image displayed if flash reader not installed
Young Adulthood
Old Age


and Physiological

Trauma Research



Seize Your Journeys



Traumatic stress is found in many competent, healthy, strong, good people.  No one can completely protect themselves from traumatic experiences.  Many people have long-lasting problems following exposure to trauma.  Up to 8% of persons will have PTSD at some time in their lives. People who react to traumas are not going crazy.  What is happening to them is part of a set of common symptoms and problems that are connected with being in a traumatic situation, and thus, is a normal reaction to abnormal events and experiences.  Having symptoms after a traumatic event is NOT a sign of personal weakness.  Given exposure to a trauma that is bad enough, probably all people would develop PTSD.

By understanding trauma symptoms better, a person can become less fearful of them and better able to manage them. By recognizing the effects of trauma and knowing more about symptoms, a person will be better able to decide about getting treatment.



Secure Attachments as a Defense Against Trauma

 “All people mature and thrive in a social context that has profound effects on how they cope with life’s stresses.  Particularly early in life, the social context plays a critical role in fuffering an individual against stressful situations, and in building the psychological and biological capacities to deal with further stresses.  The primary function of parents can be thought of as helping children modulate their arousal by attuned and well-timed provision of playing, feeding, comforting, touching, looking, cleaning, and resting—in short, by teaching them skills that will gradually help them modulate their own arousal.  Secure attachment bonds serve as primary defenses against trauma-induced psychopathology in both children and adults (Finkelhor & Browne, 1984).  In children who have been exposed to severe stressors, the quality of the parental bond is probably the single most important determinant of long-term damage (McFarlane, 1988).”  van der Kolk, Bessel, Alexander C. McFarlane, and Lars Weisaeth, eds.  1996. Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society.  New York and London: Guilford Press. .p. 185


Eating Disorders

 “The Eating Disorders are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior.  This section includes two specific diagnoses, Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.  Anorexia Nervosa is characterized by a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight.  Bulimia Nervosa is characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications; fasting; or excessive exercise.  A disturbance in perception of body shape and weight is an essential feature of both Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.  An Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified category is also provided for coding behaviors that do not meet criteria for a specific Eating Disorder.

          Simple obesity is include in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) as a general medical condition but does not appear in DSM-IV because it has not been established that it is consistently associated with a psychological or behavioral syndrome.  However, when there is evidence that psychological factors are of importance in the etiology or course of a particular case of obesity, this can be indicated by noting the presence of Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition.

          Disorders of Feeding and Eating that are usually first diagnosed in infancy or early childhood (i.e., Pica, Rumination Disorder, and Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood) are included in the section “Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood.

 Anorexia Nervosa

 Diagnostic Features

The essential features of Anorexia Nervosa are that the individual refuses to maintain a minimally normal body weight, is intensely afraid of gaining weight, and exhibits a significant disturbance in the perception of the shape or size of his or her body.  In addition, postmenarcheal females with this disorder are amenorrheic.  (The term anorexia is a misnomer because loss of appetite is rare.)

          The individual maintains a body weight that is below a minimally normal level for age and height (Criterion A).  When Anorexia Nervosa develops in an individual during childhood or early adolescence, there may be failure to make expected weight gains (i.e., while growing in height) instead of weight loss.

Criterion A provides a guideline for determining when the individual meets the threshold for being underweight.  It suggests that the individual weigh less than 85% of that weight that is considered normal for that person’s age and height (usually computed using one of several published versions of the Metropolitan Life Insurance tables or pediatric growth charts.).  An alternative and somewhat stricter guideline (used in the ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for research) requires that the individual have a body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms/height in meters2) equal to or below 17.5kg/m2.  These cutoffs are provided only as suggested guidelines for eh clinician, since it is unreasonable to specify a single standard for minimally normal weight that applies to all individuals of a given age and height.  In determining a minimally normal weight, the clinician should consider not only such guidelines but also the individual’s body build and weight history.

Usually weight loss is accomplished primarily through reduction in total food intake.  Although individuals may begin by excluding from their diet what they perceive to be highly caloric foods, most eventually end up with a very restricted diet that is sometimes limited to only a few foods.  Additional methods of weight loss include purging (i.e., self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxative or diuretics) and increased or excessive exercise.)

Individuals with this disorder intensely fear gaining weight or becoming fat (Criterion B).  This intense fear of becoming fat is usually not alleviated by the weight loss.  In fact, concern about weight gain often increases even as actual weight continues to decrease.

The experience and significance of body weight and shape are distorted in these individuals (Criterion C).  Some individuals feel globally overweight.  Others realize that they are thin but are still concerned that certain parts of their bodies, particularly the abdomen, buttocks, and thighs are “to fat.”  They may employ a wide variety of techniques to estimate their body size and weight, including excessive weighing, obsessive measuring of body parts, and persistently using a mirror to check for perceived areas of “fat.”  The self-esteem of individuals with Anorexia Nervosa is highly dependent on their body shape and weight.  Weight loss is viewed as an impressive achievement and a sign of extraordinary self-discipline, whereas weight gain is perceived as an unacceptable failure of self-control.  Though some individuals with this disorder may acknowledge being thin, they typically deny the serious medical implications of their malnourished state.

In postmenarcheal females, amenorrhea (due to abnormally low levels of estrogen secretion that are due in turn to diminished pituitary secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone [PSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) is an indicator of physiological dysfunction in Anorexia Nervosa (Criterion D.)  Amenorrhea is usually a consequence of the weight loss but, in a minority of individuals, may actually precede it.  In prepubertal females, menarche may be delayed by the illness.

The individual is often brought to professional attention by family members after marked weight loss (or failure to make expected weight gains) has occurred.  If individuals seek help on their own, it is usually because of their subjective distress over the somatic and psychological sequelae of starvation.  It is rare for an individual with Anorexia Nervosa to complain of weight loss per se.  Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa frequently lack insight into, or have considerable denial of, the problem and may be unreliable historians.  It is therefore often necessary to obtain information form parents or other outside sources to evaluate the degree of weight loss and other features of the illness.”  p. 583-584.

 Bulimia Nervosa

 “Diagnostic Features

          The essential features of Bulimia Nervosa are binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight gain.  In addition, the self-evaluation of individuals with Bulimia Nervosa is excessively influenced by body shape and weight.  To qualify for the diagnosis, the binge eating and the inappropriate compensatory behaviors must occur, on average, at least twice a week for 3 months (Criterion C.)

          A binge is defined as eating in a discrete period of time an amount of food that is definitely larger than most individuals would eat under similar circumstances (Criterion A1.).  The clinician should consider the context in which the eating occurred—what would be regarded as excessive consumption at a typical meal might be considered normal during a celebration or holiday meal.  A “discrete period of time” refers to a limited period, usually less than 2 hours.  A single episode of binge eating need not be restricted to one setting.  For example, an individual may begin a binge in a restaurant and then continue it on returning home.  Continual snacking on small amounts of food throughout the day would not be considered a binge.

          Although the type of food consumed during the binge varies, it typically includes sweet, high-calorie foods such as ice cream or cake.  However, binge eating appears to be characterized more by an abnormality in the amount of food consumed than by a craving for a specific nutrient, such as carbohydrate.  Although individuals with Bulimia Nervosa consume more calories during an episode of binge eating than persons without Bulimia Nervosa consume during a meal, the fractions of calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate are similar.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa are typically ashamed of their eating problems and attempt to conceal their symptoms.  Binge eating usually occurs in secrecy, or as inconspicuously as possible.  An episode may or may not be planned in advance and is usually (but not always) characterized by rapid consumption.  The binge eating often continues until the individual is uncomfortably, or even painfully, full.  Binge eating is typically triggered by dysphoric mood states, interpersonal stressors intense hunger following dietary restraint, or feelings related to body weight, body shape, and food.  Binge eating may transiently reduce dysphoria, but disparaging self-criticism and depressed mood often follow.

          An episode of binge eating is also accompanied by a sense of lack of control (Criterion A2).  An individual may be in a frenzied state while binge eating, especially early in the course of the disorder.  Some individuals describe a dissociative quality during, or following, the binge episodes.  After Bulimia Nervosa has persisted for some time, individuals may report that their binge-eating episodes are no longer characterized by an acute feeling of loss of control, but rather by behavioral indicators of impaired control, such as difficulty resisting binge eating or difficulty stopping a binge once it has begun.  The impairment in control associated with binge eating in bulimia Nervosa is not absolute; for example, an individual may continue binge eating while the telephone is ringing, but will cease if a roommate or spouse unexpectedly enters the room.

          Another essential feature of Bulimia Nervosa is the recurrent use of inappropriate compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain (Criterion B).  Many individuals with Bulimia Nervosa employ several methods in their attempt to compensate for binge eating.  The most common compensatory technique is the induction of vomiting after an episode of binge eating.  This method of purging is employed by 80%-90% of individuals with Bulimia Nervosa who present for treatment of eating disorders clinics.  The immediate effects of vomiting include relief from physical discomfort and reduction of fear of gaining weight.  In some cases, vomiting becomes a goal in itself, and the person will binge in order to vomit or will vomit after eating a small amount of food.  Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa may use a variety of methods to induce vomiting, including the use of fingers or instruments to stimulate the gag reflex.  Individuals generally become adept at inducing vomiting and are eventually able to vomit at will.  Rarely, individuals consume syrup of ipecac to induce vomiting.  Other purging behaviors include the issue of laxatives and diuretics.  Approximately one-third of those with Bulimia Nervosa misuse laxatives after binge eating.  Rarely, individuals with the disorder will misuse enemas following episodes of binge eating, but this is seldom the sole compensatory method employed.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa may fast for a day or more or exercise excessively in an attempt to compensate for binge eating.  Exercise may be considered to be excessive when it significantly interferes with important activities, when it occurs at inappropriate times or in inappropriate settings, or when the individual continues to exercise despite injury or other medical complications.  Rarely, individuals with this disorder may take thyroid hormone in an attempt to avoid weight gain.  Individuals with diabetes mellitus and Bulimia Nervosa may omit or reduce insulin doses in order to reduce the metabolism of food consumed during eating binges.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa place an excessive emphasis on body shape and weight in their self-evaluation, and these factors are typically the most important ones in determining self-esteem (Criterion D).  Individuals with this disorder may closely resemble those with Anorexia Nervosa in their fear of gaining weight, in their desire to lose weight, and in the level of dissatisfaction with their bodies.  However, a diagnosis of Bulimia Nervosa should not be given when the disturbance occurs only during episodes of Anorexia Nervosa (Criterion E).”  p. 589-591


Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 2000. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.




LifeSpan Developmental Trauma


Trauma and Middle Age


Title: Comparison for two treatments for traumatic stress: A community-based

study of EMDR and prolonged exposure.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Ironson, Gail; Freud, B.; Strauss, J. L.; Williams, J.

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychology; Vol 58(1) Jan 2002, US: John

Wiley & Sons; 2002, 113-128

Abstract/Review/Citation: This pilot study compared the efficacy of 2 treatments

for postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Eye Movement Desensitization and

Reprocessing (EMDR) and Prolonged Exposure (PE). Data were analyzed for 22

patients (aged 16-62 yrs) from a university based clinic serving the outside

community (predominantly rape and crime victims) who completed at least 1

active session of treatment after 3 preparatory sessions. Results showed both

approaches produced a significant reduction in PTSD and depression symptoms,

which were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Successful treatment was faster

with EMDR as a larger number of people (7 of 10) had a 70% reduction in PTSD

symptoms after 3 active sessions compared to 2 of 12 with PE. EMDR appeared to

be better tolerated as the dropout rate was significantly lower in those

randomized to EMDR versus PE (0 of 10 vs 3 of 10). However all patients who

remained in treatment with PE had a reduction in PTSD scores. Finally,

Subjective Units of Distress (SUDS) ratings decreased significantly during the

initial session of EMDR, but changed little during PE. Postsession SUDS were

significantly lower for EMDR than for PE. Suggestions for future research are




Title: Thriving after trauma: The experience of parents of murdered children.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Parappully, Jose; Rosenbaum, Robert; van den Daele, Leland; Nzewi, Esther

Source/Citation: Journal of Humanistic Psychology; Vol 42(1) Win 2002, US: Sage

Publications; 2002, 33-70

Abstract/Review/Citation: Psychological literature on trauma usually focuses on

pathology that results from trauma and pays little attention to positive

outcomes. This article presents a phenomenological inquiry into the

experiences of a profoundly traumatized group of people--parents whose son or

daughter has been murdered--to assess if they were able to experience a

positive outcome resulting from their trauma and to identify associated

processes and resources. Of 65 parents who volunteered, 16 (35-75 yrs old)

were selected to complete a questionnaire and were given in-depth,

semistructured interviews. The interview data, analyzed qualitatively, affirm

positive outcomes for these parents. Four processes--acceptance, finding

meaning, personal decision making, and reaching out to others in

compassion-and six resources--personal qualities, spirituality, continuing

bond with the victim, social support, previous coping experience, and

self-care-facilitate a positive outcome.  ========================================


Title: Distinguishing trauma-associated narcissistic symptoms from posttraumatic

stress disorder: A diagnostic challenge.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Simon, Robert I.

Source/Citation: Harvard Review of Psychiatry; Vol 10(1) Jan-Feb 2002, England:

Oxford Univ Press; 2002, 28-36

Abstract/Review/Citation: Individuals with trauma-associated narcissistic

symptoms (TANS) display a discrete cluster of psychological symptoms that can

closely mimic those of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In TANS, the

underlying vulnerability to traumatic stress usually stems from a narcissistic

personality disorder or narcissistic personality traits. However, narcissistic

symptoms associated with an external traumatic event may be reflexively and

erroneously attributed to PTSD, no matter how small or insignificant the

traumatic stressor. Mistaking TANS for PTSD usually results in treatment

failure. In litigation, distinguishing between TANS and PTSD assists the trier

of fact in determining causation and assessing damages. A case illustration of

a 43-yr-old male is discussed. 



Title: Traumatic brain injury: A hidden consequence for battered women.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Jackson, Helene; Philp, Elizabeth; Nuttall, Ronald L.; Diller, Leonard

Source/Citation: Professional Psychology: Research & Practice; Vol 33(1) Feb

2002, US: American Psychological Assn; 2002, 39-45

Abstract/Review/Citation: The inability of substantial numbers of battered women

to terminate or extricate themselves from violent relationships is of grave

concern to clinical practitioners. Despite professional intervention, many

victims of domestic violence return to the batterer and to repetitive

battering, demonstrating that, for these women, traditional psychosocial

interventions are ineffective. In a sample of 53 battered women, 92% reported

having received blows to the head in the course of their battering; 40%

reported loss of consciousness. Correlations between frequency of being hit in

the head and severity of cognitive symptoms were significant, strongly

suggesting that battered women should be routinely screened for traumatic

brain injury and postconcussive syndrome. Development of treatment strategies

to address the potentially damaging sequelae of head trauma in this population

is essential. 



Title: Epidemiologic study of 203 sibling pairs with Parkinson's disease: The

GenePD study.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Maher, N. E.; Golbe, L. I.; Lazzarini, A. M.; Mark, M. H.; Currie, L. J.; Wooten, G. F.; Saint-Hilaire, M.; Wilk, J. B.; Volcjak, J.; Maher, J. E.; Feldman, R. G.; Guttman, M.; Lew, M.; Schuman, S.; Suchowersky, O.; Lafontaine, A. L.

Labelle, N.; Vieregge, P.; Pramstaller, P. P.; Klein, C.; Hubble, J.; Reider, C.; Growdon, J.; Watts, R.; Montgomery, E.; Baker, K.; Singer, C.; Stacy, M.; Myers, Richard H.;

Source/Citation: Neurology; Vol 58(1) Jan 2002, US: Lippincott Williams &

Wilkins; 2002, 79-84

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined patterns of familial aggregation and factors

influencing onset age in a sample of 203 sibling pairs with Parkinson's

disease (PD). Standardized family history, medical history, and risk factor

data were collected and analyzed. The mean age at onset was 61.4 yrs and did

not differ according to sex, exposure to coffee, alcohol, or pesticides. Head

trauma was associated with younger onset and multivitamin use with later

onset. Age at onset correlation between sibling pairs was significant and was

larger than the correlation in year of onset. The mean difference in onset age

between siblings was 8.7 yrs (0-30 yrs). Female sex was associated with

increased frequency of relatives with PD. The frequency of affected parents

(7%) and siblings (5.1%) was increased when compared with frequency in spouses

(2%). The greater similarity for age at onset than for year of onset in

sibling pairs with PD, together with increased risk for biological relatives

over spouses of cases, supports a genetic component for PD. Risk to siblings

in this series is increased over that seen in random series of PD cases;

however, patients in this sample have similar ages at onset and sex

distribution as seen for PD generally.



Title: Abuse, health locus of control, and perceived health among HIV-positive


Author(s)/Editor(s): Simoni, Jane M.; Ng, Ming T.Paper Number: 20020206

Source/Citation: Health Psychology; Vol 21(1) Jan 2002, US: American

Psychological Assn; 2002, 89-93

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study of 230 predominantly poor Hispanic and

African American women aged 25 to 61 years living with HIV/AIDS in New York

City revealed high levels of both sexual (39%) and physical (44%) trauma

before the age of 16. Both types of early trauma were correlated with later

trauma, and all forms of trauma were significantly associated with current

perceived health. In multivariate analyses controlling for relevant

covariates, the Powerful Others and Internal Control subscales of the

Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales (K. A. Wallston, B. S.

Wallston, & R. DeVellis, 1978) acted as independent predictors of

perceived health rather than (as hypothesized) mediators of the association

between trauma and perceived health. Findings underscore the importance of

addressing trauma and perceptions of control over one's physical health in the

provision of health services to HIV-positive women.  ========================================


Title: Hypnotizability and trauma symptoms after burn injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): DuHamel, Katherine N.; Difede, JoAnn; Foley, Frederick; Greenleaf, Marcia

Source/Citation: International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis;

Vol 50(1) Jan 2002, US: Sage Publications; 2002, 33-50

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study investigated the association of trauma

symptoms and hypnotizability in 43 hospitalized survivors of burn injury (17

women, 27 men, aged 19-58 yrs). In addition, the relation of trauma symptoms

with treatment and physical and demographic variables was studied. Three to 17

days after the injury, participants rated the frequency of intrusive and

avoidance symptoms and were interviewed with the posttraumatic stress disorder

module of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical

Manual of Mental Disorders-III-R. The Hypnotic Induction Profile also was

administered at the postburn, hospital stage of recovery. Results indicate

that when participants were divided into low, mid-range, and high

hypnotizability categories, high hypnotizability was associated with more

intrusive, avoidance, and arousal symptoms. Although causal relations cannot

be assessed in this cross-sectional study, these results suggest that, as

compared to the low and mid-range categories, high hypnotizables may

experience a greater frequency of trauma symptoms after burn injury.  ========================================


Title: The alpha-sub-1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin improves sleep and

nightmares in civilian trauma posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Taylor, Fletcher; Raskind, Murray A.

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology; Vol 22(1) Feb 2002, US:

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002, 82-85 Description/Edition Info.: Journal Article; 250

Abstract/Review/Citation: Notes that heightened noradrenergic reactivity may be

a contributing factor in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder

(PTSD). Prazosin is an alpha-sub-1 adrenoceptor antagonist commonly used as an

antihypertensive agent. Five outpatients (aged 35-58 yrs) with non-combat

related PTSD were consecutively identified and received prazosin in a 6-wk

open-label trial. In each case, the prazosin doses were slowly increased until

optimal benefit was achieved. Change was assessed with the

Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-IV, One Week Symptom Version

(CAPSSX), the Clinical Global Impression of Change Scale (CGIC), and the

Clinical Impression of ChangeNightmares (CIC-Nightmares) score. All 5 patients

experienced moderate to marked improvement on the CGIC. The CAPS-SX PTSD

nightmare and sleep PTSD categories showed at least a 4 point reduction of

those symptoms. All patients reported at least moderate improvement on the

CIC-Nightmare score. Optimal doses of prazosin ranged from 1 to 4 mg/day. The

drug was reasonably tolerated, and there were no drug discontinuations. These

preliminary findings provide a rationale for blind placebo-controlled efficacy

trials of the alpha-sub-1 antagonist prazosin for PTSD.  ========================================


Title: Basic assumptions and symptoms of post-traumatic stress among victims of

bullying at work.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mikkelsen, Eva Gemzoe; Einarsen, Stale

Author Affiliation: U Bergen, Norway

Source/Citation: European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology; Vol

11(1) Mar 2002, United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis/Psychology Press; 2002,


Abstract/Review/Citation: Results from several empirical studies suggest that

many victims of bullying suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

However, few researchers have attempted to explain why exposure to bullying

may result in severe trauma. Furthermore, no studies have related these

symptoms to the victims' exposure to other distressing life events. The aims

of this study were therefore to assess the prevalence and intensity of PTSD

analog symptomatology among a group of 118 victims (aged 20-64 yrs old) of

bullying at work. Second, we investigated whether victims of bullying who

report being more affected by other distressing life events than by bullying

were more likely to suffer PTSD analog symptomatology. A third aim was to

investigate whether victims of bullying and non-bullied controls differ in

their basic assumptions of themselves, others, and the world. Based on

self-report measures, 76% of the victims portrayed symptoms indicating

post-traumatic stress disorder. Significant group differences on 6 out of 8

basic assumptions were demonstrated between victims of bullying and

non-bullied controls, indicating that exposure to bullying at work may result

in increased negative views on self, others, and the world.  ========================================


Title: Heroes in the nursery: Three case studies in resilience.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Rak, Carl F.

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychology: Special Issue: A second

generation of resilience research.; Vol 58(3) Mar 2002, US: John Wiley &

Sons; 2002, 247-260

Abstract/Review/Citation: This article examines the therapeutic work in three

cases ( an 11 yr old boy, a 17 yr old girl, and an adult male) to study the

impact of a supportive and nurturing parent early in life upon the development

of resilience. The close analysis of the clinical material of each client's

personal narrative is the primary source. The metaphor of "heroes in the

nursery" is posited as a vehicle for enhancing understandings of the

development of resilience and a continuum from defense through adaptation to

resilience. Each case provides additive meaning to recent studies that elevate

the importance of the memories of parents to the development of resilient

responses of children later in life. Each case reveals specific dimensions of

the impact of heroes in the nursery which extend our understandings of

resiliency in children and adolescents as a proactive response to stress,

trauma, and loss.



Title: Effects of guided written disclosure of stressful experiences on clinic

visits and symptoms in frequent clinic attenders.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Gidron, Yori; Duncan, Elaine; Lazar, Alon; Biderman, Aya; Tandeter, Howard; Shvartzman, Pesach

Author Affiliation: Glasgow Caledonian U, Dept of Psychology, Glasgow, United

Kingdom Ben-Gurion U, Dept of Behavioral Sciences, Be'er-Sheeba, Israel

Ben-Gurion U, Dept of Family Medicine, Be'er-Sheeba, Israel Ben-Gurion U, Dept

of Family Medicine, Be'er-Sheeba, Israel Ben-Gurion U, Dept of Family

Medicine, Be'er-Sheeba, Israel

Source/Citation: Family Practice; Vol 19(2) Apr 2002, England: Oxford Univ

Press; 2002, 161-166

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the effects of a guided disclosure protocol

(GDP) of past traumas on symptoms and clinic visits among frequent clinic

attenders. 41 frequent clinic attenders (2 visits/3 months; aged 21-65 yrs)

were randomly assigned individually to either a casual content writing control

group or a trauma content writing experimental GDP group. GDP patients wrote

about an upsetting event chronologically (day 1), verbally described their

thoughts and feelings and described the event's impact on life (day 2), and

finally wrote about their current perspective on and future coping with the

event (day 3). Three months later, patients were reassessed blindly for

symptoms and clinic visits, and an average of 15 months later they were

assessed blindly for clinic visits again. Compared with controls, GDP Ss

reported lower symptom levels at 3 months, and made fewer clinic visits during

the 3 and 15 month follow-ups. The percentage of GDP Ss making 10 visits

during the 15 month follow-up was smaller (10%) than among controls (33%).

These results suggest that the GDP may be an inexpensive additional

intervention in primary care for reducing symptoms and clinic visits among

frequent clinic users. 



Title: Childhood trauma in obsessive-compulsive disorder, trichotillomania, and


Author(s)/Editor(s): Lochner, Christine; du Toit, Pieter L.; Zungu-Dirwayi, Nompumelelo; Marais, Adele; van Kradenburg, Jeanine; Seedat, Soraya; Niehaus, Dana J. H.; Stein, Dan J.

Author Affiliation: U Stellenbosch, MRC Unit of Stress & Anxiety Disorders,

Cape Town, South Africa U Stellenbosch, MRC Unit of Stress & Anxiety

Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa U Stellenbosch, MRC Unit of Stress &

Anxiety Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa U Stellenbosch, MRC Unit of Stress

& Anxiety Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa U Stellenbosch, MRC Unit of

Stress & Anxiety Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa U Stellenbosch, MRC

Unit of Stress & Anxiety Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa U

Stellenbosch, MRC Unit of Stress & Anxiety Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa

Source/Citation: Depression & Anxiety; Vol 15(2) 2002, US: John Wiley &

Sons; 2002, 66-68

Abstract/Review/Citation: There is relatively little data on the link between

childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive/putative obsessive-compulsive

spectrum disorders. The revised Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which

assesses physical, emotional, and sexual abuse as well as physical and

emotional neglect, was administered to 74 patients (mean age 36.1 yrs) with

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 36 Ss (mean age 31.8 yrs) with

trichotillomania (TTM), and a group of 31 normal controls (mean age 21.5 yrs).

All of the Ss were females between the ages of 12-71 yrs. The findings showed

a significantly greater severity of childhood trauma in general, and emotional

neglect specifically, in the patient groups compared to the controls. Although

various factors may play a role in the etiology of both OCD and TTM, this

study is consistent with some evidence from previous studies suggesting that

childhood trauma may play a role in the development of these disorders.



