chinese Self-Rating Scale of

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (CSSBDD). 100 patients with self-defined body

dysmorphic disorder (BDD), 103 patients with neurosis diagnosed

according to the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders--2nd

Edition--Revised (CCMD-2), and 100 normals were assessed with the

CSSBDD. The scale covered 8 dimensions: self-defined imagined defect,

cognition of appearance, concern for appearance, impairment of emotions,

social activity, change of appearance, objective evaluation, and causes

of BDD, 23 items, and 50 factors. Ss' average scores of the items of the

CSSBDD were compared among groups. Analyses of test-retest reliability,

clinical diagnosis validity, dynamic cluster analysis, discrimination

analysis, split-half analysis, and logistic regression analysis were

used. The results show that the CSSBDD has satisfactory reliability and

stability, high sensitivity and specificity in the discrimination of Ss

with BDD from normals and between Ss with BDD and Ss with neurosis, and

good internal homology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all

rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image; *Rating Scales;

*Self Report; *Test Construction; Body Image Disturbances; Neurosis;

Test Reliability; Test Validity

Classification: Clinical Psychological Testing (2224)

Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Location: China

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20010207

Accession Number: 2000-02593-001

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93-001">A self-rating scale of body image.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 17

Title: Characterization of preadolescent girls' body-image as revealed

through a sentence completion instrument.

Author(s): Cerrone, Gerald H., The Union Inst., US

Source: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

and Engineering, Vol 61(3-B), Sep 2000. pp. 1628.

Publisher: US: Univ Microfilms International

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN: 0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number: AAI9963986

Language: English

Keywords: evaluation of sentence completion instrument to

characterize body image, preadolescent girls

Abstract: Body image is usually defined as an individual's mental

picture of her appearance and, to a degree, her preoccupation with her

appearance. Body image problems which have led to diagnoses such as body

dysmorphic disorder, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa have mainly

been studied in adult and adolescent populations. A preliminary study

was conducted using a projective screening instrument designed and

administered to 216 preadolescent girls to help identify girls who may

be developing a negative body image. The responses were qualitatively

analyzed and percentages calculated by grade level and within grade

levels. Frequency of negative body image/affect responses were collated

to reflect most common themes associated with each projective sentence

stem. Six categories were created a priori to serve as a quick reference

guide for clinicians who wish to identify specific clusters of behaviors

for further exploration. The six categories (Negative Affect/Depressed

Feelings; Perception by Others; Perception of Self; Desire; Body Weight;

and Role-Model) are composed of sentence stems which tap a specific area

of concern related to body image. Results showed that there was no

qualitative difference in negative responses to the Incomplete Sentence

Blanks (ISB) instrument between fourth and fifth grade girls. There was,

however, higher negative percentages noted among sixth grade

respondents. Furthermore, responses indicated that motivation to change

weight and appearance may be driven by a fear of fat, rather than a

desire to be thin. However, further research is needed to support this

finding. The limitations of this projective screening tool is that it

may not be used as a diagnostic measure because of an absence of

established norms. In spite of this limitation, the ISB instrument holds

great promise as a projective tool and is beneficial for identifying

risk factors associated with an eating disorder, body image problems,

and depressed feelings related to body image. (PsycINFO Database Record

(c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image; *Human Females; *Sentence Completion Tests

Classification: Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

School Age (6-12 yrs) (180)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Dissertation Abstract; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20010411

Accession Number: 2000-95018-276

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18-276">Characterization of preadolescent girls' body-image as revealed

through a sentence completion instrument.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 18

Title: Characteristics of memory dysfunction in body dysmorphic

disorder.

Author(s): Deckersbach, Thilo, Massachusetts General Hosp, Dept of

Psychiatry, Boston, MA, US

Savage, Cary R.

Phillips, Katharine A.

Wilhelm, Sabine

Buhlmann, Ulrike

Rauch, Scott L.

Baer, Lee

Jenike, Michael A.

Source: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Vol

6(6), Sep 2000. pp. 673-681.

Journal URL:

http://www.cambridge.org/uk/journals/journal_catalogue.asp?mnemonic=ins

Publisher: US: Cambridge Univ Press

Publisher URL: http://www.cup.org

ISSN: 1355-6177 (Print)

1469-7661 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1017/S1355617700666055

Language: English

Keywords: organizational encoding strategies & verbal & nonverbal

free recall, adults with body dysmorphic disorder, implications for

relationship to obsessive compulsive disorder

Abstract: Although body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is receiving

increasing empirical attention, very little is known about

neuropsychological deficits in this disorder. The current study

investigated the nature of memory dysfunction in BDD, including the

relationships between encoding strategies and verbal and nonverbal

memory performance. 17 patients (mean age 35.3 yrs) with BDD and 17

healthy controls were evaluated using the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure

Test and the California Verbal Learning Test. BDD patients differed

significantly from healthy controls on verbal and nonverbal learning and

memory indices. Multiple regression analyses revealed that group

differences in free recall were statistically mediated by deficits in

organizational strategies in the BDD cohort. These findings are similar

to patterns previously observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),

suggesting a potential relationship between OCD and BDD. Studies in both

groups have shown that verbal and nonverbal memory deficits are affected

by impaired strategic processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005

APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Free Recall; *Human

Information Storage; Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer-Reviewed Status-Unknown

Release Date: 20000927

Correction Date: 20050919

Accession Number: 2000-05998-005

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98-005">Characteristics of memory dysfunction in body dysmorphic

disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 19

Title: Characterization of trichotillomania: A phenomenological model

with clinical relevance to obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

Author(s): O'Sullivan, Richard L., Harvard Medical School, Dept of

Psychiatry, Boston, MA, US

Mansueto, Charles S.

Lerner, Ethan A.

Miguel, Euripedes C.

Source: Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol 23(3), Sep 2000. pp.

587-604.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623373/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0193-953X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70182-9

Language: English

Keywords: characteristics & clinical assessment model of

trichotillomania & application to other obsessive-compulsive spectrum

disorders

Abstract: Trichotillomania (TTM) is a complex condition, the

behavioral hallmark of which is clinically significant and

psychologically distressing hair pulling. Although Diagnostic and

Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) defines TTM as an

impulse control disorder, clinical experience and empiric data suggest

that TTM is a heterogeneous condition that shares phenomenologic

similarities with many conditions, often termed obsessive-compulsive

spectrum disorders, characterized by repetitive behavior or thoughts. A

selective overview of TTM is presented as context for presentation of a

synthetic heuristic clinical assessment model, emphasizing

phenomenologic assessment of TTM, which expands on several previous

lines of phenomenologic research. The assessment model is applied to

several other clinical conditions often regarded as being on a continuum

of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, including Tourette syndrome,

skin picking, body dysmorphic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder,

and olfactory reference syndrome. The authors have found this approach

clinically useful as a means by which clinicians can organize complex

clinical information on frequently overlapping disorders in a systematic

way. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Measurement; *Models; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder;

*Trichotillomania

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20001101

Accession Number: 2000-05745-008

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45-008">Characterization of trichotillomania: A phenomenological model

with clinical relevance to obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 20

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Allen, Andrea, Mt Sinai School of Medicine, Dept of

Psychiatry, Compulsive, Impulsive, & Anxiety Disorders Program, New

York, NY, US

Hollander, Eric

Source: Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol 23(3), Sep 2000. pp.

617-628.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623373/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0193-953X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70184-2

Language: English

Keywords: characteristics & comorbidities & treatment of body

dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Body dysmorphic disorder, which is characterized by a

preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance, was first

recognized as a distinct disorder in 1987 in the Diagnostic and

Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R). In the

relatively brief time since this recognition, great strides have been

made in the understanding of its characteristics, comorbidities, and

treatment. An overview of the characteristics and comorbidities is

provided, while the relationship of body dysmorphic disorder to other

disorders, particularly obsessive-compulsive disorder, is examined.

First-line therapies for body dysmorphic disorder (i.e., serotonin

reuptake inhibitor and cognitive-behavioral therapies) also are

discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Comorbidity; *Symptoms;

*Treatment; Cognitive Therapy; Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20001101

Accession Number: 2000-05745-010

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45-010">Body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 21

Title: Behavioral, cognitive, and family therapy for

obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

Author(s): Neziroglu, Fugen, Bio-Behavioral Inst, Dept of

Biopsychosocial Research, Great Neck, NY, US

Hsia, Curtis

Yaryura-Tobias, Jose A.

Source: Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol 23(3), Sep 2000. pp.

657-670.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623373/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0193-953X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70187-8

Language: English

Keywords: cognitive & behavioral & family therapy,

obsessive-compulsive & other spectrum disorders

Abstract: Researchers have started to recognize the overlap of

obsessive-compulsive disorder with other disorders previously not

categorized together; however, because of the similarity in symptoms,

treatment response, and family history, an obsessive-compulsive disorder

spectrum has gained recognition. Disorders that may fall within the

obsessive-compulsive spectrum include (but are not limited to)

obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder,

hypochondriasis, trichotillomania, and eating disorders. An overview of

current cognitive, behavioral, and family treatment of

obsessive-compulsive disorder is given, and these treatments as applied

to other disorders within the spectrum are discussed. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Therapy; *Cognitive Therapy; *Family Therapy;

*Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Classification: Psychotherapy & Psychotherapeutic Counseling (3310)

Population: Human (10)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20001101

Accession Number: 2000-05745-013

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45-013">Behavioral, cognitive, and family therapy for

obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 22

Title: Muscle dysmorphia in male weightlifters: A case-control study.

Author(s): Olivardia, Roberto, McLean Hosp, Biological Psychiatry

Lab, Belmont, MA, US

Pope, Harrison G. Jr.

Hudson, James I.

Source: American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 157(8), Aug 2000. pp.

1291-1296.

Journal URL: http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/

Publisher: US: American Psychiatric Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.appi.org

ISSN: 0002-953X (Print)

1535-7228 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1176/appi.ajp.157.8.1291

Language: English

Keywords: muscle dysmorphia, male weightlifters

Abstract: Muscle dysmorphia is a form of body dysmorphic disorder

in which individuals develop a pathological preoccupation with their

muscularity. The authors interviewed 24 men (mean age 25.4 yrs) with

muscle dysmorphia and 30 normal comparison weightlifters (mean age 25.4

yrs), using a battery of demographic, psychiatric, and physical

measures. The results show that the men with muscle dysmorphia differed

significantly from the normal comparison weightlifters on numerous

measures, including body dissatisfaction, eating attitudes, prevalence

of anabolic steroid use, and lifetime prevalence of Diagnostic and

Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) mood, anxiety, and

eating disorders. The men with muscle dysmorphia frequently described

shame, embarrassment, and impairment of social and occupational

functioning in association with their condition. By contrast, normal

weightlifters displayed little pathology. In an a posteriori analysis,

the normal weightlifters proved closely comparable to a group of male

college students recruited as a normal comparison group in an earlier

study. It is concluded that muscle dysmorphia appears to be a valid

diagnostic entity, possibly related to a larger group of disorders, and

is associated with striking and stereotypical features. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Human Males; *Muscles;

*Weightlifting

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000823

Accession Number: 2000-05044-014

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Cut and Paste: <A

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44-014">Muscle dysmorphia in male weightlifters: A case-control

study.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 23

Title: The relationship of obsessive-compulsive disorder to possible

spectrum disorders: Results from a family study.

Author(s): Bienvenu, O. Joseph, Johns Hopkins U School of Medicine,

Dept of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Baltimore, MD, US

Samuels, Jack F.

Riddle, Mark A.

Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

Liang, Kung-Yee

Cullen, Bernadette A. M.

Grados, Marco A.

Nestadt, Gerald

Source: Biological Psychiatry, Vol 48(4), Aug 2000. pp. 287-293.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/505750/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0006-3223 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00831-3

Language: English

Keywords: relation of obsessive-compulsive disorder to somatoform

& eating & grooming & other impulse control disorders, patients with

obsessive compulsive disorder & 1st-degree relatives

Abstract: The familial relationship between obsessive-compulsive

disorder (OCD) and "obsessive compulsive spectrum" disorders is unclear.

The authors investigated the relationship of OCD to somatoform disorders

(body dysmorphic disorder [BDD] and hypochondriasis), eating disorders

(e.g., anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa), pathologic "grooming"

conditions (e.g., nail biting, skin picking, trichotillomania), and

other impulse control disorders (e.g., kleptomania, pathologic gambling,

pyromania) using blinded family study methodology. 80 case and 73

control probands, as well as 343 case and 300 control first-degree

relatives, were examined with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and

Schizophrenia Lifetime Anxiety version. Two experienced psychiatrists

independently reviewed all diagnostic information and made final

consensus diagnoses using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria. Body dysmorphic disorder,

hypochondriasis, any eating disorder, and any grooming condition

occurred more frequently in case probands. In addition, BDD either

somatoform disorder, and any grooming conditions occurred more

frequently in case relatives, whether or not case probands also had the

same diagnosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Disorders; *Eating Disorders; *Impulse Control

Disorders; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; *Somatoform Disorders;

Comorbidity; Family Members

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: US

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

School Age (6-12 yrs) (180)

Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000906

Accession Number: 2000-12238-004

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-122

38-004">The relationship of obsessive-compulsive disorder to possible

spectrum disorders: Results from a family study.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 24

Title: The links between body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders.

Author(s): Jolanta, J. Rabe-Jablonska, Medical U of Lodz, Dept of

Psychiatry, Lodz, Poland

Tomasz, M. Sobow

Source: European Psychiatry, Vol 15(5), Aug 2000. pp. 302-305.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/505814/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0924-9338 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0924-9338(00)00398-9

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder in period preceding onset of

eating disorder symptoms, 12-21 yr old females with anorexia or bulimia

Abstract: Examined the period preceding symptoms of either

anorexia or bulimia nervosa for a body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) period,

and evaluated the prevalence of BDD symptoms in a control group of girls

without any eating disorder. 93 female 12-21 yr olds were included in

the study (36 with anorexia nervosa, 17 with bulimia nervosa and 40

healthy controls). Measures were the Structured Clinical Interview,

including the BDD module, and a novel questionnaire for the presence of

preceding life events. The results showed that the symptoms of BDD

existed in 25% of anorexia nervosa sufferers for at least 6 mo before a

clear eating disorder picture emerged. Moreover, other mental disorders

were also present among these patients. The results may support the idea

that BDD and anorexia nervosa both belong to either obsessive compulsive

disorder or affective disorders spectra. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Anorexia Nervosa; *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Bulimia;

*Comorbidity; *Premorbidity; Patient History

Classification: Eating Disorders (3260)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Inpatient (50)

Outpatient (60)

Location: Poland

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

School Age (6-12 yrs) (180)

Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Methodology: Empirical Study; Longitudinal Study; Retrospective Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20001101

Accession Number: 2000-02569-003

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69-003">The links between body dysmorphic disorder and eating

disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 25

Title: Venlafaxine and vivid dreaming.

Author(s): Zullino, Daniele F., Dept U de Psychiatrie Adulte,

Prilly-Lausanne, Switzerland

Riquier, Françoise

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 61(8), Aug 2000. pp. 600.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: venlafaxine treatment & vivid dreams, 35-yr-old female

with dysmorphophobia & depressive symptoms

Abstract: It is noted that venlafaxine is a

serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor whose serotonergic activity

produces a dose-related suppression of REM sleep and would therefore be

expected to reduce or suppress dream activity. In contrast to this

expectation the authors report the case of vivid nightmares after the

introduction of venlafaxine in a 35-yr-old female with known

dysmorphophobia and depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Depression (Emotion);

*Dreaming; *Drug Therapy; *Side Effects (Drug); Venlafaxine

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Document Type: Letter

Release Date: 20000920

Accession Number: 2000-05573-009

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73-009">Venlafaxine and vivid dreaming.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 26

Title: Personality disorders and traits in patients with body

dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Butler Hosp, Providence, RI, US

McElroy, Susan L.

Source: Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol 41(4), Jul-Aug 2000. pp. 229-236.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623360/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0010-440X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1053/comp.2000.7429

Language: English

Keywords: personality disorders & traits, 18-80 yr old patients

with body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have

been postulated to have schizoid, narcissistic, and obsessional

personality traits and to be sensitive, introverted, perfectionistic,

and insecure. However, data on personality traits and disorders in BDD

are limited. This study assessed 148 Ss (aged 18-80 yrs) with BDD, 26 of

whom participated in a fluvoxamine treatment study; 74 Ss were assessed

for personality disorders with the Structured Clinical Interview for

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-Revised

(DSM-III-R) Personality Disorders, 100 Ss completed the NEO-Five Factor

Inventory (NEO-FFI), and 51 Ss completed the Rathus Assertiveness Scale.

42 Ss (57%) had 1 or more personality disorders, with avoidant

personality disorder (43%) being most common, followed by dependent

(15%), obsessive-compulsive (14%), and paranoid (14%) personality

disorders. On the NEO-FFI, the mean scores were in the very high range

for neuroticism, the low range for extraversion and conscientiousness,

the low-average range for agreeableness, and the average range for

openness to experience. On the Rathus Assertiveness Scale, the mean

score was -17.1±32.0 for women and -17.0±32.3 for men. Among

fluvoxamine responders, the number of personality disorders

significantly decreased between the study baseline and endpoint.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Comorbidity; *Personality

Disorders; *Personality Traits

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Aged (65 yrs & older) (380)

Conference: Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association,

150th, May, 1997, San Diego, CA, US

Conference Notes: Presented at the aforementioned meeting.

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000816

Accession Number: 2000-02334-001

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34-001">Personality disorders and traits in patients with body

dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 27

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder: A review of theory and research and an

investigation of its relationship to covert narcissism.

Author(s): Paley, Sarida Ann, California School Of Professional

Psychology - Berkeley/Alameda, US

Source: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

and Engineering, Vol 61(1-B), Jul 2000. pp. 544.

Publisher: US: Univ Microfilms International

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN: 0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number: AAI9958370

Language: English

Keywords: theory & research on body dysmorphic disorder & its

relationship to covert narcissism

Abstract: Within American "mainstream" culture, concern about

physical appearance is an extremely common phenomenon. Psychological

research in the field of body image as well as the popular media confirm

that physical image is an emphasized value and a very prevalent concern

for both men and women. Against the backdrop of this

appearance-conscious culture lies a continuum of body image concerns and

disturbances. Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) lies at the far end of this

spectrum with respect to psychological pathology. This study first

presents a comprehensive review of this relatively unknown and

under-recognized disorder with the goal of contributing to advances in

its diagnosis and treatment. The study then explores the main hypothesis

that Body Dysmorphic Disorder may have some underlying narcissistic and

grandiose elements which indicate a core disturbance of the self The

attempt to identify narcissistic elements in Body Dysmorphic Disorder is

based on the observed clinical and conceptual similarities between BDD

and a lesser known form of narcissism known as "covert" or

"hypervigilant" narcissism. The inherent implications of this hypothesis

for treatment and diagnosis are then discussed. The dissertation study

is based on a conceptual-analytic design, and the methods by which it is

conducted involve an analysis and integration of both conceptual and

clinical material. Arguments for the main hypothesis are grounded in

psychodynamic theory about the self and its structure and also draw upon

empirical studies and qualitative research. Psychoanalytic and

self-psychological perspectives on narcissism, shame, and the

"archaic-grandiose self" inform the hypothesis-building section of this

dissertation. Clinical material is then reviewed for examples which may

support the proposed connection between narcissism and BDD. Finally,

evidence for a connection between the two disorders is explored through

a review of closely related body image disorders and their relationship

to narcissism. This study is exploratory in nature. This implies that a

definitive argument for the presence of narcissism within BDD is not

advanced. Moreover, contradictory evidence that may argue against the

linking of narcissism and BDD is also included. It is believed that the

clinical and conceptual similarities between BDD and covert narcissism

that are forwarded in this study are sufficient to warrant further

empirical attention and that important diagnostic and treatment

implications may be gleaned from the recognition of these similarities.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Experimentation;

*Narcissism; *Theories

Classification: Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Publication Type: Dissertation Abstract; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20010314

Accession Number: 2000-95014-243

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14-243">Body dysmorphic disorder: A review of theory and research and an

investigation of its relationship to covert narcissism.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 28

Title: La projection: Instrument d'adolescence.

Translated Title: Projection: An adolescent instrument.

Author(s): Birraux, Annie

Source: Revue Française de Psychanalyse, Vol 64(3), Jul-Sep 2000. pp.

693-704.

Journal URL: http://www.spp.asso.fr/Publications/Rfp/index.htm

Publisher: France: Presses Universitaires de France

Publisher URL: http://www.puf.com

ISSN: 0035-2942 (Print)

Language: French

Keywords: function of projection, 13 yr old female with

dysmorphophobia

Abstract: Examines the uses and function of the instrument of

projection in adolescence. The author shows that, while participating in

symptoms that do not lead to pathology, projection is nevertheless a

defense mechanism. Based on a topology of phobias, the author

demonstrates that the function of projection for each subject depends on

the integration of his/her limits and of his/her individuation. The

forms of projection in adolescence vary from the range of simple phobias

to that of sensitive susceptibilities reminiscent of paranoias, passing

through dysmorphophobias or severe hypochondriases. The author regrets

that the notion of projection is still fraught with uncertainties, which

do not help its clinic. A clinical example of a 13-yr old,

dysmorphophobic female adolescent illustrates the author's theme.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Projection (Defense

Mechanism)

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20001108

Accession Number: 2000-05526-001

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26-001">La projection: Instrument d'adolescence.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 29

Title: Outcome of cosmetic surgery and 'DIY' surgery in patients with

body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Veale, David, U London, University Coll, Royal Free & U

Coll Medical School, Dept of Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences, London,

England

Source: Psychiatric Bulletin, Vol 24(6), Jun 2000. pp. 218-221.

Journal URL: http://pb.rcpsych.org/

Publisher: United Kingdom: Royal College of Psychiatrists

Publisher URL: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/

ISSN: 0955-6036 (Print)

1472-1473 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1192/pb.24.6.218

Language: English

Keywords: outcome of & satisfaction with cosmetic surgery vs DIY

self-performed surgery, 22-63 yr olds with body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Little is known about the outcome of cosmetic surgery in

patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Self-reported outcome was

collected on 25 patients (aged 22-63 yrs) with BDD who at the time of

psychiatric assessment had reported that they had had cosmetic surgery

in the past. 25 patients with BDD had a total of 46 procedures. The

worst outcome was found in those who had had rhinoplasty and those with

repeated operations. Mammoplasty and pinnaplasty was associated with

higher degrees of satisfaction. Nine patients with BDD, either in

desperation at being turned down for cosmetic surgery or because they

could not afford it, had performed their own "DIY" surgery in which they

attempted by their own hand to alter their appearance dramatically. The

authors conclude that cosmetic surgery cannot at present be recommended

for patients with BDD. However, patients turned down for surgery or who

cannot afford it, may try to alter their appearance by themselves.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Plastic Surgery; *Quality of

Life; *Satisfaction; *Self Mutilation

Classification: Medical Treatment of Physical Illness (3363)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: United Kingdom

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000719

Accession Number: 2000-07984-004

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84-004">Outcome of cosmetic surgery and 'DIY' surgery in patients with

body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 30

Title: Quality of life for patients with body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Brown U, Dept of Psychiatry &

Human Behavior, Providence, RI, US

Source: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol 188(3), Mar 2000. pp.

170-175.

Journal URL: http://www.jonmd.com/

Publisher: US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Publisher URL: http://www.lww.com/

ISSN: 0022-3018 (Print)

1539-736X (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1097/00005053-200003000-00007

Language: English

Keywords: quality of life & mental health, 17-73 yr old

outpatients with body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common,

distressing, and impairing disorder. Quality of life in BDD, however,

has not been investigated. In this study, 62 consecutive outpatients

(aged 17-73 yrs) with BDD were evaluated with the self-report Medical

Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and other

scales. SF-36 scores were descriptively compared to published norms for

several populations. Physical-health-related quality of life scores were

generally worse than general US population norms and better than norms

for outpatients with a medical illness or depression. However, in all

mental health domains, BDD Ss' scores were notably worse than norms for

the general US population and for patients with depression, diabetes, or

a recent myocardial infarction. More severe BDD symptoms and greater

delusionality were associated with poorer mental-health-related quality

of life. These results indicate that patients with BDD have notably poor

mental health status and mental-health-related quality of life.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Mental Health; *Quality of

Life

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Outpatient (60)

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Aged (65 yrs & older) (380)

Conference: Annual Meeting of the American Psychological

Association, 152nd, May, 1999, Washington, DC, US

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000501

Accession Number: 2000-08212-007

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12-007">Quality of life for patients with body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 31

Title: 'Everybody looks at my pubic bone'--A case report of an

adolescent patient with body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Sobanski, E., Central Inst of Mental Health, Dept of

Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Mannheim, Germany

Schmidt, M. H.

Source: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol 101(1), Jan 2000. pp. 80-82.

Journal URL: http://www.blackwellmunksgaard.com/actapsych

Publisher: United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

Publisher URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

ISSN: 0001-690X (Print)

1600-0447 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1034/j.1600-0447.2000.101001080.x

Language: English

Keywords: diagnosis & treatment with doxepine & exposure &

response prevention, 16 yr old female with body dysmorphic disorder &

comorbid depression

Abstract: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) was described for the

first time more than 100 yrs ago, but it is still unknown to many

clinicians. Although the onset usually occurs during adolescence, BDD

has received little attention in the adolescent psychiatric literature.

The case and treatment of a 16-yr-old female patient is described. The

patient, suffering from the overvalued belief of a dislocated pubic

bone, a comorbid mild depressive episode, BDD associated rituals and

social avoidance, was treated successfully with a combination of

exposure and response prevention and 125 mg/day of doxepine. The case

reports shows that it is possible to obtain a satisfying outcome if BDD

is diagnosed early in the course and treated appropriately. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Therapy; *Body Image Disturbances;

*Comorbidity; *Drug Therapy; *Psychodiagnosis; Antidepressant Drugs;

Exposure Therapy; Major Depression

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000401

Accession Number: 2000-13397-010

Number of Citations in Source: 10

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-133

97-010">'Everybody looks at my pubic bone'--A case report of an

adolescent patient with body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 32

Title: ''Everybody looks at my pubic bone''--A case report of an

adolescent patient with body dysmorphic disorder'': Comment.

Author(s): Veale, David, Grovelands Priory Hosp, London, England

Source: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol 101(1), Jan 2000. pp. 82.

Journal URL: http://www.blackwellmunksgaard.com/actapsych

Publisher: United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

Publisher URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

ISSN: 0001-690X (Print)

1600-0447 (Electronic)

Language: English

Keywords: diagnosis & treatment with doxepine & exposure &

response prevention, 16 yr old female with body dysmorphic disorder &

comorbid depression, comment

Abstract: Comments on the article by E. Sobanski and M. H. Schmidt

(see record 2000-13397-010) which describes the case of a 16-yr-old

female with body dysmorphic disorder who was successfully treated with a

standard program of behavior therapy, namely exposure and response

prevention, in combination with doxepine. Veale suggests that this

behavior therapy may be less successful in those patients who are more

concerned with an internal aversion toward their appearance as opposed

to an external fear of negative evaluation of others. Such patients may

require a more cognitive approach, with the identification of their core

beliefs about their appearance and the use of rational role-plays and

behavioral experiments. No data exists on whether cognitive-behavioral

therapy and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor enhance efficacy, especially

when there is a comorbid depression, but this is the best current

pragmatic approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Therapy; *Body Image Disturbances;

*Comorbidity; *Drug Therapy; *Psychodiagnosis; Antidepressant Drugs;

Exposure Therapy; Major Depression

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Document Type: Comment/Reply

Release Date: 20000401

Accession Number: 2000-13397-011

Number of Citations in Source: 3

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-133

97-011">''Everybody looks at my pubic bone''--A case report of an

adolescent patient with body dysmorphic disorder'': Comment.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 33

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder: A review of the current knowledge.

Author(s): Sobanski, Esther, Central Inst of Mental Health, Dept of

Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Mannheim, Germany

Schmidt, Martin H.

Source: Child Psychology & Psychiatry Review, Vol 5(1), 2000. pp. 17-24.

Journal URL:

http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1475-357X

Publisher: United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

Publisher URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

ISSN: 1360-6417 (Print)

1475-3588 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1017/S1360641799009533

Language: English

Keywords: historical aspects & phenomenology & comorbidity &

epidemiology & aetiological theories & instruments for the assessment of

body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Presents an overview of the available scientific

literature based on a MEDLINE database of Body Dysmorphic Disorder

(BDD), an excessive preoccupation with an imagined, or real, slight

defect in normal physical appearance. The disorder, which usually begins

during adolescence, tends to be chronic, and probably is much more

common than is usually thought. The article provides information about

historical aspects, epidemiology, clinical features, aetiology, and

instruments for assessing BDD. The relationship of BDD with other

psychiatric disorders such as depression, obsessive-compulsive

disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders and

personality disorders is discussed. Aetiological theories, including

psychological and neurobiological explanations, are reviewed. Finally,

psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment approaches are

presented with special regard to treatment with serotonin-reuptake

inhibitors, behavioral therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Comorbidity; *Epidemiology;

*Etiology; Measurement; Treatment

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer-Reviewed Status-Unknown

Release Date: 20000501

Correction Date: 20050919

Accession Number: 2000-07392-003

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92-003">Body dysmorphic disorder: A review of the current knowledge.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 34

Title: Comorbid personality impairment in body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Cohen, Lisa J., Beth Israel Medical Ctr, Dept of

Psychiatry, New York, NY, US

Kingston, Priscilla

Bell, Andrew

Kwon, Jee

Aronowitz, Bonnie

Hollander, Eric

Source: Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol 41(1), Jan-Feb 2000. pp. 4-12.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623360/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0010-440X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0010-440X(00)90124-X

Language: English

Keywords: comorbid personality impairment & validity of

Dimensional Assessment of Personality Impairment instrument,

clomipramine vs desipramine treated 19-55 yr olds with body dysmorphic

disorder

Abstract: Evaluated personality impairment in 17 body dysmorphic

disorder (BDD) patients (aged 19-55 yrs) treated with clomipramine vs

desipramine. Semistructured interviews were administered using both

Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID II) and Dimensional

Assessment of Personality Impairment (DAPI) methods. Personality

measures were correlated with severity of BDD and depressive symptoms,

age, duration of illness, and response to treatment. A secondary aim of

the study was to provide preliminary validation for the DAPI. BDD

patients showed considerable personality pathology. With regard to the

DAPI, the results provided preliminary evidence of good reliability and

validity. Moreover, both personality measures were highly

intercorrelated. Although SCID II diagnoses correlated with baseline

depression (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression) scores, there were few

other significant correlations between personality and other clinical

variables. Of note, however, treatment responders showed less

personality impairment than nonresponders. That personality measures

were highly intercorrelated but, on the whole, not well correlated with

other clinical measures supports the distinct and dissociable nature of

personality phenomena in BDD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA,

all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Comorbidity; *Interviews;

*Personality Disorders; *Test Validity; Chlorimipramine; Desipramine;

Drug Therapy; Test Reliability

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Tests & Measures: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000301

Accession Number: 2000-13353-001

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Cut and Paste: <A

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53-001">Comorbid personality impairment in body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 35

Title: Somatoform disorders.

Author(s): Koopman, Cheryl, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, US

Gill, Michele, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences,

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, US

Source: Encyclopedia of psychology, Vol. 7. Kazdin, Alan E. (Ed)

; pp. 392-396.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2000. 537 pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press, 2000. 537 pp.

ISBN: 1-55798-656-8 (hardcover)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10522-170

Language: English

Keywords: somatoform disorders

Abstract: (from the create) This entry includes the following

topics: somatization disorder; diagnostic criteria; conversion disorder;

diagnostic criteria; hypochondriasis; diagnostic criteria; pain

disorder; diagnostic criteria; body dysmorphic disorder; diagnostic

criteria; undifferentiated somatoform disorder; somatoform disorder not

otherwise specified; prevalence of somatoform disorders; differential

diagnosis; clinical management; etiological factors in somatoform

disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Somatoform Disorders

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Encyclopedia; Print

Document Type: Encyclopedia Entry

Book Type: Reference Book

Release Date: 20040101

Correction Date: 20050907

Accession Number: 2004-12705-170

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05-170">Somatoform disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 36

Title: Connection between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body

dysmorphic disorder.

Series Title: Personality and clinical psychology series

Author(s): Philips, Katharine A., Brown U, School of Medicine, Dept

of Psychiatry, Butler Hosp, Providence, RI, US

Source: Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Contemporary issues in

treatment. Goodman, Wayne K. (Ed); Rudorfer, Matthew V. (Ed); Maser,

Jack D. (Ed)

; pp. 23-41.

Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2000. xxii, 661

pp.

ISBN: 0-8058-2837-0 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic & obsessive compulsive disorder

Abstract: (from the chapter) Data suggests that body dysmorphic

disorder (BDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have more

similarities than differences and are probably closely related. It is

reasonable to conceptualize BDD as an OCD-spectrum disorder. Indeed, it

is likely that BDD will be shown to be more closely related to OCD than

will many of the disorders included in this putative spectrum. Their

apparent differences, however, suggest that they are not identical

disorders. Topics discussed include the historical perspective; the

question, is BDD an OCD-spectrum disorder; and evidence for a connection

between BDD and OCD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20000201

Accession Number: 1999-04449-002

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-044

49-002">Connection between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body

dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 37

Title: Cognitive and behavioral treatment of obsessive-compulsive

spectrum disorders.

Series Title: Personality and clinical psychology series

Author(s): Neziroglu, Fugen A., Inst for Bio-behavioral Therapy &

Research, Great Neck, NY, US

Stevens, Kevin P.

Liquori, Brett

Yaryura-Tobias, Jose A.

Source: Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Contemporary issues in

treatment. Goodman, Wayne K. (Ed); Rudorfer, Matthew V. (Ed); Maser,

Jack D. (Ed)

; pp. 233-255.

Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2000. xxii, 661

pp.

ISBN: 0-8058-2837-0 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: cognitive & exposure based behavioral treatment of

obsessive compulsive & body dysmorphic disorder & hypochondriasis &

trichotillomania

Abstract: (from the chapter) This chapter is devoted to an

explication of the cognitive- and exposure-based behavioral treatment of

several obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum disorders. The discussion is

confined to the following disorders, which have been the most

represented within the behavioral literature: OC disorder, body

dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis, and trichotillomania. For each

disorder, a description of phenomenology is given, followed by a brief

review of current epidemiological estimates. Finally, a presentation of

the cognitive and behavioral treatment indicated is provided, along with

results of any relevant empirical outcome studies. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Therapy; *Body Image Disturbances; *Cognitive

Therapy; *Disorders; *Trichotillomania; Hypochondriasis; Obsessive

Compulsive Disorder

Classification: Psychotherapy & Psychotherapeutic Counseling (3310)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20000201

Accession Number: 1999-04449-013

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-044

49-013">Cognitive and behavioral treatment of obsessive-compulsive

spectrum disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 38

Title: Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Contemporary issues in treatment.

Series Title: Personality and clinical psychology series

Author(s): Goodman, Wayne K., (Ed), U Florida, Coll of Medicine,

Dept of Psychiatry, Gainesville, FL, US

Rudorfer, Matthew V., (Ed)

Maser, Jack D., (Ed)

Source: Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2000.

xxii, 661 pp.

ISBN: 0-8058-2837-0 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: etiology & diagnosis & assessment & treatment of

obsessive compulsive disorder

Abstract: (from the jacket) Obsessive-compulsive disorder is now

recognized to be a serious and chronic illness affecting more than 2% of

the population. While the last decade has witnessed many advances on

both the pharmacological and the behavioral fronts, fewer than 50% of

cases benefit significantly from currently available treatments. In this

volume, leading authorities offer an overview of etiology, diagnosis,

assessment, and the latest cognitive-behavioral, biological, and

combined approaches to intervention. A special focus is

treatment-resistant illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all

rights reserved)

Subjects: *Etiology; *Measurement; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder;

*Psychodiagnosis; *Treatment

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book

Release Date: 20000201

Accession Number: 1999-04449-000

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-044

49-000">Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Contemporary issues in

treatment.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 39

Title: Obsessive-compulsive disorders: A complete guide to getting well

and staying well.

Author(s): Penzel, Frederick

Source: New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press, 2000. xvii, 428 pp.

ISBN: 0-19-514092-3 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorders & behavior & drug

therapies & treatments of children with the disorders & advice for

families of sufferers

Abstract: (from the jacket) Discusses the spectrum of

obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCDs), from the classic form

characterized by the intrusive, repetitive, and often unpleasant

thoughts, to body dysmorphic disorder ("imagined ugliness"),

trichotillomania (compulsive hair pulling), compulsive skin picking, and

nail biting. The author takes the reader through each step of the most

effective behavioral therapies, detailing how progress is made and how

to avoid relapse. He also offers a discussion of medication--how

medication is used as part of the overall treatment, its effect on

pregnancy, how to choose the best medicine, and how to know if it is

working. Also, the author discusses the treatment of children with these

disorders, offers advice for the families of sufferers, and lists

sources of help and information (including the latest sites on the

Internet). The book includes an appendix that features symptom

checklists for each of the OC spectrum disorders, the Diagnostic and

Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic

descriptions, a reading list, and a glossary.

(from the introduction) This book takes the view that classic OCD itself

is only a part of a family of neurobiological disorders, ranging from

symptoms of compulsiveness at one end of the scale, to disorders of

impulse control at the other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA,

all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Therapy; *Drug Therapy; *Obsessive Compulsive

Disorder; Family

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Intended Audience: General Public (GP)

Publication Type: Book, Authored Book

Book Type: Handbook/Manual; Textbook/Study Guide

Release Date: 20001129

Accession Number: 2000-16125-000

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-161

25-000">Obsessive-compulsive disorders: A complete guide to getting well

and staying well.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 40

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder and depression: Theoretical

considerations and treatment strategies.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Butler Hosp, Ambulatory

Services, Providence, RI, US

Source: Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol 70(4), Win 1999. Special issue: The

eleventh annual New York State Office of Mental Health Research

Conference. pp. 313-331.

Journal URL:

http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,4-10039-70-35731

366-0,00.html?changeHeader=true

Publisher: Germany: Springer

Publisher URL: http://www.springeronline.com

ISSN: 0033-2720 (Print)

1573-6709 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1023/A:1022090200057

Language: English

Keywords: theoretical considerations & treatment strategies &

recognizing psychiatric symptoms, people with body dysmorphic disorder

&/or depression

Abstract: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), also known as

dysmorphophobia, consists of a distressing and impairing preoccupation

with an imagined or slight defect in appearance. BDD is an

underrecognized and relatively common disorder that is associated with

high rates of occupational and social impairment, hospitalization, and

suicide attempts. BDD is unlikely to simply be a symptom of depression,

although it often coexists with depression and may be related to

depression. It is important to recognize BDD in depressed patients,

because missing the diagnosis can result in refractory BDD and

depressive symptoms. Available data indicate that BDD may not respond to

all treatments for depression and may instead respond preferentially to

serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. In addition, lengthier treatment trials

than those required for depression may be needed to successfully treat

BDD and comorbid depression. It can be difficult and challenging to

diagnose BDD in depressed patients because the symptoms are often

concealed due to embarrassment and shame. This paper discusses the

relationship between BDD and depression and discusses practical

strategies for recognizing and treating BDD and depressive symptoms in

patients with depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all

rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Comorbidity; *Major

Depression; *Psychiatric Symptoms; *Treatment; Psychodiagnosis

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Conference: Annual New York State Office of Mental Health Research

Conference, 11th, Dec, 1998, Albany, NY, US

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000101

Accession Number: 1999-15206-005

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-152

06-005">Body dysmorphic disorder and depression: Theoretical

considerations and treatment strategies.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 41

Title: Platelet [³H]paroxetine binding in patients with OCD-related

disorders.

Author(s): Marazziti, Donatella, U Pisa, Dept di Psichiatria,

Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, Pisa, Italy

Dell'Osso, Liliana

Presta, Silvio

Pfanner, Chiara

Rossi, Alessandra

Masala, Irene

Baroni, Stefano

Giannaccini, Gino

Lucacchini, Antonio

Cassano, Giovanni Battista

Source: Psychiatry Research, Vol 89(3), Dec 1999. pp. 223-228.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/522773/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0165-1781 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0165-1781(99)00102-X

Language: English

Keywords: platelet 3H-paroxetine binding, patients with obsessive

compulsive disorder related disorders

Abstract: Compared the binding of [³H]paroxetine ([³H]Par), a

ligand that specifically labels the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine

[5-HT]) transporter, in platelets of drug-free outpatients suffering

from various obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)-related disorders with

binding in platelets of OCD patients and healthy Ss. Diagnoses were made

according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV

(DSM-IV) criteria. The most frequent diagnosis was that of body

dysmorphic disorder, followed by impulse control disorder, kleptomania,

Tourette's syndrome and trichotillomania. Platelet membranes and [³H]Par

binding were studied according to standardized protocols. The results,

showing a similarly decreased density of [³H]Par binding sites in both

patient groups as compared with healthy Ss, suggest the presence of a

shared abnormality at the level of the presynaptic 5-HT transporter,

probably linked to a common dimension yet to be identified. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Blood Platelets; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder;

*Paroxetine; *Receptor Binding; Serotonin

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Outpatient (60)

Location: Italy

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000401

Accession Number: 2000-13769-007

Number of Citations in Source: 34

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-137

69-007">Platelet [³H]paroxetine binding in patients with OCD-related

disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 42

Title: Clomipramine vs desipramine crossover trial in body dysmorphic

disorder: Selective efficacy of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor in

imagined ugliness.

Author(s): Hollander, Eric, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Dept of

Psychiatry, New York, NY, US

Allen, Andrea

Kwon, Jee

Aronowitz, Bonnie

Schmeidler, James

Wong, Cheryl

Simeon, Daphne

Source: Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol 56(11), Nov 1999. pp.

1033-1039.

Journal URL: http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/

Publisher: US: American Medical Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.amapublications.com

ISSN: 0003-990X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1001/archpsyc.56.11.1033

Language: English

Keywords: efficacy of clomipramine vs desipramine treatment,

delusional or nondelusional body dysmorphic disorder, adult BDD

patients, 16 wk study

Abstract: The authors investigated the efficacy of clomipramine, a

potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in acute body dysmorphic disorder

(BDD) treatment, compared with the active control desipramine, a

selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. 29 adult patients who met

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-Revised

(DSM-III-R) criteria for BDD entered 16-wk treatment to test the

following hypotheses: clomipramine is more effective than desipramine in

acute BDD treatment; comorbid diagnosis of major depression, social

phobia, or obsessive-compulsive disorder does not influence treatment

outcome; delusional BDD is as likely to respond to clomipramine as

nondelusional BDD; and clomipramine is more effective than desipramine

in reducing functional disability. Results showed that clomipramine was

significantly superior to desipramine on all primary outcome measures of

BDD severity and symptoms. The authors conclude that the findings of

this 1st controlled study in BDD are a significant initial step in

establishing the efficacy of clomipramine in the treatment of this

debilitating disorder, even among delusional patients. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Chlorimipramine; *Delusions;

*Desipramine; *Drug Therapy; Mental Disorders

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study; Longitudinal Study; Treatment

Outcome/Clinical Trial

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000101

Accession Number: 1999-01772-011

Number of Citations in Source: 22

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-017

72-011">Clomipramine vs desipramine crossover trial in body dysmorphic

disorder: Selective efficacy of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor in

imagined ugliness.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 43

Title: Treating imagined ugliness.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Brown U, School of Medicine,

Butler Hosp, Dept of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, Providence, RI, US

Rasmussen, Steven A.