Title: Trauma-related emotional patterns and their association with

post-traumatic and somatic symptoms.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Naeaetaenen, Petri; Kanninen, Katri; Qouta, Samir; Punamaeki, Raija-Leena

Author Affiliation: U Helsinki, Applied Div, Dept of Psychology, Helsinki,

Finland U Helsinki, Applied Div, Dept of Psychology, Helsinki, Finland

Source/Citation: Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal; Vol

15(1) 2002, United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis; 2002, 75-94

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined trauma-related emotional-experience patterns

and their association with post-traumatic symptoms (PTS) and somatic symptoms

among 153 male Palestinian political ex-prisoners aged 19-51 yrs. A multilevel

questionnaire developed to depict cognitive appraisals, meta-evaluation,

emotional action readiness and subjective feeling states was completed by all

Ss, except one, in the their homes. Cluster analysis revealed 4 major

emotional patterns: 2 of them, "Integrative" and "Low intensity" were adaptive, and "Ruminating alexithymic" and "Depressive enactant" were maladaptive, when their role in

moderating between trauma and PTS was the criterion. The "Depressive

enacting" men showed generally more somatic symptoms, but the

"Ruminating alexithymic" men were the most vulnerable when exposed

to a high level of trauma. The underlying mechanisms differentiating

maladaptive emotional patterns from adaptive ones were the predominance of

behavioral urges to act, the intensity of negative feelings and a low level of




Title: A clinical investigation and analysis of psychic trauma in patients with

depressive neurosis.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Liu, Suzhen

Source/Citation: Psychological Science (China); Vol 25(1) Jan 2002, China:

Editorial Board of Psychological Science; 2002, 34-36

Abstract/Review/Citation: Analyzed the psychic trauma of patients with

depressive neurosis (DN) according to the patients' age, gender, and education

levels. 69 patients with DN (aged 16-83 yrs) (19 males and 50 females) in

China were investigated for psychic trauma through the reporting of their life

events. The life events in the categories of personal development, family

members' failings, disappointment in love affair, disease, family conflict,

loss of loved one, personal relationships, and childhood trauma were studied

in 3 age groups (< 35 yrs, 35-55 yrs, and > 55 yrs) by gender and

education levels (under or above college). The results found that sensitive

life events occurred in Ss at different ages, of either sex, and with

different levels of education; that some life events relating to personal

development, diseases, loss of loved one, especially family conflicts could

cause psychic traumas; that uncontrollable life events could be the main cause

of psychic trauma of patients with DN. The results indicate that there is a

close connection between DN and psychic trauma; and that Ss at different ages,

of either sex, and with different levels of education have different levels of

experiences of life events and psychic traumas.  ========================================


Title: Dissociation and post-traumatic stress disorder: Two prospective studies

of road traffic accident survivors.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Murray, James; Ehlers, Anke; Mayou, Richard A.

Author Affiliation: Inst of Psychiatry, Dept of Psychology, London, United

Kingdom U Oxford, Dept of Psychiary, Oxford, United Kingdom Paper Number: 20020424

Source/Citation: British Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 180(4) Apr 2002, England:

Royal Coll of Psychiatrists; 2002, 363-368

Abstract/Review/Citation: Dissociative symptoms during trauma predict

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but they are often transient. It is

controversial whether they predict chronic PTSD over and above what can be

predicted from other posttrauma symptoms. This study investigated

prospectively the relationship between dissociative symptoms before, during,

and after a trauma and other psychological predictors, and chronic PTSD. Two

samples of 27 and 176 road traffic accident survivors (aged 17-76 yrs) were

recruited. Patients were assessed shortly after the accident and followed at

intervals over the next 6 mo. Assessments included measures of dissociation,

memory fragmentation, data-driven processing, rumination, and PTSD symptoms.

All measures of dissociation, particularly persistent dissociation 4 wks after

the accident, predicted chronic PTSD severity at 6 mo. Dissociative symptoms

predicted subsequent PTSD over and above the other PTSD symptom clusters.

Memory fragmentation and data-driven processing also predicted PTSD.

Rumination about the accident was among the strongest predictors of subsequent

PTSD symptoms. Thus, persistent dissociation and rumination 4 wks after trauma

are more useful in identifying those patients who are likely to develop

chronic PTSD than initial reactions.  ========================================


Title: The latent structure of posttraumatic stress disorder: A taxometric

investigation of reactions to extreme stress.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Ruscio, John; Keane, Terence M.

Author Affiliation: Elizabethtown Coll, Dept of Psychology, PA, US Veterans

Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Behavioral Science Div, Boston, MA, US

Source/Citation: Journal of Abnormal Psychology; Vol 111(2) May 2002, US:

American Psychological Assn; 2002, 290-301

Abstract/Review/Citation: Mental health professionals have debated whether

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be qualitatively distinguished from

normal reactions to traumatic events. This debate has been fueled by

indications that many trauma-exposed individuals evidence partial

presentations of PTSD that are associated with significant impairment and

help-seeking behavior. The authors examined the latent structure of PTSD in a

large sample of male combat veterans. Three taxometric procedures--MAMBAC,

MAXEIG, and L-Mode--were performed with 3 indicator sets drawn from a clinical

interview and a self-report measure of PTSD. Results across procedures,

consistency tests, and analysis of simulated comparison data all converged on

a dimensional solution, suggesting that PTSD reflects the upper end of a

stress-response continuum rather than a discrete clinical syndrome.



Title: Reliability and validity of the Japanese-language version of the Impact

of Event Scale-revised (IES-R-J): Four studies of different traumatic events.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Asukai, Nozomu; Kato, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Noriyuki; Kim, Yoshiharu; Yamamato, Kohei; Kishimoto, Junji; Miyake, Yuko; Nishizono-Maher, Aya

Author Affiliation: Hyogo Inst for Mental Health Care, Kobe, Japan National Inst

of Mental Health, Ichikawa, Japan National Inst of Mental Health, Ichikawa,

Japan Wakayama City Public Health Ctr, Wakayama, Japan SAS Inst Japan, Tokyo,

Japan Tokyo Inst of Psychiatry, Dept of Stress Disorders Research, Tokyo,

Japan Tokyo Inst of Psychiatry, Dept of Stress Disorders Research, Tokyo,


Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 190(3) Mar 2002,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002, 175-182

Abstract/Review/Citation: The authors developed the Japanese-language version of

the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R-J) and investigated its reliability

and validity in 4 different groups: 487 workers (aged 18-60 yrs) with lifetime

mixed traumatic events, 61 survivors (aged 12-68 yrs) of an arsenic poisoning

case, 86 survivors (aged 26-86 yrs) of the Hanshin-Awaji earthquake, and 658

survivors (aged 18-79 yrs) of the Tokyo Metro sarin attack. Evidence includes

retest reliability and internal consistency of the IES-R-J. Posttraumatic

stress disorder (PTSD) and partial PTSD cases indicated significantly higher

scores than non-PTSD cases. In analysis of scale structure, the majority of

intrusion and hyperarousal items were subsumed under the same cluster, whereas

avoidance items made up a separate cluster. Female patients indicated higher

scores than male patients. A negative weak correlation between age and the

score was found only among female earthquake survivors. The IES-R-J can be

used as a validated instrument in future international comparative research.



Title: Expressions of Holocaust experience and their relationship to mental

symptoms and physical morbidity among Holocaust survivor patients.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Shmotkin, Dov; Barilan, Y. Michael

Author Affiliation: Meir Hospital, Dept of Internal Medicine B, Kfar Saba, Israel

Source/Citation: Journal of Behavioral Medicine; Vol 25(2) Apr 2002, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2002, 115-134

Abstract/Review/Citation: Explores current expressions of past trauma among

Holocaust survivors. Medical records and extensive interviews were analyzed

for 38 Holocaust survivors (aged 55-86 yrs) who were hospitalized and/or under

ambulatory care. Factors explored included Holocaust background, physical

morbidity; physical malfunctioning (i.e., ability to perform activities of

daily living), psychiatric status, and mental symptoms. Analysis of Ss'

'Expressions of Holocaust Experience' (i.e., distressing thoughts, feelings,

or overt behaviors) yielded 2 factors: Holocaust-as-Present (e.g., feeling the

Holocaust experience as continuing, Holocaust-related somatization) and

Holocaust-as-Past (e.g., avoiding preoccupation with traumatic memories,

feeling unduly stigmatized as a survivor). Mental symptoms and number of

medical diagnoses were positively correlated with Holocaust-as-Present but

negatively correlated with Holocaust-as-Past. However, scoring high on

Holocaust-as-Past related to a higher danger to life as a result of

significant morbidity. The findings suggest 2 differential modes of either

remaining enmeshed in the traumatic experience or attempting to contain the

sequelae of the trauma. 



Title: The aetiology of postpsychotic posttraumatic stress disorder following a

psychotic episode.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Shaw, Katharine; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Bookless, Clara; Air, Tracy

Author Affiliation: U Adelaide, Queen Elizabeth Hosp, Dept of Psychiatry,

Woodville South, SA, Australia U Adelaide, Queen Elizabeth Hosp, Dept of

Psychiatry, Woodville South, SA, Australia U Adelaide, Queen Elizabeth Hosp,

Dept of Psychiatry, Woodville South, SA, Australia

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 15(1) Feb 2002, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2002, 39-47

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examines the aetiology of postpsychotic posttraumatic

stress disorder (PP/PTSD) symptoms in 42 people (aged 16-65 yrs) hospitalized

for a psychotic illness were interviewed during recovery to investigate

whether a psychotic episode was associated with PTSD symptomatology. Measures

included the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument, a modified Brief

Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, the Stanford

Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, and the Impact of Event Scale. All

participants found psychosis and hospitalization highly distressing. PP/PTSD

symptoms were not associated with demographic factors, previous trauma,

treatment, or insight. The PP/PTSD group reported more distress and intrusive

memories associated with illness and treatment experiences and had higher

scores for anxiety and dissociative symptoms. The development of PP/PTSD

phenomenology was associated with the psychological distress of the




Title: The prevalence of potentially traumatic events in childhood and


Author(s)/Editor(s): Costello, E. Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Fairbank, John A.; Angold, Adrian

Author Affiliation: Duke U Medical Ctr, Dept of Biostatistics &

Bioinformatics, Durham, NC, US Duke U Medical Ctr, Dept of Psychiatry &

Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Epidemiology Ctr, Durham, NC, US Duke U

Medical Ctr, Dept of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Developmental

Epidemiology Ctr, Durham, NC, US

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 15(2) Apr 2002, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2002, 99-112

Abstract/Review/Citation: This paper examines exposure to potentially traumatic

events from middle childhood through adolescence, and vulnerability to such

exposure. Analyses are based on the first 4 annual waves of data from a

longitudinal general population study of youth in western North Carolina,

involving 4,965 interviews with 1,420 children and adolescents (aged 9, 11,

and 13 yrs at intake) and their parents or guardians. Participants reported on

DSM extreme stressors ("high magnitude events"), other potentially

traumatic events ("low magnitude events"), and background

vulnerability factors. In this general population sample, one-quarter

experienced at least one high magnitude event by age 16, 6% within the past 3

months. One third experienced a low magnitude event in the past 3 months. The

likelihood of such exposure increased with the number of vulnerability factors. 



Title: War-related trauma and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder among

adult Kosovar refugees.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Ai, Amy L.; Peterson, Christopher; Ubelhor, David

Author Affiliation: U Michigan, Dept of Psychology, Ann Arbor, WA, US U

Washington, School of Social Work, Seattle, WA, US

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 15(2) Apr 2002, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2002, 157-160

Abstract/Review/Citation: Since 1999, almost 16,000 Kosovar refugees have

entered the United States. Few studies have investigated trauma and symptoms

of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in this population. The authors

conducted a caseworker-assisted survey of 129 Kosovar refugees (aged 18 to 79

years, 55% male). Of these individuals, 78 (60.5%) showed the likely presence

of PTSD. The mean number of war-related traumatic events reported was 15

(SD=4.5). Higher PTSD scores were associated with more traumatic events and

female gender. 



Title: Psychopathology following interpersonal violence: A comparison of risk

factors in older and younger adults.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Acierno, Ron; Brady, Kristine; Gray, Matt; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi; Best, Connie L.

Author Affiliation: Alliant International U, Dept of Psychiatry, San Diego, CA,

US Medical U of South Carolina, National Crime Victims Research &

Treatment Ctr, Charleston, SC, US Medical U of South Carolina, National Crime

Victims Research & Treatment Ctr, Charleston, SC, US Medical U of South

Carolina, National Crime Victims Research & Treatment Ctr, Charleston, SC,

US Medical U of South Carolina, National Crime Victims Research &

Treatment Ctr, Charleston, SC, US

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Geropsychology; Vol 8(1) Jan 2002, US:

Kluwer Academic; 2002, 13-23

Abstract/Review/Citation: A randomly selected sample of 549 women age 55 yrs and

older (mean age 67 yrs) and 2,669 women age 18-34 yrs was interviewed via

telephone to determine prevalences of physical and sexual assault,

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, and depression.

Prevalences of sexual and physical assaults were lower in older compared to

younger women. In addition, given a trauma, prevalences and proportionate risk

of posttraumatic psychopathology and depression were also lower for older,

relative to younger women. Specifically, multivariate analyses revealed that

sexual assault predicted only PTSD avoidance in older adults, but all forms of

PTSD symptomatology and depression in younger adult women. Similarly, physical

assault predicted only PTSD re-experiencing symptoms in older women, but all

forms of PTSD symptoms and depression in younger women. Self-reported health

status was not associated with any increased risk of psychopathology, and low

income predicted increased avoidance and depression only in younger women.



Title: Le mythe de Romeo et Juliette et l'organisation familiale./ The myth of

Romeo and Juliet and family organisation.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Vacheret, Claudine

Source/Citation: Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse: Special Issue: Familles

d'aujourd'hui; Vol 66(1) Jan-Mar 2002, France: Presses Universitaires de

France; 2002, 215-225

Abstract/Review/Citation: This text presents the myth of Romeo and Juliet as a

defense in the face of trauma. The subject is a patient (aged 45 yrs) in

analysis who discovers the origin of a family secret hidden behind the myth of

the ideal love of two lovers who die together. Her whole psychic life is

infiltrated with the anxiety of death, with the family group having carefully

repressed, in a pact of denegation, the horror of the traumatic and lethal

truth that lies behind the myth of the Verona lovers.  ========================================


Title: Attachment style and bereavement reactions.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wayment, Heidi A.; Vierthaler, Jennifer

Author Affiliation: Northern Arizona U, Dept of Psychology, Flagstaff, AZ, US

Source/Citation: Journal of Loss & Trauma; Vol 7(2) Apr-Jun 2002, United

Kingdom: Taylor & Francis/Brunner Routledge; 2002, 129-149

Abstract/Review/Citation: Explored associations between global attachment

styles, attachment to the deceased, suddenness of death, and 3 specific

reactions to bereavement (grief, depression, and somatization) in a sample of

91 adults (21 men and 70 women, aged 21-86 yrs) who had lost a loved one in

the past 18 mo. As predicted, individuals who reported having a closer

attachment to the deceased and had a more sudden loss reported greater levels

of grief. Individuals with an anxious-ambivalent attachment style reported

greater levels of grief and depression. Somatization was more likely to be

reported by those with an avoidant attachment style. The authors also found

that individuals with a secure attachment style reported less depression.

Social desirability responding was associated with reports of more grief. A

greater time since the death and less education were associated with less

depression, and older respondents reported less somatization. Discussion

focuses on the importance of distinguishing grief, depression, and

somatization following bereavement in order to better predict and identify

individuals at risk for adverse bereavement reactions.



Title: Exposure to war trauma, war-related PTSD, and psychological impact of

subsequent hurricane.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Sutker, Patricia B.; Corrigan, Sheila A.; Sundgaard-Riise, Kirsten; Uddo, Madeline; Allain, Albert N.

Author Affiliation: Dept of Veterans Affairs, Medical Ctr, New Orleans, LA, US

Dept of Veterans Affairs, Medical Ctr, New Orleans, LA, US

Source/Citation: Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment; Vol

24(1) Mar 2002, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2002, 25-37

Abstract/Review/Citation: Explored the impact of psychological outcomes to war

on response to subsequent natural disaster. Ss were 312 military personnel

(aged 18-64 yrs) 66% of whom saw Gulf War duty. All were exposed to the 1992

Hurricane Andrew. Ss were compared on reported traumatic events, hurricane

impact responses, and psychological symptoms in subgroups defined by war or no

war exposure prior to hurricane and by presence or absence of war-related

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data were gathered in face-to-face

clinical assessments. War trauma prior to hurricane was associated with more

reported traumatic events, greater fears for safety during the hurricane, and

heightened psychological symptoms. Ss with preexisting war-related PTSD show

more adverse psychological hurricane sequelae and reported more traumatic

events, higher depression, anxiety, anger, PTSD symptoms, and physical

symptoms, and lower self-esteem than those free of diagnoses. Results point to

the negative influence of exposure to one traumatic event on the experience of

and response to a subsequent stressor.



Title: Sleep complaints as early predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder: A

1-Year prospective study of injured survivors of motor vehicle accidents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Koren, Danny; Arnon, Issac; Lavie, Peretz; Klein, Ehud

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 159(5) May 2002, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2002, 855-857

Abstract/Review/Citation: Disturbed sleep is a common complaint among patients

with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that appears in the reexperiencing

and hyperarousal symptom clusters in Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). The causal

relationship between sleep complaints and PTSD is unclear. Self-reported

insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness were assessed in 102 victims (aged

18-65 yrs) of motor vehicle accidents and 19 comparison Ss 1 wk and 1, 3, 6,

and 12 mo after the trauma. At 12 mo the Structured Clinical Interview for

Mental Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) was administered to determine

diagnoses of PTSD. 26 of the accident victims but none of the comparison Ss

met the criteria for PTSD. Logistic regression models indicated that sleep

complaints from 1 mo on were significant in predicting PTSD at 1 yr. These

results suggest that on the basis of sleep complaints as early as 1 mo after

the trauma, it is possible to detect subjects who will later develop chronic




Title: Reactions and guidelines for children following trauma/disaster.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Gurwitch, Robin H.; Silovsky, Jane F.; Schultz, Shelli; Kees, Michelle; Burlingame, Sarah

Author Affiliation: U Oklahoma, Health Sciences Ctr, Dept of Pediatrics, OK, US

U Oklahoma, Health Sciences Ctr, Dept of Pediatrics, OK, US U Oklahoma, Health

Sciences Ctr, Dept of Pediatrics, OK, US U Oklahoma, Health Sciences Ctr, Dept

of Pediatrics, OK, US

Source/Citation: Communication Disorders Quarterly; Vol 23(2) Win 2002, US: PRO

ED; 2002, 93-99

Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents guidelines and reactions for children

following a traumatic event or disaster. The guidelines are for elementary

school students, middle school students, high school students, and teachers in

all 3 levels of school. 



Title: A twin registry study of familial and individual risk factors for trauma

exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Koenen, Karestan C.; Harley, Rebecca; Lyons, Michael J.; Wolfe, Jessica; Simpson, John C.; Goldberg, Jack; Eisen, Seth A.; Tsuang, Ming

Author Affiliation: Boston U, Dept of Psychology, Boston, MA, US Boston U, Dept

of Psychology, Boston, MA, US Boston Veterans Affairs Medical Ctr, Women's

Div, National Ctr for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Boston, MA, US Harvard

Inst of Psychiatric Epidemiology & Genetics, Boston, MA, US Seattle

Veterans AFfairs Epidemiological Research & Information Ctr/Vietnam Era

Twin Registry, Seattle, WA, US St. Louis Veterans Affairs Medical Ctr,

Research & Medical Services, St. Louis, MO, US Harvard Inst of Psychiatric

Epidemiology & Genetics, Boston, MA, US

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 190(4) Apr 2002,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002, 209-218

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examines the association of individual and

familial risk factors with exposure to trauma and posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD) in 6,744 male twins (aged 36-55 yrs) from the Vietnam Era Twin

Registry. Independent reports of familial psychopathology from co-twins were

used to avoid the potential biases of the family history method. Risk for

exposure to traumatic events was increased by service in Southeast Asia,

preexisting conduct disorder, preexisting substance dependence, and a family

history of mood disorders whose effects appear to be partly genetic.

Preexisting mood disorders in the individual were associated with decreased

odds of traumatic exposure. Risk of developing PTSD following exposure was

increased by an earlier age at first trauma, exposure to multiple traumas,

paternal depression, less than high school education at entry into the

military, service in Southeast Asia, and preexisting conduct disorder, panic

disorder or generalized anxiety disorder, and major depression. Results

suggest the association of familial psychopathology and PTSD may be mediated

by increased risk of traumatic exposure and by preexisting psychopathology.



Title: The role of early adverse experience and adulthood stress in the

prediction of neuroendocrine stress reactivity in women: A multiple regression


Author(s)/Editor(s): Heim, Christine; Newport, D. Jeffrey; Wagner, Dieter; Wilcox, Molly M.; Miller, Andrew H.; Nemeroff, Charles B.

Author Affiliation: Emory U School of Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry &

Behavioral Sciences, Atlanta, GA, US U Trier, Ctr for Psychobiological &

Psychosomatic Research, Trier, Germany Emory U School of Medicine, Dept of

Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Atlanta, GA, US Emory U School of

Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Atlanta, GA, US Emory

U School of Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Atlanta,


Source/Citation: Depression & Anxiety; Vol 15(3) 2002, US: John Wiley &

Sons; 2002, 117-125

Abstract/Review/Citation: Sought to evaluate the relative role of early adverse

experience vs. stress experiences in adulthood in the prediction of

neuroendocrine stress reactivity in women. A total of 49 women (aged 18-45

yrs; normal volunteers, depressed patients, and women with a history of early

abuse) underwent a battery of interviews and completed dimensional rating

scales on stress experiences and psychopathology, and were subsequently

exposed to a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor. Outcome measures

were plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol responses to the stress

test. Peak ACTH responses to psychosocial stress were predicted by a history

of childhood abuse, the number of separate abuse events, the number of

adulthood traumas, and the severity of depression. Similar predictors were

identified for peak cortisol responses. Although abused women reported more

severe negative life events in adulthood than controls, life events did not

affect neuroendocrine reactivity. The interaction of childhood abuse and

adulthood trauma was the most powerful predictor of ACTH responsiveness.

Findings suggest that a history of childhood abuse is related to increased

neuroendocrine stress reactivity, which is further enhanced when additional

trauma is experienced in adulthood.



Title: Understanding revictimization among childhood sexual abuse survivors: An

interpersonal schema approach.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Cloitre, Marylene; Cohen, Lisa R.; Scarvalone, Polly

Source/Citation: Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy; Vol 16(1) Spr 2002, US:

Springer Publishing; 2002, 91-112

Abstract/Review/Citation: Revictimization among women (aged 31-50 yrs) with a

history of childhood sexual abuse was investigated within the context of a

developmental model of interpersonal schemas. Data from the Interpersonal

Schema Questionnaire (ISQ) revealed contrasting schema characteristics among

sexually revictimized women (n = 26), compared to those only abused in

childhood (n = 18), and those never abused or assaulted (n = 25). Both

revictimized women and never victimized women significantly generalized their

predominant parental schemas to current relationships and differed only in the

content of the schemas. The generalized parental schema of revictimized women

viewed others as hostile and controlling while that of never victimized women

viewed others as warm and noncontrolling. Women who had only been abused in

childhood held schemas of parents as hostile but not controlling and did not

generalize from parental to current schemas. The tendency to generalize

observed in the first two groups suggest that "repetition compulsion' is

not limited to those who were traumatized and are psychologically distressed.

In this article, reasons for the absence of generalization among the childhood

abuse only group are explored and implications for the treatment of childhood

trauma survivors are discussed. 



Title: Conflict and trauma in a woman sexually abused as a child.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Robles, Steven D.

Source/Citation: Issues in Psychoanalytic Psychology; Vol 24(1) Spr 2002, US:

Washington Square Inst; 2002, 25-37

Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents the case of a 57 yr old White woman who was

sexually abused by her father. As is commonly found in cases of childhood

abuse and of trauma in general, the patient has little access to the core

affects or memories, but instead remembers peripheral details

often-crystallized in images, which are disconnected from the event and the

affect. In this case for instance the image of an open jar of Vaseline on the

night table, or the memory will be bound in somatic symptoms and sensations

sometimes referred to as body memory. The need for the patient to develop a

sense of safety and trust in the therapist is noted.  ========================================


Title: Structured writing and processing major stressful events: A controlled trial.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Schoutrop, Mirjam J.A.; Lange, Alfred; Hanewald, Gerrit; Davidovich, Udi; Salomon, Henriette

Author Affiliation: U Amsterdam, Dept of Clinical Psychology, Amsterdam,

Netherlands U Amsterdam, Dept of Clinical Psychology, Amsterdam, Netherlands U

Amsterdam, Dept of Clinical Psychology, Amsterdam, Netherlands U Amsterdam,

Dept of Clinical Psychology, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Source/Citation: Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics; Vol 71(3) May-Jun 2002,

Switzerland: S Karger AG; 2002, 151-157

Abstract/Review/Citation: Tested the effectiveness of writing assignments on

coming to terms with a traumatic experience and investigated the mechanisms

underlying the beneficial effects of the writing assignments. A group of 26

participants (aged 18-49 yrs) were instructed to write about their negative

events during 5 45-min sessions over a period of 2 wks. They were compared at

pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 6-wk follow-up to a waiting-list control

group of 22 Ss. The trauma-writing groups experienced fewer intrusions and

showed less avoidance behavior from pre-treatment to follow-up, whereas the

waiting-list control group did not change significantly. Similar results were

found on depressive symptoms. No effects on mood measures were found.

Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.