Price, Lawrence H.

Source: Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol 56(11), Nov 1999. pp.

1041-1042.

Journal URL: http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/

Publisher: US: American Medical Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.amapublications.com

ISSN: 0003-990X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1001/archpsyc.56.11.1041

Language: English

Keywords: efficacy of clomipramine vs desipramine treatment,

delusional or nondelusional body dysmorphic disorder, adult BDD

patients, 16 wk study, commentary

Abstract: Comments on the article by E. Hollander et al (see

record 1999-01772-011) which showed the superiority on all primary

outcome measures of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) severity and symptoms

of clomipramine compared with desipramine in its acute treatment. The

authors concluded that the findings were a significant initial step in

establishing the efficacy of clomipramine in the treatment of the

disorder, even among delusional patients. The authors of this article

praise the study and comment that it provides a milestone on the journey

of discovery about this illness; also, that they look forward to further

treatment guidance and studies that confirm the above results. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Chlorimipramine; *Delusions;

*Desipramine; *Drug Therapy; Mental Disorders

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study; Longitudinal Study; Treatment

Outcome/Clinical Trial

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000101

Accession Number: 1999-01772-012

Number of Citations in Source: 21

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Cut and Paste: <A

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72-012">Treating imagined ugliness.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 44

Title: Two-year follow-up of behavioral treatment and maintenance for

body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): McKay, Dean, Fordham U, Dept of Psychology, Bronx, NY,

US

Source: Behavior Modification, Vol 23(4), Oct 1999. pp. 620-629.

Publisher: US: Sage Publications

Publisher URL: http://www.sagepublications.com/

ISSN: 0145-4455 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: behavioral therapy with vs without 6 mo maintenance

program, symptom relapse at 12 & 18 & 24 mo, 21-45 yr old patients with

body dysmorphic disorder, 2 yr followup

Abstract: Recent research has suggested that body dysmorphic

disorder (BDD) is part of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum of

disorders. As such, it has been hypothesized that these disorders

respond in a similar manner to obsessive-compulsive disorder when

behavioral interventions are used. A continuation of follow-up was

conducted with a group of patients with BDD following treatment. 10

patients (aged 21-45 yrs) completed an intensive behavioral therapy

program and either participated in a 6-mo maintenance program or served

as controls. At 12-, 18-, and 24-mo follow-up assessments, patients

participating in the maintenance program were more effective at managing

limited symptom return and had significantly lower anxiety and

depression. Both groups remained improved for acute symptomatology and

behavioral avoidance. The results suggest that maintenance programs

following behavioral treatment are effective in preventing symptom

relapse and assist in patient self-management of lapses typically

associated with BDD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Therapy; *Body Image Disturbances; *Relapse

(Disorders); *Treatment Effectiveness Evaluation; *Treatment Outcomes

Classification: Behavior Therapy & Behavior Modification (3312)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Empirical Study; Followup Study; Treatment

Outcome/Clinical Trial

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19991201

Accession Number: 1999-11750-006

Number of Citations in Source: 19

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-117

50-006">Two-year follow-up of behavioral treatment and maintenance for

body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 45

Title: Assessment, treatment parameters, and prognostic indicators for

patients with obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

Author(s): Neziroglu, Fugen, Inst for Bio-Behavioral Therapy &

Research, Great Neck, NY, US

Stevens, Kevin P., Inst for Bio-Behavioral Therapy & Research, Great

Neck, NY, US

Yaryura-Tobias, Jose A., Inst for Bio-Behavioral Therapy & Research,

Great Neck, NY, US

Hoffman, Jonathan H., Inst for Bio-Behavioral Therapy & Research, Great

Neck, NY, US

Address: Neziroglu, Fugen, Northern Blvd, Suite 102, Great Neck,

NY, US

Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, Vol 6(4), Fal 1999. pp.

345-350.

Publisher: US: Assn for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy

Publisher URL: http://www.aabt.org

ISSN: 1077-7229 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders; assessment;

treatment parameters; prognostic indicators

Abstract: Assessment and treatment parameters for

obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder

body dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis, primary anorexia nervosa,

Gilles de la Tourettes syndrome, and trichotillomania) are presented.

The aim of this paper is to augment the emerging general guidelines for

clinicians who are treating patients with these conditions. The authors

outline how to determine what type of treatment to use and at what

frequency it should be administered. Different locations of treatment

from inpatient to outpatient, homes, and residencies-are discussed.

Prognostic indicators are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Measurement; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder;

*Prognosis; *Treatment

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20020529

Accession Number: 2002-01099-004

Number of Citations in Source: 40

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-010

99-004">Assessment, treatment parameters, and prognostic indicators for

patients with obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 46

Title: Assessing the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in an

ethnically diverse group of adolescents.

Author(s): Mayville, Stephen, U of the Pacific, Psychology Dept,

Stockton, CA, US

Katz, Roger C.

Gipson, Martin T.

Cabral, Keri

Source: Journal of Child and Family Studies, Vol 8(3), Sep 1999. pp.

357-362.

Journal URL:

http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,4-40433-70-35544

156-0,00.html?changeHeader=true

Publisher: Germany: Springer

Publisher URL: http://www.springeronline.com

ISSN: 1062-1024 (Print)

1573-2843 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1023/A:1022023514730

Language: English

Keywords: ethnicity, prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder, male

vs female 14-19 yr olds

Abstract: Investigated the prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder

(BDD) in an ethnically diverse sample of 566 adolescents (aged 14-19

yrs) using the Body Image Rating Scale, a brief self-report measure for

assessing body dissatisfaction. Results showed that adolescent girls

were more dissatisfied with their bodies than adolescent boys, and that

African-Americans of both genders were less dissatisfied with their

bodies than Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics. The interaction between

gender and ethnicity was not significant. The authors found an overall

prevalence for BDD of 2.2 %. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all

rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Epidemiology; *Human Sex

Differences; *Racial and Ethnic Differences

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: US

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000401

Accession Number: 2000-13799-009

Number of Citations in Source: 12

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Cut and Paste: <A

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99-009">Assessing the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in an

ethnically diverse group of adolescents.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 47

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder and a prosthesis.

Author(s): Roskes, Erik, U Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore,

MD, US

Source: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry, Vol

40(5), Sep-Oct 1999. pp. 436-437.

Journal URL: http://psy.psychiatryonline.org/

Publisher: US: American Psychiatric Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.appi.org

ISSN: 0033-3182 (Print)

1545-7206 (Electronic)

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder with focus on eye prosthesis,

27 yr old male with major depression & recurrent severe PTSD

Abstract: Reports the case of 27-yr-old African American male

referred for psychiatric consultation. Six years prior to referral, the

S was a bystander in a shooting resulting in the loss of his right eye

and the subsequent placement of a prosthesis. Following the injury the S

lost his stereoscopic vision and had difficulty concentrating on his

academic tasks because of eye strain. This was followed by an inability

to adjust mentally and physically to life with one eye. At the time of

the trial of his assailant the S became profoundly depressed and was

hospitalized voluntarily for 2 days. Following a run-in with the law,

the S was referred for consultation and diagnosed with major depressive

disorder, recurrent, severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by

history, and body dysmorphic disorder. The author notes that this is the

first reported case of body dysmorphic disorder in which the focus of

the disorder is a prosthesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA,

all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Eye (Anatomy); *Major

Depression; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Prostheses

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19991101

Accession Number: 1999-11250-009

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50-009">Body dysmorphic disorder and a prosthesis.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 48

Title: Self-injurious skin picking: Clinical characteristics and

comorbidity.

Author(s): Wilhelm, Sabine, Massachusetts General Hosp, Dept of

Psychiatry, Charlestown, MA, US

Keuthen, Nancy J.

Deckersbach, Thilo

Engelhard, Iris M.

Forker, Amy E.

Baer, Lee

O'Sullivan, Richard L.

Jenike, Michael A.

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 60(7), Jul 1999. pp.

454-459.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: demographics & clinical characteristics & psychiatric

comorbidity, 18-53 yr olds with self-injurious repetitive skin picking

Abstract: Examined the demographics, phenomenology, and associated

psychopathology in 31 Ss (aged 18-53 yrs) with self-injurious repetitive

skin picking. Ss were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) for

Axis I and Axis II disorders. They also completed several mood

questionnaires and a new self-report inventory designed to assess

phenomenology, triggers, cognitions, emotions, and consequences

associated with skin picking. The mean age at onset on self-injurious

skin picking was 15 yrs, and the mean duration of illness was 21 yrs.

All Ss picked at more than 1 body area, and the most frequent sites of

skin picking were pimples and scabs. The most common comorbid Axis I

diagnoses were obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), alcohol

abuse/dependence, and body dysmorphic disorder. 48% of Ss met criteria

for at least 1 mood disorder, and 65% for at least 1 anxiety disorder.

The most common Axis II disorders were obsessive-compulsive personality

disorder and borderline personality disorder. It is concluded that

self-injurious skin picking is a severe and chronic psychiatric and

dermatologic problem associated with high rates of psychiatric

comorbidity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Comorbidity; *Demographic Characteristics; *Mental

Disorders; *Self Inflicted Wounds; *Skin (Anatomy); Repetition

Compulsion

Classification: Behavior Disorders & Antisocial Behavior (3230)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19991001

Accession Number: 1999-03777-006

Number of Citations in Source: 26

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-037

77-006">Self-injurious skin picking: Clinical characteristics and

comorbidity.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 49

Title: The importance of isolated thrombocytopenia on routine blood

screening in psychiatric patients.

Author(s): Waldron, Gerard, St Bernard's Hosp, Three Bridges

Regional Secure Unit, Middlesex, England

Schipperheijn, Ans J.

Source: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, Vol 16(2), Jun 1999.

pp. 75-76.

Publisher: Ireland: MedMedia

Publisher URL: http://www.ijpm.org/

ISSN: 0790-9667 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: neuroleptic drugs, thrombocytopenia, 38-yr-old male with

bipolar affective disorder & 22-yr-old male with dysmorphophobia

syndrome, implications for importance of routine blood screening

Abstract: Presents 2 cases highlighting the importance of baseline

blood investigations on admission and of monitoring for potential side

effects where routine full blood count reveals isolated

thrombocytopenia. The Ss were a 38-yr-old male with bipolar affective

disorder and a 22-yr-old male with a dysmorphophobia syndrome. Both Ss

were prescribed neuroleptics and both experienced low platelet counts.

It is suggested that the discovery of isolated thrombocytopenia in

psychiatric patients requires further investigation. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Blood and Lymphatic Disorders; *Blood Platelets; *Drug

Therapy; *Neuroleptic Drugs; *Side Effects (Drug); Bipolar Disorder;

Body Dysmorphic Disorder; Screening

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Document Type: Letter

Release Date: 19990901

Accession Number: 1999-03021-011

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-030

21-011">The importance of isolated thrombocytopenia on routine blood

screening in psychiatric patients.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 50

Title: Thirty-three cases of body dysmorphic disorder in children and

adolescents.

Author(s): Albertini, Ralph S., Butler Hosp, Providence, RI, US

Phillips, Katharine A.

Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent

Psychiatry, Vol 38(4), Apr 1999. pp. 453-459.

Journal URL: http://www.jaacap.com/

Publisher: US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Publisher URL: http://www.lww.com/

ISSN: 0890-8567 (Print)

1527-5418 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1097/00004583-199904000-00019

Language: English

Keywords: clinical features & treatment of body dysmorphic

disorder, 6-17 yr olds

Abstract: Assessed the clinical features of body dysmorphic

disorder (BDD), a preoccupation with a nonexistent or slight defect in

appearance, which ususally begins in adolescence. 33 children and

adolescents (aged 6-17 yrs) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of

Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) BDD were assessed for demographic

characteristics, phenomenology, associated psychopathology, and

treatment history and response. Results show that bodily preoccupations

most often focused on the skin (61%) and hair (55%). All Ss had

associated compulsive behaviors, most often camouflaging in 94%,

comparing with others (87%), and mirror checking (85%). 94% reported

impairment in social functioning and 85% in academic or job functioning

due to BDD. 39% had had psychiatric hospitalizations, and 21% had made a

suicide attempt. Ten (53%) of 19 Ss treated with a serotonin

(5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) reuptake inhibitor (SRI) had much or very

much improvement in BDD symptoms; in contrast, 0 of 8 trials with other

psychotropic medications, 0 of 1 trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy,

and 1 of 20 psychotherapy trials resulted in improvement. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Symptoms; *Treatment

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Location: US

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

School Age (6-12 yrs) (180)

Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19990601

Accession Number: 1999-13227-017

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Cut and Paste: <A

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27-017">Thirty-three cases of body dysmorphic disorder in children and

adolescents.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

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Record: 1

Title: Clinical and subclinical body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Altamura, Carlo, altamura@ospedalesacco.lom.it

Paluello, Michela Minio

Mundo, Emanuela

Medda, Stefania

Mannu, Piero

Address: Altamura, Carlo, U Milan, Istituto di Scienze

Biomediche,Ospedale "Luigi Sacco", Via G. B. Grassi 74, 20157, Milano,

Italy, altamura@ospedalesacco.lom.it

Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, Vol

251(3), 2001. pp. 105-108.

Journal URL:

http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,4-40109-70-10655

25-0,00.html

Publisher: Germany: Springer

Publisher URL: http://www.springeronline.com

ISSN: 0940-1334 (Print)

1433-8491 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1007/s004060170042

Language: English

Keywords: demographic characteristics; clinical characteristics;

body dysmorphic disorder; subclinial body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Defined the main demographic and clinical

characteristics of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) and subclinical BDD

(sBDD) in a sample derived by a screening survey done on a population of

individuals referring to aesthetical medicine centers. 487 Ss referring

to hospital centers for aesthetical medicine were administered the

SCID-I and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale adapted for BDD.

The sample was thus sub-divided in 3 sub-samples: (1) BDD, (2)

sub-clinical BDD, and (3) controls. The main demographic and clinical

variables were considered and compared between the BDD and the sBDD

samples. As previously reported, the prevalence of BDD and sBDD was 6.3%

and 18.4%, respectively. The most frequent comorbid diagnosis in both

BDD and sBDD patients and their relatives was Obsessive-Compulsive

Disorder (OCD). A higher severity of symptoms was found in male BDD

patients, while no gender-related differences were found in the sBDD

group. Suicidal ideation was found in 12.1% of the sBDD and in 49.7% of

the BDD patients. These results support the hypothesis of BDD and sBDD

belonging to the OCD spectrum, and appear to advise long-term follow-up

studies on the course and the prognosis of sBDD. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Demographic Characteristics

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: Italy

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20011010

Accession Number: 2001-11775-002

Number of Citations in Source: 21

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75-002">Clinical and subclinical body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 2

Title: Visible disfigurement.

Author(s): Rumsey, Nichola, U of the West of England, Dept of

Psychology, Bristol, United Kingdom

Source: Health psychology, Vol. 8. Comprehensive clinical

psychology. Johnston, Derek W. (Ed); Johnston, Marie (Ed); Bellack, Alan

S. (Ed); Hersen, Michel (Ed)

; pp. 575-593.

Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 2001. xxiii,

723 pp.

ISBN: 0-08-043934-9 (paperback)

Language: English

Keywords: visible disfigurement; health care psychology;

treatment; psychosocial aspects; body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: (from the chapter) This chapter describes the current

state of knowledge, research, and practice relating to the problems

experienced by people with visible disfigurements. Over the years,

professionals working in this area have struggled to formulate a working

definition which reflects appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria.

One particular area of debate centers on body dysmorphic disorder (BDD),

in which the sufferer is considered to have grossly exaggerated negative

feelings about an imagined or very minor physical defect. Although some

of the problems reported by dysmorphophobics are similar to those with

clearly visible disfigurements, other aspects of the condition (e.g.,

behavior patterns and response to treatment) set BDD apart. For the

purpose of this chapter, findings related to research and practice

concerning "people with one or more visible physical characteristic(s)

perceived by the self and others as 'different' or 'abnormal' compared

with societal and cultural norms" have been included. Disfigurement is

not a glamorous speciality. It does not easily attract funding for

treatment and research. However, considerable benefit could be derived

from the involvement of psychologists in raising awareness, changing

attitudes, and in the provision of care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Clinical Psychology; *Health Care Psychology; *Physical

Disfigurement; *Psychosocial Factors; *Treatment; Body Dysmorphic

Disorder

Classification: Health Psychology & Medicine (3360)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20010725

Accession Number: 2001-07021-025

Number of Citations in Source: 53

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21-025">Visible disfigurement.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 3

Title: The meaning of the 'Body' on the treatment of eating-disordered

patients.

Author(s): Kearney-Cooke, Ann, Cincinnati Psychotherapy Inst,

Cincinnati, OH, US

Source: Hungers and compulsions: The psychodynamic treatment of eating

disorders and addictions. Petrucelli, Jean (Ed); Stuart, Catherine (Ed)

; pp. 163-168.

Lanham, MD, US: Jason Aronson, Inc, 2001. xxix, 392 pp.

ISBN: 0-7657-0318-1 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: body image; body dysmorphic disorder; mental

representation; developmental process; eating disorders; physical body;

physical self; phantom limb

Abstract: (from the chapter) Slade describes body image as the

"picture we have in our minds of the size, shape, and form of our bodies

and the feelings we have concerning these characteristics." From such

phenomena as phantom limb, eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder,

and depression, we know that body image is based on the physical self

but is not synonymous with it. We know the translation from the physical

body to the mental representation of the body is a complex and

emotionally charged developmental process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Cognitive Processes;

*Developmental Stages; *Eating Disorders

Classification: Psychological & Physical Disorders (3200)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20021023

Accession Number: 2002-17224-012

Number of Citations in Source: 6

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24-012">The meaning of the 'Body' on the treatment of eating-disordered

patients.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 4

Title: Clinical features and diagnosis of hypochondriasis.

Author(s): Starcevic, Vladan, U Belgrade School of Medicine,

Belgrade, Yugoslavia

Source: Hypochondriasis: Modern perspectives on an ancient

malady. Starcevic, Vladan (Ed); Lipsitt, Don R. (Ed)

; pp. 21-60.

New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press, 2001. xiv, 402 pp.

ISBN: 0-19-512676-9 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: clinical features of somatoform disorders &

hypochondriasis & differential diagnosis in relation to fear vs

suspicion of disease & resistance to medical reassurance &

hypochondriacal behaviors

Abstract: (from the chapter) This chapter presents the essential

clinical features of hypochondriasis, grouped into components. These

components are as follows: (1) usually multiple, often vague, but

sometimes quite specific bodily symptoms; (2) preoccupation with one's

body, bodily symptoms, and matters of health and disease; (3) fear that

a serious disease is already present; (4) suspicion that a serious

disease is already present; (5) resistance to routine medical

reassurance; and (6) hypochondriacal behaviors, most typical of which

are persistent reassurance-seeking and health-checking. The

heterogeneity of the clinical presentation of hypochondriacal patients

is largely a consequence of the fact that the components of

hypochondriasis are not present to the same degree in all patients.

Thus, some hypochondriacal patients are characterized more by excessive

disease worries and fears, while hypochondriacal suspicions are more

prominent in other patients. The differential diagnosis of

hypochondriasis encompasses organic diseases and many mental disorders,

including psychoses, depressive illness, several anxiety disorders

(panic disorder, phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder), personality

disorders, other somatoform disorders (somatization disorder and body

dysmorphic disorder), and malingering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Differential Diagnosis; *Hypochondriasis; *Psychiatric

Symptoms; *Somatoform Disorders; Comorbidity; Fear; Medical Treatment

(General); Resistance

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20010328

Accession Number: 2001-00239-002

Number of Citations in Source: 116

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39-002">Clinical features and diagnosis of hypochondriasis.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 5

Title: A retrospective review of clinical characteristics and treatment

response in body dysmorphic disorder versus obsessive-compulsive

disorder.

Author(s): Saxena, Sanjaya, U California Neuropsychiatric Inst,

Dept of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, OCD Research Program, Los

Angeles, CA, US

Winograd, Arie

Dunkin, Jennifer J.

Maidment, Karron

Rosen, Richard

Vapnik, Tanya

Tarlow, Gerald

Bystritsky, Alexander

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 62(1), Jan 2001. pp. 67-72.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: clinical characteristics & symptom severity & treatment

response, patients with body dysmorphic vs obsessive-compulsive disorder

Abstract: Retrospectively compared clinical characteristics,

symptom severity, and treatment response of body dysmorphic disorder

(BDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ss were 107 consecutive

patients with OCD (96 Ss) or BDD (11 Ss) treated openly for 6 wks with

intensive CBT, medication, and psychosocial rehabilitation. All Ss were

assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS),

Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Hamilton Rating Scale for

Anxiety (HAM-A), and Global Assessment Scale (GAS). BDD and OCD Ss had

similar sex ratio, age, treatment duration, prevalence of comorbid major

depression, and pretreatment Y-BOCS and GAS scores. BDD Ss had

significantly higher pretreatment HAM-D and HAM-A scores. The

proportions of Ss treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and

antipsychotics did not differ between groups. Both groups improved with

treatment, with significant changes in Y-BOCS, HAM-D, HAM-A, and GAS

scores. Change in Y-BOCS did not differ between groups, but changes in

HAM-D and HAM-A were significantly greater in BDD than in OCD Ss. While

BDD may be associated with greater severity of depressive and anxiety

symptoms than OCD, this study suggests that BDD may respond to

intensive, multimodal treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA,

all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Client Characteristics;

*Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; *Psychiatric Symptoms; *Treatment

Outcomes; Severity (Disorders)

Classification: Psychological & Physical Disorders (3200)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Tests & Measures: Global Assessment Scale

Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression

Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

Methodology: Empirical Study; Longitudinal Study; Retrospective Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20010307

Accession Number: 2001-16755-017

Number of Citations in Source: 33

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Cut and Paste: <A

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55-017">A retrospective review of clinical characteristics and treatment

response in body dysmorphic disorder versus obsessive-compulsive

disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 6

Title: Somatization disorder.

Series Title: Review of psychiatry; vol. 20, no. 3

Author(s): Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio, Georgetown U, School of

Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry, Washington, DC, US

Wise, Thomas N.

Source: Somatoform and factitious disorders. Phillips, Katharine A. (Ed)

; pp. 1-26.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychiatric Association, 2001. xviii, 181

pp.

ISBN: 1-58562-029-7 (paperback)

Language: English

Keywords: somatization disorder; somatization; psychosomatic

medicine; psychiatry; treatment; disease course

Abstract: (from the chapter) The somatoform disorders include not

only somatization disorder, but also hypochondriasis, undifferentiated

somatoform disorder, conversion disorder, pain disorder, and body

dysmorphic disorder. In this overview, somatization disorder refers to

the DSM diagnosis, which is characterized by a lifetime history

beginning before age 30 of seeking treatment for or becoming impaired by

multiple physical complaints that cannot be fully explained by a general

medical condition, or are in excess of what would be expected from

examination, and are not intentionally feigned as seen in malingering or

factitious disorders. However, where indicated, the broader concept of

somatization as defined previously is also referred to. Somatization

disorder is a chronic and serious psychiatric disorder that frustrates

patients, their families, and their physicians. Its chronic course and

focus on somatic symptoms can lead to needless medical evaluations and

potentially dangerous, unwarranted interventions. It is essential for

physicians in all specialties to recognize this disorder and to

understand its course. The treatment should consist of a conservative

medical approach, with vigorous treatment of comorbid disorders such as

depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Disease Course; *Psychosomatic Medicine; *Somatization

Disorder; *Treatment; *Somatization; Psychiatry

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20010530

Accession Number: 2001-06682-001

Number of Citations in Source: 83

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82-001">Somatization disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 7

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder.

Series Title: Review of psychiatry; vol. 20, no. 3

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Brown U, School of Medicine,

Providence, RI, US

Source: Somatoform and factitious disorders. Phillips, Katharine A. (Ed)

; pp. 67-94.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychiatric Association, 2001. xviii, 181

pp.

ISBN: 1-58562-029-7 (paperback)

Language: English

Keywords: psychosomatic medicine; body dysmorphic disorder;

treatment; psychiatry

Abstract: (from the chapter) Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an

intriguing and relatively common somatoform disorder that has been

described around the world for more than a century. BDD often causes

severe distress and notably impaired functioning, and it can lead to

suicide. However, this disorder is typically underrecognized in clinical

settings. BDD is defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) as a preoccupation with an imagined defect in

appearance; if a slight physical anomaly is present, the person's

concern is markedly excessive. The preoccupation causes clinically

significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other

important areas of functioning, and it cannot be better accounted for by

another mental disorder, such as anorexia nervosa. Although BDD is

classified as a somatoform disorder, its delusional variant is

classified as a psychotic disorder (a type of delusional disorder,

somatic type). Research on BDD has dramatically increased in recent

years, and much has been learned about its clinical features and

treatment. Although BDD is often difficult to treat, available treatment

strategies are very promising. Given how distressing BDD can be, and the

profound disability it can cause, it is important for clinicians to

screen patients for this disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005

APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Psychosomatic Medicine;

*Treatment; Psychiatry

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20010530

Accession Number: 2001-06682-003

Number of Citations in Source: 87

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-066

82-003">Body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 8

Title: Eingebildete Häß1ichkeit: Die Körperdysmorphe Störung aus

psychologischer Sicht.

Translated Title: Imagined ugliness: Body dysmorphic disorder from

a psychological view.

Author(s): Stangier, Ulrich, Institut für Psychologie der J. W.

Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Hungerbühler, Regine, Institut für Psychologie der J. W.

Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Address: Stangier, Ulrich, Institut fur Psychologie der J. W.

Goethe-Universitat Frankfurt am Main, Georg-Voigt-Str. 8, D-60054,

Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Source: Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie:

Forschung und Praxis, Vol 30(2), 2001. pp. 77-83.

Publisher: Germany: Hogrefe & Huber

Publisher URL: http://www.hhpub.com

ISSN: 1616-3443 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1026//1616-3443.30.2.77

Language: German

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; physical appearance; imagined

defect

Abstract: Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is

characterized by all excessive and distressful preoccupation with an

imagined defect in physical appearance. Objective: The current knowledge

about this disorder is reviewed. Method: The findings of recent research

on BDD are examined. Results: Currently classified as a somatoform

disorder, BDD also shares similarities with other disorders defined as

obsessive-compulsive spectrum. It is probably more common than generally

realized. High comorbidity rates have been found with depression,

anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder. With regard to its etiology,

somatic and cognitive-behavioral theories are presented. Preliminary

results of treatment studies indicate that cognitive-behavioral

approaches might be effective in reducing symptoms. Conclusion: The

fragmentary understanding of the etiology and the development of

treatment approaches might be improved using research methods of

clinical and experimental psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005

APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image Disturbances;

Anxiety; Depression (Emotion); Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Methodology: Empirical Study; Qualitative Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Document Type: Original Journal Article

Release Date: 20040628

Accession Number: 2003-06954-001

Number of Citations in Source: 30

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2003-069

54-001">Eingebildete Häß1ichkeit: Die Körperdysmorphe Störung aus

psychologischer Sicht.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 9

Title: Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment.

Author(s): Thompson, J. Kevin, (Ed), Department of Psychology,

University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, US, jthomps1@luna.cas.usf.edu

Address: Thompson, J. Kevin, jthomps1@luna.cas.usf.edu

Source: Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2001.

vii, 505 pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

ISBN: 1-55798-324-0 (paperback)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10502-000

Language: English

Keywords: body image; eating disorders; body image disturbances;

etiological factors; sociocultural factors; assessment; treatment;

comorbidity; obesity

Abstract: (from the preface) I have had the opportunity to work

with many individuals with some manifestation of an eating disturbance,

including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, obesity, and binge eating

disorder. These interactions led to an awareness of the particular

problems encountered by these patients. This book brings together the

findings from my own collaborations with colleagues, along with those

from many noted researchers in the field. Body image is of central

importance in the effective assessment and management of eating

disorders (EDs) and obesity. Thus, body image became a major unifying

theme of the book. A 2nd reason for undertaking this work was to provide

empirically supported information about the most effective assessment

and treatment strategies for body image disturbance, EDs, and obesity.

With regard to assessment, this has resulted in an emphasis on

psychometrically sound assessment instruments, interview methodologies,

and medical evaluation of physical status. With regard to treatment, the

emphasis is on cognitive-behavioral and pharmacologic interventions,

although other approaches are also discussed, because

cognitive-behavioral and pharmacological therapies have the most

empirical support. One goal was to provide information at differing

levels of clinician sophistication. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005

APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image; *Eating

Disorders; *Obesity; *Treatment; Comorbidity; Etiology; Psychological

Assessment; Sociocultural Factors

Classification: Psychological & Physical Disorders (3200)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Release Date: 20040531

Accession Number: 2004-14112-000

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12-000">Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide

for assessment and treatment.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 10

Title: Points of view: Stories of psychopathology.

Author(s): Mitchell, James E., U North Dakota, Medical School, Dept

of Neuroscience, ND, US

Source: New York, NY, US: Brunner-Routledge, 2001. xix, 222 pp.

ISBN: 1-58391-005-0 (paperback)

Language: English

Keywords: stories of experience of & with psychopathology

Abstract: (from the cover) Designed to provide students with

illustrative examples of individuals with different forms of

psychopathology for various levels of experience and training. The

stories are written to illustrate the key elements of psychopathology

for psychiatric illnesses. These are set against the backdrop of the

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV)

criteria and each is written from 2 perspectives, the perspective of the

individual and that of someone within his or her environment. This

design was chosen to illustrate how people with these disorders think

and feel as well as how they appear to those around them. The emphasis

is on the difficulties experienced by people with psychiatric illness,

and also on the adverse impact these illnesses have on others.

This text may be of value and interest to descriptive psychopathology

students, psychiatric residents, medical students, graduate students in

psychology and psychiatry, students in various related mental health

fields, including psychiatric nursing, social work, and counseling, and

all preparing for a career in the mental health profession. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Narratives; *Psychopathology

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Authored Book; Print

Release Date: 20010110

Accession Number: 2000-14399-000

Number of Citations in Source: 138

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99-000">Points of view: Stories of psychopathology.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 11

Title: Somatoform and factitious disorders.

Series Title: Review of psychiatry; vol. 20, no. 3

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., (Ed), Brown U, School of

Medicine, Providence, RI, US

Source: Washington, DC, US: American Psychiatric Association, 2001.

xviii, 181 pp.

ISBN: 1-58562-029-7 (paperback)

Language: English

Keywords: hypochondriasis; somatization disorder; conversion

disorder; body dysmorphic disorder; factitious disorders; psychosomatic

medicine; psychiatry

Abstract: (from the foreword) The somatoform

disorders--somatization disorder, undifferentiated somatoform disorder,

conversion disorder, pain disorder, hypochondriasis, and body dysmorphic

disorder (BDD)--involve a focus on bodily/somatic complaints. A general

medical condition, substance use, or another mental disorder does not

fully account for the physical symptoms or concerns, and the physical

symptoms are not intentionally produced (unlike factitious disorders).

Although it is often said that the common feature of these disorders is

the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical

condition, this is not the case for BDD, which instead consists of a

preoccupation with a perceived appearance flaw. Factitious disorders are

characterized by physical or psychological symptoms are intentionally

produced or feigned by the patient in order to assume the sick role.

This book provides a clinically-focused overview of these complex

disorders. Undifferentiated somatoform disorder (a residual category for

somatoform presentations that do not meet criteria for somatization

disorder or another somatoform disorder) and pain disorder are not

included. As the following chapters illustrate, most of the somatoform

disorders appear to be relatively common in psychiatric and other

medical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Factitious Disorders; *Psychosomatic Medicine;

*Somatoform Disorders; Body Dysmorphic Disorder; Conversion Disorder;

Hypochondriasis; Psychiatry; Somatization Disorder

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book; Print

Release Date: 20010530

Accession Number: 2001-06682-000

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82-000">Somatoform and factitious disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 12

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder: Diagnostic controversies and treatment

challenges.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Butler Hosp, Body Dysmorphic

Disorder, Providence, RI, US

Source: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, Vol 64(1), Win 2000. pp.

18-35.

Journal URL:

http://www.guilford.com/cgi-bin/cartscript.cgi?page=pr/jnme.htm&dir=peri

odicals/per_psych&cart_id=300044.6910

Publisher: US: Guilford Publications

Publisher URL: http://www.guilford.com

ISSN: 0025-9284 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: diagnostic & treatment challenges & controversies,

patients with body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing,

impairing, and relatively common yet underrecognized disorder. This

article discusses the following diagnostic controversies and challenges

associated with BDD: the underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of BDD, the

relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder, the

relationship between BDD and depression, the delusionality controversy,

and whether BDD can be diagnosed in children and adolescents. This

article also discusses treatment controversies and challenges associated

with serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antipsychotics, cognitive-behavioral

therapy, approaches to treatment-resistant BDD, and getting reluctant

patients to accept psychiatric treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Diagnosis; *Treatment

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Conference: Annual Menninger Winter Psychiatry Conference, 21st,

Mar, 1999, Park City, UT, US

Conference Notes: This article is based on a presentation at the

aforementioned conference.

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000401

Accession Number: 2000-13775-002

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75-002">Body dysmorphic disorder: Diagnostic controversies and treatment

challenges.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 13

Title: Diagnostische Erfassung der Körperdysmorphen Sto-5rung Eine

Pilotstudie.

Translated Title: Assessment of body dysmorphic disorder: a pilot

study.

Author(s): Stangier, Ulrich, Institut für Psychologie der

Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-U, Frankfurt, Germany

Hungerbühler, Regine

Meyer, Annerose

Wolter, Manfred

Address: Stangier, Ulrich, Institut für Psychologie der

Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-U, Frankfurt, Germany

Source: Nervenarzt, Vol 71(11), Nov 2000. pp. 876-884.

Journal URL:

http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,4-40109-70-10035

95-0,00.html

Publisher: Germany: Springer

Publisher URL: http://www.springeronline.com

ISSN: 0028-2804 (Print)

1433-0407 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1007/s001150050678

Language: German

Keywords: assessment; body dysmorphic disorder; obsessive

compulsive symptoms; body image disorders; disfigurement; social phobia;

comorbid depressive disorders; rating scales

Abstract: Examines the possible benefit of specific instruments in

the discrimination of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and other body

image disorders. 13 patients with BDD, 13 with disfiguring defects, and

21 with no significant impairment of appearance were recruited from

dermatological outpatients on the basis of semistructured diagnostic

interviews and clinical ratings of disfigurement. Structured interviews

were conducted to determine comorbidity with depressive disorders and

social phobia and to obtain a clinical rating of obsessive compulsive

symptoms using the modified version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive

Compulsive Scale for body dysmorphic disorders. In addition, the Beck

Depression Inventory, the Social Phobia Scale, and the Social

Interaction Anxiety Scale were completed. Patients with BDD differed

significantly from disfigured and unimpaired patients in obsessive

compulsive symptoms, in particular obsessions, and the discrepancy

between personal and clinical rating of disfigurement. Comorbidity with

depressive disorders was significantly increased. The results support

the utility of specific diagnostic instruments and indicate the

particular importance of obsessive compulsive symptoms in BDD. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image Disturbances;

*Measurement; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; *Physical Disfigurement;

Comorbidity; Major Depression; Obsessions; Rating Scales; Social Phobia

Classification: Clinical Psychological Testing (2224)

Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Tests & Measures: Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20011212

Accession Number: 2001-07334-001

Number of Citations in Source: 30

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-073

34-001">Diagnostische Erfassung der Körperdysmorphen Sto-5rung Eine

Pilotstudie.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 14

Title: Social anxiety disorder: How to help.

Author(s): Zal, H. Michael, Philadelphia Coll of Osteopathic

Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, US

Source: Drug Benefit Trends, Vol 12(10), Oct 2000. pp. 5BH-10BH.

Publisher: US: CMP Health Care Media Group

Publisher URL: http://cmphealth.com

ISSN: 1080-5826 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: features & differential diagnosis & treatment of social

anxiety disorder or social phobia & comorbid disorders

Abstract: Social anxiety disorder, or social phobia, causes

emotional suffering and interferes with work, play, and social

functioning. There is comorbid overlap with other mental disorders, such

as depression, substance abuse, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety

disorder. In the differential diagnosis, the clinician should consider

normal shyness, panic disorder, agoraphobia, simple phobia, body

dysmorphic disorder, and schizophrenia. Social anxiety disorder begins

at an average age of 13 yrs (rarely after 25) and is a lifelong

condition. Psychotherapy, behavior therapy, and psychopharmacologic

therapy are effective. The serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which are

generally well tolerated, are considered 1st-line therapy. An

integrated, individualized treatment plan is needed. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Comorbidity; *Differential Diagnosis; *Social Anxiety;

*Social Phobia; *Treatment

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20010613

Accession Number: 2001-14263-002

Number of Citations in Source: 30

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2001-142

63-002">Social anxiety disorder: How to help.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 15

Title: Principal and additional DSM-IV disorders for which outpatients

seek treatment.

Author(s): Zimmerman, Mark, Bayside Medical Building, Providence,

RI, US

Mattia, Jill I.

Source: Psychiatric Services, Vol 51(10), Oct 2000. pp. 1299-1304.

Journal URL: http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/

Publisher: US: American Psychiatric Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.appi.org

ISSN: 1075-2730 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1176/appi.ps.51.10.1299

Language: English

Keywords: axis I disorder, motivation to seek treatment,

outpatients

Abstract: Determined which axis I psychiatric disorders motivate

patients to seek treatment. 400 outpatients at a hospital-affiliated,

community-based, psychiatric clinical practice were interviewed with the

Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of

Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). For patients with more than 1 disorder,

the diagnoses were assigned as principal or additional according to the

DSM-IV convention of whether it was the patient's stated primary reason

for presenting for treatment or was an additional disorder. For all

current disorders, patients were asked whether the symptoms of each

diagnosed disorder were a reason, or 1 of the reasons, for seeking

treatment. Nearly all patients with major depression wanted treatment

for this disorder, and more than 85% of patients with panic disorder,

posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder

indicated that the symptoms of these disorders were a reason for seeking

treatment. Half to two-thirds of patients with social phobia,

obsessive-compulsive disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, body

dysmorphic disorder, and substance use disorders reported that the

symptoms of these disorders were a reason for seeking treatment. Only

30% of those with specific phobia indicated that their phobic fears were

a reason for seeking treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA,

all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Health Care Seeking Behavior; *Mental Disorders;

*Motivation

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Outpatient (60)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Tests & Measures: Brief Symptom Inventory

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date: 20010124

Accession Number: 2000-02602-010

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02-010">Principal and additional DSM-IV disorders for which outpatients

seek treatment.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 16

Translated Title: A self-rating scale of body image.

Author(s): Lu, Longguang, Nanjing Medical U, Brain Disorders Hosp,

Nanjing, China

Chen, Tunong

Cheng, Jianguo

Lin, Wangui

Source: Chinese Mental Health Journal, Vol 14(5), Sep 2000. pp. 299-302.

Publisher: China: Chinese Mental Health

Publisher URL: http://www.camh.org.cn/

ISSN: 1000-6729 (Print)

Language: Chinese

Keywords: construction & reliability & validity of Chinese

Self-Rating Scale of Body Dysmorphic Disorder, patients with neurosis vs

body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Constructed and tested the Chinese Self-Rating Scale of

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (CSSBDD). 100 patients with self-defined body

dysmorphic disorder (BDD), 103 patients with neurosis diagnosed

according to the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders--2nd

Edition--Revised (CCMD-2), and 100 normals were assessed with the

CSSBDD. The scale covered 8 dimensions: self-defined imagined defect,

cognition of appearance, concern for appearance, impairment of emotions,

social activity, change of appearance, objective evaluation, and causes

of BDD, 23 items, and 50 factors. Ss' average scores of the items of the

CSSBDD were compared among groups. Analyses of test-retest reliability,

clinical diagnosis validity, dynamic cluster analysis, discrimination

analysis, split-half analysis, and logistic regression analysis were

used. The results show that the CSSBDD has satisfactory reliability and

stability, high sensitivity and specificity in the discrimination of Ss

with BDD from normals and between Ss with BDD and Ss with neurosis, and

good internal homology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all

rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image; *Rating Scales;

*Self Report; *Test Construction; Body Image Disturbances; Neurosis;

Test Reliability; Test Validity

Classification: Clinical Psychological Testing (2224)

Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Location: China

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20010207

Accession Number: 2000-02593-001

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-025

93-001">A self-rating scale of body image.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 17

Title: Characterization of preadolescent girls' body-image as revealed

through a sentence completion instrument.

Author(s): Cerrone, Gerald H., The Union Inst., US

Source: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

and Engineering, Vol 61(3-B), Sep 2000. pp. 1628.

Publisher: US: Univ Microfilms International

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN: 0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number: AAI9963986

Language: English

Keywords: evaluation of sentence completion instrument to

characterize body image, preadolescent girls

Abstract: Body image is usually defined as an individual's mental

picture of her appearance and, to a degree, her preoccupation with her

appearance. Body image problems which have led to diagnoses such as body

dysmorphic disorder, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa have mainly

been studied in adult and adolescent populations. A preliminary study

was conducted using a projective screening instrument designed and

administered to 216 preadolescent girls to help identify girls who may

be developing a negative body image. The responses were qualitatively

analyzed and percentages calculated by grade level and within grade

levels. Frequency of negative body image/affect responses were collated

to reflect most common themes associated with each projective sentence

stem. Six categories were created a priori to serve as a quick reference

guide for clinicians who wish to identify specific clusters of behaviors

for further exploration. The six categories (Negative Affect/Depressed

Feelings; Perception by Others; Perception of Self; Desire; Body Weight;

and Role-Model) are composed of sentence stems which tap a specific area

of concern related to body image. Results showed that there was no

qualitative difference in negative responses to the Incomplete Sentence

Blanks (ISB) instrument between fourth and fifth grade girls. There was,

however, higher negative percentages noted among sixth grade

respondents. Furthermore, responses indicated that motivation to change

weight and appearance may be driven by a fear of fat, rather than a

desire to be thin. However, further research is needed to support this

finding. The limitations of this projective screening tool is that it

may not be used as a diagnostic measure because of an absence of

established norms. In spite of this limitation, the ISB instrument holds

great promise as a projective tool and is beneficial for identifying

risk factors associated with an eating disorder, body image problems,

and depressed feelings related to body image. (PsycINFO Database Record

(c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image; *Human Females; *Sentence Completion Tests

Classification: Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

School Age (6-12 yrs) (180)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Dissertation Abstract; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20010411

Accession Number: 2000-95018-276

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-950

18-276">Characterization of preadolescent girls' body-image as revealed

through a sentence completion instrument.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 18

Title: Characteristics of memory dysfunction in body dysmorphic

disorder.

Author(s): Deckersbach, Thilo, Massachusetts General Hosp, Dept of

Psychiatry, Boston, MA, US

Savage, Cary R.

Phillips, Katharine A.

Wilhelm, Sabine

Buhlmann, Ulrike

Rauch, Scott L.

Baer, Lee

Jenike, Michael A.

Source: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Vol

6(6), Sep 2000. pp. 673-681.