Title: Predicting posttraumatic distress in hospitalized trauma survivors with

acute injuries.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Zatzick, Douglas F.; Kang, Sun-Mee; Mueller, Hans-Georg; Russo, Joan E.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Katon, Wayne; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; Roy-Byrne, Peter

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 159(6) Jun 2002, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2002, 941-946

Abstract/Review/Citation: Interviewed 101 randomly selected survivors (aged

14-65 yrs) of motor vehicle crashes or assaults while hospitalized and 1, 4,

and 12 mo after injury. In the surgical ward, inpatients were screened for

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive, and dissociative symptoms,

for prior trauma, for pre-event functioning, and for alcohol and drug

intoxication. Patient demographic and injury characteristics were also

recorded. Random coefficient regression models were used to assess the

association between these clinical, injury, and demographic characteristics

and PTSD symptom levels over the year after the injury. Of the 101 surgical

inpatients, 73% screened positive for high levels of symptomatic distress

and/or substance intoxication. At 1, 4, and 12 mo after the injury, 30%-40%

reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of PTSD. High ward PTSD symptom

levels were the strongest and most parsimonious predictor of persistent

symptoms over the course of the year. Greater prior trauma, stimulant

intoxication, and female gender were also associated with higher symptom

levels. Increasing injury severity, however, was not associated with higher

PTSD symptom levels. It is concluded that effectiveness trials that test

screening and intervention procedures for at-risk inpatients should be




Title: Parental communication of Holocaust experiences and interpersonal

patterns in offspring of Holocaust survivors.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wiseman, Hadas; Barber, Jacques P.; Raz, Alon; Yam, Idit; Foltz, Carol; Livne-Snir, Sharon

Author Affiliation: U Pennsylvania, Medical School, Philadelphia, PA, US U

Haifa, Haifa, Israel U Haifa, Haifa, Israel U Haifa, Haifa, Israel U Haifa,

Haifa, Israel

Source/Citation: International Journal of Behavioral Development; Vol 26(4) Jul

2002, United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis/Psychology Press; 2002, 371-381

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the interpersonal problems and central

relationship patterns of Holocaust survivors' offspring (HSO) who were

characterized by different patterns of parental communication of their

parents' Holocaust trauma. 56 adults born to mothers who were survivors of

Nazi concentration camps and 54 adults born to parents who immigrated to

Israel before 1939 with their own parents (non-HSO) were recruited randomly

from an Israeli sample. Ss (aged 30-49 yrs) completed the Inventory of

Interpersonal Problems Circumplex, the Central Relationship Questionnaire, the

Mental Health Index, and the Parental Communication of Holocaust Experiences

Questionnaire. While the groups did not differ in their current mental health,

HSO who reported nonverbal communication with little information about their

mother's trauma endorsed more interpersonal distress than HSO who experienced

informative verbal communication and less affiliation than either HSO who

experienced informative verbal communication or non-HSO. They also differed in

their central relationship patterns with their parents and spouses. Findings

are discussed in the context of the unique dynamics of growing up with the

silent presence of the mother's trauma.  ========================================


Title: Neurobehavioral effects following geriatric head injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Cisewski, Dawn MariePaper Number: 20020703

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 62(9-B) Apr 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2002, 4213

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study compared the acute neuropsychological

effects of a mild head injury in a geriatric population and a young adult

population. Forty-one young adult individuals (mean age = 23.6 years, s.d. =

3.1) and 29 geriatric individuals (mean age = 67.1 years, s.d. = 4.4) were

evaluated using a standard neuropsychological trauma battery at Allegheny

General Hospital following admission to the trauma unit. This study also

examined the reliability and utility of specific neuropsychological measures

in differentiating between individuals who were diagnosed with a head injury

and those who were not. In addition to the aforementioned groups, the

neuropsychological battery was administered to 10 non-head injured young adult

trauma patients (mean age = 25.1, s.d. = 3.84) and 15 non-head injured

geriatric trauma patients (mean age = 68.7, s.d. = 6.84). Results of the study

indicated significant differences on memory, attention/concentration, and

executive functioning for age. However, no significant differences were found

on these measures for head injured vs. non-head injured, and no interaction

between age and head injury was found. These findings were further supported

by the results of the analyses using age appropriate norms, in which no

significant differences were found for these groups on measures of memory and

attention/concentration. The findings of this study suggest that premorbidly

healthy geriatric populations suffer similar neuropsychological effects

following a mild head injury as a young adult population. This study also

raises the possibility that the assessment and diagnostic procedures of

individuals who are admitted to a hospital following a fall or motor vehicle

accident may need to be refined. The lack of significant differences between

head injured and non-head injured individuals raises the possibility that

factors such as diagnostic criteria, referral procedures, and psychological or

physical distress affected neuropsychological test performance.  ========================================


Title: Parental bereavement: The crisis of meaning.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wheeler, Inese

Source/Citation: Death Studies; Vol 25(1) Jan-Feb 2001, US: Taylor &

Francis; 2001, 51-66

Abstract/Review/Citation: This descriptive study used qualitative methods to

look at two aspects of the search for meaning in parental bereavement--the

search for cognitive mastery and the search for renewed purpose. 176 bereaved

parents (aged 22-83 yrs) answered open-ended questions about the experience of

their child's death and the meaning of their life since the death. For most

parents, the child's death precipitated a severe crisis of meaning and

initiated a search for meaning that involved both cognitive mastery and

renewed purpose. Those parents who were able to find meaning in the death

cited connections with people, the memory of the child, and positive gains

resulting from the trauma. The great majority of parents believed that their

lives since the death of the child had meaning. Meaning came from connections

with people, activities, beliefs and values, personal growth, and connections

with the lost child. Implications for grief counseling are discussed.



Title: The grief unheard: A woman's reflection on a men's grief group.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Anderson, Peggy M. L.

Source/Citation: Men coping with grief., Amityville, NY, US: Baywood Publishing

Co, Inc; 2001, (xi, 375), 309-325 Death, value and meaning series.

Source editor(s): Lund, Dale A. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: The author reports on her experiences of setting up an

informal group for men to share their experiences regarding losses in their

lives. A personal tone is evident in this chapter, as the author describes the

content and processes of group discussions and how the men shared and

benefited from their participation. The author discusses how these men were

taught to internalize their feelings and were denied male companionship and

empathy, yet they eventually became expressive, compassionate, and sensitive.

In order for men to share their deepest hurts and losses they must have a few

basic needs met in the group setting men need to: (1) be invited to be present

and to share their losses, (2) sometimes be given explanation as to why grief

work is important, (3) cognitively understand the purpose of the group

meetings, (4) have safe place to meet, (5) be reminded of their losses, (6) be

reminded that grief can be physical, and (7) trust the group process. This

chapter also conveys, through numerous quotes, the diversity of feelings among

these men, their diverse life losses, and their vulnerability. The author

concludes with some practical advice for understanding men's grief and how we

might consider making some changes to facilitate more satisfying grief




Title: Play therapy with traumatized children: A crisis response.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Webb, Pamela

Source/Citation: Innovations in play therapy: Issues, process, and special

populations., Philadelphia, PA, US: Brunner-Routledge; 2001, (xii, 369),


Source editor(s): Landreth, Garry L. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: On the basis of years of observation, L. C. Terr (

1991-15338-001) identified 4 characteristics that children exhibit following

exposure to a traumatic event: (1) recurrent and intrusive, distressing visual

recollections of the event; (2) repetitive behaviors, such as repeated

reenactment of the distressing episode during play or through behavioral

idiosyncrasies; (3) trauma-specific fears; and (4) changed attitudes about

people, aspects of life, and the future. This chapter begins by discussing the

mediating variables of children's reactions to trauma and the melding

principles of play therapy with crisis response. The author then describes her

experience as a play therapist assisting the survivors of the 1995 bombing of

a federal office building in Oklahoma City. She also describes her work as a

school counselor offering grief counseling to students following the death of

a popular middle school teacher. 



Title: Thrombosis associated with physical restraints.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hem, E.; Steen, O.; Opjordsmoen, S.

Source/Citation: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica; Vol 103(1) Jan 2001, US:

Munksgaard Scientific Journals; 2001, 73-76

Abstract/Review/Citation: Described two cases of thromboembolic phenomena, one

with a fatal outcome, in association with physical restraint during admission

to an emergency psychiatric ward. The thromboembolic phenonema were diagnosed

in a 29 yr old man with exacerbated chronic paranoid schizophrenia, who was

restrained due to physical agitation, and in a 59 yr old man with bipolar 1

disorder, most recent episode manic, who was admitted because of severe

physical agitation and later collapsed following release from his restraints.

A search of the world literature showed no papers on thrombosis in physical

restraint. It is concluded that immobilization and trauma to the legs while

restraining a patient are adequate explanations for the occurrence of

thrombosis. Special attention should be paid to thrombosis when employing

restraints in psychiatric wards. Further systematic research into physical

restraints in psychiatry is clearly needed. A comment by D. Moussaoui is




Title: Disentangling the link between disrupted families and delinquency.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Juby, Heather; Farrington, David P.

Source/Citation: British Journal of Criminology: Special Issue: ; Vol 41(1) Win

2001, England: Oxford Univ Press; 2001, 22-40

Abstract/Review/Citation: The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development is a

prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males from 8 to 46 yrs

old. Delinquency rates were higher among boys who were living in permanently

disrupted families on their 15th birthday compared to boys living in intact

families. Results were very similar whether juvenile convictions, juvenile

self-reported delinquency or adult convictions were studied. Delinquency rates

were similar in disrupted families and in intact high conflict families. Boys

who lost their mothers were more likely to be delinquent than boys who lost

their fathers, and disruptions caused by parental disharmony were more

damaging than disruptions caused by parental death. Boys from disrupted

families who continued living with their mothers had similar delinquency rates

to boys from intact harmonious families. These results are more concordant

with life course theories than with trauma or selection theories of the

effects of family disruption. 



Title: Combat trauma: Trauma with highest risk of delayed onset and unresolved

posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, unemployment, and abuse among men.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Prigerson, Holly G.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Rosenheck, Robert A.

Paper Number: 20010307

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease: Special Issue: ; Vol

189(2) Feb 2001, US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001, 99-108

Abstract/Review/Citation: Little is known about the risk and course of

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other forms of dysfunction,

associated with combat trauma relative to other traumas. Modified versions of

the Mental Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) PTSD module from the Diagnostic

Interview Schedule and Composite International Diagnostic Interview were

administered to a representative national sample of 5,877 Ss (15-54 yrs old)

in the part 2 subsample of the National Comorbidity Survey. Of the weighted

subsample, 1,703 men reported a traumatic event. The risk of PTSD and other

forms of dysfunction were compared for men who nominated combat as their worst

trauma vs men nominating other traumas as worst, controlling for confounding

influences. Men reporting combat as their worst trauma were more likely to

have lifetime PTSD, delayed PTSD symptom onset, and unresolved PTSD symptoms,

and to be unemployed, fired, divorced, and physically abusive to their spouses

than men reporting other traumas as their worst experience.  ========================================


Title: Court-involved battered women's responses to violence: The role of

psychological, physical, and sexual abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Dutton, Mary Ann; Goodman, Lisa A.; Bennett, Lauren

Source/Citation: Psychological abuse in violent domestic relations., New York,

NY, US: Springer Publishing Co, Inc; 2001, (xxi, 222), 177-195

Source editor(s): O'Leary, K. Daniel (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This reprinted article originally appeared in

(Violence & Victims, 1999, Vol 14[1], 89-104). (The following abstract of

the original article appeared in record 1999-08235-006.) This study examined

the role of psychological abuse, physical violence, injury, and sexual abuse

in predicting court-involved women's (1) prior attempts to seek help from the

justice system and to leave the battering relationship, (2) use of criminal

prosecution and civil protection orders, and (3) traumatic stress reactions.

Ss were 149 18-58 yr old women who sought assistance from a domestic violence

intake center located in the court. At the univariate level, each abuse

variable was significantly associated with at least one strategic response and

all traumatic responses to violence. Multivariate analyses revealed that

strategic responses were largely predicted by injury and physical assault,

whereas traumatic responses were mainly predicted by psychological abuse.

Findings demonstrate the important role of both physical and psychological

abuse in shaping women's responses to domestic violence.



Title: 'Eloquent chaos' in the oral discourse of killing fields survivors: An

exploration of atrocity and narrativization.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Uehara, Edwina S.; Farris, Martha; Morelli, Paula T.; Ishisaka, Anthony

Source/Citation: Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry: Special Issue: ; Vol 25(1)

Mar 2001, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 29-61

Abstract/Review/Citation: If "narrative" implies a form of discourse

in which sequenced events are meaningfully connected, an

"anti-narrative" is a chaotic discourse form "of time without

sequence, telling without mediation, and speaking about oneself without being

fully able to reflect on oneself" (A. Frank, 1995). This paper examines

narratives and anti-narratives in the oral discourses of 31 survivors (aged

30-60 yrs) of the Cambodian killing fields. Through an extended analysis of

two cases, the authors demonstrate the internal logic and

"eloquence" of anti-narratives--i.e., the ways in which

anti-narrative patterns vividly express and reveal a survivor's complex and

continuing experience of atrocity. 



Title: Psychometric evaluation of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder

assessments in persons with severe mental illness.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mueser, Kim T.; Rosenberg, Stanley D.; Fox, Lindy; Salyers, Michelle P.; Ford, Julian D.; Carty, Patricia

Source/Citation: Psychological Assessment: Special Issue: ; Vol 13(1) Mar 2001,

US: American Psychological Assn; 2001, 110-117

Abstract/Review/Citation: Interrater reliability, internal consistency,

test-retest reliability, and convergent validity were examined for the Trauma

History Questionnaire (THQ), the Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress

Disorder (PTSD) Scale (CAPS), and the PTSD Checklist (PCL) in 30 clients with

severe mental illnesses. Interrater reliability for the THQ and CAPS was high,

as was internal consistency of CAPS and PCL subscales. The test-retest

reliability of the THQ was moderate to high for different traumas. PTSD

diagnoses on the CAPS and PCL showed moderate test-retest reliability. Lower

levels of test-retest reliability for PTSD diagnoses were related to psychosis

diagnoses and symptoms. However, when more stringent criteria for PTSD were

used on the CAPS, it had excellent test-retest reliability across all clients.

CAPS and PCL diagnoses of PTSD showed moderate convergent validity. The

results support the reliability of trauma and PTSD assessments in clients with

severe mental illness. 



Title: Adult somatic preoccupation and its relationship to childhood trauma. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Sansone, Randy A.; Wiederman, Michael W.; Sansone, Lori A.

Source/Citation: Violence & Victims: Special Issue: ; Vol 16(1) Feb 2001,

US: Springer Publishing Co; 2001, 39-47

Abstract/Review/Citation: Somatic preoccupation has been associated with a

variety of comorbid psychiatric conditions including childhood trauma,

personality disorder, and depression. The current study was undertaken to

simultaneously explore the inter-relationship of these psychiatric variables

as conceptualized in a path model. 120 participants (aged 19-54 yrs old), both

men and women, seen for nonemergent health care in a resident-staffed internal

medicine clinic, were given questionnaires exploring the presence of childhood

trauma, borderline personality symptomatology, current depression, worry, and

somatic preoccupation. With one exception, all simple correlation coefficients

among study variables were relatively substantial. By sequencing variables

into an a priori model and using a path analytic approach, several indirect

and direct relationships among variables were evident. Most important,

childhood trauma exhibited a direct effect on somatic preoccupation as well as

indirect effects through borderline personality disturbance and current

depression. These data suggest that childhood trauma may be a precursor for

somatic preoccupation during adulthood.  ========================================


Title: The relationship between dissociative tendencies and schizotypy: An

artifact of childhood trauma?

Author(s)/Editor(s): Irwin, Harvey J.

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychology: Special Issue: ; Vol 57(3) Mar

2001, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2001, 331-342

Abstract/Review/Citation: Previous research has suggested a relationship between

dissociative tendencies and schizotypy. This study sought to extend the

previous work in 2 fundamental respects. First, explicit cognizance was taken

of the multidimensionality of both dissociative tendencies and schizotypy.

Second, the study examined the possibility that the observed correlation

between dissociative tendencies and schizotypy is an artifact of the

association between each of these personality domains and a history of

childhood trauma. 116 Australian adults (aged 18-46 yrs) were administered the

Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Schizatypal Personality Question-Brief,

and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analysis

revealed that both pathological and nonpathological dissociative tendencies

were predicted by the dimensions of schizotypy, even after the contribution of

childhood trauma had been removed, It is concluded that the relationship

between dissociative tendencies and schizotypy is not an artifact of childhood

abuse, but the clinical significance of this relationship remains to be established. 



Title: Optimism and traumatic stress: The importance of social support and


Author(s)/Editor(s): Dougall, Angela Liegey; Hyman, Kelly B.; Hayward, Michele C.; McFeeley, Sheila; Baum, Andrew

Source/Citation: Journal of Applied Social Psychology: Special Issue: ; Vol

31(2) Feb 2001, US: Bellwether Publishing; 2001, 223-245

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the effects of optimism following traumatic

stress and pathways through which optimism may act. 159 18-68 yr old rescue

and recovery workers at the crash site of US Air Flight 427 were studied 2, 6,

9, and 12 mo after the crash to examine optimistic outlook, social support,

coping, and stress. As predicted, a more optimistic disposition was associated

with less self-reported distress, less use of avoidant and wishful thinking

coping strategies, greater use of problem-focused and seeking-social-support

coping, and greater availability of social support. Contrary to expectations,

coping did not account for the relationships observed between optimism and

stress responding. Social support explained some of the effects of optimism on

coping and stress, but these mediational effects varied over time. Findings

suggest that optimism affects stress and coping directly and indirectly by

affecting how much social support is available,  ========================================


Title: Attrition in a community treatment program for child sexual abusers.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Craissati, Jackie; Beech, Anthony

Source/Citation: Journal of Interpersonal Violence; Vol 16(3) Mar 2001, US: Sage

Publications Inc; 2001, 205-221

Abstract/Review/Citation: The current preoccupation is with risk prediction in

sexual offenders and the associated emphasis on effective models of treatment.

However, a few studies have identified noncompliance with treatment and

attrition rates as playing an important role in later sexual recidivism. This

study reports on attrition rates in a community treatment project for child

sexual abusers. The researchers have attempted to identify which variables can

predict attendance at and completion of treatment. The findings for the 1st 78

men (aged 20-75 yrs) in treatment for at least 1 yr are that variables

associated with psychological difficulties and childhood trauma are

consistently more important in predicting treatment completion than

offense-related variables. The sexual recidivism rate for the community sample

was so low after an average of 3 yrs at risk that it was not possible to

examine its relationship with compliance in treatment.  ========================================


Title: Chronic late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hamilton, James W.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 158(3) Mar 2001, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2001, 502

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by D. V. Jeste et al that presents the case of a man with late-onset paranoid psychosis with later remission. It was noted that the patient had lost his mother when he was a child. The current author contends that nothing is said about the immediate effect of her death on him or its subsequent

influence on his life. It is suggested that it would be surprising if this sever psychological trauma were not a significant factor in the later development of psychosis. 



Title: Mental health issues in Tamil refugees and displaced persons.

Counselling implications.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Vries, Jolanda De

Source/Citation: Patient Education & Counseling; Vol 42(1) Jan 2001, US:

Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 2001, 15-24

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the mental health and psychosocial problems

of Sri Lankan Tamils living in refugee camps in South India. 51 Ss (aged 16-67

yrs) completed the Hopkins Symptom Checklist--58 (L. R. Derogatis et al, 1974)

and participated in interviews concerning personal loss, personal traumatic

experiences, negative feelings, living in camps, and the availability of

support. Results show that the mental health of Ss was poor. Living in camps

had resolved most fears of being harmed but Ss suffered from survival guilt,

grief, loss of dignity, shame, uncertainty, and other negative feelings. Those

who had experienced personal trauma scored higher concerning posttraumatic

stress disorder. Findings suggest that easily accessible counseling centers

with counselors who have the same cultural background as the refugees are




Title: Correlates of autobiographical memory specificity: The role of

depression, anxiety and childhood trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wessel, Ineke; Meeren, Masja; Peeters, Frenk; Arntz, Arnoud; Merckelbach, Harald

Source/Citation: Behaviour Research & Therapy; Vol 39(4) Apr 2001, England:

Elsevier Science Ltd; 2001, 409-421

Abstract/Review/Citation: The present study examined the role of childhood

trauma, major depressive disorder (MDD), and anxiety disorder (AD) in

overgeneral autobiographical memory. Ninety-three outpatients and 24 healthy

controls completed a childhood trauma questionnaire and an autobiographical

memory test (AMT). Results showed that MDD diagnosis rather than trauma

history predicted AMT-performance. Memory specificity was not related to AD

diagnosis, recovered MDD, or self-rated depression severity. The present

findings cast doubts on theories that emphasize the role of childhood trauma

in overgeneral autobiographical memory.  ========================================


Title: A preliminary investigation of psychological distress following surgical

management of early pregnancy loss detected at initial ultrasound scanning: A

trauma perspective.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Walker, Tracy M.; Davidson, K. M.

Source/Citation: Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology; Vol 19(1) Feb

2001, United Kingdom: Carfax Publishing Ltd; 2001, 7-16

Abstract/Review/Citation: Notes that recent research has focused on the

occurrence of anxiety symptoms after miscarriage and has suggested that early

pregnancy loss (EPL) should be conceptualized from the perspective of a trauma

experience. It was hypothesized that women who have perceived warning signs of

an EPL will be less psychologically distressed in a 3-wk period after this

pregnancy loss than women with no prior perceived warning signs. The

prevalence of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD), posttraumatic stress symptoms,

anxiety and depression was assessed in 40 women (aged 21-43 yrs), who had

experienced an EPL approximately 3 wks beforehand and, with the exception of

ASD, this was also investigated at 3-mo follow-up. Evidence of psychological

distress was expected to decrease over time in all women regardless of whether

they had perceived warning signs or not. It was found that the presence of

perceived warning signs did not determine levels of psychological distress.

The authors ascertained that the experience of EPL itself increased

posttraumatic stress symptoms and anxiety, regardless of perceived warning

signs of a pregnancy complication. Psychological distress subsided over time

with the exception of anxiety, which remained high.  ========================================


Title: Frontal lobe dysfunctions, dissociation, and trauma self-reports in

forensic psychiatric patients.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Cima, Maaike; Merckelbach, Harald; Klein, Brigitte; Shellbach-Matties, Rolf; Kremer, Karl

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease: Special Issue: Vol

189(3) Mar 2001, US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001, 188-190

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined to what extent dissociative symptoms (DSs) in

30 male psychiatric prison inmates (aged 19-66 yrs) were associated with

childhood trauma and/or frontal functioning. Information about the traumatic

background of the patients was not only obtained by having the patients fill

out a standardized self-report instrument of childhood trauma but also by

having an independent and blind judge rating patients' records. Patients also

completed a measure on fantasy proneness (FP). This information was obtained

in order to evaluate whether FP might contribute to the link between

dissociation and self-reports of trauma (H. Merckelbach and P. Muris, in

press). Heightened levels of dissociation in criminal offenders were found.

Self-reports of childhood trauma as indexed by the Childhood Trauma

Questionnaire were common. These self-reports correlated significantly with

trauma ratings based on hospital charts. Neither self-reported childhood

traumas nor trauma ratings based on hospital charts were linked to DSs. No

evidence was found to suggest that FP contributes to DSs or trauma

self-reports. Poor frontal functioning as indexed by the Behavioral Assessment

of Dysexecutive Syndrome was linked to DSs. A positive correlation between

frontal functioning and self-reports of trauma was found.  ========================================


Title: Attributions of cause and recurrence in long-term breast cancer survivors.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Stewart, D. E.; Cheung, A. M.; Duff, S.; Wong, F.; McQuestion, M.; Cheng, T.; Purdy, L.; Bunston, T.

Source/Citation: Psycho-Oncology; Vol 10(2) Mar-Apr 2001, US: John Wiley &

Sons Inc; 2001, 179-183

Abstract/Review/Citation: Surveyed 35-88 yr old women survivors of breast cancer

(BC) on what they attributed the cause and lack of recurrence of their BC to,

and determined whether these views were associated with specific health

behaviors (HBs). Ss were also asked to estimate their personal risk of cancer

recurrence, report on their HBs, describe what advice they would give to newly

diagnosed women, and what they would change if they had to relive their BC

experience. 378 (75.6%) women responded. 322 Ss who responded to the question

about the cause of BC attributed it to stress (42.2%), genetics (26.7%),

environment (25.5%), hormones (23.9%), don't know (16.5%), diet (15.5%), and

breast trauma (2.8%). 330 women who responded to the question about what

prevented cancer recurrence attributed it to positive attitude (60.0%), diet

(50.0%), healthy lifestyle (40.3%), exercise (39.4%), stress reduction

(27.9%), prayer (26.4%), complementary therapies (11.2%), and tamoxifen

(3.9%). Most Ss felt their recurrence risk was average or below average. Some

attributions of BC cause or lack of recurrence were associated with specific

HBs. Most Ss would advise other women with BC to be positive, and if they had

to relive their cancer experience they would take more control of their




Title: The successful treatment of PTSD through overt cognitive behavioral

therapy in non-responders to EMDR.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Devilly, Grant J.

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy; Vol 29(1) Jan 2001,

US: Cambridge Univ Press; 2001, 57-70Description/Edition Info.: Journal Article; 250

Abstract/Review/Citation: This research investigated the efficacy of an

operantly cognitive-behavioural trauma treatment protocol (TTP) in 2 cases

that had previously been treated unsuccessfully with Eye Movement

Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). Ss were a 46-yr-old and a 25-yr-old

female with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In line with previous

research, both participants improved following TTP, to the extent where one of

the participants was asymptomatic at post-treatment and 3 mo follow-up. These

cases also demonstrate the ability of a cognitive-behavioural intervention to

successfully treat childhood sexual abuse victims later in life.  ========================================


Title: The relationship between traumatic experiences, dissociation, and

borderline personality pathology among male forensic patients and prisoners. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Timmerman, Irma G. H.; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: Journal of Personality Disorders: Special Issue: Vol 15(2)

2001, US: Guilford Publications; 2001, 136-149

Abstract/Review/Citation: In the present study the relationship between

traumatic experiences, dissociation, and borderline personality disorder

pathology is examined in a group of 39 male forensic patients and 192 male

prisoners (all Ss aged 20-70 yrs). Sexual and emotional abuse are

significantly more common among forensic patients than among prisoners.

Patients also report a broader range of different kinds of traumas. Prisoners

report significantly more dissociative symptoms. Analyses of the relationship

of type of trauma on the one hand and dissociation and borderline personality

pathology on the other show that sexual abuse is significantly associated with

borderline personality but not with dissociation among the Ss. In the prison

sample these associations are found only for familial but not extrafamilial

sexual abuse. When the Ss are grouped on account of presence or absence of a

borderline personality disorder, highly significant differences on

dissociation are found between both groups. The results lend support to the

hypothesis that sexual abuse is not related to dissociative symptoms but

merely to borderline personality pathology. These findings are not likely to

be confounded by false memories of traumatic events that are recovered by




Title: Testing Cermak's hypothesis: Is dissociation the mediating variable that

links substance abuse in the family of origin with offspring codependency? .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Harkness, Daniel

Source/Citation: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs: Special Issue: Special focus

section: Bridging the gap in San Francisco, the process of integrating harm

reduction and traditional substance abuse services. ; Vol 33(1) Jan-Mar 2001,

US: Haight-Ashbury Publications; 2001, 75-82

Abstract/Review/Citation: This pilot study examined substance abuse in the

family of origin and its relation to offspring dissociation and offspring

codependency. T. Cermak contends that substance abuse in the family of origin

exposes offspring to trauma, that exposure to trauma in the family of origin

engenders offspring dissociation, and that dissociation is the process

underlying offspring codependency. This investigation used direct observation

and self-reported measures of codependent behavior to evaluate Cermak's

hypothesis using a sample (aged 18-65 yrs) that included substance abusers,

spouses of substance abusers, members of codependents Anonymous, US Bureau of

Land Management smoke jumpers, and college students. Although it was found

that substance abuse in the family of origin, offspring dissociation, and

offspring codependency were associated, no support was found for the

prediction that dissociation mediates the relationship between substance abuse

in the family of origin and offspring codependency.  ========================================


Title: Pain as a reason to visit the doctor: A study in Finnish primary health care.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Maentyselkae, Pekka; Kumpusalo, Esko; Ahonen, Riitta; Kumpusalo, Anne; Kauhanen, Jussi; Viinamaeki, Heimo; Halonen, Pirjo; Takala, Jorma

Source/Citation: Pain; Vol 89(2-3) Jan 2001, United Kingdom: Elsevier Science

BV; 2001, 175-180

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined pain prevalence as a rationale for seeing

primary care physicians. 2,237 individuals (aged 1-99 yrs) reporting pain

during visits to primary care physicians were assessed for physician visit

rationale, pain-localization information, diagnosis, and sick leave

prescriptions. Ss completed questionnaires concerning sociodemographic

information and pain duration, intensity, and frequency. Results show that

pain was identified as the reason for 40% of the primary care visits. The most

common localizations were in the lower back, abdomen, and head. 21% of Ss had

experienced pain for >6 mo. 50% of pain symptoms were due to

musculoskeletal disease or trauma. Activity limitations were reported in 80%

of Ss. It is concluded that pain is a common reason for visiting primary care




Title: Excitatory and inhibitory corticospinal responses to transcranial

magnetic stimulation in patients with minor to moderate head injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Chistyakov, A. V.; Soustiel, J. F. ; Hafner, H.; Trubnik, M.

Levy, G.; Feinsod, M.

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry: Special

Issue: Vol 70(5) May 2001, England: BMJ Publishing Group; 2001, 580-587

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined excitatory and inhibitory responses to

transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), as attested to by motor evoked

potential (MEP) and silent period (SP) parameters, in 38 Ss (aged 18-60 yrs)

with brain injury. MEPs and SPs were recorded after single pulse TMS 2 weeks

after head trauma. MEP resting threshold, MEP/M wave amplitude ratio, central

motor conduction time (CMCT), SP threshold, interthreshold difference (ITD),

and SP duration (SPD) were assessed. Increased ITD in Ss with mild and

moderate head injury was found. This was associated with a reduction of MEP/M

wave amplitude ratio. The degree of MEP and SP changes depended on severity of

head injury and was not related to type of brain lesion. SPD did not differ

significantly in brain injury groups compared to control group. CMCT was

prolonged in Ss with diffuse and combined brain lesions. Among subjective

complaints only fatigue was significantly related to ITD, MEP, and SP

threshold abnormalities. Results suggest mechanisms involved in MEP and SP

generation are differently affected in head injury, the first being impaired

more severely. Increased ITD with reduction of MEP/M wave amplitude ratio may

reflect a dissociated impairment of inhibitory and excitatory components of

central motor control in head trauma.  ========================================


Title: Perceived parental rearing behavior in children of Holocaust survivors.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kellermann, Natan P. F.

Source/Citation: Israel Journal of Psychiatry & Related Sciences: Special

Issue: The Holocaust on child survivors and children of survivors.  Vol 38(1)

2001, Israel: Gefen Publishing House Ltd; 2001, 58-68

Abstract/Review/Citation: Notes that Holocaust survivors have often been

described as inadequate parents. It is argued that their multiple losses were

assumed to create child-rearing problems around both attachment and

detachment. Empirical research, however, has yielded contradictory evidence

regarding the parenting behavior of Holocaust survivors when investigated with

classical parenting instruments. This pilot-study investigated parental

behavior with a self-report instrument that also included salient Holocaust

dimensions. The parent perception of 159 adult children (aged 22-54 yrs) of

Holocaust survivors was thus compared with 151 control Ss (aged 19-65 yrs).

Factor analysis of data yielded 4 major kinds of parental rearing behaviors:

transmission; affection; punishing and over-protection. While the

second-generation group rated their parents higher on transmission, other

differences in child-rearing practices were small, if taken as a whole. It was

concluded that these findings largely support the descriptive literature on

transgenerational transmission of trauma while at the same time refuting the

view that Holocaust survivors function more inadequately than other parents do. 



Title: Prevalence of dissociative disorders among psychiatric inpatients in a

German university clinic.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Gast, Ursula; Rodewald, Frauke; Nickel, Viola; Emrich, Hinderk M.

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease: Special Issue: ; Vol

189(4) Apr 2001, US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001, 249-257

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the frequency of dissociative disorders among

psychiatric inpatients in Germany and investigated the relationship between

childhood trauma and dissociation. The German version of the Dissociative

Experiences Scale (DES), the Fragebogen fur Dissoziative Symptome (FDS), was

used to screen 115 consecutive inpatients (aged 18-71 yrs) admitted to the

psychiatric clinic of a university hospital. Ss with FDS scores higher than 20

were interviewed by a trained clinician, using the German translation of the

Structured Clinical Interview for Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) Dissociative

Disorders (SCID-D-R). The German version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire

(CTQ) was administered to investigate prevalence of childhood trauma and

relations between childhood trauma and dissociation in adult life. Results

indicate that 25 of the 115 Ss had a score higher than 20 on the FDS. Of

these, 15 Ss were interviewed with the SCID-D-R. One Ss was diagnosed with a

dissociative identity disorder, 3 with dissociative disorders not otherwise

specified, and 1 with depersonalization disorder. All diagnoses were confirmed

clinically. A significant positive relationship was found between the severity

of childhood trauma and dissociation.  ========================================


Title: Examining the delayed grief hypothesis across 5 years of bereavement.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bonanno, George A.; Field, Nigel P.

Source/Citation: American Behavioral Scientist: Special Issue: New directions in

bereavement research and theory.  Vol 44(5) Jan 2001, US: Sage Publications

Inc; 2001, 798-816

Abstract/Review/Citation: Traditional bereavement theories emphasize that it is

crucial to work through the emotional meanings of a loss and that the failure

to do so typically results in delayed grief symptoms. This article reports

follow-up data examining these assumptions prospectively across the first 5

years of bereavement among 39 bereaved participants. Based on previous

validity data, elevated symptoms were defined in terms of 6 mo median scores

for each measure. Delayed elevations were observed on isolated measures for 3

(7%) participants. However, these elevations were more parsimoniously

explained by random measurement error. Furthermore, when a weighted

grief-depression composite score was used to maximize the probability of

capturing the true (latent) grief variable, not a single case of delayed

symptom elevations was observed. Finally, data on emotional processing of the

loss at 6 mo failed to support the traditional assumption that minimal

emotional processing of the loss would lead to delayed grief.  ========================================


Title: Schizophrenia-like psychosis following traumatic brain injury: A

chart-based descriptive and case-control study.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Sachdev, Perminder; Smith, J. S.; Cathcart, S.

Source/Citation: Psychological Medicine: Special Issue: ; Vol 31(2) Feb 2001,

US: Cambridge Univ Press; 2001, 231-239

Abstract/Review/Citation: Head injury (HI) has been reported to increase the

likelihood of the development of schizophrenia-like psychosis (SLP), but its

features and risk factors have been insufficiently investigated. The authors

examined 45 referred patients (aged 18-63 yrs) with SLP following brain

trauma. These Ss were matched with 45 HI Ss without SLP on age (current and at

injury) and gender, and their case records were reviewed systematically. The

groups were compared and logistic regression analyses performed. The psychoses

had a mean age of onset of 26.3 yrs, a mean latency of 54.7 mo after HI,

usually a gradual onset and a subacute or chronic course. Prodromal symptoms

were common and depression was often present at onset. Paranoid delusions and

auditory hallucinations were the predominant features. The SLP group had more

widespread brain damage on neuroimaging, and were more impaired cognitively.

On regression analysis, a positive family history of psychosis and duration of

loss of consciousness were the best predictors of SLP. Findings suggest that

HI-related psychosis is usually paranoid-hallucinatory and subacute or chronic

in its presentation. A genetic predisposition to schizophrenia and severity of

injury with significant brain damage and cognitive impairment may be

vulnerability factors. 



Title: Marital violence: Impact on children's emotional experiences, emotional

regulation and behaviors in a post-divorce/separation situation.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lee, Mo-Yee

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal: Special Issue: ;

Vol 18(2) Apr 2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 137-163

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examined the mediating effects of

children's emotional experiences and regulation strategies on the relationship

between marital violence and children's behavioral problems following

divorce/separation. Ss were 50 children aged 6-12 yrs old. Mothers were 23-50

yrs old. Findings indicated marital violence as reported by the mothers was

associated with children's internalizing problems as measured by the Achenbach

Behavior Checklist. Marital violence was also associated with children's

reported experience of negative emotions, with sadness and anger emerging as

statistical predictors of children's behavioral problems. A weak relationship

was found between emotional regulation strategies and children's behavioral

problems, with the exception that "direct intervention" and the

range of strategies used by children were positively associated with

behavioral problems. Children's reported anger was also found to mediate the

relationship between marital violence and children's total behavioral

problems. Implications of findings for treatment of children and adolescents

from separated, conflicted homes are discussed.  ========================================


Title: A warrior prevails.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Botwin, Shari

Source/Citation: Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention:

Special Issue:  Vol 9(2) Sum 2001, US: Brunner/Mazel Inc; 2001, 177-183

Abstract/Review/Citation: Becoming a psychotherapist has been compared to

learning a craft or becoming a fine artist. It is not surprising that one of

the most important opportunities for growth is in the therapist's own personal

treatment. This paper is on the internalization of the therapist as an aid to

healing. By internalizing the therapeutic alliance, change occurs in the way

one thinks, feels, and functions in relationships. The article discusses many

components related to the importance of the therapist as an internal object

related to the authors's own work in therapy and in the author's work with her

patients, primarily with women and teens in recovery eating disorders, abuse,

trauma, and loss. As the author recovered from her experiences of childhood

abuse while in therapy, she took what she internalized from her own therapist

as a model to foster connection and healing in her patients. Three vignettes

illustrate how internalization and the creation of paths for change occurred

in individual and group sessions. 



Title: Traumatic grief in a convenience sample of victims seeking support

services after a terrorist incident. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Pfefferbaum, Betty; Call, John A.; Lensgraf, S. Jay; Miller, Peteryne D.; Flynn, Brian W.; Doughty, Debby E.; Tucker, Phebe; Dickson, Warren L.

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Special Issue: ; Vol 13(1)

2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 19-24

Abstract/Review/Citation: This report describes traumatic grief in 40

individuals (21-73 yrs old) who suffered losses in the 1995 bombing of the

Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. The authors administered a

self-report instrument 6 months after the bombing to assess demographics;

exposure; injury; retrospective report of initial emotional and physiological

reaction; and current posttraumatic stress symptoms, grief, safety concerns,

and functioning. A strong association was found between posttraumatic stress

symptoms and grief. The relationship between grief and difficulty functioning

was stronger at higher levels of posttraumatic stress than at lower levels.

The results support the construct of traumatic grief and have important

implications for the treatment of people exposed to large-scale traumatic

events and for the training of mental health professionals.  ========================================


Title: Predictors of posttraumatic stress among victims of motor vehicle


Author(s)/Editor(s): Dougall, Angela Liegey; Ursano, Robert J.; Posluszny, Donna M.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Baum, Andrew

Source/Citation: Psychosomatic Medicine: Special Issue: ; Vol 63(3) May-Jun

2001, US: Williams & Wilkins Co; 2001, 402-411

Abstract/Review/Citation: Identified factors that predict individual

vulnerability to psychological trauma by examining the relationships among

situation and person variables and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder

(PTSD) 1, 6 and 12 mo after a serious motor vehicle accident (MVA). Background

characteristics, exposure variables (i.e., injury severity and accident

characteristics), and psychosocial variables (i.e., perceived loss of control,

social support, and coping) were used to predict symptoms of PTSD and recovery

in 115 injured MVA victims (aged 18-64 yrs). All participants were injured

during the MVA and provided data prospectively over the course of a year after

the accidents. Along with background and exposure variables, use of wishful

thinking coping distinguished between victims with and without symptoms of

PTSD. Psychosocial variables such as wishful thinking coping can be used to

identify MVA victims who are at risk of developing chronic posttraumatic

stress and warrant further investigation.  ========================================


Title: Trauma and extended separation from family among Latin American and

African refugees in Montreal.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Rousseau, Cecile; Mekki-Berrada, Abdelwaheed; Moreau, Sylvie

Source/Citation: Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes: Special

Issue: Vol 64(1) Spr 2001, US: Guilford Publications; 2001, 40-59

Abstract/Review/Citation: Surveyed 113 refugees from Latin America and Africa

living in Canada to assess the impact of premigration trauma and prolonged

separation resulting from migration on emotional distress, and the role of

family as an anchor of emotion and identity. Semistructured interviews were

conducted and life stories related by 20 Salvadoran and Congolese Ss were

collected. The emotional profile of the Ss was measured using the Symptom

Checklist. Trauma was assessed to create 3 weighted scores for personal,

family, and global trauma. A content analysis was conducted of the interviews

and life stories of Ss. Data reveal a similar pattern of family separation for

both groups of refugees. The relationship between personal trauma and

psychological distress is reversed when Ss are with all or part of their

families. Severe trauma resulting from armed conflict, under certain

circumstances, strengthened S's ability to face migration and associated

losses. The data also suggest that family trauma is a much more important

issue to African Ss. Data support the clinical literature indicating that

cultural characteristics may modulate the development of various family

strategies for coping with separation and trauma.  ========================================


Title: Metabolic recovery following human traumatic brain injury based on

FDG-PET: Time course and relationship to neurological disability.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bergsneider, Marvin; Hovda, David A.; McArthur, David L.

Etchepare, Maria; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Sehati, Nouzhan; Satz, Paul; Phelps, Michael E.; Becker, Donald P.

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation: Special Issue: ; Vol

16(2) Apr 2001, US: Aspen Publishers Inc; 2001, 135-148

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the relationship between metabolic recovery

and neurological recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI). 54 patients

(mean age 36 yrs) with mild to severe TBI were examined using

[-sup-1-sup-8F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET); 13

Ss underwent both an acute and delayed FDG-PET examination. Cerebral metabolic

rate of glucose (CMRglc) was calculated for each S and pooled global cortical

CMRglc values were plotted over time. Results show that the intermediate

metabolic reduction phase began to resolve approximately 1 mo following

injury, regardless of injury severity. Correlations observed in the 13 Ss

studied twice was modest. It is concluded that the dynamic profile of CMRglc

following TBI is seemingly stereotypical across a broad range and severity of

injury types.



Title: The occurrence and impact of stressful life events in older adults.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Volbrecht, Marie E.

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(7-B) Feb 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 3865

Abstract/Review/Citation: Previous research has demonstrated a connection

between physical and mental health and stressful or traumatic life events.

However, research into life events experienced by older adults has been

plagued by a number of difficulties that limit the generalizability and

usefulness of the information gathered. The purpose of the current study is to

correct and control for some of the previous limitations. In this way, useful

information about the later years in life will be gained and the initial steps

toward the development of a more useful instrument completed. This study is

part of a larger research project being pursued in the Disaster Mental Health

Institute of the University of South Dakota. Four thousand randomly selected

members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) were mailed a

packet that consisted of a cover letter from AARP encouraging participation, a

cover letter from the researcher explaining the purpose and outlining basic

instructions, the State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), and a modified

version of the Life Experiences Survey (LES). The current study primarily

concentrated on the LES. (The STPI is not utilized in the current study.) A

total of 760 individuals chose to participate (a response rate of 19%) and 683

of these were judged to be valid and retained for analysis. Four age groups

were defined for use in analysis: age 50-59 (n = 218), 60-69 (n = 238), 70-79

(n = 169), and 80+ (n = 58). All data were analyzed utilizing SPSS. There were

differences found in frequency of events experienced by the different age

groups. Some of these differences are similar to what previous research has

found, but some finer grained detailed differences are also reported. In

addition, differences in impact and frequency of different types of events

were found between men and women and among the four age groups. In general,

the findings suggest that there is a lower frequency of events overall that

happens in later life. However, there are some categories of events that do

not decrease significantly past the age of 60. It is suggested that future

research continue to elucidate the differences in types of events occurring at

different ages and the impacts these have. Eventually, this line of research

will hopefully be connected to the area of research that is exploring coping

techniques so that adjustment to these stressful events may be better aided.



Title: Childhood trauma and hostility as an adult: Relevance to suicidal


Author(s)/Editor(s): Roy, Alec

Source/Citation: Psychiatry Research: Special Issue: ; Vol 102(1) May 2001, US:

Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 2001, 97-101

Abstract/Review/Citation: The objective of this study is to look for a

relationship between childhood trauma and hostility as an adult. Toward this

end, 294 recently abstinent cocaine or opiate dependent patients (mean age

41.4 yrs) were asked to complete two questionnaires: the Childhood Trauma

Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire

(HDHQ). It was found that there were significant correlations between the HDHQ

total hostility score and scores on the CTQ for childhood emotional abuse,

physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect. Thus,

these results suggest the possibility that childhood trauma may be a

determinant of the personality dimension of hostility as an adult.  ========================================


Title: Antinociceptive reflex alteration in acute posttraumatic headache

following whiplash injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Keidel, Matthias; Rieschke, Petra; Stude, Philipp; Eisentraut, Rainer; van Schayck, Rudolf; Diener, Hans-Christoph

Electronic Access: ob=ArticleURL& udi=B6T0K-433P7PM-1& user=

768839& coverDate=06%2F2001& rdoc=1& fmt=full& orig=browse& srch=%234865%23999079996%23251263!& cdi=4865& sort=d& acct=C000000413& version=1& urlVersion=0& us

Source/Citation: Pain: Special Issue: ; Vol 92(3) Jun 2001, United Kingdom:

Elsevier Science BV; 2001, 319-326

Abstract/Review/Citation: Brainstem-mediated antinociceptive inhibitory reflexes

of the temporalis muscle were investigated in 82 patients (aged 17-55 yrs)

with acute posttraumatic headache (PH) following whiplash injury but without

neurological deficits, bone injury of the cervical spine or a combined direct

head trauma on average 5 days after the acceleration trauma. Latencies and

durations of the early and late exteroceptive suppression (ES1 and ES2) and

the interposed EMG burst (IE) of the EMG of the voluntarily contracted right

ternporalis muscle evoked by ipsilateral stimulation of the second and third

branches of the trigeminal nerve were analyzed and compared to a cohort of 82

normal Ss (aged 21-56 yrs). Highly significant reflex alterations were found

in patients with PH with a shortening of ES2 duration with delayed onset and

premature ending as the primary parameter of this study, a moderate

prolongation of ESI and IE duration and a delayed onset of IE. The latency of

ES1 was not significantly changed. Results indicate that acute PH in whiplash

injury is accompanied by abnormal antinociceptive brainstem reflexes. The

abnormality of the trigeminal inhibitory temporalis reflex is based on a

transient dysfunction of the brainstem-mediated reflex circuit mainly of the

late polysynaptic pathways.



Title: Psychological impact of the hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua in a one-year


Author(s)/Editor(s): Cladera, T.; Palma, L.; Penayo, U.; Kullgren, G.

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology: Special

Issue: Vol 36(3) May 2001, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 2001, 108-114

Abstract/Review/Citation: Whereas natural disasters more commonly occur in

low-income countries, almost all studies on psychological consequences have

been conducted in the Western world. In countries where resources are poor it

is of importance to know which groups should be targeted for early

intervention after a disaster. The study aims at assessing the prevalence of

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and of post-traumatic symptoms among

people afflicted by hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua and at identifying risk

factors for PTSD symptoms 6 mo following a disaster. At four primary health

care centres, 496 consecutive adult patients (aged 15-80 yrs) were interviewed

6 mo after hurricane Mitch regarding PTSD symptoms (Harvard Trauma

Questionnaire), disaster experiences and post-disaster help-seeking. PTSD

represents a serious mental health problem after a disaster. Those with

illiteracy, females and those with previous mental health problems should be

targets for early post-disaster intervention.  ========================================


Title: The prevalence and symptom rates of depression after traumatic brain

injury: A comprehensive examination. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.; Seel, Ronald T.; Gourley, Eugene

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: Brain Injury: Special Issue: ; Vol 15(7) Jul 2001, US: Taylor

& Francis; 2001, 563-576

Abstract/Review/Citation: Differing definitions of depression, limited sample

sizes, and variability in methodologies have contributed to equivocal findings

about the prevalence of depression among persons with traumatic brain injury

(TBI). The present investigation used standardized diagnostic criteria and a

large sample to identify the manifestations of depression after TBI. 722

outpatients (aged 17-82 yrs) with brain injury, referred for comprehensive

assessment at a regional Level I trauma centre, were studied. Depressive

symptoms were characterized utilizing standard DSM-IV criteria and the

Neurobehavioural Functioning Inventory. 42% of patients with brain injury met

the prerequisite number of symptoms for a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive

disorder. Fatigue (46%), frustration (41%), and poor concentration (38%) were

the most commonly cited manifestations of depression. Many patients with brain

injury are at great risk for developing depressive disorders. Future research

should focus on prognostic factors, developing protocols for identification of

high risk patients, and examining the efficacy of treatment interventions.



Title: Tracheotomy in severe TBI patients: Sequelae and relation to vocational


Author(s)/Editor(s): Keren, Ofer; Cohen, Mario; Lazar-Zweker, Irina; Groswasser, Zeev

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: Brain Injury: Special Issue: Vol 15(6) Jun 2001, US: Taylor

& Francis; 2001, 531-536

Abstract/Review/Citation: The aim of the present study was to find the influence

of performing tracheotomy on outcome of severe TBI patients. TBI patients,

many of them intubated during the very acute phase post-injury, who remain

unconscious for more than a few days, undergo tracheotomy to provide a

reliable long-term artificial airway. Tracheotomy, although being a simple

elective surgical procedure, may have a negative influence on the

rehabilitation process. Tracheotomy was performed in 69 severe TBI patients

(aged 6-65 yrs) admitted to the rehabilitation department during 3 yrs. In 7

patients, tracheotomy was performed immediately after injury due to

cranio-facial trauma, in 18 patients due to respiratory disturbances, in 42

patients after prolonged intubation, and in 2 patients due to combined

problems. 45% of patients with tracheotomy suffered from respiratory

disturbances and 8.6% from complications of tracheotomy. Longer periods of

unconsciousness and mechanical ventilation were significantly associated with

respiratory complications. However, presence of tracheotomies per se, did not

affect vocational rehabilitation. 



Title: Head injuries in men's and women's lacrosse: A 10 year analysis of the

NEISS database.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Diamond, Paul T.; Gale, Shawn D.

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: Brain Injury: Special Issue: Vol 15(6) Jun 2001, US: Taylor

& Francis; 2001, 537-544

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined differences in lacrosse-related injuries

between genders and amongst various age groups. Data on lacrosse-related

injuries maintained through the Consumer Product Safety Commission's National

Electronic Injury Surveillance System, In-depth Investigation File, and

Injuries/Potential Injuries File were analysed over 10 yrs January 1990-April

2000). A total of 1,727 cases of lacrosse-related trauma (range 4-59 yrs) were

recorded. Males accounted for 80.5% of cases. The head and face region was the

most common area injured (20.4%). Injuries to the head and face were

significantly more prevalent among females (30.1% of all injuries) than males

(18.0% of all injuries), and often resulted from contact with the ball (33.6%

of incidents). Children aged 4-11 years experienced the highest percentage of

injuries to the head and face. Closed head injuries represented 5.6% of all

lacrosse-related injuries and were slightly more prevalent among females.

Women and children lacrosse players are at risk of serious injury to the head

and face region. The use of protective head/face gear should be encouraged.