Journal URL:

http://www.cambridge.org/uk/journals/journal_catalogue.asp?mnemonic=ins

Publisher: US: Cambridge Univ Press

Publisher URL: http://www.cup.org

ISSN: 1355-6177 (Print)

1469-7661 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1017/S1355617700666055

Language: English

Keywords: organizational encoding strategies & verbal & nonverbal

free recall, adults with body dysmorphic disorder, implications for

relationship to obsessive compulsive disorder

Abstract: Although body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is receiving

increasing empirical attention, very little is known about

neuropsychological deficits in this disorder. The current study

investigated the nature of memory dysfunction in BDD, including the

relationships between encoding strategies and verbal and nonverbal

memory performance. 17 patients (mean age 35.3 yrs) with BDD and 17

healthy controls were evaluated using the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure

Test and the California Verbal Learning Test. BDD patients differed

significantly from healthy controls on verbal and nonverbal learning and

memory indices. Multiple regression analyses revealed that group

differences in free recall were statistically mediated by deficits in

organizational strategies in the BDD cohort. These findings are similar

to patterns previously observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),

suggesting a potential relationship between OCD and BDD. Studies in both

groups have shown that verbal and nonverbal memory deficits are affected

by impaired strategic processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005

APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Free Recall; *Human

Information Storage; Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer-Reviewed Status-Unknown

Release Date: 20000927

Correction Date: 20050919

Accession Number: 2000-05998-005

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-059

98-005">Characteristics of memory dysfunction in body dysmorphic

disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 19

Title: Characterization of trichotillomania: A phenomenological model

with clinical relevance to obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

Author(s): O'Sullivan, Richard L., Harvard Medical School, Dept of

Psychiatry, Boston, MA, US

Mansueto, Charles S.

Lerner, Ethan A.

Miguel, Euripedes C.

Source: Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol 23(3), Sep 2000. pp.

587-604.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623373/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0193-953X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70182-9

Language: English

Keywords: characteristics & clinical assessment model of

trichotillomania & application to other obsessive-compulsive spectrum

disorders

Abstract: Trichotillomania (TTM) is a complex condition, the

behavioral hallmark of which is clinically significant and

psychologically distressing hair pulling. Although Diagnostic and

Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) defines TTM as an

impulse control disorder, clinical experience and empiric data suggest

that TTM is a heterogeneous condition that shares phenomenologic

similarities with many conditions, often termed obsessive-compulsive

spectrum disorders, characterized by repetitive behavior or thoughts. A

selective overview of TTM is presented as context for presentation of a

synthetic heuristic clinical assessment model, emphasizing

phenomenologic assessment of TTM, which expands on several previous

lines of phenomenologic research. The assessment model is applied to

several other clinical conditions often regarded as being on a continuum

of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, including Tourette syndrome,

skin picking, body dysmorphic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder,

and olfactory reference syndrome. The authors have found this approach

clinically useful as a means by which clinicians can organize complex

clinical information on frequently overlapping disorders in a systematic

way. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Measurement; *Models; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder;

*Trichotillomania

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20001101

Accession Number: 2000-05745-008

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-057

45-008">Characterization of trichotillomania: A phenomenological model

with clinical relevance to obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 20

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Allen, Andrea, Mt Sinai School of Medicine, Dept of

Psychiatry, Compulsive, Impulsive, & Anxiety Disorders Program, New

York, NY, US

Hollander, Eric

Source: Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol 23(3), Sep 2000. pp.

617-628.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623373/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0193-953X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70184-2

Language: English

Keywords: characteristics & comorbidities & treatment of body

dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Body dysmorphic disorder, which is characterized by a

preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance, was first

recognized as a distinct disorder in 1987 in the Diagnostic and

Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R). In the

relatively brief time since this recognition, great strides have been

made in the understanding of its characteristics, comorbidities, and

treatment. An overview of the characteristics and comorbidities is

provided, while the relationship of body dysmorphic disorder to other

disorders, particularly obsessive-compulsive disorder, is examined.

First-line therapies for body dysmorphic disorder (i.e., serotonin

reuptake inhibitor and cognitive-behavioral therapies) also are

discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Comorbidity; *Symptoms;

*Treatment; Cognitive Therapy; Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Population: Human (10)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20001101

Accession Number: 2000-05745-010

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-057

45-010">Body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 21

Title: Behavioral, cognitive, and family therapy for

obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

Author(s): Neziroglu, Fugen, Bio-Behavioral Inst, Dept of

Biopsychosocial Research, Great Neck, NY, US

Hsia, Curtis

Yaryura-Tobias, Jose A.

Source: Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol 23(3), Sep 2000. pp.

657-670.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623373/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0193-953X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70187-8

Language: English

Keywords: cognitive & behavioral & family therapy,

obsessive-compulsive & other spectrum disorders

Abstract: Researchers have started to recognize the overlap of

obsessive-compulsive disorder with other disorders previously not

categorized together; however, because of the similarity in symptoms,

treatment response, and family history, an obsessive-compulsive disorder

spectrum has gained recognition. Disorders that may fall within the

obsessive-compulsive spectrum include (but are not limited to)

obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder,

hypochondriasis, trichotillomania, and eating disorders. An overview of

current cognitive, behavioral, and family treatment of

obsessive-compulsive disorder is given, and these treatments as applied

to other disorders within the spectrum are discussed. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Therapy; *Cognitive Therapy; *Family Therapy;

*Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Classification: Psychotherapy & Psychotherapeutic Counseling (3310)

Population: Human (10)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20001101

Accession Number: 2000-05745-013

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45-013">Behavioral, cognitive, and family therapy for

obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 22

Title: Muscle dysmorphia in male weightlifters: A case-control study.

Author(s): Olivardia, Roberto, McLean Hosp, Biological Psychiatry

Lab, Belmont, MA, US

Pope, Harrison G. Jr.

Hudson, James I.

Source: American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 157(8), Aug 2000. pp.

1291-1296.

Journal URL: http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/

Publisher: US: American Psychiatric Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.appi.org

ISSN: 0002-953X (Print)

1535-7228 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1176/appi.ajp.157.8.1291

Language: English

Keywords: muscle dysmorphia, male weightlifters

Abstract: Muscle dysmorphia is a form of body dysmorphic disorder

in which individuals develop a pathological preoccupation with their

muscularity. The authors interviewed 24 men (mean age 25.4 yrs) with

muscle dysmorphia and 30 normal comparison weightlifters (mean age 25.4

yrs), using a battery of demographic, psychiatric, and physical

measures. The results show that the men with muscle dysmorphia differed

significantly from the normal comparison weightlifters on numerous

measures, including body dissatisfaction, eating attitudes, prevalence

of anabolic steroid use, and lifetime prevalence of Diagnostic and

Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) mood, anxiety, and

eating disorders. The men with muscle dysmorphia frequently described

shame, embarrassment, and impairment of social and occupational

functioning in association with their condition. By contrast, normal

weightlifters displayed little pathology. In an a posteriori analysis,

the normal weightlifters proved closely comparable to a group of male

college students recruited as a normal comparison group in an earlier

study. It is concluded that muscle dysmorphia appears to be a valid

diagnostic entity, possibly related to a larger group of disorders, and

is associated with striking and stereotypical features. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Human Males; *Muscles;

*Weightlifting

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000823

Accession Number: 2000-05044-014

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-050

44-014">Muscle dysmorphia in male weightlifters: A case-control

study.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 23

Title: The relationship of obsessive-compulsive disorder to possible

spectrum disorders: Results from a family study.

Author(s): Bienvenu, O. Joseph, Johns Hopkins U School of Medicine,

Dept of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Baltimore, MD, US

Samuels, Jack F.

Riddle, Mark A.

Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

Liang, Kung-Yee

Cullen, Bernadette A. M.

Grados, Marco A.

Nestadt, Gerald

Source: Biological Psychiatry, Vol 48(4), Aug 2000. pp. 287-293.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/505750/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0006-3223 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00831-3

Language: English

Keywords: relation of obsessive-compulsive disorder to somatoform

& eating & grooming & other impulse control disorders, patients with

obsessive compulsive disorder & 1st-degree relatives

Abstract: The familial relationship between obsessive-compulsive

disorder (OCD) and "obsessive compulsive spectrum" disorders is unclear.

The authors investigated the relationship of OCD to somatoform disorders

(body dysmorphic disorder [BDD] and hypochondriasis), eating disorders

(e.g., anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa), pathologic "grooming"

conditions (e.g., nail biting, skin picking, trichotillomania), and

other impulse control disorders (e.g., kleptomania, pathologic gambling,

pyromania) using blinded family study methodology. 80 case and 73

control probands, as well as 343 case and 300 control first-degree

relatives, were examined with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and

Schizophrenia Lifetime Anxiety version. Two experienced psychiatrists

independently reviewed all diagnostic information and made final

consensus diagnoses using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria. Body dysmorphic disorder,

hypochondriasis, any eating disorder, and any grooming condition

occurred more frequently in case probands. In addition, BDD either

somatoform disorder, and any grooming conditions occurred more

frequently in case relatives, whether or not case probands also had the

same diagnosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Disorders; *Eating Disorders; *Impulse Control

Disorders; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; *Somatoform Disorders;

Comorbidity; Family Members

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: US

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

School Age (6-12 yrs) (180)

Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000906

Accession Number: 2000-12238-004

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-122

38-004">The relationship of obsessive-compulsive disorder to possible

spectrum disorders: Results from a family study.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 24

Title: The links between body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders.

Author(s): Jolanta, J. Rabe-Jablonska, Medical U of Lodz, Dept of

Psychiatry, Lodz, Poland

Tomasz, M. Sobow

Source: European Psychiatry, Vol 15(5), Aug 2000. pp. 302-305.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/505814/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0924-9338 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0924-9338(00)00398-9

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder in period preceding onset of

eating disorder symptoms, 12-21 yr old females with anorexia or bulimia

Abstract: Examined the period preceding symptoms of either

anorexia or bulimia nervosa for a body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) period,

and evaluated the prevalence of BDD symptoms in a control group of girls

without any eating disorder. 93 female 12-21 yr olds were included in

the study (36 with anorexia nervosa, 17 with bulimia nervosa and 40

healthy controls). Measures were the Structured Clinical Interview,

including the BDD module, and a novel questionnaire for the presence of

preceding life events. The results showed that the symptoms of BDD

existed in 25% of anorexia nervosa sufferers for at least 6 mo before a

clear eating disorder picture emerged. Moreover, other mental disorders

were also present among these patients. The results may support the idea

that BDD and anorexia nervosa both belong to either obsessive compulsive

disorder or affective disorders spectra. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Anorexia Nervosa; *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Bulimia;

*Comorbidity; *Premorbidity; Patient History

Classification: Eating Disorders (3260)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Inpatient (50)

Outpatient (60)

Location: Poland

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

School Age (6-12 yrs) (180)

Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Methodology: Empirical Study; Longitudinal Study; Retrospective Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20001101

Accession Number: 2000-02569-003

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-025

69-003">The links between body dysmorphic disorder and eating

disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 25

Title: Venlafaxine and vivid dreaming.

Author(s): Zullino, Daniele F., Dept U de Psychiatrie Adulte,

Prilly-Lausanne, Switzerland

Riquier, Françoise

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 61(8), Aug 2000. pp. 600.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: venlafaxine treatment & vivid dreams, 35-yr-old female

with dysmorphophobia & depressive symptoms

Abstract: It is noted that venlafaxine is a

serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor whose serotonergic activity

produces a dose-related suppression of REM sleep and would therefore be

expected to reduce or suppress dream activity. In contrast to this

expectation the authors report the case of vivid nightmares after the

introduction of venlafaxine in a 35-yr-old female with known

dysmorphophobia and depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Depression (Emotion);

*Dreaming; *Drug Therapy; *Side Effects (Drug); Venlafaxine

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Document Type: Letter

Release Date: 20000920

Accession Number: 2000-05573-009

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-055

73-009">Venlafaxine and vivid dreaming.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 26

Title: Personality disorders and traits in patients with body

dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Butler Hosp, Providence, RI, US

McElroy, Susan L.

Source: Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol 41(4), Jul-Aug 2000. pp. 229-236.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623360/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0010-440X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1053/comp.2000.7429

Language: English

Keywords: personality disorders & traits, 18-80 yr old patients

with body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have

been postulated to have schizoid, narcissistic, and obsessional

personality traits and to be sensitive, introverted, perfectionistic,

and insecure. However, data on personality traits and disorders in BDD

are limited. This study assessed 148 Ss (aged 18-80 yrs) with BDD, 26 of

whom participated in a fluvoxamine treatment study; 74 Ss were assessed

for personality disorders with the Structured Clinical Interview for

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-Revised

(DSM-III-R) Personality Disorders, 100 Ss completed the NEO-Five Factor

Inventory (NEO-FFI), and 51 Ss completed the Rathus Assertiveness Scale.

42 Ss (57%) had 1 or more personality disorders, with avoidant

personality disorder (43%) being most common, followed by dependent

(15%), obsessive-compulsive (14%), and paranoid (14%) personality

disorders. On the NEO-FFI, the mean scores were in the very high range

for neuroticism, the low range for extraversion and conscientiousness,

the low-average range for agreeableness, and the average range for

openness to experience. On the Rathus Assertiveness Scale, the mean

score was -17.1±32.0 for women and -17.0±32.3 for men. Among

fluvoxamine responders, the number of personality disorders

significantly decreased between the study baseline and endpoint.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Comorbidity; *Personality

Disorders; *Personality Traits

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Aged (65 yrs & older) (380)

Conference: Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association,

150th, May, 1997, San Diego, CA, US

Conference Notes: Presented at the aforementioned meeting.

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000816

Accession Number: 2000-02334-001

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34-001">Personality disorders and traits in patients with body

dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 27

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder: A review of theory and research and an

investigation of its relationship to covert narcissism.

Author(s): Paley, Sarida Ann, California School Of Professional

Psychology - Berkeley/Alameda, US

Source: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

and Engineering, Vol 61(1-B), Jul 2000. pp. 544.

Publisher: US: Univ Microfilms International

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN: 0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number: AAI9958370

Language: English

Keywords: theory & research on body dysmorphic disorder & its

relationship to covert narcissism

Abstract: Within American "mainstream" culture, concern about

physical appearance is an extremely common phenomenon. Psychological

research in the field of body image as well as the popular media confirm

that physical image is an emphasized value and a very prevalent concern

for both men and women. Against the backdrop of this

appearance-conscious culture lies a continuum of body image concerns and

disturbances. Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) lies at the far end of this

spectrum with respect to psychological pathology. This study first

presents a comprehensive review of this relatively unknown and

under-recognized disorder with the goal of contributing to advances in

its diagnosis and treatment. The study then explores the main hypothesis

that Body Dysmorphic Disorder may have some underlying narcissistic and

grandiose elements which indicate a core disturbance of the self The

attempt to identify narcissistic elements in Body Dysmorphic Disorder is

based on the observed clinical and conceptual similarities between BDD

and a lesser known form of narcissism known as "covert" or

"hypervigilant" narcissism. The inherent implications of this hypothesis

for treatment and diagnosis are then discussed. The dissertation study

is based on a conceptual-analytic design, and the methods by which it is

conducted involve an analysis and integration of both conceptual and

clinical material. Arguments for the main hypothesis are grounded in

psychodynamic theory about the self and its structure and also draw upon

empirical studies and qualitative research. Psychoanalytic and

self-psychological perspectives on narcissism, shame, and the

"archaic-grandiose self" inform the hypothesis-building section of this

dissertation. Clinical material is then reviewed for examples which may

support the proposed connection between narcissism and BDD. Finally,

evidence for a connection between the two disorders is explored through

a review of closely related body image disorders and their relationship

to narcissism. This study is exploratory in nature. This implies that a

definitive argument for the presence of narcissism within BDD is not

advanced. Moreover, contradictory evidence that may argue against the

linking of narcissism and BDD is also included. It is believed that the

clinical and conceptual similarities between BDD and covert narcissism

that are forwarded in this study are sufficient to warrant further

empirical attention and that important diagnostic and treatment

implications may be gleaned from the recognition of these similarities.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Experimentation;

*Narcissism; *Theories

Classification: Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Publication Type: Dissertation Abstract; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20010314

Accession Number: 2000-95014-243

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14-243">Body dysmorphic disorder: A review of theory and research and an

investigation of its relationship to covert narcissism.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 28

Title: La projection: Instrument d'adolescence.

Translated Title: Projection: An adolescent instrument.

Author(s): Birraux, Annie

Source: Revue Française de Psychanalyse, Vol 64(3), Jul-Sep 2000. pp.

693-704.

Journal URL: http://www.spp.asso.fr/Publications/Rfp/index.htm

Publisher: France: Presses Universitaires de France

Publisher URL: http://www.puf.com

ISSN: 0035-2942 (Print)

Language: French

Keywords: function of projection, 13 yr old female with

dysmorphophobia

Abstract: Examines the uses and function of the instrument of

projection in adolescence. The author shows that, while participating in

symptoms that do not lead to pathology, projection is nevertheless a

defense mechanism. Based on a topology of phobias, the author

demonstrates that the function of projection for each subject depends on

the integration of his/her limits and of his/her individuation. The

forms of projection in adolescence vary from the range of simple phobias

to that of sensitive susceptibilities reminiscent of paranoias, passing

through dysmorphophobias or severe hypochondriases. The author regrets

that the notion of projection is still fraught with uncertainties, which

do not help its clinic. A clinical example of a 13-yr old,

dysmorphophobic female adolescent illustrates the author's theme.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Projection (Defense

Mechanism)

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20001108

Accession Number: 2000-05526-001

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-055

26-001">La projection: Instrument d'adolescence.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 29

Title: Outcome of cosmetic surgery and 'DIY' surgery in patients with

body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Veale, David, U London, University Coll, Royal Free & U

Coll Medical School, Dept of Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences, London,

England

Source: Psychiatric Bulletin, Vol 24(6), Jun 2000. pp. 218-221.

Journal URL: http://pb.rcpsych.org/

Publisher: United Kingdom: Royal College of Psychiatrists

Publisher URL: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/

ISSN: 0955-6036 (Print)

1472-1473 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1192/pb.24.6.218

Language: English

Keywords: outcome of & satisfaction with cosmetic surgery vs DIY

self-performed surgery, 22-63 yr olds with body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Little is known about the outcome of cosmetic surgery in

patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Self-reported outcome was

collected on 25 patients (aged 22-63 yrs) with BDD who at the time of

psychiatric assessment had reported that they had had cosmetic surgery

in the past. 25 patients with BDD had a total of 46 procedures. The

worst outcome was found in those who had had rhinoplasty and those with

repeated operations. Mammoplasty and pinnaplasty was associated with

higher degrees of satisfaction. Nine patients with BDD, either in

desperation at being turned down for cosmetic surgery or because they

could not afford it, had performed their own "DIY" surgery in which they

attempted by their own hand to alter their appearance dramatically. The

authors conclude that cosmetic surgery cannot at present be recommended

for patients with BDD. However, patients turned down for surgery or who

cannot afford it, may try to alter their appearance by themselves.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Plastic Surgery; *Quality of

Life; *Satisfaction; *Self Mutilation

Classification: Medical Treatment of Physical Illness (3363)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: United Kingdom

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000719

Accession Number: 2000-07984-004

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84-004">Outcome of cosmetic surgery and 'DIY' surgery in patients with

body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 30

Title: Quality of life for patients with body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Brown U, Dept of Psychiatry &

Human Behavior, Providence, RI, US

Source: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol 188(3), Mar 2000. pp.

170-175.

Journal URL: http://www.jonmd.com/

Publisher: US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Publisher URL: http://www.lww.com/

ISSN: 0022-3018 (Print)

1539-736X (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1097/00005053-200003000-00007

Language: English

Keywords: quality of life & mental health, 17-73 yr old

outpatients with body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common,

distressing, and impairing disorder. Quality of life in BDD, however,

has not been investigated. In this study, 62 consecutive outpatients

(aged 17-73 yrs) with BDD were evaluated with the self-report Medical

Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and other

scales. SF-36 scores were descriptively compared to published norms for

several populations. Physical-health-related quality of life scores were

generally worse than general US population norms and better than norms

for outpatients with a medical illness or depression. However, in all

mental health domains, BDD Ss' scores were notably worse than norms for

the general US population and for patients with depression, diabetes, or

a recent myocardial infarction. More severe BDD symptoms and greater

delusionality were associated with poorer mental-health-related quality

of life. These results indicate that patients with BDD have notably poor

mental health status and mental-health-related quality of life.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Mental Health; *Quality of

Life

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Outpatient (60)

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Aged (65 yrs & older) (380)

Conference: Annual Meeting of the American Psychological

Association, 152nd, May, 1999, Washington, DC, US

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000501

Accession Number: 2000-08212-007

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-082

12-007">Quality of life for patients with body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 31

Title: 'Everybody looks at my pubic bone'--A case report of an

adolescent patient with body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Sobanski, E., Central Inst of Mental Health, Dept of

Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Mannheim, Germany

Schmidt, M. H.

Source: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol 101(1), Jan 2000. pp. 80-82.

Journal URL: http://www.blackwellmunksgaard.com/actapsych

Publisher: United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

Publisher URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

ISSN: 0001-690X (Print)

1600-0447 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1034/j.1600-0447.2000.101001080.x

Language: English

Keywords: diagnosis & treatment with doxepine & exposure &

response prevention, 16 yr old female with body dysmorphic disorder &

comorbid depression

Abstract: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) was described for the

first time more than 100 yrs ago, but it is still unknown to many

clinicians. Although the onset usually occurs during adolescence, BDD

has received little attention in the adolescent psychiatric literature.

The case and treatment of a 16-yr-old female patient is described. The

patient, suffering from the overvalued belief of a dislocated pubic

bone, a comorbid mild depressive episode, BDD associated rituals and

social avoidance, was treated successfully with a combination of

exposure and response prevention and 125 mg/day of doxepine. The case

reports shows that it is possible to obtain a satisfying outcome if BDD

is diagnosed early in the course and treated appropriately. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Therapy; *Body Image Disturbances;

*Comorbidity; *Drug Therapy; *Psychodiagnosis; Antidepressant Drugs;

Exposure Therapy; Major Depression

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000401

Accession Number: 2000-13397-010

Number of Citations in Source: 10

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-133

97-010">'Everybody looks at my pubic bone'--A case report of an

adolescent patient with body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 32

Title: ''Everybody looks at my pubic bone''--A case report of an

adolescent patient with body dysmorphic disorder'': Comment.

Author(s): Veale, David, Grovelands Priory Hosp, London, England

Source: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol 101(1), Jan 2000. pp. 82.

Journal URL: http://www.blackwellmunksgaard.com/actapsych

Publisher: United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

Publisher URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

ISSN: 0001-690X (Print)

1600-0447 (Electronic)

Language: English

Keywords: diagnosis & treatment with doxepine & exposure &

response prevention, 16 yr old female with body dysmorphic disorder &

comorbid depression, comment

Abstract: Comments on the article by E. Sobanski and M. H. Schmidt

(see record 2000-13397-010) which describes the case of a 16-yr-old

female with body dysmorphic disorder who was successfully treated with a

standard program of behavior therapy, namely exposure and response

prevention, in combination with doxepine. Veale suggests that this

behavior therapy may be less successful in those patients who are more

concerned with an internal aversion toward their appearance as opposed

to an external fear of negative evaluation of others. Such patients may

require a more cognitive approach, with the identification of their core

beliefs about their appearance and the use of rational role-plays and

behavioral experiments. No data exists on whether cognitive-behavioral

therapy and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor enhance efficacy, especially

when there is a comorbid depression, but this is the best current

pragmatic approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Therapy; *Body Image Disturbances;

*Comorbidity; *Drug Therapy; *Psychodiagnosis; Antidepressant Drugs;

Exposure Therapy; Major Depression

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Document Type: Comment/Reply

Release Date: 20000401

Accession Number: 2000-13397-011

Number of Citations in Source: 3

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-133

97-011">''Everybody looks at my pubic bone''--A case report of an

adolescent patient with body dysmorphic disorder'': Comment.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 33

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder: A review of the current knowledge.

Author(s): Sobanski, Esther, Central Inst of Mental Health, Dept of

Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Mannheim, Germany

Schmidt, Martin H.

Source: Child Psychology & Psychiatry Review, Vol 5(1), 2000. pp. 17-24.

Journal URL:

http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1475-357X

Publisher: United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

Publisher URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

ISSN: 1360-6417 (Print)

1475-3588 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1017/S1360641799009533

Language: English

Keywords: historical aspects & phenomenology & comorbidity &

epidemiology & aetiological theories & instruments for the assessment of

body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Presents an overview of the available scientific

literature based on a MEDLINE database of Body Dysmorphic Disorder

(BDD), an excessive preoccupation with an imagined, or real, slight

defect in normal physical appearance. The disorder, which usually begins

during adolescence, tends to be chronic, and probably is much more

common than is usually thought. The article provides information about

historical aspects, epidemiology, clinical features, aetiology, and

instruments for assessing BDD. The relationship of BDD with other

psychiatric disorders such as depression, obsessive-compulsive

disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders and

personality disorders is discussed. Aetiological theories, including

psychological and neurobiological explanations, are reviewed. Finally,

psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment approaches are

presented with special regard to treatment with serotonin-reuptake

inhibitors, behavioral therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Comorbidity; *Epidemiology;

*Etiology; Measurement; Treatment

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer-Reviewed Status-Unknown

Release Date: 20000501

Correction Date: 20050919

Accession Number: 2000-07392-003

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92-003">Body dysmorphic disorder: A review of the current knowledge.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 34

Title: Comorbid personality impairment in body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Cohen, Lisa J., Beth Israel Medical Ctr, Dept of

Psychiatry, New York, NY, US

Kingston, Priscilla

Bell, Andrew

Kwon, Jee

Aronowitz, Bonnie

Hollander, Eric

Source: Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol 41(1), Jan-Feb 2000. pp. 4-12.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623360/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0010-440X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0010-440X(00)90124-X

Language: English

Keywords: comorbid personality impairment & validity of

Dimensional Assessment of Personality Impairment instrument,

clomipramine vs desipramine treated 19-55 yr olds with body dysmorphic

disorder

Abstract: Evaluated personality impairment in 17 body dysmorphic

disorder (BDD) patients (aged 19-55 yrs) treated with clomipramine vs

desipramine. Semistructured interviews were administered using both

Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID II) and Dimensional

Assessment of Personality Impairment (DAPI) methods. Personality

measures were correlated with severity of BDD and depressive symptoms,

age, duration of illness, and response to treatment. A secondary aim of

the study was to provide preliminary validation for the DAPI. BDD

patients showed considerable personality pathology. With regard to the

DAPI, the results provided preliminary evidence of good reliability and

validity. Moreover, both personality measures were highly

intercorrelated. Although SCID II diagnoses correlated with baseline

depression (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression) scores, there were few

other significant correlations between personality and other clinical

variables. Of note, however, treatment responders showed less

personality impairment than nonresponders. That personality measures

were highly intercorrelated but, on the whole, not well correlated with

other clinical measures supports the distinct and dissociable nature of

personality phenomena in BDD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA,

all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Comorbidity; *Interviews;

*Personality Disorders; *Test Validity; Chlorimipramine; Desipramine;

Drug Therapy; Test Reliability

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Tests & Measures: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000301

Accession Number: 2000-13353-001

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53-001">Comorbid personality impairment in body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 35

Title: Somatoform disorders.

Author(s): Koopman, Cheryl, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, US

Gill, Michele, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences,

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, US

Source: Encyclopedia of psychology, Vol. 7. Kazdin, Alan E. (Ed)

; pp. 392-396.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2000. 537 pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press, 2000. 537 pp.

ISBN: 1-55798-656-8 (hardcover)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/10522-170

Language: English

Keywords: somatoform disorders

Abstract: (from the create) This entry includes the following

topics: somatization disorder; diagnostic criteria; conversion disorder;

diagnostic criteria; hypochondriasis; diagnostic criteria; pain

disorder; diagnostic criteria; body dysmorphic disorder; diagnostic

criteria; undifferentiated somatoform disorder; somatoform disorder not

otherwise specified; prevalence of somatoform disorders; differential

diagnosis; clinical management; etiological factors in somatoform

disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Somatoform Disorders

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Encyclopedia; Print

Document Type: Encyclopedia Entry

Book Type: Reference Book

Release Date: 20040101

Correction Date: 20050907

Accession Number: 2004-12705-170

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05-170">Somatoform disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 36

Title: Connection between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body

dysmorphic disorder.

Series Title: Personality and clinical psychology series

Author(s): Philips, Katharine A., Brown U, School of Medicine, Dept

of Psychiatry, Butler Hosp, Providence, RI, US

Source: Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Contemporary issues in

treatment. Goodman, Wayne K. (Ed); Rudorfer, Matthew V. (Ed); Maser,

Jack D. (Ed)

; pp. 23-41.

Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2000. xxii, 661

pp.

ISBN: 0-8058-2837-0 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic & obsessive compulsive disorder

Abstract: (from the chapter) Data suggests that body dysmorphic

disorder (BDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have more

similarities than differences and are probably closely related. It is

reasonable to conceptualize BDD as an OCD-spectrum disorder. Indeed, it

is likely that BDD will be shown to be more closely related to OCD than

will many of the disorders included in this putative spectrum. Their

apparent differences, however, suggest that they are not identical

disorders. Topics discussed include the historical perspective; the

question, is BDD an OCD-spectrum disorder; and evidence for a connection

between BDD and OCD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20000201

Accession Number: 1999-04449-002

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-044

49-002">Connection between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body

dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 37

Title: Cognitive and behavioral treatment of obsessive-compulsive

spectrum disorders.

Series Title: Personality and clinical psychology series

Author(s): Neziroglu, Fugen A., Inst for Bio-behavioral Therapy &

Research, Great Neck, NY, US

Stevens, Kevin P.

Liquori, Brett

Yaryura-Tobias, Jose A.

Source: Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Contemporary issues in

treatment. Goodman, Wayne K. (Ed); Rudorfer, Matthew V. (Ed); Maser,

Jack D. (Ed)

; pp. 233-255.

Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2000. xxii, 661

pp.

ISBN: 0-8058-2837-0 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: cognitive & exposure based behavioral treatment of

obsessive compulsive & body dysmorphic disorder & hypochondriasis &

trichotillomania

Abstract: (from the chapter) This chapter is devoted to an

explication of the cognitive- and exposure-based behavioral treatment of

several obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum disorders. The discussion is

confined to the following disorders, which have been the most

represented within the behavioral literature: OC disorder, body

dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis, and trichotillomania. For each

disorder, a description of phenomenology is given, followed by a brief

review of current epidemiological estimates. Finally, a presentation of

the cognitive and behavioral treatment indicated is provided, along with

results of any relevant empirical outcome studies. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Therapy; *Body Image Disturbances; *Cognitive

Therapy; *Disorders; *Trichotillomania; Hypochondriasis; Obsessive

Compulsive Disorder

Classification: Psychotherapy & Psychotherapeutic Counseling (3310)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 20000201

Accession Number: 1999-04449-013

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href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-044

49-013">Cognitive and behavioral treatment of obsessive-compulsive

spectrum disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 38

Title: Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Contemporary issues in treatment.

Series Title: Personality and clinical psychology series

Author(s): Goodman, Wayne K., (Ed), U Florida, Coll of Medicine,

Dept of Psychiatry, Gainesville, FL, US

Rudorfer, Matthew V., (Ed)

Maser, Jack D., (Ed)

Source: Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2000.

xxii, 661 pp.

ISBN: 0-8058-2837-0 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: etiology & diagnosis & assessment & treatment of

obsessive compulsive disorder

Abstract: (from the jacket) Obsessive-compulsive disorder is now

recognized to be a serious and chronic illness affecting more than 2% of

the population. While the last decade has witnessed many advances on

both the pharmacological and the behavioral fronts, fewer than 50% of

cases benefit significantly from currently available treatments. In this

volume, leading authorities offer an overview of etiology, diagnosis,

assessment, and the latest cognitive-behavioral, biological, and

combined approaches to intervention. A special focus is

treatment-resistant illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all

rights reserved)

Subjects: *Etiology; *Measurement; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder;

*Psychodiagnosis; *Treatment

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book

Release Date: 20000201

Accession Number: 1999-04449-000

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-044

49-000">Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Contemporary issues in

treatment.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 39

Title: Obsessive-compulsive disorders: A complete guide to getting well

and staying well.

Author(s): Penzel, Frederick

Source: New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press, 2000. xvii, 428 pp.

ISBN: 0-19-514092-3 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorders & behavior & drug

therapies & treatments of children with the disorders & advice for

families of sufferers

Abstract: (from the jacket) Discusses the spectrum of

obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCDs), from the classic form

characterized by the intrusive, repetitive, and often unpleasant

thoughts, to body dysmorphic disorder ("imagined ugliness"),

trichotillomania (compulsive hair pulling), compulsive skin picking, and

nail biting. The author takes the reader through each step of the most

effective behavioral therapies, detailing how progress is made and how

to avoid relapse. He also offers a discussion of medication--how

medication is used as part of the overall treatment, its effect on

pregnancy, how to choose the best medicine, and how to know if it is

working. Also, the author discusses the treatment of children with these

disorders, offers advice for the families of sufferers, and lists

sources of help and information (including the latest sites on the

Internet). The book includes an appendix that features symptom

checklists for each of the OC spectrum disorders, the Diagnostic and

Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic

descriptions, a reading list, and a glossary.

(from the introduction) This book takes the view that classic OCD itself

is only a part of a family of neurobiological disorders, ranging from

symptoms of compulsiveness at one end of the scale, to disorders of

impulse control at the other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA,

all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Therapy; *Drug Therapy; *Obsessive Compulsive

Disorder; Family

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Intended Audience: General Public (GP)

Publication Type: Book, Authored Book

Book Type: Handbook/Manual; Textbook/Study Guide

Release Date: 20001129

Accession Number: 2000-16125-000

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-161

25-000">Obsessive-compulsive disorders: A complete guide to getting well

and staying well.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 40

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder and depression: Theoretical

considerations and treatment strategies.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Butler Hosp, Ambulatory

Services, Providence, RI, US

Source: Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol 70(4), Win 1999. Special issue: The

eleventh annual New York State Office of Mental Health Research

Conference. pp. 313-331.

Journal URL:

http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,4-10039-70-35731

366-0,00.html?changeHeader=true

Publisher: Germany: Springer

Publisher URL: http://www.springeronline.com

ISSN: 0033-2720 (Print)

1573-6709 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1023/A:1022090200057

Language: English

Keywords: theoretical considerations & treatment strategies &

recognizing psychiatric symptoms, people with body dysmorphic disorder

&/or depression

Abstract: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), also known as

dysmorphophobia, consists of a distressing and impairing preoccupation

with an imagined or slight defect in appearance. BDD is an

underrecognized and relatively common disorder that is associated with

high rates of occupational and social impairment, hospitalization, and

suicide attempts. BDD is unlikely to simply be a symptom of depression,

although it often coexists with depression and may be related to

depression. It is important to recognize BDD in depressed patients,

because missing the diagnosis can result in refractory BDD and

depressive symptoms. Available data indicate that BDD may not respond to

all treatments for depression and may instead respond preferentially to

serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. In addition, lengthier treatment trials

than those required for depression may be needed to successfully treat

BDD and comorbid depression. It can be difficult and challenging to

diagnose BDD in depressed patients because the symptoms are often

concealed due to embarrassment and shame. This paper discusses the

relationship between BDD and depression and discusses practical

strategies for recognizing and treating BDD and depressive symptoms in

patients with depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all

rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Comorbidity; *Major

Depression; *Psychiatric Symptoms; *Treatment; Psychodiagnosis

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Conference: Annual New York State Office of Mental Health Research

Conference, 11th, Dec, 1998, Albany, NY, US

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000101

Accession Number: 1999-15206-005

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-152

06-005">Body dysmorphic disorder and depression: Theoretical

considerations and treatment strategies.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 41

Title: Platelet [³H]paroxetine binding in patients with OCD-related

disorders.

Author(s): Marazziti, Donatella, U Pisa, Dept di Psichiatria,

Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, Pisa, Italy

Dell'Osso, Liliana

Presta, Silvio

Pfanner, Chiara

Rossi, Alessandra

Masala, Irene

Baroni, Stefano

Giannaccini, Gino

Lucacchini, Antonio

Cassano, Giovanni Battista

Source: Psychiatry Research, Vol 89(3), Dec 1999. pp. 223-228.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/522773/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0165-1781 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0165-1781(99)00102-X

Language: English

Keywords: platelet 3H-paroxetine binding, patients with obsessive

compulsive disorder related disorders

Abstract: Compared the binding of [³H]paroxetine ([³H]Par), a

ligand that specifically labels the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine

[5-HT]) transporter, in platelets of drug-free outpatients suffering

from various obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)-related disorders with

binding in platelets of OCD patients and healthy Ss. Diagnoses were made

according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV

(DSM-IV) criteria. The most frequent diagnosis was that of body

dysmorphic disorder, followed by impulse control disorder, kleptomania,

Tourette's syndrome and trichotillomania. Platelet membranes and [³H]Par

binding were studied according to standardized protocols. The results,

showing a similarly decreased density of [³H]Par binding sites in both

patient groups as compared with healthy Ss, suggest the presence of a

shared abnormality at the level of the presynaptic 5-HT transporter,

probably linked to a common dimension yet to be identified. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Blood Platelets; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder;

*Paroxetine; *Receptor Binding; Serotonin

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Outpatient (60)

Location: Italy

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000401

Accession Number: 2000-13769-007

Number of Citations in Source: 34

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-137

69-007">Platelet [³H]paroxetine binding in patients with OCD-related

disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 42

Title: Clomipramine vs desipramine crossover trial in body dysmorphic

disorder: Selective efficacy of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor in

imagined ugliness.

Author(s): Hollander, Eric, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Dept of

Psychiatry, New York, NY, US

Allen, Andrea

Kwon, Jee

Aronowitz, Bonnie

Schmeidler, James

Wong, Cheryl

Simeon, Daphne

Source: Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol 56(11), Nov 1999. pp.

1033-1039.

Journal URL: http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/

Publisher: US: American Medical Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.amapublications.com

ISSN: 0003-990X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1001/archpsyc.56.11.1033

Language: English

Keywords: efficacy of clomipramine vs desipramine treatment,

delusional or nondelusional body dysmorphic disorder, adult BDD

patients, 16 wk study

Abstract: The authors investigated the efficacy of clomipramine, a

potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in acute body dysmorphic disorder

(BDD) treatment, compared with the active control desipramine, a

selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. 29 adult patients who met

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-Revised

(DSM-III-R) criteria for BDD entered 16-wk treatment to test the

following hypotheses: clomipramine is more effective than desipramine in

acute BDD treatment; comorbid diagnosis of major depression, social

phobia, or obsessive-compulsive disorder does not influence treatment

outcome; delusional BDD is as likely to respond to clomipramine as

nondelusional BDD; and clomipramine is more effective than desipramine

in reducing functional disability. Results showed that clomipramine was

significantly superior to desipramine on all primary outcome measures of

BDD severity and symptoms. The authors conclude that the findings of

this 1st controlled study in BDD are a significant initial step in

establishing the efficacy of clomipramine in the treatment of this

debilitating disorder, even among delusional patients. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Chlorimipramine; *Delusions;

*Desipramine; *Drug Therapy; Mental Disorders

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study; Longitudinal Study; Treatment

Outcome/Clinical Trial

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000101

Accession Number: 1999-01772-011

Number of Citations in Source: 22

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-017

72-011">Clomipramine vs desipramine crossover trial in body dysmorphic

disorder: Selective efficacy of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor in

imagined ugliness.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 43

Title: Treating imagined ugliness.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Brown U, School of Medicine,

Butler Hosp, Dept of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, Providence, RI, US

Rasmussen, Steven A.

Price, Lawrence H.

Source: Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol 56(11), Nov 1999. pp.

1041-1042.

Journal URL: http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/

Publisher: US: American Medical Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.amapublications.com

ISSN: 0003-990X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1001/archpsyc.56.11.1041

Language: English

Keywords: efficacy of clomipramine vs desipramine treatment,

delusional or nondelusional body dysmorphic disorder, adult BDD

patients, 16 wk study, commentary

Abstract: Comments on the article by E. Hollander et al (see

record 1999-01772-011) which showed the superiority on all primary

outcome measures of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) severity and symptoms

of clomipramine compared with desipramine in its acute treatment. The

authors concluded that the findings were a significant initial step in

establishing the efficacy of clomipramine in the treatment of the

disorder, even among delusional patients. The authors of this article

praise the study and comment that it provides a milestone on the journey

of discovery about this illness; also, that they look forward to further

treatment guidance and studies that confirm the above results. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Chlorimipramine; *Delusions;

*Desipramine; *Drug Therapy; Mental Disorders

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study; Longitudinal Study; Treatment

Outcome/Clinical Trial

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000101

Accession Number: 1999-01772-012

Number of Citations in Source: 21

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-017

72-012">Treating imagined ugliness.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 44

Title: Two-year follow-up of behavioral treatment and maintenance for

body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): McKay, Dean, Fordham U, Dept of Psychology, Bronx, NY,

US

Source: Behavior Modification, Vol 23(4), Oct 1999. pp. 620-629.

Publisher: US: Sage Publications

Publisher URL: http://www.sagepublications.com/

ISSN: 0145-4455 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: behavioral therapy with vs without 6 mo maintenance

program, symptom relapse at 12 & 18 & 24 mo, 21-45 yr old patients with

body dysmorphic disorder, 2 yr followup

Abstract: Recent research has suggested that body dysmorphic

disorder (BDD) is part of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum of

disorders. As such, it has been hypothesized that these disorders

respond in a similar manner to obsessive-compulsive disorder when

behavioral interventions are used. A continuation of follow-up was

conducted with a group of patients with BDD following treatment. 10

patients (aged 21-45 yrs) completed an intensive behavioral therapy

program and either participated in a 6-mo maintenance program or served

as controls. At 12-, 18-, and 24-mo follow-up assessments, patients

participating in the maintenance program were more effective at managing

limited symptom return and had significantly lower anxiety and

depression. Both groups remained improved for acute symptomatology and

behavioral avoidance. The results suggest that maintenance programs

following behavioral treatment are effective in preventing symptom

relapse and assist in patient self-management of lapses typically

associated with BDD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Therapy; *Body Image Disturbances; *Relapse

(Disorders); *Treatment Effectiveness Evaluation; *Treatment Outcomes

Classification: Behavior Therapy & Behavior Modification (3312)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Empirical Study; Followup Study; Treatment

Outcome/Clinical Trial

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19991201

Accession Number: 1999-11750-006

Number of Citations in Source: 19

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-117

50-006">Two-year follow-up of behavioral treatment and maintenance for

body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 45

Title: Assessment, treatment parameters, and prognostic indicators for

patients with obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

Author(s): Neziroglu, Fugen, Inst for Bio-Behavioral Therapy &

Research, Great Neck, NY, US

Stevens, Kevin P., Inst for Bio-Behavioral Therapy & Research, Great

Neck, NY, US

Yaryura-Tobias, Jose A., Inst for Bio-Behavioral Therapy & Research,

Great Neck, NY, US

Hoffman, Jonathan H., Inst for Bio-Behavioral Therapy & Research, Great

Neck, NY, US

Address: Neziroglu, Fugen, Northern Blvd, Suite 102, Great Neck,

NY, US

Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, Vol 6(4), Fal 1999. pp.

345-350.

Publisher: US: Assn for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy

Publisher URL: http://www.aabt.org

ISSN: 1077-7229 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders; assessment;

treatment parameters; prognostic indicators

Abstract: Assessment and treatment parameters for

obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder

body dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis, primary anorexia nervosa,

Gilles de la Tourettes syndrome, and trichotillomania) are presented.

The aim of this paper is to augment the emerging general guidelines for

clinicians who are treating patients with these conditions. The authors

outline how to determine what type of treatment to use and at what

frequency it should be administered. Different locations of treatment

from inpatient to outpatient, homes, and residencies-are discussed.