Title: Psychological trauma in adolescence: Familial disillusionment and loss of

personal identity.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mishne, Judith Marks

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychoanalysis: Special Issue: The

traumatized adolescent: Theoretical and clinical considerations.  Vol 61(1)

Mar 2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 63-83

Abstract/Review/Citation: This article presents trauma theory and

characteristics of traumatized adolescents. A case vignette demonstrates the

considerations regarding assessment and treatment strategies in clinical work

with an adolescent girl (aged 12 yrs) who suffered profound trauma, loss of

personal identity, and self-esteem due to familial disillusionment. In

contrast, the author presents the case of a female Holocaust survivor (aged 63

yrs), documenting catastrophic loss, also during adolescence. Irrespective of

the nature and magnitude of trauma, the single most outstanding predictor of

future positive adjustment and resilience was the nature of the parent-child tie. 



Title: Outcome after mild-to-moderate blunt head injury: Effects of focal

lesions and diffuse axonal injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wallesch, Claus-W.; Curio, Noreen; Kutz, Susanne; Jost, Stefan; Bartels, Claudius; Synowitz, Hans

Source/Citation: Brain Injury: Special Issue: ; Vol 15(5) May 2001, US: Taylor

& Francis; 2001, 401-412

Abstract/Review/Citation: Compared effects of focal and diffuse axonal injury in

mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). In a prospective longitudinal

study of 138 consecutive patients (aged 16-70 yrs) suffering from TBI who were

admitted to the Magdeburg University Hospital, 60 could be assessed

neuropsychologically 8-31 days after trauma and 18-45 wks later. The initial

Glasgow Coma Scale score was significantly correlated with outcome impairment

of semantic fluency and memory in the Wechsler Similarities and in 2 clinical

scales (Neurobehavioural Rating Scale and Frontal Lobe Score). Presence of

computerized tomography (CT) signs of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) corresponded

with deficits in tasks of response selection and suppression, and presence of

focal contusions corresponded with results in the clinical scales.

Improvements between 1st and 2nd assessments were pronounced in Ss with signs

of DAI. 



Title: The health benefits of writing about life goals.

Author(s)/Editor(s): King, Laura A.

Source/Citation: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin: Special Issue: ;

Vol 27(7) Jul 2001, US: Sage Publications Inc; 2001, 798-807

Abstract/Review/Citation: In a variation on J. W. Pennebaker's (1993) writing

paradigm, a sample of 81 undergraduates (aged 18-42 yrs) wrote about one of

four topics for 20 minutes each day for 4 consecutive days. Participants were

randomly assigned to write about their most traumatic life event, their best

possible future self, both of these topics, or a nonemotional control topic.

Mood was measured before and after writing and health center data for illness

were obtained with participant consent. Three weeks later, measures of

subjective well-being were obtained. Writing about life goals was

significantly less upsetting than writing about trauma and was associated with

a significant increase in subjective well-being. Five months after writing, a

significant interaction emerged such that writing about trauma, one's best

possible self, or both were associated with decreased illness compared with

controls. Results indicate that writing about self-regulatory topics can be

associated with the same health benefits as writing about trauma.  ========================================


Title: Acculturation, premigration traumatic experiences, and depression among

Vietnamese Americans.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Ngo, Dung; Tran, Thanh V.; Gibbons, Judith L.; Oliver, Joan M.

Source/Citation: Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment: Special

Issue: Vol 3(3-4) 2001, US: Haworth Press Inc; 2001, 225-242

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated the role of acculturation as a mediator

or moderator for premigration traumatic experiences (PTEs) and depression

among Vietnamese Americans. 261 Vietnamese Americans (aged 25-73 yrs)

completed questionnaires regarding level of depression, PTEs, and

acculturation. Results show that acculturation moderated the degree of

negative impact of PTEs on levels of emotional distress. Specifically, PTE

showed a much stronger effect on depression among Ss with lower levels of

acculturation. Data did not support the mediator model of acculturation in the

effects of PTEs on depression. 



Title: Patterns of recovery from trauma: The use of intra-individual analysis.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Foa, Edna B.

Source/Citation: Journal of Abnormal Psychology: Special Issue: ; Vol 110(3)

Aug 2001, US: American Psychological Assn; 2001, 392-400

Abstract/Review/Citation: Patterns of recovery from sexual and nonsexual assault

were examined. Two studies containing data from female victims of these

assaults were analyzed. In Study 1, victims (N = 101) underwent 12 weekly

assessments with measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression,

and state anxiety. In Study 2, victims (N = 108) underwent monthly assessments

on the same measures. The authors examined the effects of type of trauma and

time of peak reaction on long-term recovery using intra-individual analysis of

change. In both studies, initial and peak reactions of rape victims were more

severe than were those of nonsexual assault victims on all measures of

psychopathology. Victims with delayed peak reaction exhibited more severe

pathology at the final assessment than did victims with early peak reaction.

Results of Study 2 indicated a slower recovery rate from sexual than nonsexual

assault; in Study 1 a similar pattern of recovery emerged. The advantages of

an individual-focused, longitudinal approach to recovery from a trauma are




Title: Alexithymie et traumatisme psychique--Analyse du recit chez des sujets

souffrant d'etat de stress post-traumatique: Une etude exploratoire./

Alexithymia and psychic trauma: Analysis of the utterances of subjects

suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Chahraoui, K.; Besche, C.; Lacassagne, M.-F.

Source/Citation: Encephale: Special Issue: Vol 27(1) Jan-Feb 2001, France:

Doin Editeurs; 2001, 15-21

Abstract/Review/Citation: Studied verbalizations of 11 male and female adults

(aged 25-50 yrs) suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in

France. Ss had suffered trauma many yrs previously due to war, physical abuse,

or accident. Ss were asked to describe the traumatic events and their

immediate and late emotional events. Interview transcripts were evaluated

using qualitative and quantitative discourse analysis techniques. The results

do not reveal lack of ability to verbalize emotions but rather a dissociation

in emotional expression, with emotional words more frequently associated with

symptoms of the traumatic event than with the event itself. The results are

discussed in relation to alexithymia symptoms.  ========================================


Title: Event-related potentials in posttraumatic headache.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Alberti, Andrea; Sarchielli, Paola; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Gallai, Virgilio

Source/Citation: Headache: Special Issue: Vol 41(6) Jun 2001, US: Blackwell

Science Inc; 2001, 579-585

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed the impairment of cognitive functions

occurring in patients with posttraumatic headache as a consequence of a minor

cranial trauma in the absence of organic damage involving the central nervous

system. 25 Ss (aged 16-55 yrs) were examined between 3 and 6 mo after the

traumatic event. Ss underwent electroencephalography and brain stem auditory

evoked potentials; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to exclude

the presence of cerebral lesions. The mean latency of P300 was increased in

both central electrodes (Cz and Pz) in patients with posttraumatic syndrome

compared with controls; assuming the value of mean +-2 SD was the cutoff point

between normal and abnormal results, the P300 latency results were altered in

13 patients (52%). In the patient group, a significant correlation was

demonstrated between Zung Depression Scale score and P3 and N2 wave latencies

and between Zung Anxiety Scale scores and P3 wave latencies. Data suggest the

usefulness of the P300 event-related potential in evaluating cognitive

disturbances in patients affected by posttraumatic syndrome. Alteration of

cognitive potential in such patients, even in the absence of lesions

detectable by neuroimaging, indicate the functional impairment of specific

cerebral areas that can occur after a traumatic event.  ========================================


Title: Determinants of risk behavior for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired

immunodeficiency syndrome in people with severe mental illness.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Rosenberg , Stanley D.; Trumbetta, Susan L.; Mueser, Kim T.; Goodman, Lisa A.; Osher , Fred C.; Vidaver, Robert M.; Metzger, David S.

Source/Citation: Comprehensive Psychiatry: Special Issue: Vol 42(4) Jul-Aug

2001, US: WB Saunders & Co; 2001, 263-271

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the prevalence and correlates of human

immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk

behaviors in a large sample of severely mentally ill (SMI) patients. Risk

levels were correlated with demographic factors, diagnosis, symptom severity,

trauma history, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder

(SUD), and sexual orientation. 275 SMI clients (aged 18-60 yrs) from urban and

rural settings were assessed regarding HIV/ AIDS risk behaviors, and

hypothesized risk factors. Patients exhibited substantial levels of risky

behavior, particularly sexual risk. Correlates of increased risk included SUD,

trauma, male homosexual orientation, younger age, and symptom severity.

Structural equation modeling identified SUD and sexual orientation as the

primary determinants of both drug and sexual risk behavior. The authors

conclude that specific illness related variables appear to have less impact on

risk behavior among people with SMI than previously hypothesized. Substance

abuse prevention and treatment may be the most effective means of reducing HIV

risk in this population. 



Title: Factors influencing families' consent for donation of solid organs for


Author(s)/Editor(s): Siminoff, Laura A.; Gordon, Nahida; Hewlett, Joan; Arnold, Robert M.

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association: Special

Issue: Vol 286(1) Jul 2001, US: American Medical Assn; 2001, 71-77

Abstract/Review/Citation: To explore factors associated with the decision to

donate among families of potential solid organ donors. Data collection was

done via chart reviews, telephone interviews with health care practitioners

(HCPs) or organ procurement organization (OPO) staff, and face-to-face

interviews with family for all donor-eligible deaths at 9 trauma hospitals in

southwestern Pennsylvania and northeastern Ohio from 1994 to 1999.

Participants were family members, HCPs, and OPO staff involved in the donation

decision for 420 donor-eligible patients. The main outcome measured was

associated with family decision to donate or not donate organs for

transplantation. A total of 238 of the 420 cases led to organ donation; 182

did not. Univariate analysis revealed numerous factors associated with the

donation decision. Multivariable analysis of associated variables revealed

that family and patient sociodemographics and prior knowledge of the patients'

wishes were significantly associated with willingness to donate. Families who

discussed more topics and had more conversations about organ donation were

more likely to donate, as were families with more contact with OPO staff and

those who experienced an optimal request pattern. Socioemotional and

communication variables acted as intervening variables.  ========================================


Title: Contextualizing images in dreams: More intense after abuse and trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hartmann, Ernest; Zborowski, Michael; Rosen, Rachel; Grace, Nancy

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams:

Special Issue: Vol 11(3) Sep 2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers ; 2001,


Abstract/Review/Citation: Notes that a contextualizing image (CI) is a powerful

central image in a dream which can be seen as picturing, or providing a

picture-context for, the dominant emotion of the dreamer. Two sets of dream

data were studied. One "most recent dream" was obtained from each of

306 students (aged 18-52 yrs). The CI score measuring presence and intensity

of a contextualizing image, scored on a blind basis, was higher among Ss who

reported any abuse (physical or sexual, childhood or recent) compared to those

who reported no abuse. Second, dreams were collected from 10 Ss who had

experienced a variety of acute traumas. In 4 of the 10 cases, the CI score was

higher after trauma than before, but the difference was statistically

significant in only 1 case. The CI scores in the 10 trauma Ss overall were

found to be significantly higher than the CI scores in the overall student

group. CI scores in the trauma group were also significantly higher than in an

age and gender matched control subgroup of the students. The emotions rated as

contextualized by the dream images tended towards more negative than positive

emotions. However, this was true in the dreams of students who reported no

abuse, as well as those of students who reported abuse and the dreams of the

group who had experienced trauma.  ========================================


Title: Peritraumatic emotional "hot spots" in memory.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Grey, Nick; Holmes, Emily; Brewin, Chris R.

Source/Citation: Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy: Special Issue: ;

Vol 29(3) Jul 2001, US: Cambridge Univ Press; 2001, 367-372

Abstract/Review/Citation: Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

frequently report periods of intense emotional distress ("hot

spots") when asked to describe their traumatic experience in detail.

"Primary" emotions felt during the trauma (i.e., peri-traumatically)

are believed to consist mainly of fear, helplessness and horror. The authors

report a preliminary investigation into the emotions associated with these hot

spots. Eight 26-60 yr old patients with PTSD described a wide variety of

emotions such as anger, humiliation and guilt present at the time of the

trauma. The peri-traumatic cognitions associated with these emotions are also




Title: The journey of recovery after a rape experience.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Smith, Marilyn E.; Kelly, Lillian M.

Source/Citation: Issues in Mental Health Nursing: Special Issue: Vol 22(4)

Jun 2001, US: Taylor & Francis; 2001, 337-352

Abstract/Review/Citation: In this existential-phenomenological investigation 7

women (22-60 yrs old) were interviewed about their experiences of recovering

from rape trauma. The purpose of the study was to discover the meaning of

recovery from the perception of the victim, how recovery is experienced, and

what contributed to the growth and recovery of the woman who has been raped.

Transcribed interviews were analyzed using a hermeneutic process. The thematic

structure of a woman's recovery from rape comprises 3 main themes: reaching

out, reframing the rape, and redefining the self. These findings are important

to professionals working with women who have been raped because it is the

raped woman, rather than the clinician, who is able to define what constitutes




Title: Reconstructing trauma memories: A prospective study of

"amnesic" trauma survivors.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Harvey, Allison G.; Bryant, Richard A.

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress: Special Issue: Vol 14(2) Apr

2001, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 277-282

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated memory for trauma in 79 patients (aged

17-58 yrs) who were initially amnesic of the trauma as a result of mild

traumatic brain injury. Motor vehicle accident survivors who sustained a mild

traumatic brain injury were assessed for their memory within 1-mo posttrauma

and again at 2-yrs post-trauma. Results show that consistent with their brain

injury, all patients reported significant amnesia of their accident at initial

assessment. At 2-yrs posttrauma, 40% were able to remember their accident.

Reporting memory for the trauma was associated with shorter duration of

posttraumatic amnesia. These findings suggest that people reconstruct memories

of trauma in the absence of complete encoding of the experience. Possible

mechanisms for memory reconstruction are considered.  ========================================


Title: Child sexual abuse, peer sexual abuse, and sexual assault in adulthood: A

multi-risk model of revictimization.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Maker, Azmaira Hamid; Kemmelmeier, Markus; Peterson, Christopher

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress: Special Issue: Vol 14(2) Apr

2001, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 351-368

Abstract/Review/Citation: Explored the predictors and consequences of sexual

assault occurring after the age of 16 yrs in 131 women (aged 18-43 yrs). All

participants completed a battery of questionnaires. The results indicate that

child sexual abuse occurring before the age of 16 yrs was the only predictor

of later sexual assault among comorbid risk factors. Peer sexual abuse, number

of perpetrators, age at time of sexual abuse, and severity of sexual abuse did

not increase the risk for later sexual assault. Adult sexual assault victims

showed lower levels of mental health functioning than did survivors of child

or peer sexual abuse. A specificity model of revictimization and the

differential effects of child, peer, and adult sexual trauma on the

developmental trajectory of sexual violence and psychosocial functioning is




Title: Role of major lifetime stressors in patients' and spouses' reactions to


Author(s)/Editor(s): Silver-Aylaian, Michele; Cohen, Lawrence H.

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress: Special Issue: Vol 14(2) Apr

2001, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 405-412

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the role of number of major lifetime

stressors (e.g., rape, abuse), and the perceived resolution of those

stressors, in 54 cancer patients' (mean age 58.7 yrs) and 30 spouses' (mean

age 60.37 yrs) appraisals and current mood. It was hypothesized that a high

number of lifetime stressors, and low resolution ratings, would be associated

with more distress and more negative appraisals of the cancer. Hierarchical

regression analyses show that number of lifetime stressors was a positive

predictor of patients' ratings of the cancer's threat, and a positive

predictor of their spouses' anger. Mean resolution ratings were a significant

positive predictor of spouses' positive affect. The findings suggest that

experience with previous stressors affects an individual's reactions to




Title: Discovering memories of abuse in the light of meta-awareness.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Schooler, Jonathan W.

Source/Citation: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma: Special

Issue:  Vol 4(2) 2001, US: Haworth Press; 2001, 105-136

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discovered memories of abuse are often viewed with

marked skepticism due to the relative dearth of well-corroborated evidence for

their occurrence and the absence of a compelling theory to explain them. This

article addresses these concerns by reviewing seven recovered memory cases in

which there was independent corroborative evidence for the alleged abuse. Ss

were a 39-yr-old male, a 40-yr-old female , a 41-yr-old female, a 31-yr-old

female, a 52-yr-old female and a 28-yr-old female. These cases are considered

within the context of a theory of meta-awareness that assumes that

experiential consciousness can be distinct from meta-awareness. In this

context, discovered memories can be understood as involving changes in

individuals' meta-awareness of the abuse. In some cases, discovered memories

may involve the gaining of a different meta-awareness of the meaning of an

experience. The discovery of this new meaning may become confused with the

discovery of the memory itself, leading to the belief that the memory is just

now being accessed for the first time. In other cases, the discovery may

involve the regaining of a prior meta-awareness of the experience that either

deliberately or non-deliberately may have been avoided for some time.



Title: Variables in delayed disclosure of childhood sexual abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Somer, Eli; Szwarcberg, Sharona

Source/Citation: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry: Special Issue: Vol

71(3) Jul 2001, US: American Orthopsychiatric Assn; 2001, 332-341

Abstract/Review/Citation: In a study of 41 adult survivors (aged 16-56 yrs) of

childhood sexual abuse, the level of childhood traumatization was found to

have contributed to delayed disclosure of the abuse. Other delaying variables

included: belief in the importance of obedience to grownups, mistrust of

people, fear of social rejection, and fear of the criminal justice system.

Variables such as media attention to similar cases and experiences of personal

achievement were inversely related to the age at disclosure. Recommendations

for policy are discussed. 



Title: A model for brief assessment of attachment and its application to women

in inpatient treatment for trauma-related psychiatric disorders.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Allen, Jon G.; Huntoon, Janis; Fultz, Jim; Stein, Helen; Fonagy, Peter; Evans, Richard B.

Source/Citation: Journal of Personality Assessment: Special Issue: Vol 76(3)

Jun 2001, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc; 2001, 421-447

Abstract/Review/Citation: Adapted self-report measures of attachment style to

the psychological assessment of women in specialized inpatient treatment for

trauma-related disorders. This study employed 2 measures of adult attachment

style, the Relationship Questionnaire and the Adult Attachment Scale, as well

as the Current Attachment Relationships questionnaire, which assesses the

extent of social support in secure attachments. These measures were

administered to 99 patients and to a convenience sample of 154 women in the

community. All Ss were 18-63 yrs old. A modest correspondence was found

between the 2 attachment style measures and substantial relations between

attachment styles and range of secure attachment relationships. Ss in the

trauma sample reported insecure attachment styles and relatively few secure

attachment figures. Implications for clinical assessment are discussed. A copy

of the Current Attachment Relationships questionnaire is appended.  ========================================


Title: Trauma symptoms in bone marrow transplant survivors: The role of

nonmedical life events.

Author(s)/Editor(s): DuHamel, Katherine N.; Smith, Meredith Y.; Vickberg, Suzanne M. Johnson; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Ostroff, Jamie; Winkel, Gary; Manne, Sharon; Redd, William H.

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress: Special Issue: Vol 14(1) Jan

2001, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 95-113

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated the association of trauma-related

symptomatology and recent life events in cancer survivors following bone

marrow transplantation. 100 individuals (aged 16.77-56.25) averaging 4.4 years

post-transplant were interviewed. Participants reported their trauma-related

symptomatology regarding cancer and its treatment as well as the number and

valence of recent life events. Results indicate that the more negative life

events a person experienced, the greater his/her trauma-related

symptomatology. The association of trauma-related symptomatology with positive

events varied by the individuals' level of physical functioning. For

individuals with poorer physical functioning, higher levels of trauma-related

symptomatology were associated with a greater number of positive events,

suggesting the greater vulnerability of these individuals to any type of

change in their life. 



Title: The relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder, childhood trauma

and alexithymia in an outpatient sample.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Zlotnick, Caron; Mattia, Jill I.; Zimmerman, Mark

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress: Special Issue:  Vol 14(1) Jan

2001, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 177-188

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the strength of association between

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alexithymia relative to other

psychiatric disorders in 252 treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients (mean

age 40.56 yrs). The other aim of this study was to explore which type of

childhood trauma was associated with a greater level of adult alexithymia. All

patients completed questionnaires on alexithymia and child abuse and neglect.

The results show that PTSD and borderline personality disorder were the 2

disorders among selected psychiatric disorders to contribute independently to

a higher degree of alexithymia. Another finding was that a greater severity of

emotional neglect and physical neglect, rather than abuse, was significantly

related to higher levels of alexithymia. The findings also show that among

these variables, borderline personality disorder had the strongest

relationship to alexithymia. 



Title: Dreams in the acute aftermath of trauma and their relationship to PTSD.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mellman, Thomas A.; David, Daniella; Bustamante, Victoria; Torres, Joseph; Fins, Ana

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress: Special Issue: Vol 14(1) Jan

2001, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 241-247

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed dreams and posttraumatic stress disorder

(PTSD) in 60 injured patients (aged 18-54 yrs) after life-threatening events

and obtained follow-up assessments in 39 of these participants 6 wks later.

Ten of 21 dream reports from morning diaries were rated and described as

similar to the recent traumatic event. The participants reporting these

distressing trauma dreams had more severe concurrent PTSD symptoms than those

reporting other categories of dreams and had more severe initial and follow-up

PTSD than those without dream recall. These findings, along with preliminary

longitudinal observations relating changes in dream patterns to outcome,

suggest a relationship of dream characteristics and early adaptive vs

maladaptive patterns of processing traumatic memory.  ========================================


Title: Reports of prior exposure to potentially traumatic events and PTSD in

troops poised for deployment.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bolton, Elisa E.; Litz, Brett T.; Britt, Thomas W.; Adler, Amy; Roemer, Lizabeth

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress: Special Issue:  Vol 14(1) Jan

2001, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 249-256

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed the exposure to potentially traumatic events

(PTEs), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, and the mental

health status of 2,947 military personnel (aged 17-66 yrs) prior to deployment

on a peacekeeping mission. Data were obtained from comprehensive psychosocial

questionnaires. Results show that approximately 74% of the soldiers reported

being exposed to at least 1 traumatic event. The mean number of PTEs reported

was 2.38, most of which did not occur during previous deployments.

Approximately 6% of the participants exceeded the screening criteria for PTSD

and 43% endorsed elevated levels of psychological distress. These findings

document a high rate of exposure to PTEs in soldiers prior to their

deployment. The results also highlight the need to screen for PTEs when

attempting to isolate the rates of PTSD following a specific traumatic event

and to examine the effects of cumulative exposure to PTEs.  ========================================


Title: The Traumatic Stress Institute Belief Scale as a measure of vicarious

trauma in a national sample of clinical social workers.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Adams, Kathryn Betts; Matto, Holly C.; Harrington, Donna

Source/Citation: Families in Society: Special Issue:  Vol 82(4) Jul-Aug 2001,

US: Families International Inc; 2001, 363-371

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reports on a study of the validity of the Traumatic

Stress Institute Belief Scale (TSI)-Revision L, as a measure of vicarious

trauma in masters' level clinical social workers. The scale purports to

measure disturbed beliefs that may be caused by direct trauma, or by repeated

exposure to clients' traumatic stories. A random sample of 185 social workers

(27-74 yrs old) was surveyed. Results of correlational analyses of the TSI

score with study variables, and exploratory multiple regression analysis on

the TSI score indicate its association with younger age, more reported somatic

symptoms, lower annual salaries, lower perceived social support from friends,

and greater burnout. Results show that TSI scores were not associated with

social workers' personal trauma, amount of face-to-face client contact, or a

self-report of the intrusiveness of client material into the social workers'

lives. TSI scores appear to be measuring perceptions about self and work that,

like burnout, may relate to social workers' general outlook, not necessarily

to traumatic stress, vicarious or otherwise. Significant overlap of the TSI

with burnout scores suggests a lack of clear distinction between burnout and

vicarious trauma. 



Title: Topiramate in posttraumatic stress disorder: Preliminary clinical


Author(s)/Editor(s): Berlant, Jeffrey L.

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry: Special Issue: Understanding

posttraumatic stress disorder. ; Vol 62(Suppl17) 2001, US: Physicians

Postgraduate Press Inc; 2001, 60-63

Abstract/Review/Citation: This article reviews the effects of the novel

antiepileptic drug topiramate on 3 patients, a 40 yr old male, and two 33 and

45 year old females, meeting Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria for chronic

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In these previously treatment-refractory

patients, topiramate had a marked effect: reducing and even eliminating

trauma-related intrusive memories and nightmares and normalizing depressed

mood. Adverse events were effectively controlled with careful drug titration

and discontinuation of concomitant therapies. These findings, together with

observations in more than 30 additional patients (reported elsewhere), suggest

that further study of topiramate as a treatment for PTSD is warranted.



Title: Longitudinal study of psychiatric symptoms, disability, mortality, and

emigration among Bosnian refugees.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mollica, Richard F.; Sarajlic, Narcisa; Chernoff, Miriam; Lavelle, James; Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Massagli, Michael P.

Source/Citation: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association: Special

Issue:  Vol 286(5) Aug 2001, US: American Medical Assn; 2001, 546-554

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined whether associations between depression,

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and disability in Bosnian refugees

continue over time and are associated with mortality emigration to another

region. A 3-yr follow-up study was conducted in 1999 among adult Bosnian

refugees (aged 18-65 yrs) originally living in a refugee camp in Croatia.

Depression and PTSD diagnoses, disability, and cause of death, determined by

family interviews with review of death certificates, were assessed. In 1999,

45% of the original Ss who met the Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria for

depression, PTSD, or both, continued to have these disorders and 16% of Ss who

were asymptomatic in 1996 developed 1 or both disorders. 46% of those who

initially met disability criteria remained disabled. Social isolation, male

sex, and older age were associated with mortality. Healthier, better educated

refugees were more likely to emigrate.  ========================================


Title: Intrusion, avoidance, and psychological distress among individuals with


Author(s)/Editor(s): Manne, Sharon L.; Glassman, Marc; Du Hamel, Katherine

Source/Citation: Psychosomatic Medicine: Special Issue:  Vol 63(4) Jul-Aug

2001, US: Williams & Wilkins Co; 2001, 658-667

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the utility of Creamer's (e.g., M. Creamer et

al, 1990) cognitive processing theory of trauma in Ss undergoing treatment for

cancer. This theory proposes that avoidance is a maladaptive strategy of

dealing with intrusive thoughts about a traumatic experience. The role of

disease-related factors was also examined. 189 patients (aged 29-77 yrs)

undergoing cancer treatment completed questionnaires at 3 time points, spaced

3 mo apart. Intrusive thoughts, functional impairment, and psychological

distress were assessed. The fit of the model was tested separately for Ss with

early-stage and late-stage disease. The mediational role for avoidance was

supported among Ss with advanced stages of cancer but not for Ss with

early-stage disease. Results were inconsistent with predictions about the role

of physical impairment. Among Ss with late-stage cancer, changes in functional

impairment were not predictive of greater avoidance, and impairment had a

significant but weak effect on the change in distress. Among Ss with

early-stage cancer, a deterioration in physical impairment was associated with

increases in avoidance, and deterioration in physical impairment increased

distress. The results of this study were partially consistent with Creamer's

cognitive processing theory. 



Title: The plural "self": Group therapy with Bosnian women survivors

of war.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bolibok, Barbara

Source/Citation: Smith College Studies in Social Work: Special Issue:  Vol

71(3) Jun 2001, US: Smith College School for Social Work; 2001, 459-472

Abstract/Review/Citation: This theoretical exploration of forms of female

self-representation is based on a qualitative study of group therapy with 7

Bosnian women survivors of war (aged 40-75 yrs). It critiques the

"self-in-relation" theories of female development for their reliance

on a Western conception of selfhood. Borrowing the notion of the plural female

subject from women's theory of autobiography, it provides an account of the

Bosnian women survivors' efforts to heal from trauma that preserves their

cultural integrity ("otherness"). The empirical part of the article

analyzes group process in light of forms of female self-representation. It is

argued that the Bosnian women's experience of healing can only be understood

from the perspective of a collective experience that incorporates the

representations of both "self" and other. Although early in the

stages of recover, the Bosnian women function at the level of an integrated

and developed "communal (group) self." Such a plural conception of

self requires appropriate forms of treatment that question some underlying

assumptions of Western forms of clinical intervention.  ========================================


Title: Career development of trauma survivors: Expectations about counseling and

career maturity.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Coursol, Diane H.; Lewis, Jacqueline; Garrity, Lisa

Source/Citation: Journal of Employment Counseling: Special Issue:  Vol 38(3)

Sep 2001, US: American Counseling Assn; 2001, 134-140

Abstract/Review/Citation: Trauma survivors include individuals who have been

affected by a severe physically or psychologically threatening experience.

This study investigated the career development of trauma survivors by

comparing expectations for career counseling and level of career maturity

among 48 trauma survivors and 48 nonsurvivors (individuals who have had no

trauma experience) who participated in a program at a US midwestern social

service agency providing assistance to individuals seeking employment or

reentry into the workforce. Prior to their participation in the agency's group

career counseling program, Ss completed the Expectations About

Counseling-Brief Form and the Career Maturity Inventory. The findings indicate

that trauma survivors were more motivated and open to counseling than

nonsurvivors, but expected their counselors to be less empathic. No

significant differences were noted on career maturity. Implications for

counselor training and future research are discussed.  ========================================


Title: Risk factors for posttrauma reactions in police officers: A longitudinal


Author(s)/Editor(s): Hodgins, Gene A.; Creamer, Mark; Bell, Richard

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 189(8) Aug 2001,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001, 541-547

Abstract/Review/Citation: This prospective, longitudinal study investigated risk

factors in the development of psychological ill health and posttraumatic

stress symptoms in a sample of 223 junior police officers (aged 19-51 yrs).

Participants were assessed using a self-report methodology during training and

again 12 mo later on a range of personality, trauma exposure, and symptom

measures. Risk factors for general psychological ill health at phase 2 of the

research were found to comprise mostly stable, preexisting characteristics

such as personality style, gender, and trait dissociation. Conversely,

specific traumatic stress symptoms were more heavily influenced by experiences

in the intervening 12 mo, such as severity of incident exposure and

peritraumatic dissociation. The implications for differential intervention are




Title: Traumatic stress and ways of coping of community residents exposed to a

train disaster.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Chung, Man Cheung; Farmer, Steven; Werrett, Julie; Easthope, Yvette; Chung, Catherine

Source/Citation: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 35(4)

Aug 2001, Australia: Blackwell Science Asia; 2001, 528-534

Abstract/Review/Citation: The aims of this study were to examine the degree of

traumatic stress and the coping strategies employed by community residents who

lived on both sides of a rail track where a train collision occurred. The

hypothesis was that there would be a high level of traumatic stress and that

emotion-focused coping would be the predictor to distress. This was a

cross-sectional survey with a retrospective design in which 66 community

residents (aged 22-91 yrs), who lived between 30 and 100 feet away from the

crash site, were interviewed. The study began approximately 7 months after the

disaster. The Impact of Event Scale, the General Health Questionnaire and the

Ways of Coping Checklists were administered to the residents. The residents

were found to have experienced some intrusive thoughts and avoidance behaviour

but their mean scores were significantly lower than those of standardized

samples. Traumatic stress was predicted by both emotion-focused and

problem-focused coping strategies. Although community residents were not on

the train or related to the dead or injured in any way, they could, after

being exposed to a train disaster, manifest traumatic stress symptoms which

had long-lasting effects. 



Title: Traumatic Brain Injury Collaborative Planning Group: A protocol for

community intervention.

Author(s)/Editor(s): DePompei, Roberta; Frye, DeAnna; DuFore, Marcia; Hunt, Pamela

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation: Special Issue:  Vol

16(3) Jun 2001, US: Aspen Publishers ; 2001, 217-237

Abstract/Review/Citation: The Traumatic Brain Injury Collaborative Planning

Group was formed in December 1992 to address service gaps and to use agencies

and their programs better to meet the specialized needs of individuals with

traumatic brain injury (TBI). The group meetings served as the interagency

link between service providers for comprehensive planning and problem solving.

This article focuses on the 3 main tasks of this group: (1) interagency case

planning among participating agencies; (2) provision of training and

networking opportunities for service providers working with this population;

(3) development of creative funding mechanisms for community education and

support services to assist individuals to live and work in the community. Data

collected about the 21 persons served in the past 3 yrs is provided, and

protocol forms are shared. This model of collaboration throughout a countywide

area has been used as a basis for similar development in several other states.



Title: Factors associated with balance deficits on admission to rehabilitation

after traumatic brain injury: A multicenter analysis.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Greenwald, Brian D.; Cifu, David X.; Marwitz, Jennifer H.; Enders, Lisa J.; Brown, Allen W.; Englander, Jeffrey S.; Zafonte, Ross D.

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation: Special Issue: ; Vol

16(3) Jun 2001, US: Aspen Publishers; 2001, 238-252

Abstract/Review/Citation: Evaluate how demographics, measures of injury

severity, and acute care complications relate to sitting and standing balance

in 908 rehabilitation center patients (aged 16-85 yrs) with traumatic brain

injury (TBI). Sitting and standing balance were assessed within 72 hrs of

admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Age less than 50 yrs was associated

with normal sitting and standing balance. Measures of severity of TBI,

including admission Glasgow Coma Score, length of posttraumatic amnesia,

length of coma, and acute care length of stay were each related to impaired

sitting and standing balance ratings. Initial abnormalities in pupillary

response was associated with impairment of sitting but not standing balance.

Incidence of respiratory failure, pneumonia, soft tissue infections, and

urinary tract infections were all related to impaired sitting balance.

Presence of intracranial hemorrhages was not significantly related with either

sitting or standing balance. Intracranial compression had was significantly

related with standing but not sitting balance. A discrimmant function

analysis, which included neuroradiological findings, injury severity, and

medical complications, could not accurately predict impaired balance ratings.



Title: Quantitative PET findings in patients with posttraumatic anosmia.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Varney, Nils R.; Pinkston, James B.; Wu, Joseph C.

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation: Special Issue:  Vol

16(3) Jun 2001, US: Aspen Publishers ; 2001, 253-259

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated quantitative PET findings, particularly

from orbitofrontal cortex, in 11 head-injured outpatients with severe

posttraumatic anosmia (mean age 47 yrs). All patients had their head injuries

at least 2 yrs before involvement in the study. Quantitative evaluation of PET

findings for anosmic patients as a group showed orbitofrontal hypometabolism

compared with age-matched controls. Decreased activity was also noted in

medial temporal lobe. Activity in subcortical white matter was essentially

identical between groups. Findings strongly suggest that posttraumatic anosmia

is closely associated with hypometabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex and the

medial prefrontal cortex. The results also underscore the importance of

posttraumatic anosmia as a clinical sign of orbitofrontal damage, as has been

shown previously with neuroSPECT (single photon emission computed tomography).



Title: Flexyx neurotherapy system in the treatment of traumatic brain injury: An

initial evaluation.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Schoenberger, Nancy E.; Shiflett, Samuel C.; Esty, Mary Lee; Ochs, Len; Matheis, Robert J.

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation: Special Issue: Vol

16(3) Jun 2001, US: Aspen Publishers; 2001, 260-274

Abstract/Review/Citation: Conducted a preliminary experimental evaluation of the

potential efficacy of the Flexyx Neurotherapy System (FNS), an innovative

EEG-based biofeedback therapy used clinically in the treatment of traumatic

brain injury (TBI). 12 Ss (aged 21-53 yrs who had experienced mild to

moderately severe closed head injury at least 12 mo previously and who

reported substantial cognitive difficulties after injury which interfered with

their functioning, were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment group or a

wait-list control group. All Ss received 25 sessions of FNS treatment. Ss were

assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up with standardized

neuropsychological and mood measures. Comparison of the 2 groups on outcome

measures indicated improvement after treatment for depression, fatigue, and

other problematic symptoms, as well as for some measures of cognitive

functioning. Most Ss experienced meaningful improvement in occupational and

social functioning. On the basis of these results, FNS appears to be a

promising new therapy for TBI and merits more extensive evaluation.  ========================================


Title: Using talking lights to assist brain-injured patients with daily

inpatient therapeutic schedule.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Burke, David T.; Leeb, Steven B.; Hinman, Rodrick T.; Lupton, Elmer C.; Burke, Joel; Schneider, Jeffrey C.; Abangar, Brian; Simpson, Kristen; Mayer, Eric Auty Kanoalani

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation: Special Issue: Vol

16(3) Jun 2001, US: Aspen Publishers; 2001, 284-291

Abstract/Review/Citation: Tested the ability of 5 inpatients (aged 20-72 yrs)

with acquired brain injury to use a patient locator and minder (PLAM) system

to assist in their adherence to therapy schedules. The number of human prompts

necessary to direct a patient to, and ensure arrival at, a scheduled therapy

destination and the proportion of therapy sessions requiring no prompting was

measured both before and after the introduction of the PLAM system. With the

PLAM system, the average number of human prompts dropped by more than 50%, and

the number of sessions requiring no prompting increased from 7% to 44%.

Findings suggestion that the PLAM system is feasible and useful for patients

with acquired brain injury in assisting them with arrival at their therapy

destinations without the assistance of staff.  ========================================


Title: fMRI response during visual motion stimulation in patients with late

whiplash syndrome.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Freitag, Peter; Greenlee, M. W.; Wachter, K.; Ettlin, Th. M.; Radue, E. W.

Source/Citation: Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair: Special Issue: Vol

15(1) 2001, US: Demos Publications Inc; 2001, 31-37

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined 5 symptomatic patients with late whiplash

syndrome (aged 31-58 yrs), 5 asymptomatic patients after whiplash trauma, and

a control group of 7 volunteers without the history of trauma. Tests for

visual motion perception and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Measurements during visual motion stimulation were performed. Symptomatic

patients showed a significant reduction in their ability to perceive coherent

visual motion compared with controls, whereas the asymptomatic patients did

not show this effect. fMRI activation was similar during random dot motion in

all 3 groups, but was significantly decreased during coherent dot motion in

the symptomatic patients compared with the other 2 groups. Reduced

psychophysical motion performance and reduced fMRI responses in symptomatic

patients with late whiplash syndrome both point to a functional impairment in

cortical areas sensitive to coherent motion. Larger studies are needed to

confirm these clinical and functional imaging results to provide a possible

additional diagnostic criterion for the evaluation of patients with late

whiplash syndrome. 



Title: Regional cerebral blood flow correlated with flashback intensity in

patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Osuch, Elizabeth A.; Benson, Brenda; Geraci, Marilla; Podell, Daniel; Herscovitch, Peter; McCann, Una D.; Post, Robert M.

Source/Citation: Biological Psychiatry: Special Issue: ; Vol 50(4) Aug 2001,

US: Elsevier Science Inc; 2001, 246-253

Abstract/Review/Citation: Nuclear imaging studies have examined cerebral blood

flow (rCBF) in Ss with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using symptom

evocation paradigms. To date, no such studies have investigated rCBF as

related to Ss' reports of flashback intensity. Ss (aged 23-56 yrs) with

varying traumatic histories and longstanding PTSD were studied using positron

emission tomography with an auditory script of their traumatic event. Eight Ss

had 3 resting scans followed by their script and additional scans. Heart rate

responses as well as the presence of flashbacks and their intensity were

recorded. rCBF was correlated with flashback intensity in each S's scan.

Combined analysis of all Ss' data yielded common regions related to the

flashback experience. rCBF correlated directly with flashback intensity in the

brainstem, lingula, bilateral insula, right putamen and left hippocampal and

perihippocampal, somatosensory and cerebellar regions. Inverse correlations

with rCBF were found in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal, right fusiform and

right medial temporal cortices. This study correlated flashback intensity and

rCBF in a group of patients with chronic PTSD suggesting involvement of

brainstem, and areas associated with motor control, complex visual/spatial

cues and memory. 



Title: The Peritraumatic Distress Inventory: A proposed measure of PTSD

criterion A2.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Brunet, Alain; Weiss, Daniel S.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Best, Suzanne R.; Neylan, Thomas C.; Rogers, Cynthia; Fagan, Jeffrey; Marmar, Charles R.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry: Special Issue: Vol 158(9)

Sep 2001, US: American Psychiatric Assn; 2001, 1480-1485

Abstract/Review/Citation: Meeting criterion A2 for the diagnosis of

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) requires

that an individual have high levels of distress during or after the traumatic

event. The authors developed a 13-item self-report measure the Peritraumatic

Distress Inventory, to obtain a quantitative measure of the level of distress

experienced during and immediately after a traumatic event. The

cross-sectional study group comprised 702 police officers and 301 matched

nonpolice comparison subjects varying in ethnicity and gender who were exposed

to a wide range of critical incidents. The Peritraumatic Distress Inventory

was found to be internally consistent, with good test-retest reliability and

good convergent and divergent validity. Even after controlling for

peritraumatic dissociation and for general psychopathology, the authors found

that Peritraumatic Distress Inventory scores correlated with two measures of

posttraumatic stress symptoms. The Peritraumatic Distress Inventory holds

promise as a measure of PTSD criterion A2. Future studies should prospectively

examine the ability of the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory to predict PTSD

and its associated biological and cognitive correlates in other trauma-exposed




Title: SPRINT: A brief global assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Connor, Kathryn M.; Davidson, J. R. T.

Source/Citation: International Clinical Psychopharmacology: Special Issue: 

Vol 16(5) Sep 2001, US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001, 279-284

Abstract/Review/Citation: This report describes the reliability, validity,

treatment sensitivity, diagnostic performance and normative values for the

Short Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Rating Interview (SPRINT), a

brief, global assessment for PTSD. The SPRINT was administered to 83

outpatients (aged 18-66 yrs) with PTSD participating in a clinical trial of

PTSD and in a population survey assessing PTSD prevalence. The 8-item SPRINT

includes questions assessing the core symptoms of PTSD, as well as related

aspects of somatic malaise, stress vulnerability and functional impairment.

Validity was assessed against the MINI structured interview, the Davidson

Trauma Scale, Treatment Outcome for PTSD Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience

Scale, Sheehan Stress Vulnerability Scale, Sheehan Disability Scale and

Clinical Global Impressions of Severity and Improvement Scales. Good

test-retest reliability, internal consistency, convergent and divergent

validity were obtained. The SPRINT was responsive to symptom change over time

and correlated with comparable PTSD symptom measures. In victims of trauma, a

score of 14-17 was associated with 96% diagnostic accuracy, whereas in those

with PTSD, highest efficiency corresponded to a range of 11-13.  ========================================


Title: Early predictors of mortality in penetrating compared with closed brain


Author(s)/Editor(s): Peek-Asa, Corinne; McArthur, David; Hovda, David; Kraus, Jess

Source/Citation: Brain Injury; Vol 15(9) Sep 2001, US: Taylor & Francis;

2001, 801-810

Abstract/Review/Citation: Although brain injury incidence rates have been

decreasing, the proportion of these injuries which are penetrating has been

increasing. This study compares mortality amongst persons with penetrating and

closed brain injuries and explores the relationship of early predictors of

mortality. The study included 795 moderately or severely brain injured

individuals (aged 16-50+ yrs) identified through the UCLA Brain Injury

Research Centre. Logistic regression was used to predict mortality by Glasgow

Coma Scale (GCS) level and brain injury type, controlling for age, gender, and

presence of multiple trauma. Of the 795 individuals, 110 had penetrating and

685 had closed brain injury. Case fatality rates were higher for penetrating

than closed injuries for all GCS, gender, age, and cause of injury categories.

When controlling for GCS level at admission, age, gender, and multiple trauma,

those with penetrating injuries were 6.6 times more likely to die. As the pool

of information about survival and recovery from penetrating injuries grows,

decisions regarding clinical care and prevention activities can be more

appropriately focused. 



Title: Sexual orientation bias experiences and service needs of gay, lesbian,

bisexual, transgendered, and two-spirited American Indians.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.; Horwath, Pamela F.

Source/Citation: Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services: Issues in

Practice, Policy & Research; Vol 13(1-2) 2001, US: Haworth

Press/Harrington Park Press; 2001, 133-149

Abstract/Review/Citation: Employing both quantitative and qualitative

methodologies, this study examined: sexual orientation bias experiences among

American Indians (AIs) who were gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, or

two-spirited (GLBTT S); service provider attitudes toward AI GLBTT S; and

service barriers and needs with respect to AI GLBTT S at one AI

community-based organization. Participants were aged 18-64 yrs. Among the 14

AI GLBTT S surveyed, the percentages reporting various bias-related

experiences were comparable or greater to those reported for non-AI GLBTT S in

other studies (e.g., 36% had been physically assaulted because of their sexual

orientation). The 22 service providers surveyed revealed generally low levels

of heterosexism, which was inversely related to contact and comfort with AI

GLBTT S as well as understanding of AI GLBTTS terms. Data from 8 focus groups

(7 with service providers and 1 with AI two-spirited men) yielded four main

themes related to problems and barriers to service utilization for AI GLBTT-S

(i.e., invisibility, discrimination, trauma, and identity) as well as ideas

for community-based program planning with this population.  ========================================


Title: Association of serotonin and cortisol indices with childhood abuse in

bulimia nervosa.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Steiger, Howard; Gauvin, Lise; Israel, Mimi; Koerner, Naomi; Ng Ying Kin, N. M. K.; Paris, Joel; Young, Simon N.

Source/Citation: Archives of General Psychiatry; Vol 58(9) Sep 2001, US:

American Medical Assn; 2001, 837-843

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the association of serotonin and cortisol

indices with childhood abuse (CHA) in bulimia nervosa. The authors compared 45

bulimic women reporting CHA, bulimic women without CHA, normal eaters with a

history of abuse, and normal eaters with no abuse history on symptom,

5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and cortisol indices. All Ss were aged 18-40 yrs.

It was hypothesized that abuse would coincide with increased eating and

psychological symptoms and decreased 5-HT and cortisol activity. To assess

eating disorder (ED) symptoms, the Eating Disorder Examination interview and

the Eating Attitudes Test were used. Body mass index was computed from

self-reported height and weight. CHA was assessed with the Childhood Trauma

Interview, quantifying the nature, frequency, and duration of childhood

physical and sexual abuse. Results revealed that abuse was reported by 76% of

bulimic Ss and 52% of nonbulimic Ss. Significant bulimic and nonbulimic

differences were indicated for physical abuse, but not for sexual abuse.

Bulimic Ss reporting child abuse showed decreased plasma cortisol levels

relative to nonabused Ss who were normal eaters. Results suggest that bulimia

nervosa and CHA are both generally associated with reduced 5-HT, but CHA may

be more specifically linked to reduced cortisol levels activity.  ========================================


Title: The symptom structure of ptsd in child, adolescent, and adult survivors

of sexual assault: Where do symptoms of emotional numbing belong?

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hamblen, Jessica LiebergottPaper Number: 20010926

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(9-B) Apr 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 4984

Abstract/Review/Citation: The proposed study attempts to expand on what is known

about the symptom structure of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). One

current issue that has been raised with regard to the diagnosis of PTSD is

whether avoidance and numbing symptoms should remain grouped together into a

single symptom cluster or be separated into distinct clusters. This question

is addressed in three different age samples of female survivors of sexual

assault and sexual abuse: adults ages 18-65, adolescents ages 11-17, and

children ages 6-10. Four hypotheses are evaluated within each trauma

population, specifically: (1) numbing will comprise a distinct symptom

cluster, (2) trauma survivors will exhibit numbing symptoms, (3) numbing will

discriminate survivors with and without PTSD, and (4) numbing will occur most

often in the presence of high arousal and avoidance. General conclusions about

the cohesiveness of PTSD, especially as it pertains to numbing symptoms are

discussed. Special attention is paid to the issues of generalizability and

developmental differences in response to sexual assault and sexual abuse.



Title: 1/ Feeling trauma and its relationship to alientation, personality values

and psychological disorders among Kuwaiti youth.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Al-Sahel, Rashed; Hanora, Masri

Source/Citation: Journal of the Social Sciences; Vol 29(2) Sum 2001, Kuwait:

Academic Publication Council; 2001, 55-80

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated the effects of trauma on Kuwaiti youths'

personality, personal values and alienation. Ss were 1,337 15-40 yr olds, who

completed the Multidimensional Alienation Inventory, Personal Values Check

List, Critical Items of Personality Assessment Inventory and Trauma Feeling

Scale (constructed by the authors). Results show that the Ss who scored the

highest on the Trauma Feeling Scale also had the highest scores on the

alienation scales and psychological disorder measures, and the lowest scores

on personal positive values. These Ss are seen at higher risk for

psychological disorders. 



Title: Revictimization and information processing in women survivors of

childhood sexual abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Field, Nigel P.; Classen, Catherine; Butler, Lisa D.; Koopman, Cheryl; Zarcone, Julia; Spiegel, David

Source/Citation: Journal of Anxiety Disorders; Vol 15(5) Sep-Oct 2001, US:

Elsevier Science Inc; 2001, 459-469

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the effect of sexual revictimization on

information processing of trauma-related stimuli in 51 female child sexual

abuse (CSA) survivors (aged 22-72 yrs) diagnosed with posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD). Ss completed the Sexual Experiences Survey regarding sexual

revictimization in the last 6 mo and performed a modified emotional Stroop

task in which they named the colors of neutral words (e.g., apple), general

threat words (e.g., malignant and death), and sexual/victimization words

(e.g., penis and abuser). As predicted, the revictimized Ss (n = 16) took

significantly longer to color-name sexual/victimization words than did the

nonrevictimized Ss. Results suggest that revictimization serves to prime

preexisting "trauma" memory networks, thereby amplifying the impact

of childhood sexual trauma on selective attention toward trauma-related




Title: Trauma-related sleep disturbance and self-reported physical health

symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Clum, Gretchen A.; Nishith, Pallavi; Resick, Patricia A.

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 189(9) Sep 2001,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001, 618-622

Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of the study was to assess the

relationship between trauma-related sleep disturbance and physical health

symptoms in treatment-seeldng female rape victims. A total of 167 participants

(aged 18-70 yrs) were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

symptoms, depression, sleep disturbance, and frequency of self-reported health

symptoms. Results demonstrated that trauma-related sleep disturbance predicted

unique variance in physical health symptoms after other PTSD and depression

symptoms were controlled. The findings suggest that trauma-related sleep

disturbance is one potential factor contributing to physical health symptoms

in rape victims with PTSD. 



Title: Theta bursts, closed head injury, and partial seizure-like symptoms: A

retrospective study.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Roberts, Richard J.; Franzen, Kris; Varney, Nils R.

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: Applied Neuropsychology; Vol 8(3) Sep 2001, US: Lawrence

Erlbaum Assoc; 2001, 140-147

Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of this retrospective, chart-review study

was to provide additional information on the clinical correlates of paroxysmal

theta activity on EEG and to further examine the previously proposed relation

between episodic symptoms in the context of prior closed-head injury and theta

bursts. Compared with 30 patients (aged 19-88 yrs) with normal EEGs and 30

patients (aged 21-66 yrs) with nonparoxysmal theta-delta slowing, 38

consecutive patients (aged 21-72 yrs) with theta bursts were found to have

significantly more episodic (i.e., partial seizure-like) symptoms documented

in their medical records. History of closed-head trauma was also associated

with increased reporting of episodic symptoms across all three clinical

groups. These findings suggest that, in the presence of theta bursts on EEG,

clinicians may wish to interview systematically for episodic, partial

seizure-like phenomena, especially when paroxysmal theta activity occurs in

the context of prior closed head injury.  ========================================


Title: Thought Field Therapy-- Soothing the bad moments of Kosovo.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Johnson, Carl; Shala, Mustafe; Sejdijaj, Xhevdet; Odell, Robert; Dabishevci, Kadengjika

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychology: Special Issue: Thought field

therapy: Initial research; Vol 57(10) Oct 2001, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc;

2001, 1237-1240

Abstract/Review/Citation: Much of the ethnic Albanian majority living in Kosovo

was either massacred or tortured by invading Serbian forces in 1999, leaving

widespread posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among survivors. This study

describes the treatment of trauma in Kosovo with Thought Field Therapy (TFT)

during 5 separate trips by members of the Global Institute of Thought Field

Therapy. TFT treatment involves individual diagnosis of required sequences,

followed by precision mechanical stimulation of points on the body's energy

meridians, plus bilateral optical cortical stimulation. This treatment was

given to 105 ethnic Albanian residents of Kosovo (aged 4-78 yrs) with 249

separate traumas. Due to Albanian taboos against emotional suffering,

emotional suffering was measured in terms of the absence or presence of

unwelcome emotion and/or somatic discomfort when thinking about the moment.