Prognostic indicators are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Measurement; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder;

*Prognosis; *Treatment

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print

Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date: 20020529

Accession Number: 2002-01099-004

Number of Citations in Source: 40

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2002-010

99-004">Assessment, treatment parameters, and prognostic indicators for

patients with obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 46

Title: Assessing the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in an

ethnically diverse group of adolescents.

Author(s): Mayville, Stephen, U of the Pacific, Psychology Dept,

Stockton, CA, US

Katz, Roger C.

Gipson, Martin T.

Cabral, Keri

Source: Journal of Child and Family Studies, Vol 8(3), Sep 1999. pp.

357-362.

Journal URL:

http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,4-40433-70-35544

156-0,00.html?changeHeader=true

Publisher: Germany: Springer

Publisher URL: http://www.springeronline.com

ISSN: 1062-1024 (Print)

1573-2843 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1023/A:1022023514730

Language: English

Keywords: ethnicity, prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder, male

vs female 14-19 yr olds

Abstract: Investigated the prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder

(BDD) in an ethnically diverse sample of 566 adolescents (aged 14-19

yrs) using the Body Image Rating Scale, a brief self-report measure for

assessing body dissatisfaction. Results showed that adolescent girls

were more dissatisfied with their bodies than adolescent boys, and that

African-Americans of both genders were less dissatisfied with their

bodies than Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics. The interaction between

gender and ethnicity was not significant. The authors found an overall

prevalence for BDD of 2.2 %. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all

rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Epidemiology; *Human Sex

Differences; *Racial and Ethnic Differences

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: US

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 20000401

Accession Number: 2000-13799-009

Number of Citations in Source: 12

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=2000-137

99-009">Assessing the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in an

ethnically diverse group of adolescents.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 47

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder and a prosthesis.

Author(s): Roskes, Erik, U Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore,

MD, US

Source: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry, Vol

40(5), Sep-Oct 1999. pp. 436-437.

Journal URL: http://psy.psychiatryonline.org/

Publisher: US: American Psychiatric Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.appi.org

ISSN: 0033-3182 (Print)

1545-7206 (Electronic)

Language: English

Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder with focus on eye prosthesis,

27 yr old male with major depression & recurrent severe PTSD

Abstract: Reports the case of 27-yr-old African American male

referred for psychiatric consultation. Six years prior to referral, the

S was a bystander in a shooting resulting in the loss of his right eye

and the subsequent placement of a prosthesis. Following the injury the S

lost his stereoscopic vision and had difficulty concentrating on his

academic tasks because of eye strain. This was followed by an inability

to adjust mentally and physically to life with one eye. At the time of

the trial of his assailant the S became profoundly depressed and was

hospitalized voluntarily for 2 days. Following a run-in with the law,

the S was referred for consultation and diagnosed with major depressive

disorder, recurrent, severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by

history, and body dysmorphic disorder. The author notes that this is the

first reported case of body dysmorphic disorder in which the focus of

the disorder is a prosthesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA,

all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Eye (Anatomy); *Major

Depression; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Prostheses

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19991101

Accession Number: 1999-11250-009

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-112

50-009">Body dysmorphic disorder and a prosthesis.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 48

Title: Self-injurious skin picking: Clinical characteristics and

comorbidity.

Author(s): Wilhelm, Sabine, Massachusetts General Hosp, Dept of

Psychiatry, Charlestown, MA, US

Keuthen, Nancy J.

Deckersbach, Thilo

Engelhard, Iris M.

Forker, Amy E.

Baer, Lee

O'Sullivan, Richard L.

Jenike, Michael A.

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 60(7), Jul 1999. pp.

454-459.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: demographics & clinical characteristics & psychiatric

comorbidity, 18-53 yr olds with self-injurious repetitive skin picking

Abstract: Examined the demographics, phenomenology, and associated

psychopathology in 31 Ss (aged 18-53 yrs) with self-injurious repetitive

skin picking. Ss were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) for

Axis I and Axis II disorders. They also completed several mood

questionnaires and a new self-report inventory designed to assess

phenomenology, triggers, cognitions, emotions, and consequences

associated with skin picking. The mean age at onset on self-injurious

skin picking was 15 yrs, and the mean duration of illness was 21 yrs.

All Ss picked at more than 1 body area, and the most frequent sites of

skin picking were pimples and scabs. The most common comorbid Axis I

diagnoses were obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), alcohol

abuse/dependence, and body dysmorphic disorder. 48% of Ss met criteria

for at least 1 mood disorder, and 65% for at least 1 anxiety disorder.

The most common Axis II disorders were obsessive-compulsive personality

disorder and borderline personality disorder. It is concluded that

self-injurious skin picking is a severe and chronic psychiatric and

dermatologic problem associated with high rates of psychiatric

comorbidity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Comorbidity; *Demographic Characteristics; *Mental

Disorders; *Self Inflicted Wounds; *Skin (Anatomy); Repetition

Compulsion

Classification: Behavior Disorders & Antisocial Behavior (3230)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19991001

Accession Number: 1999-03777-006

Number of Citations in Source: 26

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-037

77-006">Self-injurious skin picking: Clinical characteristics and

comorbidity.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 49

Title: The importance of isolated thrombocytopenia on routine blood

screening in psychiatric patients.

Author(s): Waldron, Gerard, St Bernard's Hosp, Three Bridges

Regional Secure Unit, Middlesex, England

Schipperheijn, Ans J.

Source: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, Vol 16(2), Jun 1999.

pp. 75-76.

Publisher: Ireland: MedMedia

Publisher URL: http://www.ijpm.org/

ISSN: 0790-9667 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: neuroleptic drugs, thrombocytopenia, 38-yr-old male with

bipolar affective disorder & 22-yr-old male with dysmorphophobia

syndrome, implications for importance of routine blood screening

Abstract: Presents 2 cases highlighting the importance of baseline

blood investigations on admission and of monitoring for potential side

effects where routine full blood count reveals isolated

thrombocytopenia. The Ss were a 38-yr-old male with bipolar affective

disorder and a 22-yr-old male with a dysmorphophobia syndrome. Both Ss

were prescribed neuroleptics and both experienced low platelet counts.

It is suggested that the discovery of isolated thrombocytopenia in

psychiatric patients requires further investigation. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Blood and Lymphatic Disorders; *Blood Platelets; *Drug

Therapy; *Neuroleptic Drugs; *Side Effects (Drug); Bipolar Disorder;

Body Dysmorphic Disorder; Screening

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Document Type: Letter

Release Date: 19990901

Accession Number: 1999-03021-011

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-030

21-011">The importance of isolated thrombocytopenia on routine blood

screening in psychiatric patients.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 50

Title: Thirty-three cases of body dysmorphic disorder in children and

adolescents.

Author(s): Albertini, Ralph S., Butler Hosp, Providence, RI, US

Phillips, Katharine A.

Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent

Psychiatry, Vol 38(4), Apr 1999. pp. 453-459.

Journal URL: http://www.jaacap.com/

Publisher: US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Publisher URL: http://www.lww.com/

ISSN: 0890-8567 (Print)

1527-5418 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1097/00004583-199904000-00019

Language: English

Keywords: clinical features & treatment of body dysmorphic

disorder, 6-17 yr olds

Abstract: Assessed the clinical features of body dysmorphic

disorder (BDD), a preoccupation with a nonexistent or slight defect in

appearance, which ususally begins in adolescence. 33 children and

adolescents (aged 6-17 yrs) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of

Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) BDD were assessed for demographic

characteristics, phenomenology, associated psychopathology, and

treatment history and response. Results show that bodily preoccupations

most often focused on the skin (61%) and hair (55%). All Ss had

associated compulsive behaviors, most often camouflaging in 94%,

comparing with others (87%), and mirror checking (85%). 94% reported

impairment in social functioning and 85% in academic or job functioning

due to BDD. 39% had had psychiatric hospitalizations, and 21% had made a

suicide attempt. Ten (53%) of 19 Ss treated with a serotonin

(5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) reuptake inhibitor (SRI) had much or very

much improvement in BDD symptoms; in contrast, 0 of 8 trials with other

psychotropic medications, 0 of 1 trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy,

and 1 of 20 psychotherapy trials resulted in improvement. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Symptoms; *Treatment

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Location: US

Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

School Age (6-12 yrs) (180)

Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19990601

Accession Number: 1999-13227-017

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-132

27-017">Thirty-three cases of body dysmorphic disorder in children and

adolescents.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 51

Title: Dysmorphophobie--Symptom oder Diagnose?

Translated Title: Dysmorphophobia--Symptom or diagnosis?

Author(s): Wegner, Ulrike, Ludwig Maximilians-U München,

Psychiatrische Klinik, Munich, Germany

Meiszenzahl, Eva M.

Möller, H.-J.

Kapfhammer, H.-P.

Source: Nervenarzt, Vol 70(3), Mar 1999. pp. 233-239.

Journal URL:

http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,4-40109-70-10035

95-0,00.html

Publisher: Germany: Springer

Publisher URL: http://www.springeronline.com

ISSN: 0028-2804 (Print)

1433-0407 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1007/s001150050427

Language: German

Keywords: dysmorphophobia as symptom vs diagnosis

Abstract: Explores the concept of dysmorphophobia as a symptom and

a diagnosis. The history of the disorder is discussed and a theoretical

review and a case study are presented. Problems of the diagnostical

classification of dysmorphophobic signs are explored. (English abstract)

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Psychiatric Symptoms;

*Psychodiagnosis

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19991001

Accession Number: 1999-13313-003

Number of Citations in Source: 38

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-133

13-003">Dysmorphophobie--Symptom oder Diagnose?</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 52

Title: Buspirone: Future directions.

Author(s): Apter, Jeffrey T., Princeton Biomedical Research,

Princeton, NJ, US

Allen, Lesley A.

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol 19(1), Feb 1999. pp.

86-93.

Journal URL: http://www.psychopharmacology.com/

Publisher: US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Publisher URL: http://www.lww.com/

ISSN: 0271-0749 (Print)

1533-712X (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1097/00004714-199902000-00014

Language: English

Keywords: new uses for buspirone, patients with mental disorders

other than generalized anxiety disorder

Abstract: The Food and Drug Administration approved the use of

buspirone for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in 1986. Since then,

numerous studies have examined the efficacy and safety of buspirone for

patients with not only generalized feelings of anxiety, but also panic

disorder, major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, body

dysmorphic disorder, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder,

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced adverse events, dementia,

behavioral disturbances, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, and

tobacco dependency. Although relatively few placebo-controlled trials

have been conducted on patients with problems other than GAD, an

ever-growing body of research suggests future directions for the use of

buspirone. This article reviews the body of research relating to new

uses for buspirone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)(journal abstract)

Subjects: *Buspirone; *Drug Therapy; *Mental Disorders; Anxiety

Disorders

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19990301

Accession Number: 1999-00484-012

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-004

84-012">Buspirone: Future directions.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 53

Title: Cognitive behavior group therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: A

case series.

Author(s): Wilhelm, Sabine, Massachusetts General Hosp,

Charlestown, MA, US

Otto, Michael W.

Lohr, Bethany

Deckersbach, Thilo

Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol 37(1), Jan 1999. pp. 71-75.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/265/descrip

tion#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0005-7967 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00109-0

Language: English

Keywords: brief cognitive-behavior therapy, 18-48 yr old females

with body dysmorphic disorder & depression symptoms

Abstract: This open case series provides data on a new

cognitive-behavioral treatment for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD).

Thirteen 18-48 yr old females diagnosed with BDD were treated in small

groups that met for 12 weekly 90-minute sessions. Assessments of BDD and

depression symptoms were conducted on a weekly basis and included

patient self-report on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

modified for assessing BDD and the Beck Depression Inventory. Patients

improved significantly over the course of treatment, with reductions in

both BDD and depression symptoms. This finding adds to a nascent

literature documenting the potential efficacy of short-term

cognitive-behavior therapy for patients suffering from BDD. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Brief Psychotherapy;

*Cognitive Therapy; Major Depression

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Tests & Measures: Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

Methodology: Empirical Study; Treatment Outcome/Clinical Trial

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19981201

Accession Number: 1998-12676-007

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-126

76-007">Cognitive behavior group therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: A

case series.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 54

Title: An in-depth review of obsessive-compulsive disorder, body

dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis, and trichotillomania: Therapeutic

issues and current research.

Author(s): Neziroglu, Fugen A., Inst for Bio-Behavioral Therapy &

Research, Dept of Bio-Psycho Social Research, Great Neck, NY, US

Anderson, Mark C.

Yaryura-Tobias, Jose A.

Source: Crisis Intervention & Time-Limited Treatment, Vol 5(1-2), 1999.

pp. 59-94.

Journal URL: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/15434613.asp

Publisher: United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis

Publisher URL: http://www.taylorandfrancis.com/

ISSN: 1064-5136 (Print)

1543-4591 (Electronic)

Language: English

Keywords: characteristics & treatment & comorbidity & prognostic

indicators of obsessive compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder,

hypochondriasis & trichotillomania

Abstract: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is currently classified as

an anxiety based disorder, which is functionally composed of verbal or

motor compulsions designed to reduce or neutralize mental obsessions and

their feared consequences. Recent research has led to the concept of an

obsessive-compulsive spectrum, consisting of OCD and other closely

related disorders such as Body Dysmorphic Disorder, Hypochondriasis and

Trichotillomania, The present paper examines each of these 4 disorders,

including their characteristic attributes, behavioral and

pharmacological treatments, comorbidity and prognostic indicators. Case

examples, are provided to highlight and clarify therapeutic and

diagnostic issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Comorbidity;

*Hypochondriasis; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; *Trichotillomania;

Prognosis; Treatment

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19991201

Accession Number: 1999-01250-004

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-012

50-004">An in-depth review of obsessive-compulsive disorder, body

dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis, and trichotillomania: Therapeutic

issues and current research.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 55

Title: Cognitive behavior therapy.

Author(s): Foa, Edna B., Hahnemann U, Dept of Psychiatry,

Philadelphia, PA, US

Franklin, Martin E.

Source: Handbook of comparative interventions for adult disorders (2nd

ed.). Hersen, Michel (Ed); Bellack, Alan S. (Ed)

; pp. 359-377.

Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1999. xii, 708 pp.

ISBN: 0-471-16342-2 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: diagnostic problems & exposure & ritual prevention

techniques in cognitive behavior therapy, patients with

obsessive-compulsive disorder

Abstract: (from the chapter) At present the treatment outcome

literature suggests that there are 2 treatments of established efficacy

for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): cognitive-behavior therapy

involving exposure/ritual prevention (EX/RP) and pharmacotherapy with

serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Across multiple studies, EX/RP treatment

generally has been associated with greater response rates, greater

percentage of symptom reduction, and greater maintenance of gains than

pharmacotherapy. This chapter focuses on cognitive-behavior therapy of

OCD. The following topics are addressed: conceptualization of the

disorder (classification, cognitive and behavioral theories), diagnostic

issues and problems (obsessions vs ruminations, Tourette's syndrome and

tic disorders, delusional disorder and schizophrenia, other anxiety

disorders, hypochondriasis and body dysmorphic disorder), treatment

strategies, alternative treatment, and prescriptive treatment and

managed care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights

reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Therapy; *Cognitive Therapy; *Differential

Diagnosis; *Exposure Therapy; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Classification: Behavior Therapy & Behavior Modification (3312)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book

Document Type: Original Chapter

Book Type: Handbook/Manual

Release Date: 19991001

Accession Number: 1999-02886-015

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-028

86-015">Cognitive behavior therapy.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 56

Title: Pharmacotherapy.

Author(s): O'Neill, Matthew T.

Davis, John M.

Martis, Brian

Source: Handbook of comparative interventions for adult disorders (2nd

ed.). Hersen, Michel (Ed); Bellack, Alan S. (Ed)

; pp. 378-413.

Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1999. xii, 708 pp.

ISBN: 0-471-16342-2 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: pharmacological agents & treatment, patients with

obsessive-compulsive disorder

Abstract: (from the chapter) In this chapter, the authors provide

a comprehensive review of the available pharmacotherapy options for

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Topics addressed in the chapter

include diagnosis and clinical features; epidemiology, course, and

genetics; overview of treatment (clomipramine, selective serotonin

reuptake inhibitors, other agents); augmentation (serotonergic agents,

dopaminergic agents); maintenance treatment and discontinuation studies;

refractory OCD; neurosurgery; experimental agents and somatic

treatments; obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders (trichotillomania,

body dysmorphic disorder); special populations (children and

adolescents, pregnancy and puerperium, developmentally disabled, elderly

and neurologically impaired); and OCD and managed care. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Drug Therapy; *Drugs; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder;

Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book

Document Type: Original Chapter

Book Type: Handbook/Manual

Release Date: 19991001

Accession Number: 1999-02886-016

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-028

86-016">Pharmacotherapy.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 57

Title: The history, epidemiology, and differential diagnosis of social

anxiety disorder.

Author(s): Moutier, Christine Yu, U California-San Diego, Anxiety &

Traumatic Stress Disorders Research Program, La Jolla, CA, US

Stein, Murray B.

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 60(Suppl 9), 1999. Special

issue: New fronteirs in the management of social anxiety disorder:

Diagnosis, treatment, and clinical course. pp. 4-8.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: social anxiety disorder & differential diagnosis &

comorbidity & DSM-IV criteria

Abstract: Argues that although social anxiety disorder (SANXD) is

distinguishable from other psychiatric disorders, there are several

areas in which this distinction is not straightforward. It is suggested

that SANXD is associated with considerable comorbidity, which may render

differential diagnosis a challenging endeavor. This article reviews

those disorders which, it is argued, need to be differentiated from

SANXD, including major depression, panic disorder with agoraphobia,

generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and body

dysmorphic disorder. Examples are discussed of Diagnostic and

Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) disorders such as

verbal dysfluency (stuttering) and Parkinson's disease, in the context

of which SANXD is not to be diagnosed. It is noted that SANXD is also

frequently comorbid with the Axis II avoidant personality disorder. It

is suggested that much avoidant personality disorder as defined by

DSM-IV merely denotes a subgroup of patients with generalized SANXD.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Comorbidity; *Differential Diagnosis; *Epidemiology;

*Social Phobia; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual; Psychodiagnosis;

Social Anxiety

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Conference: New Frontiers in the Management of Social Anxiety

Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment and Clinical Course, May, 1998, Toronto,

ON, Canada

Conference Notes: This symposium was held in conjunction with the

151st Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, May 31,

1998, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19990701

Accession Number: 1999-05175-001

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-051

75-001">The history, epidemiology, and differential diagnosis of social

anxiety disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 58

Title: Comorbid social anxiety and body dysmorphic disorder: Managing

the complicated patient.

Author(s): Hollander, Eric, Mt Sinai School of Medicine, Dept of

Psychiatry, New York, NY, US

Aronowitz, Bonnie R.

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 60(Suppl 9), 1999. Special

issue: New fronteirs in the management of social anxiety disorder:

Diagnosis, treatment, and clinical course. pp. 27-31.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: pharmacologic & nonpharmacologic treatments for

management of body dysmorphic disorder with coexisting social anxiety

Abstract: Patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have an

obsessive preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance or, if a

slight physical abnormality exists, a grossly excessive concern with it.

This preoccupation causes significant distress or impairment of social,

occupational, or other functioning. Social anxiety is a prominent

component of BDD, and social avoidance resulting from BDD symptoms may

markedly impair social functioning. In severe cases, avoidance of social

situations in combination with occupational and academic impairment may

result in patients becoming housebound. The prevalence of BDD is 1% to

2% in the U.S. population and 11% to 12% in patients with social anxiety

disorder. Behaviors associated with BDD include mirror checking,

physician visits, hair grooming, use of cosmetics, and social avoidance.

Distress over BDD may lead patients to undergo repeated cosmetic

surgeries in futile attempts to conceal or correct perceived defects.

Additionally, depression and suicide are frequent complications of BDD.

Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments for the management of BDD

with coexisting social anxiety are presented in this article. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Comorbidity; *Drug Therapy;

*Psychotherapy; *Social Anxiety

Classification: Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Conference: New Frontiers in the Management of Social Anxiety

Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment and Clinical Course, May, 1998, Toronto,

ON, Canada

Conference Notes: This symposium was held in conjunction with the

151st Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, May 31,

1998, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19990701

Accession Number: 1999-05175-005

Persistent link to this record:

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-051

75-005">Comorbid social anxiety and body dysmorphic disorder: Managing

the complicated patient.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 59

Title: Somatoform disorders.

Author(s): Fallon, Brian A., Columbia U, Coll of Physicians &

Surgeons, New York, NY, US

Source: Primary care psychiatry and behavioral medicine: Brief office

treatment and management pathways. Feinstein, Robert E. (Ed); Brewer,

Anne A. (Ed)

; pp. 146-170.

New York, NY, US: Springer Publishing Co, 1999. xxiii, 504 pp.

Publisher URL: http://www.springerpub.com

ISBN: 0-8261-1224-2 (hardcover)

Language: English

Keywords: treatment in primary care environment, patients with

hypochondriasis or body dysmorphic or somatization disorder

Abstract: (from the chapter) Patients with unexplained physical

symptoms and irrational fears of illness plague the primary care

physician. This chapter focuses on 3 somatoform disorders:

hypochondriasis, body dysmorphic disorder, and somatization disorder.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Hypochondriasis; *Primary

Health Care; *Somatoform Disorders; *Treatment

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Health Psychology & Medicine (3360)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Edited Book

Document Type: Original Chapter

Release Date: 19990301

Accession Number: 1999-02101-006

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-021

01-006">Somatoform disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 60

Title: Near-fatal skin picking from delusional body dysmorphic disorder

responsive to fluvoxamine.

Author(s): O'Sullivan, Richard L., Massachusetts General Hosp, Dept

of Psychiatry, Charlestown, MA, US

Phillips, Katharine A.

Keuthen, Nancy J.

Wilhelm, Sabine

Source: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry, Vol

40(1), Jan-Feb 1999. pp. 79-81.

Journal URL: http://psy.psychiatryonline.org/

Publisher: US: American Psychiatric Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.appi.org

ISSN: 0033-3182 (Print)

1545-7206 (Electronic)

Language: English

Keywords: fluvoxamine, severe skin picking attributable to

delusional body dysmorphic disorder, 48 yr old female patient

Abstract: Reports the case of severe skin picking attributable to

delusional body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), which resulted in

considerable medical morbidity and a nearly fatal outcome. The patient

was a 48-yr-old female. After her fluvoxamine treatment was increased to

300 mg/day, it resulted in further lessening of her picking, to the

point that it occurred only 20 min a day. This case illustrates that the

diagnosis of BDD can easily be missed and emphasizes the need for

careful differential diagnosis of skin picking. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Drug Therapy; *Fluvoxamine;

*Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; Differential Diagnosis; Skin (Anatomy)

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Outpatient (60)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study; Treatment

Outcome/Clinical Trial

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19990301

Accession Number: 1999-08071-012

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-080

71-012">Near-fatal skin picking from delusional body dysmorphic disorder

responsive to fluvoxamine.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 61

Title: Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in adults: A

comprehensive clinical guide.

Author(s): Koran, Lorrin M., Stanford U Medical Ctr,

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Clinic, Stanford, CA, US

Source: New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ix, 370 pp.

ISBN: 0-521-55975-8 (paperback)

Language: English

Keywords: diagnosis & clinical features & pharmacotherapeutic &

psychotherapeutic treatment approaches, patients with

obsessive-compulsive & related disorders

Abstract: (from the cover) This book presents in detail the

diagnosis, clinical picture, and pharmacotherapeutic and

psychotherapeutic treatments, both for obsessive-compulsive disorder and

for disorders traditionally included in the obsessive-compulsive

spectrum. The book can improve the clinician's knowledge and skill in

treating patients with complicated as well as straightforward clinical

presentations. Each chapter ends with treatment planning guidelines

summarizing appropriate evaluation and treatment strategies. The book is

intended for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals,

whether they favor pharmacological or cognitive-behavioral approaches.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Drug Therapy; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder;

*Psychodiagnosis; *Psychotherapy; Disorders; Symptoms

Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type: Book, Authored Book

Book Type: Handbook/Manual

Release Date: 19991001

Accession Number: 1999-04041-000

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Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-040

41-000">Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in adults: A

comprehensive clinical guide.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 62

Title: Spiegeltje, spiegeltje aan de wand Cognitieve gedragstherapie en

de stoornis in de lichaamsbeleving (body dysmorphic disorder).

Translated Title: Body dysmorphic disorder and cognitive behaviour

therapy.

Author(s): Bouman, Theo K., Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Vakgroep

Klinische Psychologie, Groningen, Netherlands

Source: Gedragstherapie, Vol 31(4), Dec 1998. pp. 249-272.

Publisher: Netherlands: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum

Publisher URL: http://www.bsl.nl

ISSN: 0167-7454 (Print)

Language: Dutch

Keywords: etiology & diagnosis & symptoms & co-morbidity &

behavioral & cognitive treatment for body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Discusses the etiology, history, diagnosis, symptoms,

course, and treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. Differential

diagnosis and co-morbidity are examined. Recent behavioral and cognitive

treatments are described, with emphasis on the empirical support shown

for cognitive-behavioral therapy. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Behavior Therapy; *Cognitive Therapy; *Comorbidity;

*Diagnosis; *Somatoform Disorders; Etiology; Symptoms

Classification: Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders (3290)

Psychotherapy & Psychotherapeutic Counseling (3310)

Population: Human (10)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19990701

Accession Number: 1999-10318-001

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-10318-001

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1999-103

18-001">Spiegeltje, spiegeltje aan de wand Cognitieve gedragstherapie en

de stoornis in de lichaamsbeleving (body dysmorphic disorder).</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 63

Title: A comparison study of body dysmorphic disorder and

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Butler Hosp, Providence, RI, US

Gunderson, Craig G.

Mallya, Gopinath

McElroy, Susan L.

Carter, William

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 59(11), Nov 1998. pp.

568-575.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: demographic characteristics & disease course & illness

severity & comorbid major depression & psychotic disorder diagnosis,

patients with body dysmorphic disorder &/or obsessive compulsive

disorder

Abstract: Investigated the similarities and differences between

body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

The authors compared 53 patients with BDD, 53 patients with OCD, and 33

patients with both disorders in terms of demographic features, clinical

features, comorbidity, and family history. The authors also assessed the

rate of BDD among 62 of these Ss initially diagnosed with OCD. 14.5% of

Ss initially diagnosed with OCD had comorbid BDD. The 2 disorders did

not differ significantly in terms of sex ratio, most other demographic,

course and impairment variables, illness severity, or lifetime frequency

of most associated disorders in probands or 1st-degree relatives.

However, Ss with BDD were less likely to be married and more likely to

have made a suicide attempt because of their disorder. They also had an

earlier onset of major depression and higher lifetime rates of major

depression, social phobia, and psychotic disorder diagnoses, as well as

higher rates of substance use disorders in 1st-degree relatives.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Comorbidity; *Obsessive

Compulsive Disorder; Demographic Characteristics; Disease Course; Major

Depression; Psychosis; Severity (Disorders)

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Conference: Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association,

148th, May, 1995, Miami, FL, US

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19990101

Accession Number: 1998-11915-002

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-11915-002

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-119

15-002">A comparison study of body dysmorphic disorder and

obsessive-compulsive disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 64

Title: Perceived stress in body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): DeMarco, Lynne M., Butler Hosp, Providence, RI, US

Li, Lisa C.

Phillips, Katharine A.

McElroy, Susan L.

Source: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol 186(11), Nov 1998.

pp. 724-726.

Journal URL: http://www.jonmd.com/

Publisher: US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Publisher URL: http://www.lww.com/

ISSN: 0022-3018 (Print)

1539-736X (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1097/00005053-199811000-00011

Language: English

Keywords: perceived stress & relation to symptom severity,

patients with body dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Investigated perceived stress in 78 patients with body

dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and determined whether perceived stress would

be related to severity of (BDD) symptoms. Ss completed a self-report

global measure of perceived stress and the Structured Clinical Interview

for the DSM-III-R. Current severity of BDD symptoms was assessed with

the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Body Dysmorphic

Disorder. Ss with BDD, especially those who are delusional, experienced

high levels of perceived stress. There was a significant relationship

between severity of BDD symptoms and level of perceived stress. Degree

of current social and academic/occupational impairment, as well as

avoidance, were also significantly associated with perceived stress

levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Adult Attitudes; *Body Image Disturbances; *Severity

(Disorders); *Stress; *Symptoms

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Tests & Measures: Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19990101

Accession Number: 1998-11334-011

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-11334-011

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-113

34-011">Perceived stress in body dysmorphic disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 65

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder: Clinical aspects and treatment

strategies.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Butler Hosp, Providence, RI, US

Source: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, Vol 62(4, Suppl A), Fal 1998.

pp. A33-A48.

Journal URL:

http://www.guilford.com/cgi-bin/cartscript.cgi?page=pr/jnme.htm&dir=peri

odicals/per_psych&cart_id=300044.6910

Publisher: US: Guilford Publications

Publisher URL: http://www.guilford.com

ISSN: 0025-9284 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: clinical aspects & treatment strategies of body

dysmorphic disorder

Abstract: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a distressing and

impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance,

is an "obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum disorder" that appears to

be relatively common. BDD often goes unrecognized and undiagnosed due to

patients' reluctance to divulge their symptoms because of secrecy and

shame. Any body part can be the focus of concern (most often, the skin,

hair, and nose), and most patients engage in compulsive behaviors, such

as mirror checking, camouflaging, excessive grooming, and skin picking.

Approximately half are delusional, and a majority experience ideas or

delusions of reference. Nearly all patients suffer some impairment in

functioning as a result of their symptoms, some to a debilitating

degree. Psychiatric hospitalization, suicidal ideation, and suicide

attempts are relatively common. While treatment data are preliminary at

this time, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors appear to often be

effective for BDD. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is another promising

approach. While much remains to be learned about BDD, it is important

that clinicians screen patients for this disorder and accurately

diagnose it, as available treatments are very promising. A short case

involving a 40-yr-old male with BDD is presented. (PsycINFO Database

Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Psychiatric Symptoms;

*Treatment

Classification: Schizophrenia & Psychotic States (3213)

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19981201

Accession Number: 1998-11142-002

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-11142-002

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-111

42-002">Body dysmorphic disorder: Clinical aspects and treatment

strategies.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 66

Title: Body dysmorphic disorder in psychiatric outpatients:

Recognition, prevalence, comorbidity, demographic, and clinical

correlates.

Author(s): Zimmerman, Mark, Baydside Medical Ctr, Providence, RI,

US

Mattia, Jill I.

Source: Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol 39(5), Sep-Oct 1998. pp. 265-270.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623360/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0010-440X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0010-440X(98)90034-7

Language: English

Keywords: prevalence & comorbidity & demographics, adult

outpatients with vs without body dysmorphic disorder, implications for

improvement of diagnosis

Abstract: Compared the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder

(BDD) in 2 samples of adult psychiatric outpatients drawn from the same

practice setting. In the first sample, 500 Ss were diagnosed according

to a routine, unstructured clinical interview. In the second sample, 500

Ss were diagnosed according to information obtained by the Structured

Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). No S was diagnosed with BDD in the

clinical sample, whereas 16 (3.2%) Ss were diagnosed with BDD in the

SCID sample. Compared with Ss without BDD, Ss with BDD received

significantly more current axis I diagnoses, and were more likely to be

diagnosed with current obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia.

Both groups were diagnosed with major depression at similar rates. Ss

with BDD, vs those without, tended to be sicker and more functionally

impaired. It appears that BDD is an infrequent disorder in an outpatient

setting, which is rarely recognized when clinicians conduct their

routine diagnostic interview. Although it was not usually a patient's

principal reason for seeking treatment, the majority of patients with

BDD in this sample wanted their treatment to address these symptoms.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Epidemiology; Comorbidity;

Demographic Characteristics; Psychodiagnosis

Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population: Human (10)

Outpatient (60)

Location: US

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19981101

Accession Number: 1998-12198-004

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-12198-004

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-121

98-004">Body dysmorphic disorder in psychiatric outpatients:

Recognition, prevalence, comorbidity, demographic, and clinical

correlates.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 67

Title: Treatment of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders with SSRIs.

Author(s): Hollander, E., City U New York, Mt Sinai School of

Medicine, New York, NY, US

Source: British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 173(Suppl 35), Aug 1998. pp.

7-12.

Journal URL: http://bjp.rcpsych.org/

Publisher: United Kingdom: Royal College of Psychiatrists

Publisher URL: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/

ISSN: 0007-1250 (Print)

1472-1465 (Electronic)

Language: English

Keywords: use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in

treatment of obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders

Abstract: Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) are now

recognized as distinct diagnostic entities related to

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The features of OCSDs and OCD

overlap in many respects including demographics, repetitive intrusive

thoughts or behaviors, comorbidity, etiology, and preferential response

to drugs such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

Literature was reviewed and preliminary data were re-examined to assess

the relationship between compulsivity and impulsivity, and between OCD

and OCSDs. OCSDs include both compulsive and impulsive disorders, which

can be viewed as lying at opposite ends of the dimension of risk

avoidance. Compulsiveness is associated with increased frontal lobe and

serotonergic activity, while impulsiveness is associated with reduced

activity of these variables. Neural circuits affected by serotonergic

pathways have been identified and pharmacological challenge of OCSD

patients with serotonin receptor agonists have supported the involvement

of serotonergic processes. SSRIs have established efficacy in OCD and

preliminary studies indicate that they are also effective in OCSDs. The

features of 3 specimen OCSDs--body dysmorphic disorder, pathological

gambling and autism--and their treatment with SSRIs are reviewed.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Drug Therapy; *Obsessive Compulsive Disorder;

*Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Methodology: Literature Review

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19981001

Accession Number: 1998-12042-002

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-12042-002

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-120

42-002">Treatment of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders with

SSRIs.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 68

Title: Assessment of body image dissatisfaction in obese women:

Specificity, severity, and clinical significance.

Author(s): Sarwer, David B., U Pennsylvania, School of Medicine,

Weight & Eating Disorders Program, Dept of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, PA,

US

Wadden, Thomas A.

Foster, Gary D.

Source: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 66(4), Aug

1998. pp. 651-654.

Journal URL: http://www.apa.org/journals/ccp.html

Publisher: US: American Psychological Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org

ISSN: 0022-006X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/0022-006X.66.4.651

Language: English

Keywords: specificity & severity & clinical significance of body

image satisfaction, obese females

Abstract: This study assessed the specificity, severity, and

clinical significance of body image dissatisfaction in 79 obese women

using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination--Self-Report (J. C. Rosen

& J. Reiter, 1996). The vast majority of obese women demonstrated body

image dissatisfaction related to their obesity, with almost half

reporting the greatest dissatisfaction with their waist or abdomen. On

average, they reported significantly more body image dissatisfaction

than did 43 nonobese controls. The 2 groups did not differ on

self-reported symptoms of depression or self-esteem. Body image

dissatisfaction correlated significantly with reports of depressive

symptoms and lower self-esteem but was not correlated with body mass

index. Results are discussed in terms of the role of body image

dissatisfaction in understanding and treating obese individuals.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)(journal

abstract)

Subjects: *Body Image; *Human Females; *Obesity; *Satisfaction

Classification: Eating Disorders (3260)

Population: Human (10)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19980901

Accession Number: 1998-10207-008

Number of Citations in Source: 20

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-10207-008

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-102

07-008">Assessment of body image dissatisfaction in obese women:

Specificity, severity, and clinical significance.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 69

Title: The relation between body dysmorphic disorder and depression,

self-esteem, somatization, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Author(s): Biby, Erika L., Southern Illinois U, Edwardsville, IL,

US

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 54(4), Jun 1998. pp.

489-499.

Journal URL: http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0021-9762/

Publisher: US: John Wiley & Sons

Publisher URL: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/

ISSN: 0021-9762 (Print)

1097-4679 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199806)54:4<489::AID-JCLP10>3.3.CO;2-C

Language: English

Keywords: depression & self-esteem & somatization &

obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, undergraduates

Abstract: Investigated the relationship of depression,

self-esteem, somatization, and obsessive-compulsive disorder to the

incidence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). 83 female and 25 male

undergraduates completed measures of body esteem, self-esteem,

obsessive-compulsive behavior, and somatization. Ss were also screened

for eating disorders utilizing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of

Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria for such in an effort to control

for anorexia and bulimia. Upon excluding those Ss who met the criteria

for eating disorders, the final sample included 78 females and 24 males.

The results indicate that lower body esteem scores were linked with

lower levels of self-esteem but with higher levels of

obsessive-compulsive tendencies, depressive tendencies. and somatization

tendencies. The findings are discussed with regard to the need for more

accurate measures of body dysmorphic disorder, as well as etiology and

future treatment implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA,

all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Image Disturbances; *Major Depression; *Obsessive

Compulsive Disorder; *Self Esteem; *Somatization

Classification: Psychological & Physical Disorders (3200)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19980701

Accession Number: 1998-02668-010

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-02668-010

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-026

68-010">The relation between body dysmorphic disorder and depression,

self-esteem, somatization, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 70

Title: Efficacy and safety of fluvoxamine in body dysmorphic disorder.

Author(s): Phillips, Katharine A., Butler Hosp, Providence, RI, US

Dwight, Megan M.

McElroy, Susan L.

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 59(4), Apr 1998. pp.

165-171.

Publisher: US: Physicians Postgraduate Press

Publisher URL: http://www.psychiatrist.com/

ISSN: 0160-6689 (Print)

Language: English

Keywords: efficacy & safety of fluvoxamine treatment, 20-53 yr

olds with body dysmorphic disorder or its delusional variant

Abstract: 30 Ss (aged 20-53 yrs) with body dysmorphic disorder

(BDD) or its delusional variant were prospectively treated in an

open-label fashion with fluvoxamine for 16 wks. Ss were assessed at

regular intervals with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

Modified for BDD (BDD-YBOCS), the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI)

scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Brown Assessment of

Beliefs Scale, and other measures. Results show that BDD-YBOCS scores

(mean ± SD) decreased from 31.1±5.4 at baseline to 16.9±11.8 at

termination. 19 Ss were rated as responders on the BDD-YBOCS and the

CGI. Delusional Ss were as likely to respond to fluvoxamine as

nondelusional Ss, and delusionality significantly improved. All 5

responders who were delusional at baseline were no longer delusional at

study endpoint. The mean dose of fluvoxamine was 238.3±85.8 mg/day,

and mean time to response was 6.1±3.7 wks. Fluvoxamine was generally

well tolerated. Results suggest that fluvoxamine is a safe and effective

treatment for BDD, including its delusional disorder variant. (PsycINFO

Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Body Dysmorphic Disorder; *Body Image Disturbances;

*Delusions; *Drug Therapy; *Fluvoxamine

Classification: Clinical Psychopharmacology (3340)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Tests & Measures: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression

Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

Conference: 149th annual meeting of the American Psychiatric

Association, May, 1996, New York, NY, US

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19980601

Accession Number: 1998-02191-003

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-02191-003

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-021

91-003">Efficacy and safety of fluvoxamine in body dysmorphic

disorder.</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 71

Title: Tourette's disorder with and without obsessive-compulsive

disorder in adults: Are they different?

Author(s): Coffey, Barbara J., Massachusetts General Hosp & McLean

Hosp, Harvard Medical School, Joint Program in Pediatric

Psychopharmacology, Belmont, MA, US

Miguel, Euripedes C.

Biederman, Joseph

Baer, Lee

Rauch, Scott L.

O'Sullivan, Richard L.

Savage, Cary R.

Phillips, Katherine

Borgman, Andrea

Green-Leibovitz, Mathew I.

Moore, Ellen

Park, Kenneth S.

Jenike, Michael A.

Source: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol 186(4), Apr 1998. pp.

201-206.

Journal URL: http://www.jonmd.com/

Publisher: US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Publisher URL: http://www.lww.com/

ISSN: 0022-3018 (Print)

1539-736X (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1097/00005053-199804000-00001

Language: English

Keywords: clinical correlates, 18-50 yr olds with Tourette's

disorder vs obsessive-compulsive disorder vs Tourette's &

obsessive-compulsive disorder

Abstract: Clinical research has documented a bidirectional overlap

between Tourette's disorder (TD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

from familial-genetic, phenomenological, comorbidity, and natural

history perspectives. Patients with Tourette's disorder plus

obsessive-compulsive disorder (TD+OCD), a putative subtype, share

features of both. The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate

correlates of patients with TD, OCD, and TD+OCD to determine whether

TD+OCD is a subtype of TD, OCD, or an additive form of both. 61 Ss with

TD, OCD, or TD+OCD were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview

for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-Revised

(DSM-III-R) supplemented with additional modules. The 3 groups differed

in the rates of bipolar disorder, social phobia, body dysmorphic

disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance

use disorders. These findings were accounted for by the elevated rates

of the disorders in the TD+OCD group compared with the TD and OCD

groups. These findings are most consistent with the hypothesis that

TD+OCD is a more severe disorder than TD and OCD and may be more

etiologically linked to TD than to OCD. These findings highlight the

importance of assessment of the full spectrum of psychiatric comorbidity

in patients with TD and OCD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all

rights reserved)

Subjects: *Gilles de la Tourette Disorder; *Obsessive Compulsive

Disorder; Comorbidity

Classification: Psychological & Physical Disorders (3200)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: US

Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Empirical Study

Publication Type: Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date: 19980601

Accession Number: 1998-02018-001

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-02018-001

Cut and Paste: <A

href="http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&an=1998-020

18-001">Tourette's disorder with and without obsessive-compulsive

disorder in adults: Are they different?</A>

Database: PsycINFO

_____

Record: 72

Title: The high prevalence of 'soft' bipolar (II) features in atypical

depression.

Author(s): Perugi, G., U Pisa, Inst of Psychiatry, Pisa, Italy

Akiskal, H. S.

Lattanzi, L.

Cecconi, D.

Mastrocinque, C.

Patronelli, A.

Vignoli, S.

Bemi, E.

Source: Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol 39(2), Mar-Apr 1998. pp. 63-71.

Journal URL:

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623360/desc

ription#description

Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN: 0010-440X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/S0010-440X(98)90080-3

Language: English

Keywords: prevalence of soft bipolar II features, 17-53 yr olds

with major depressive disorder with atypical features, Italy

Abstract: 72% of 86 major depressive patients (17-53 yr olds) with

atypical features as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of

Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) and evaluated systematically were found to

meet the criteria for bipolar II and related "soft" bipolar disorders;

nearly 60% had antecedent cyclothymic or hyperthymic temperaments. The

family history for bipolar disorder validated these clinical findings.

Even if diagnosis of bipolar II is limited to the official DSM-IV

threshold of 4 days of hypomania, 32.6% of atypical depressives in the

sample would meet this conservative threshold, a rate that is 3 times

higher than the estimates of bipolarity among atypical depressives in

the literature. By definition, mood reactivity was present in all

patients, while interpersonal sensitivity occurred in 94%. Lifetime

comorbidity rates were as follows: social phobia 30%, body dysmorphic

disorder 42%, obsessive-compulsive disorder 20%, and panic disorder

(agoraphobia) 64%. Both cluster A (anxious personality) and cluster B

(e.g., borderline and histrionic) personality disorders were highly

prevalent. These data suggest that the "atypicality" of depression is

favored by affective temperamental dysregulation and anxiety

comorbidity, clinically manifesting in a mood disorder subtype that is

preponderantly in the realm of bipolar II. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)

2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects: *Bipolar Disorder; *Comorbidity; *Major Depression;

*Symptoms; *Atypical Disorders

Classification: Affective Disorders (3211)

Population: Human (10)

Male (30)

Female (40)

Location: Italy

Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Methodology: Empirical S