Total relief was reported by 103 of the patients, and for 247 of the separate

traumas. Follow-up data (1-9 mo post-treatment) was obtained for 81 of the Ss.

These data showed enduring treatment successes and revealed no instance of




Title: Between search and research: How to find your way around? Review of the

article ' 'Thought Field Therapy-- Soothing the bad moments of Kosovo.'

Author(s)/Editor(s): Rosner, Rita

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychology: Special Issue: Thought field

therapy: Initial research; Vol 57(10) Oct 2001, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc;

2001, 1241-1244

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on C. Johnson et al's (see record

2001-18792-009) study of the treatment of trauma in Kosovo with Thought Field

Therapy (TFT). The author argues that this study provides very limited

evidence for the effectiveness of TFT. The author argues that poor study

design and diagnostic procedures applied, or rather the absence of objective

diagnostic procedures following minimum psychometric requirements, do not

allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of treatment.  ========================================


Title: Secondary traumatic stress, psychological distress, sharing of traumatic

reminisces, and marital quality among spouses of Holocaust child survivors.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

Source/Citation: Journal of Marital & Family Therapy; Vol 27(4) Oct 2001,

US: American Assn for Marriage & Family Therapy; 2001, 433-444

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the issue of secondary traumatic stress (STS)

among spouses of Holocaust survivors who were children during the World War

II. STS is defined as comprising the same components as posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD), except that the person evidencing the symptoms has not

actually been exposed to the traumatic event(s), but has developed them as a

result of caring for someone with PTSD. Participants were 90 couples (aged

44-80 yrs) who completed self-report questionnaires regarding posttraumatic

symptoms, psychological distress, and marital quality. The results showed that

about one-third of the spouses suffered from some degree of STS symptoms.

Secondary traumatic stress symptoms and psychological distress among spouses

were significantly related to hostility, anger paranoia, and interpersonal

sensitivity in the survivor, but unrelated to whether the survivor had shared

his/her reminiscences with the spouse. Female spouses were found to suffer

more distress than male spouses, especially when their partner suffered high

levels of PTSD. The results suggest that STS is, to a large degree, related to

the demands of living with a symptomatic survivor possibly more than to the

empathic element thought to be central to this syndrome.  ========================================


Title: Attributions of responsibility and adjustment after a traumatic burn


Author(s)/Editor(s): Lambert, Jennifer Joan Falconer

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(10-B) May 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 5569

Abstract/Review/Citation: A severe burn injury is a traumatic stressor

frequently associated with increased depression, anxiety, and acute stress

disorder (ASD) in hospitalized patients. Poor psychological adjustment

in-hospital has been associated with reduced compliance, greater pain reports,

and poorer long-term outcomes. One psychological variable used to predict

adjustment to traumatic events is attribution of blame. Though the adaptive

significance of self- and other-blame has been studied, the results are

equivocal. Nevertheless, these constructs hold promise for explaining

psychological outcomes following trauma. Predicted mediators of the

association between attributions of blame and psychological outcomes include

perceived control and self-esteem. This study examined self- and other-blame,

self-esteem, perceived control, and psychological adjustment (anxiety,

depression, general distress, Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic-Stress

Disorder) in hospitalized burn patients. Participants were 95 male and 47

female inpatients (mean age = 41 + 15; 40% White, 36% Black, 16% Hispanic, 8%

other), with an average body surface area burned equal to 10.4 percent.

Results indicate that in general, self-blame was associated with better

adjustment than other-blame. For example, none of the patients who blamed

themselves met criteria for ASD, compared to 23% of those who blamed others,

and 6% of the self-blame group met criteria for PTSD, compared to 37% of the

other-blame group. In addition, those with other-blame reported more days of

distress in hospital than those with self-blame. As predicted, greater

self-blame was associated with lower self-esteem than was other-blame, and

that lower self-esteem was associated with poorer adjustment in general

(independent of attributions). Perceived control was unrelated to attributions

and adjustment in this population. The results confirm some of the previous

findings regarding the adaptive value of self- and other-blame, but failed to

show the predicted mediation effect. They also point to the importance of

self-esteem as a predictor of adjustment. A challenge for the future will be

to elucidate the clinical significance of these relationships.  ========================================


Title: Recovered and continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse: A

quantitative and qualitative analysis.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Stoler, Linda Ribble

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 61(10-B) May 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 5582

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study is an in-depth examination of women who

reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Among a non-clinical sample of 26

women, ages 22-65, 11 reported they had always remembered CSA (continuous

memories) and 15 reported they had forgotten CSA for some period of their

lives (delayed memories). Participants completed a questionnaire which

included demographics, abuse history, therapy history, symptom checklists,

Family Functioning Scale, Dissociative Experiences Scale, and the Adult Sexual

Victimization Scale, and were then interviewed. Eighty-six percent of women

with delayed, and 46% with continuous, memories reported corroboration. Only

one woman reported a therapist was the first to raise the possibility of

abuse. Quantitative comparisons revealed that women with delayed memories were

younger at the time of their abuse and more closely related to their abusers.

Family functioning and dissociative experiences were not significantly

different, due to small n and high variability, but there was a trend towards

more negative but ritualistic family patterns and greater dissociative

tendencies among the women with delayed memories. In qualitative interviews,

women with delayed memories reported that they had more positive or ambivalent

relationships with their abusers, and had, as children, disclosed their abuse

less frequently than those with continuous memories; when they did disclose,

they were disbelieved. While disclosures among women with continuous memories

led to mixed reactions, at least one person had believed them. Recovered

memories were described as generally fragmented and isolated, as physical or

affective sensations, or disconnected visual flashes, qualities which did not

change with therapy. Women with continuous memories described their memories

as clear and visual, and were more able to give a sequential narrative of

abuse incidents. All women reported some distress attributed to the sexual

abuse, including suicidality, which had been more pervasive and severe for

women with delayed memories. Results expand upon previous data, and support

suggestions that young children may forget trauma. Results supported Jennifer

Freyd's betrayal trauma theory, which posits that children who are dependent

upon their abuser-betrayer are more likely to deny the abusive part of their

lives, as a strategy for emotional and physical survival.  ========================================


Title: Trauma- and grief-focused intervention for adolescents exposed to

community violence: Results of a school-based screening and group treatment


Author(s)/Editor(s): Saltzman, William R.; Pynoos, Robert S.; Layne, Christopher M.; Steinberg, Alan M.; Aisenberg, Eugene

Source/Citation: Group Dynamics: Special Issue: Group-based interventions for

trauma survivors. Vol 5(4) Dec 2001, US: Educational Publishing Foundation;

2001, 291-303

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study assessed the prevalence of trauma exposure

among middle school students and evaluated the effectiveness of a

school-based, trauma- and grief-focused group psychotherapy protocol in

treating a subset of students with severe exposure, posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD), and functional impairment. Using a stratified screening

procedure, 812 students completed a screening survey; 58 students (7.1% of

those surveyed) met criteria for group treatment, and 26 students participated

in the group. Group participation was associated with improvements in

posttraumatic stress and complicated grief symptoms and in academic

performance. Results suggest that students who are exposed to severe levels of

community violence often may not be identified or treated. The findings also

suggest that severe PTSD in adolescence may be associated with impaired school

functioning, and that a reduction in PTSD symptoms may be related to academic




Title: Factors associated with perceived quality of life many years after

traumatic brain injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Steadman-Pare, Deborah; Colantonio, Angela; Ratcliff, Graham; Chase, Susan; Vernich, Lee

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 16(4) Aug 2001, US:

Aspen Publishers; 2001, 330-342

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined factors associated with perceived quality of

life (QOL) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). 194 male and 81 female

individuals (aged 23-84 yrs) who had sustained moderate to severe TBI 8-24 yrs

previously and who were discharged from a rehabilitation hospital completed

interviews concerning current QOL. Ss completed the self-rated Quality of Life

Scale. Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that perceived mental

health, self-rated health, participation in work and leisure, gender (female

Ss rated QOL higher than did males), and the availability of emotional support

were significantly associated with QOL. The importance of designing ongoing

support programs to further reintegrate TBI survivors several years after

injury is discussed. 



Title: Long-term life quality and family needs after traumatic brain injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie A.; Miner, K. Dawn; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 16(4) Aug 2001, US:

Aspen Publishers; 2001, 374-384

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined life quality and long-term family needs of

caregivers of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBIs). 57 caregivers

(aged 19-82 yrs) of TBI patients (4 yrs after injury) completed the Virginia

Traumatic Brain Injury Family Needs Assessment Survey and quality of life

questions. Results show a diminished life quality following TBI. Health

Information and Involvement with Care family needs were most often rated as

met, whereas Instrumental Support and Professional Support needs were most

often rated as not met. 



Title: Strategies d'adaptation des victimes d'abus sexuels resilientes et

toxicomanes./ Adaptation strategies for resilient and drug-addicted victims of

sexual abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Dufour, Magali H.; Corbiere, Marc; Nadeau, Louise

Source/Citation: Revue Quebecoise de Psychologie; Vol 22(1) 2001, Canada: Revue

Quebecoise de Psychologie; 2001, 149-162

Abstract/Review/Citation: Studied coping strategies used by 20 female adult

victims of sexual abuse (aged 22-48 yrs) with a history of drug abuse and 20

female adult victims of sexual abuse (aged 22-48 yrs) with no history of drug

addiction (resilient). Data on sociodemographic variables, clinical and

psychological symptoms, and drug consumption history were obtained by

semistructured interview. The Quebec Health Index of Psychological Distress

(M. Preville, 1992), The Trauma Symptom checklist (J. Briere et M. Runtz,

1989), the Self-Esteem Scale (E. F. Vallieres et R. J. Vallerand, 1990), the

Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Interview (A. Bifulco et al, 1994) and

the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (S. Folkman and R. S. Lazarus, 1988) were

administered. Cluster analysis and other statistical tests were used to

analyze data. The results indicate that both drug-addicted and resilient Ss

used social support and positive reappraisal and planning problem-solving

techniques but that 70 percent of drug-addicted Ss used distancing and

avoidance strategies while 70 percent of resilient Ss used low avoidance

strategies. Implications for developing intervention programs are discussed.



Title: Cognitive-behavioral approaches to PTSD.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Zoellner, Lori A.; Fitzgibbons, Lee A.; Foa, Edna B.

Source/Citation: Treating psychological trauma and PTSD., New York, NY, US: The

Guilford Press; 2001, (xii, 467), 159-182

Source editor(s): Wilson, John P. (Ed); Friedman, Matthew J. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This chapter argues that several cognitive-behavioral

treatments are effective in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and

related symptoms and that prolonged exposure may have some advantage over

other programs. In an attempt to explain natural recovery and treatment

efficacy, the authors focus on 3 psychological factors that are involved in

the successful processing of a traumatic event: emotional engagement with the

trauma memory, organization and articulation of the trauma narrative, and

modification of basic core beliefs about the world and about oneself. To

illustrate the process of exposure therapy and the mechanisms involved in its

success, they present 2 case examples, one describing recovery and the other

failure to benefit from treatment. These cases also demonstrate the complexity

and intricacy inherent in delivering this seemingly straightforward treatment




Title: Group psychotherapy for PTSD.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Foy, David W.; Schnurr, Paula P.; Weiss, Daniel S.; Wattenberg, Melissa S.; Glynn, Shirley M.; Marmar, Charles R.; Gusman, Fred D.

Source/Citation: Treating psychological trauma and PTSD., New York, NY, US: The

Guilford Press; 2001, (xii, 467), 183-202

Source editor(s): Wilson, John P. (Ed); Friedman, Matthew J. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: In this chapter the authors present an overview of 3

types of group therapy--supportive, psychodynamic, and

cognitive-behavioral--currently used in the treatment of posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD). Preliminarily, the historical development of group treatment

for PTSD is briefly reviewed, including several advantages offered by group

therapy, followed by an overview of evidence providing empirical support for

group treatment. Next, for each type of group therapy the treatment rationale

and description of procedures are presented, along with a case example.

Considerations for offering group therapy as a primary mode of therapy are

enumerated. Finally, the authors discuss matching criteria for use in

selecting the type of group intervention that best fits a particular client,

and areas of necessary further investigation are identified.  ========================================


Title: Treatment of persons with complex PTSD and other trauma-related

disruptions of the self.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Pearlman, Laurie Anne

Source/Citation: Treating psychological trauma and PTSD., New York, NY, US: The

Guilford Press; 2001, (xii, 467), 205-236

Source editor(s): Wilson, John P. (Ed); Friedman, Matthew J. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses complex posttraumatic stress disorder

(PTSD), the sequelae of early childhood abuse and neglect. Complex PTSD

includes dissociation, relationship difficulties, revictimization,

somatization, affect dysregulation, and disruptions of identity. The author

provides a theoretical framework for understanding the clinical observations

that are collectively termed complex PTSD. An approach to treatment has grown

out of constructivist self development theory, which the author describes as

it applies to the adaptations. She then applies that approach to case examples

of 3 survivors of childhood trauma. In the process, she delineates some

hypothetical mechanisms of change in psychotherapies with survivors of severe

and early trauma. The author's intent is that the chapter will provide a

clinical and theoretical basis for future research into these mechanisms and

treatment approaches. 



Title: Cross-cultural treatment of PTSD.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kinzie, J. David

Source/Citation: Treating psychological trauma and PTSD., New York, NY, US: The

Guilford Press; 2001, (xii, 467), 255-277

Source editor(s): Wilson, John P. (Ed); Friedman, Matthew J. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This chapter discusses the challenges and complexities

of treating patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from other

cultures. The American clinician is likely to encounter 3 broad types of PTSD

patient from other cultures or minorities: the minority American citizen, the

foreign refugee, and the asylum seeker, who is often an illegal immigrant. The

treatment of psychiatric disorders across cultures begins with the complex

issue of assessment. The complexity develops because each culture can define

normality and psychopathology differently from other cultures. Guidelines are

suggested for the optimal cross-cultural care of patients with PTSD. It is

suggested that these guidelines are often impossible to put totally into

practice and should represent an ideal which must be adjusted as the clinical

setting, practical matters, finances, availability of interpreters, medical

services, and legal pressures dictate. Since optimal treatment requires a

fully developed program, the author describes that first, followed by

individual therapeutic considerations.  ========================================


Title: Case history analysis of the treatments for PTSD: Lessons learned.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lindy, Jacob D.; Wilson, John P.; Friedman, Matthew J.

Source/Citation: Treating psychological trauma and PTSD., New York, NY, US: The

Guilford Press; 2001, (xii, 467), 385-408

Source editor(s): Wilson, John P. (Ed); Friedman, Matthew J. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: The book from which this

chapter comes casts a broad net over the field of trauma therapy. In this

chapter, the authors attempt a synthesis through the more narrow view of the

27 case histories in this book. These case histories provide illustrations

which teach how practitioners of the differing core approaches think about

their patients and what it is in their approach that works. The authors

discuss what is unique about each method, how the interventions of the

different modes work, how entry into the complex world of posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD) through one portal leads the patient and clinician to discover

other aspects of the disorder, and how the different approaches work together,

either adjunctively or sequentially. In the concluding section of the chapter

the authors look at the same case histories to examine common underlying

features among the core approaches, discussing whether there are similar ways

in which patients feel improved, and whether there are common ways in which

clinicians work. 



Title: Work absence as a function of a national traumatic event: The case of

Prime Minister Rabin's assassination.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kushnir, Talma; Fried, Yitzhak; Malkinson, Ruth

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: Work & Stress; Vol 15(3) 2001, US: Taylor & Francis;

2001, 265-273

Abstract/Review/Citation: Most research on absenteeism has focused on the

effects of individual and work-related factors, to the exclusion of the

effects of societal and political events external to the individual and his or

her specific work conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the

relationship between the emotional reaction to the assassination of Prime

Minister Rabin in Israel and work absenteeism during the period following the

assassination. It was hypothesized that: emotional reaction is positively

related to absenteeism; this relationship is stronger among female employees

than among male employees; and this relationship is stronger for individuals

who are pessimistic about the future as opposed to those who are optimistic.

These hypotheses were supported by data collected from a random sample of 199

working adults (aged 22-65 yrs). 



Title: What does it take to collaborate with families affected by brain injury?

A preliminary model.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Sohlberg, McKay Moore; McLaughlin, Karen A.; Todis, Bonnie; Larsen, Jennifer; Glang, Ann

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 16(5) Oct 2001, US:

Aspen Publishers; 2001, 498-511

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reports on a preliminary model for collaboration

procedures for rehabilitation professionals working in clinical and

educational settings with individuals with brain injury and their families.

Collaboration is a process in which family expertise is acknowledged and used

to direct selection, implementation, and evaluation of treatment plans. The

authors conducted a 2-yr, qualitative study with 8 families of injured

individuals who were 16 to 50 yrs old. This led to the development of this

accessible model and a prescriptive manual for applying collaborative

principles to practice. The model divided the therapeutic process into 3

overlapping phases (the initial interview, the identification and

prioritization of goals, and monitoring change and revisiting goals). Although

collaboration has been frequently considered an ideal relationship between

professionals and families, many rehabilitation and education professionals

have traditionally emphasized the role of the professional as responsible for

client change. The collaborative model here does not introduce new concepts,

but the data reinforces existing reports that collaboration with clients'

families improves treatment outcomes, and the model delineates practice

procedures. An Appendix includes an interview guide.  ========================================


Title: Women's views on breast cancer risk and screening mammography: A

qualitative interview study.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Silverman, E.; Woloshin, S.; Schwartz, L. M.; Byram, S. J.; Welch, H. G.; Fischhoff, B.

Source/Citation: Medical Decision Making; Vol 21(3) May-Jun 2001, US: Sage

Science Press; 2001, 231-240

Abstract/Review/Citation: The authors sought to learn how women (aged 40-70+

yrs) view breast cancer (BC), their personal risk of BC, and how screening

mammography affects that risk. 41 open-ended semistructured interviews with Ss

selected by quota sampling to ensure a wide range in demographics of the Ss

were conducted. Almost all Ss viewed BC as a uniformly progressive disease

that begins in a silent curable form and, unless treated early, invariably

grows, spreads, and kills. Some women felt that any abnormality found must be

treated, even if it was not malignant. None had heard of potentially

nonprogressive cancers, and when informed, most felt that the uncertain

prognosis of such lesions reinforced the need to find and treat disease as

soon as possible. Ss expressed a wide range of views about their personal risk

of BC. Although some saw BC as a central threat to their health, many others

cited heart disease, other cancers, violence, and trauma as greater concerns.

Most recognized the importance of "uncontrollable" factors for BC

such as age, sex, family history, and genetics. However, other

"controllable" factors with little or no demonstrated link to BC

were given equal or greater prominence suggesting that many women feel

considerable personal responsibility for their level of BC risk.  ========================================


Title: The effect of dissociation at encoding on intrusive memories for a

stressful film.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Brewin, Chris R.; Saunders, Julie

Source/Citation: British Journal of Medical Psychology; Vol 74(4) Dec 2001,

England: British Psychological Society; 2001, 467-472

Abstract/Review/Citation: The occurrence of memory intrusions after a trauma has

been linked to peri-traumatic dissociation. In this study, the authors

attempted to induce dissociation experimentally and investigate the impact on

intrusive memories. A total of 39 undergraduates (aged 18-40 yrs) were

randomly assigned to watch a stressful film under standard conditions or under

a dual-task condition in which they simultaneously performed a tapping task.

They rated their distress post-film and again after 2 weeks, and kept a diary

of intrusive memories. Contrary to prediction, there were no differences in

levels of distress or explicit memory between the two conditions, and the

dual-task condition was followed by significantly fewer memory intrusions.

Dual-task conditions may not provide a good analogue to naturally occurring

dissociation. The possible preventive effects of the tapping task are

discussed in terms of the dual-representation theory of post-traumatic stress




Title: Applying psychoanalysis to couple therapy: The treatment of a couple with

sexualized persecutory internal objects resulting from trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Scharff, David E.

Source/Citation: Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies; Vol 3(4) Oct 2001,

US: Kluwer Academic; 2001, 325-351

Abstract/Review/Citation: The application of psychoanalytic theory and technique

to the treatment of couples has been relatively overlooked despite the long

history of concern by psychoanalysts with the role of marriage in individual

development and suffering. This paper uses an example of marital and sex

therapy to illustrate the application of psychoanalytic object relations

theory to couple therapy, and describes the way that in-depth treatment of the

couple's persecutory object relations that follow severe trauma can be

effectively conducted. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of issues

of shame and guilt in psychoanalytic theory and their relevance to this




Title: The Crisis Support Scale: Psychometric qualities and further validation.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Elklit, Ask; Pedersen, Susanne Schmidt; Jind, Lise

Source/Citation: Personality & Individual Differences; Vol 31(8) Dec 2001,

England: Elsevier Science; 2001, 1291-1302

Abstract/Review/Citation: The objective of the present study was to provide a

further validation of the Crisis Support Scale, which is a short scale for

measuring social support after a crisis has occurred. The data from eleven

trauma studies of 4,213 Ss (age 12-80 yrs) were used to investigate the

psychometric properties of the scale and the differences that emerge due to

age, gender, and type of trauma. The scale appears to be very robust. Some

aspects of crisis support seem to decrease as time goes by while others

increase. Women survivors report less support than men both right after the

trauma and later on. The younger survivors tend to report the least support in

the acute phase although this picture is reversed later on. The various types

of trauma have different item profiles, which supports the concurrent validity

of the scale. 



Title: Psychological distress reported by patients undergoing limb

reconstruction surgery: Implications for psychological interventions.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Scott, Shonagh R. H.; Kent, Gerry; Rowlands, Alison

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings; Vol 8(4)

Dec 2001, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 301-305

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated levels of psychological distress in

adults undergoing limb reconstruction as a result of traumatic injury, to

examine which variables could account for any variations in distress during

and after treatment, and to ascertain the potential relevance of psychological

interventions. A cross-sectional sample of 107 patients (69 men and 38 women,

aged 17-90 yrs) completed measures of psychological distress, posttraumatic

symptomatology, coping, social support, pain, and disability. Self-reported

levels of psychological distress and posttraumatic symptoms were high but did

not tend to vary across stage of treatment, suggesting that distress is not

solely attributable to limb reconstruction treatment per se but to other

factors. Both medical variables and psychological variables accounted for a

significant percentage of the variance in scores. These results suggest that

both medical and psychological interventions have potential for reducing

distress and increasing well-being in an orthopaedic population who are

experiencing high levels of emotional distress.  ========================================


Title: Psychometric study of a brief screen for PTSD: Assessing the impact of

multiple traumatic events.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Carlson, Eve B.

Source/Citation: Assessment; Vol 8(4) Dec 2001, US: Psychological Assessment

Resources Inc; 2001, 431-441

Abstract/Review/Citation: Notes the most measures of posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD) symptoms are limited in that they focus on a single traumatic

event and cannot be used to assess symptoms in persons who report no traumatic

events. The utility of the brief PTSD measures that do not key to a single

trauma is limited by lengthiness and high reading levels. The Screen for

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS) is a brief, self-report screening

instrument for PTSD symptoms that overcomes these limitations by assessing

PTSD symptoms using a low reading level and without keying them to a specific

traumatic event. This article describes the development of the SPTSS and its

psychometric properties in a sample 136 psychiatric inpatients (aged 30-45

yrs). Ss completed the SPTSS, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, a 10-item

Anxiety subscale from the Symptoms Checklist-90-revised, and structured

interviews to measure PTSD and violent physical and sexual abuse experiences.

Results indicate that the SPTSS showed good internal consistency, a high

sensitivity rate, and a moderate specificity rate. The concurrent and

construct validity of the SPTSS were supported by strong correlations with

symptom and trauma experience measures and by comparisons of SPTSS scores of

groups with different trauma histories.  ========================================


Title: Interaction between family violence and mental retardation.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Strickler, Heidi L.

Source/Citation: Mental Retardation; Vol 39(6) Dec 2001, US: American Assn on

Mental Retardation; 2001, 461-471

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reviews the relationship between family violence and

mental retardation and discusses the characteristics that make individuals

with mental retardation more vulnerable to family violence in the areas of

child, adult, and sexual abuse. The author provides a case study of a

40-yr-old woman with moderate mental retardation, who has experienced various

forms of abuse as both a child and an adult, to illustrate themes found in

relevant literature. She also explores common psychological effects of this

trauma followed by implications for practice. The author concludes that

because family violence and mental retardation are both societal as well as

personal issues, intervention and prevention efforts must occur at both a

direct service level and a community/macro service level. With such

intervention and prevention efforts, persons with mental retardation will

receive superior service when dealing with issues related to family violence.



Title: The effects of group intervention for battered women in Korea.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kim, Sunah; Kim, Joohyung

Source/Citation: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing; Vol 15(6) Dec 2001, US: WB

Saunders; 2001, 257-264

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study developed a group intervention model

appropriate for battered women in Korea and tested its effectiveness. The

development of group intervention was based on A. R. Roberts and S. Burman's

(1998) Seven-Stage Crisis Intervention Model. 30 Ss (aged 23-43 yrs)

participated in the experimental group, and 30 Ss (aged 28-52 yrs) in the

control group. At the time of posttreatment data collection, there were 16 Ss

in the experimental group and 17 controls. The sessions in the group

intervention were formatted to stress the following topics: assess trauma,

identify major problems, deal with feelings, understand self, identify

batterer's characteristics, improve stress management strategies, develop

action plans, and promote empowerment. The major finding was that the trait

anxiety scores of the 16 battered women in the experimental group

significantly decreased after the intervention. The change in levels of state

anxiety, self-esteem, and depression in the experimental group were not

significantly different from those of the 17 subjects in the control group.



Title: Childhood trauma and adult somatic preoccupation by body area among women

in an internal medicine setting: A pilot study.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Sansone, Randy A.; Gaither, George A.; Sansone, Lori A.

Source/Citation: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine; Vol 31(2)

2001, US: Baywood Publishing; 2001, 147-154

Abstract/Review/Citation: Explored the relationship between 3 types of abuse in

childhood and their relationship to somatic preoccupation, in general and by

body area, in adulthood. 85 women aged 19-55 yrs in an internal medicine

clinic completed self-report measures of childhood sexual, physical, and

emotional abuse as well as the Bradford Somatic Inventory. Using simple

correlations, all 3 types of abuse were positively related to current somatic

preoccupation. Using multiple regression analysis, the researchers analyzed

education and age and the 3 forms of childhood abuse; only the demographic

variables and sexual abuse were found to be uniquely predictive of somatic

preoccupation. To determine the relationship between childhood abuse and

somatic symptoms based on body area (head, chest, stomach, throat) and

fatigue, a series of multiple regression analyses were performed. The chest

and throat areas were significant, but no abuse variable was uniquely

predictive. It is concluded that, among females in adulthood, all studied

forms of abuse in childhood appear to contribute to general somatic

preoccupation, as well as specific somatic symptoms in the chest and throat

areas. Sexual abuse, specifically, is a unique predictor for general somatic

preoccupation, but not necessarily for specific body areas.  ========================================


Title: Paroxetine in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder:

Results of a placebo-controlled, flexible-dosage trial.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Tucker, Phebe; Zaninelli, Rocco; Yehuda, Rachel; Ruggiero, Lee; Dillingham, Kerry; Pitts, Cornelius D.

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry; Vol 62(11) Nov 2001, US:

Physicians Postgraduate Press; 2001, 860-868

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated the efficacy and safety of paroxetine in

outpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). 307 18-78 yr olds with

PTSD and had baseline scores of 50 or greater on the Clinician Administered

PTSD Scale (CAPS-2) were randomly assigned to treatment with paroxetine (PTG)

or placebo (PG) for 12 wks. The primary efficacy variables were the change

from baseline to the 12-wk endpoint in the CAPS-2 total score and the

proportion of Ss on the Clinical Global Impressions-Global Improvement scale.

Additional key outcome measures were the change from baseline scores of the

CAPS-2 and in the total scores of the Treatment Outcome PTSD Scale and the

patient-rated Davidson Trauma Scale and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). The

proportion of Ss achieving response and remission was also determined. At week

12 the PTG showed greater reduction of PTSD symptoms on both of the primary

and all of the secondary outcome measures. Greater improvement on the CAPS-2

total score was observed for the PTG from week 4, and greater proportions of

PTG achieved response and remission by week 12. Functional improvement at the

study endpoint was greater in the PTG in all 3 domains of the SDS. The

frequency and type of adverse events recorded for the PTG corresponded to the

known safety profile of this medication.  ========================================


Title: Predictors of normal and traumatic grief for parents who have experienced

the death of a child.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Keesee, Nancy Jordan

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 62(2-B) Aug 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

2001, 1086

Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe

the bereavement process of mothers and fathers who have lost children. This

study investigated parental bereavement by collecting pertinent demographic

data in conjunction with two quantitative measures; Core Bereavement Items

(CBI) and Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG). Data were also collected on

self-reported sense making, benefit finding, and change in identity.

Theoretically, the study employed a constructivist model for understanding

parental bereavement and the death of a child. It investigated variation in

the intensity of parental grief experienced over the loss of a child, as

measured by the CBI and ICG, that can be explained individually and jointly by

the presence of surviving children, elapsed time since death, and type of

death. This study also investigated any increase in the amount of explained

variation in the intensity of parental grief over the loss of a child, beyond

the variation explained by the presence of surviving children, elapsed time

since death and type of death that could be accounted for by self-reported

sense making, benefit finding and change in identity. Lastly, this study

investigated the correlation of the CBI to the ICG using responses of bereaved

parents following the loss of a child. Participants included 128 mothers and

29 fathers between the ages of 25 and 77 who were from 32 states and 3 foreign

countries. Results indicated that while elapsed time since death significantly

influenced CBI scores and ICG scores, it appeared to have the most effect in

light of the amount of sense making reported. Also, a strong correlation was

found when comparing the ICG and CBI scores of bereaved parents. Significant

and non-significant findings are discussed in light of the current literature

and with regard to research and clinical application in the field of

counseling psychology. 



Title: Sexual trauma and personality: Developmental vulnerability and additive


Author(s)/Editor(s): Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.; Thompson, Kevin; Smyth, Joshua M.; Redlin, Jennifer; Jones-Paxton, Maisley

Source/Citation: Journal of Personality Disorders; Vol 15(6) Dec 2001, US:

Guilford Publications; 2001, 496-504

Abstract/Review/Citation: Two types of sexual trauma, sexual abuse in childhood

and rape in adulthood, were investigated in terms of possible effects on

personality. Four groups of participants (aged 20-55 yrs) were studied: 26

women who had experienced sexual abuse in childhood, 21 women who had

experienced rape as adults, 25 women who had experienced both of these sexual

traumas, and a control group of 25 women who had experienced no sexual trauma.

Personality functioning was assessed using the Dimensional Assessment of

Personality Pathology. Groups who had experienced childhood sexual abuse

displayed the highest degree of personality disturbance; however, the additive

effects of repeated sexual trauma were limited. These findings may reflect the

outcome of specific adversity in childhood on the psychobiological constructs

underlying personality. 



Title: Dissociation and sexual trauma in prostitutes: Variability of responses.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Cooper, Barry S.; Kennedy, M. Alexis; Yuille, John C.

Source/Citation: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation; Vol 2(2) 2001, US:

Haworth Medical Press; 2001, 27-36

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the relation between a history of sexual

assaults (both prior to and during involvement in prostitution) and

dissociative experiences in sex trade workers. It was hypothesized that

results would support the findings of previous research showing a correlation

between dissociation and childhood sexual abuse. In particular, a significant

relationship was expected between adult dissociative experiences and the

number of the prostitute's reported past sexual assault experiences. As part

of a larger exploratory study investigating the impact of trauma on memory, 33

female prostitutes (aged 19-59 yrs) were interviewed regarding the frequency

of their past sexual assault experiences (both before and during their

involvement in prostitution) and current dissociative experiences. Extreme

variability was evident regarding the Ss' dissociative experiences and their

reported number of sexual assaults. Implications concerning the relation

between a history of earlier trauma and adult dissociation are discussed.



Title: Symptoms of acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder

following exposure to disastrous flooding.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Waelde, Lynn C.; Koopman, Cheryl; Rierdan, Jill; Spiegel, David

Source/Citation: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation; Vol 2(2) 2001, US:

Haworth Medical Press; 2001, 37-52

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) and

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following exposure to threat and loss

during a major flood. 131 Ss (aged 18-73 yrs) from 2 towns that were among the

most devastated completed an initial survey from 1-3 mo post-flood assessing

ASD symptoms and exposure to flood-related threat and losses; 74 of these Ss

completed a 1-yr follow-up assessing PTSD symptoms. Results show that threat

and loss were both significantly related to ASD symptoms. Exposure to losses

and ASD symptoms, but not threat, predicted the development of PTSD symptoms.

These results suggest that stressor characteristics, such as loss and threat,

may be differentially related to shorter and longer-term trauma responses.

These results extend previous research by showing that ASD symptoms predict

those of PTSD among disaster survivors and that stressor characteristics

together with acute symptoms predict long-term distress.  ========================================


Title: Validation of the Hebrew version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale

(H-DES) in Israel.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Somer, Eli; Dolgin, Michael; Saadon, Meir

Source/Citation: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation; Vol 2(2) 2001, US:

Haworth Medical Press; 2001, 53-65

Abstract/Review/Citation: Explored the validity of the concept of dissociation

as measured by a Hebrew version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (H-DES)

in Israel. Exp 1 examined the reliability and validity of the H-DES by

assessing 340 patients (aged 15-70 yrs) consecutively admitted to an

outpatient clinic and 290 non-clinical Ss (aged 16-52 yrs) sampled from

university students and faculty. Exp 2 explored the construct validity of the

concept of dissociation by studying relationships between reported past

traumatization and current levels of dissociation among a different cohort of

70 female outpatients (aged 16-55 yrs). Results show that the H-DES has good

test-retest and split-half reliability in clinical and non-clinical Ss, and is

internally consistent. Its convergent validity with the MMPI-2 Phillips

Dissociation Scale is good, and it has good criterion-related validity with

Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) dissociative disorder diagnoses. It is concluded

that the concept of dissociation as measured in Israel by the H--DES has high

reliability and validity. These findings, along with studies in North America,

support dissociation as a valid psychological construct with widespread

cross-cultural applicability. This study contradicts claims that dissociation

is merely a passing North American professional fashion.  ========================================


Title: Imaginal confrontation for resolving child abuse issues.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Paivio, Sandra C.; Hall, Imogen E.; Holowaty, Karen A. M.; Jellis, Jerry B.; Tran, Nancy

Source/Citation: Psychotherapy Research; Vol 11(4) Win 2001, US: Oxford Univ

Press; 2001, 433-453

Abstract/Review/Citation: This process-outcome study is a follow-up to an

outcome study evaluating emotion-focused therapy for adult survivors of

childhood abuse. The contributions of the therapeutic alliance, initial

engagement in the primary imaginal confrontation intervention (IC), overall

dosage of IC (Quality X Frequency), and client predisposing variables were

examined with 37 Ss (aged 19-72 yrs). The Levels of Engagement Scale (LES) was

developed to measure the quality of client engagement in IC. LES ratings were

stable across therapy, but early engagement was only marginally related to

subsequent dosage of IC. A strong alliance predicted improvements in

self-esteem and resolution of abuse issues; early engagement in IC predicted

abuse resolution; dosage additionally contributed to reduced global and

trauma-specific symptomatology and interpersonal problems. Finally, severity

of childhood trauma and current trauma symptoms were unrelated to therapy

processes but were linked with poorer outcome on some dimensions.  ========================================


Title: Contextual treatment of dissociative identity disorder: Three case


Author(s)/Editor(s): Gold, Steven N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Rea, Bayard D.; Weiss, Donna; Masino, Theodore; Morris, Staci Leon; McIninch, Jessica

Source/Citation: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation; Vol 2(4) 2001, US:

Haworth Medical Press; 2001, 5-36

Abstract/Review/Citation: Evidence for the effectiveness of contextual therapy,

an approach for treating adult survivors of prolonged child abuse, is provided

via case studies of 3 women (aged 48, 54, and 48 yrs old) with Dissociative

Identity Disorder (DID). The primary focus of this treatment approach is on

developing capacities for feeling and functioning better in the present,

rather than on extensive exploration and processing of the client's trauma

history or, in the case of DID, of identity fragments. Treatment of the 3

cases presented ranged from 8 mo to 2 and one-half yrs' duration, and

culminated in very positive outcomes. The women's reports of achievements,

such as obtaining and maintaining gainful employment, greater

self-sufficiency, and the establishment of more intimate and gratifying

relationships, indicated marked improvements in daily functioning. Objective

test data obtained at admission and discharge, and in 1 case, at follow-up,

documented substantial reductions in dissociative, posttraumatic stress,

depressive, and other symptoms. 



Title: Comparing the social service utilization, exposure to violence, and

trauma symptomology of domestic violence female "victims" and female


Author(s)/Editor(s): Abel, Eileen Mazur

Source/Citation: Journal of Family Violence; Vol 16(4) Dec 2001, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 401-420

Abstract/Review/Citation: Although some authors have suggested that women

"batterers" may really be self-defending victims, to date, no research has been initiated to empirically support this assertion. This paper describes the design and outcomes of a research project that investigated the similarities and differences between 19-67 yr old women adjudicated as domestic violence "batterers" and those identified as domestic

violence "victims." Findings indicated group similarities in the areas of exposure to violence and social service utilization. Although both groups reported high levels of trauma symptomology, "victim" scores were significantly higher. 



Title: Preliminary explorations of the effects of prior trauma and loss on risk

for psychiatric disorders in recently widowed people.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Silverman, Gabriel K.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Prigerson, Holly G.

Source/Citation: Israel Journal of Psychiatry & Related Sciences; Vol

38(3-4) 2001, Israel: Gefen Publishing House; 2001, 202-215

Abstract/Review/Citation: Compared the relative influence of childhood and

adulthood adversities on current diagnoses of major depressive episode (MDE),

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and traumatic grief (TG) among recently

widowed adults. 85 widowed individuals (aged 28-81 yrs) completed interviews

2-34 mo after experiencing spouse loss concerning the childhood adversities of

parental death, abuse, and death of a sibling, and the prior adulthood

adversities of death of a child, nonbereavement traumatic event, and death of

a sibling. Results show that childhood abuse and death of a parent were

significantly associated with TG and, secondarily, MDE. Nonbereavement

traumatic event and death of a child during adulthood were only significantly

associated with PTSD. Childhood adversities remained predictive even after

controlling for psychiatric disorders comorbidity. It is concluded that there

is a vulnerability to TG rooted in childhood experiences explicitly, with more

recent traumas having a stronger influence on PTSD secondary to widowhood.



Title: Coping with tangible and intangible traumatic losses in prisoners of war.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Neria, Yuval

Source/Citation: Israel Journal of Psychiatry & Related Sciences; Vol

38(3-4) 2001, Israel: Gefen Publishing House; 2001, 216-225

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the effects of coping, precaptivity traumatic

loss, and social support at homecoming on short and long-term impact of

tangible and intangible traumatic losses of war captivity. The cases of 2 male

prisoners of war (aged 46 and 48 yrs) who were imprisoned during the 1973 Yom

Kippur War suggest that the use of active coping enabled good adjustment. In

contrast, emotion-focused, passive coping strategies, precaptivity unresolved

loss, and perceived negative social support at homecoming led to an enduring

and painful psychological toll. 



Title: Life satisfaction after traumatic brain injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Corrigan, John D.; Bogner, Jennifer A.; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Clinchot, Daniel; Fugate, Lisa

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 16(6) Dec 2001, US:

Aspen Publishers; 2001, 543-555

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated correlates of life satisfaction after

traumatic brain injury (TBI). 218 15-86 yr old patients in a specialized

inpatient TBI rehabilitation unit were interviewed 1 and/or 2 yrs after injury

(112 interviewed both years, 58 at 1 yr only, 48 at 2 yrs only). The main

outcome measure was the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Results show that

stepwise multiple regressions accounted for statistically significant, but

small, proportions of variance. Not having a preinjury history of substance

abuse and having gainful employment at the time of follow-up were associated

with higher life satisfaction both 1 and 2 yrs after injury. Motor

independence at rehabilitation discharge was also associated at 1 yr. Current

social integration and the absence of depressed mood were associated at 2 yrs.

Life satisfaction was relatively stable between years. Change that did occur

was associated with marital status and depressed mood 2 yrs after injury. It

is concluded that life satisfaction after TBI seems to be related to attaining

healthy and productive lifestyles. 



Title: Sleep difficulties and alcohol use motives in female rape victims with

posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Nishith, Pallavi; Resick, Patricia A.; Mueser, Kim T.

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 14(3) Jul 2001, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 469-479

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed the relationship between sleep difficulties

and drinking motives in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder

(PTSD). 74 participants (aged 18-72 yrs) were assessed for PTSD symptoms,

depression, sleep difficulties, and drinking motives. Results demonstrate that

neither PTSD symptoms nor depression are related to any motives for using

alcohol. On the other hand, after controlling for education, sleep

difficulties are significantly related to drinking motives for coping with

negative affect, but not pleasure enhancement or socialization. The findings

suggest that sleep difficulties may be an important factor contributing to

alcohol use in rape victims with PTSD.



Title: The effect of relocation after a natural disaster.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Najarian, Louis M.; Goenjian, Armen K.; Pelcovitz, David; Mandel, Francine; Najarian, Berj

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 14(3) Jul 2001, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 511-526

Abstract/Review/Citation: 25 women remaining in a city devastated by an

earthquake were compared with 24 relocated survivors and 25 comparison women

(mean age range 36-38 yrs). The women were administered a structured

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) interview, the Hamilton Depression Scale,

and Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R). The women in both exposed groups showed

significantly more symptoms of avoidance, arousal, and total PTSD than the

comparison group. The women in the relocated city had significantly higher

depression scores than the women in the earthquake city. On the SCL-90-R,

relocated women were most symptomatic and comparison group women were least

symptomatic. Relocation after a disaster appears to be associated more with

risk for depression than with PTSD in situations where recovery is delayed

following the trauma. 



Title: Major depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder comorbidity in female

victims of intimate partner violence.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Stein, Murray B.; Kennedy, Colleen

Source/Citation: Journal of Affective Disorders; Vol 66(2-3) Oct 2001,

Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers BV; 2001, 133-138

Abstract/Review/Citation: Victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) often

develop psychiatric disorders. We examined the extent and correlates of

comorbidity between two of the disorders most frequently linked to

trauma--major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder

(PTSD)--in a group of 44 women (aged 19-49 yrs old) who were victims of IPV

within the preceding 2 years. MDD (68.2%) and PTSD (50.0%) were highly

prevalent on a lifetime basis in female victims of IPV. On a current basis,

MDD (18.2%) and IPV-related PTSD (31.8%) were more frequently comorbid (42.9%

of cases of current IPV-related PTSD also had MDD) than would be expected by

chance. Most cases of current MDD occurred in persons who also had current

IPV-related PTSD. Severity of depressive and PTSD symptoms was highly

correlated. Although women with PTSD were significantly more disabled than

women without PTSD, persons with comorbid PTSD and MDD were not significantly

more disabled than those with PTSD alone. Conclusions suggest PTSD and MDD

symptoms are frequently seen in the aftermath of IPV, and often co-occur. The

usefulness of the distinction between PTSD and MDD in this context remains to

be determined, both in terms of diagnostic classification and prognostic




Title: Self-reported life event patterns and their relation to health among

recently resettled Iraqi and Kurdish refugees in Sweden.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Soendergaard, Hans Peter; Ekblad, Solvig; Theorell, Toeres

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 189(12) Dec 2001,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001, 838-845

Abstract/Review/Citation: This paper presents the findings of a longitudinal

study of life events in refugees belonging to different language groups from

Iraq. 86 individuals (aged 18-48 yrs) were included in the study. Data

regarding life events and self-reported health measurements were collected

after baseline assessment with 3-monthly intervals on 3 occasions.

Posttraumatic stress disorder was diagnosed by means of a structured interview

at baseline. The results indicate that the subjects were influenced to a great

extent by political events and the situation of significant others in the home

country. Further, the number of negative life events in the host country

showed a significant association with self-rated deteriorated health. In

subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder, the effects of certain life

events were more pronounced. 



Title: Psychophysiological reactivity in female sexual abuse survivors.

Author(s)/Editor(s): McDonagh-Coyle, Annmarie; McHugo, Gregory J.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Schnurr, Paula P.; Zayfert, Claudia; Descamps, Monica

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 14(4) Oct 2001, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 667-683

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examined psychophysiological reactivity in

37 female childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors (aged 18-62 yrs). After

assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychiatric comorbidity,

and trauma history, the authors conducted a psychophysiological assessment of

forehead muscle tension, electrodermal activity, and heart rate during a

mental arithmetic task and 4 script-driven imagery tasks (neutral, consensual

sex, pleasant, and trauma). PTSD symptom severity correlated positively with

psychophysiologic changes and negative emotions during the trauma imagery

task. During mental arithmetic, PTSD symptom severity correlated negatively

with autonomic changes and positively with negative emotions. These results

extend earlier PTSD research showing trauma-specific increased

psychophysiological reactivity related to CSA in women with PTSD. They further

suggest a negative association between PTSD severity and autonomic reactions

to mental arithmetic.



Title: Cognitive functioning and the early development of PTSD.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bustamante, Victoria; Mellman, Thomas A.; David, Daniella; Fins, Ana I.

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 14(4) Oct 2001, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 791-797

Abstract/Review/Citation: Cross-sectional studies of chronic posttraumatic

stress disorder (PTSD) reveal deficits in verbal memory. The authors studied

cognitive functioning and its relationship to current and subsequent PTSD

severity during an early phase of trauma response. 38 participants (aged 20-64

yrs) with traumatic injuries and only posttrauma incident psychopathology were

evaluated shortly after admission to a Level I Trauma Center.

Neuropsychological measures were obtained at baseline and assessment of PTSD

and other psychiatric disorders was conducted at baseline and follow-up, 6

weeks later. Significant negative correlations were found for follow-up PTSD

severity with delayed recall and retroactive interference. These relationships

were not significant for, and were independent of, baseline PTSD severity.

Relative deficits in select areas of verbal memory after a trauma may confer

greater risk for developing PTSD.



Title: The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire in a community sample: Psychometric

properties and normative data.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Scher, Christine D.; Stein, Murray B.; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.; McCreary, Donald R.; Forde, David R.

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 14(4) Oct 2001, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 843-857

Abstract/Review/Citation: Interpretation of research on the prevalence and

adulthood sequelae of childhood trauma and abuse has been hindered by the use

of assessment instruments with unknown psychometric properties. Thus, the

authors examined the psychometric properties of a new childhood trauma

measure, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). The CTQ has demonstrated

strong psychometric properties in clinical samples; limited information exists

on its psychometric properties in community samples. Therefore, this article

explored the factor structure and reliability of the CTQ in a community sample

of adults aged 18-65 yrs and calculated normative data. Consistent with

previous literature, a 5-factor model best described the CTQ, with a

hierarchical model also providing excellent fit. Additionally, the CTQ

demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Overall, findings suggest that

the CTQ is appropriate for use in a community sample.



Title: Breast cancer screening and trauma history.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Farley, Melissa; Minkoff, Jerome R.; Barkan, Howard

Source/Citation: Women & Health; Vol 34(2) 2001, US: Haworth Press; 2001,


Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the effects of traumatic events on the

prevalence of mammography screening. 615 females (aged 52-75 yrs) who had or

had not undergone mammogram screening in the previous 2 yrs completed

questionnaires concerning involvement in such traumatic events as physical or

sexual assault, robbery, stalking, accident, family violence, natural

disaster, and sudden loss of loved one. Results show that Ss with no history

of mammography screening reported more experience with all categories of

traumatic events except loss of a loved one, particularly domestic violence,

witnessing of physical assault, sexual assault after age 13, and motor vehicle

accidents. 11% of Ss who had not been screened for mammography met criteria

for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).  ========================================


Title: Psychotherapy for massively traumatized refugees: The therapist variable.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kinzie, J. David

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychotherapy; Vol 55(4) 2001, US: Assn for

the Advancement of Psychotherapy; 2001, 475-490

Abstract/Review/Citation: In the treatment of severe posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD), much emphasis is put on techniques, especially behavioral

therapies. Such techniques negate the importance of the therapist as an

individual in the treatment of complex PTSD as presented in severely

traumatized refugees. The specific difficulties encountered by this population

and the therapist responses are discussed: the need to tell the trauma story

and the therapist's ability to listen; the patient's need for constancy and

therapist's ability to stay; the patient's need to give and the therapist's

ability to receive; the patient's problem with evil and the therapist's

ability to believe. Case examples illustrate the approach and then discuss how

generalizable this experience is to other populations. Research implications

are suggested. 



Title: Enhancing self-belief with EMDR: Developing a sense of mastery in the

early phase of treatment.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Shapiro, Shanti

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychotherapy; Vol 55(4) 2001, US: Assn for

the Advancement of Psychotherapy; 2001, 531-542

Abstract/Review/Citation: Deep inside each of us is a seed that holds our vision

of truth, peace, and happiness. Our early childhood attachments, societal

influences, and innate capacity determine how well that seed is nurtured and

the deepest inner vision is set free. This article is about the ways that

vision becomes clouded by attachment deficits, trauma, and subsequent

symptoms. The deep inner wish to heal allows for transformation, and

approaches like Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, and

hypnotherapy can assist in creating a more rapid acceleration of trauma

resolution and transformation of self.  ========================================


Title: Life situation and posttraumatic symptoms: A follow-up study of refugees

from the former Yugoslavia living in Sweden.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kivling-Boden, Gunilla; Sundbom, Elisabet

Source/Citation: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 55(6) 2001, Norway:

Scandinavian Univ Press; 2001, 401-408

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the life situation and posttraumatic symptoms

of refugees from the former Yugoslavia living in Sweden. 27 adult refugee

outpatients (aged 29-61 yrs) from the former Yugoslavia who had been

traumatized by organized violence and ethnic persecutions completed

questionnaires concerning labor market situation, social contacts, and

knowledge of the Swedish language. Ss completed questionnaires at baseline and

at 23-49-mo follow-up after a 1+ mo treatment period. Results show no

significant change in average symptom levels at follow-up. 17 Ss met criteria

for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) both a baseline and at follow-up.

However, 5 Ss who met the PTSD criteria at baseline did not do so at

follow-up, and the opposite was true for another 5 Ss. 15 Ss reported contact

with psychiatric care during the previous yr. Unemployment and dependence on

social welfare were high at follow-up, but comparable to that of the whole

Bosnian labor force in Sweden. Social contacts with the majority population

were as common as with compatriots.  ========================================


Title: Current attachment representations of incarcerated offenders varying in

degree of psychopathy.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Frodi, Ann; Dernevik, Mats; Sepa, Anneli; Philipson, Johanna; Bragesjoe, Maria

Source/Citation: Attachment & Human Development: Special Issue: Attachment

in mental health institutions.; Vol 3(3) Dec 2001, United Kingdom: Taylor

& Francis/Routledge; 2001, 269283

Abstract/Review/Citation: The present study sought to examine the current mental

representations of early attachment relationships in 24 psychopathic male

criminal offenders (aged 20-48 yrs), incarcerated in a forensic psychiatric

hospital or a medium-security prison. The participants had been assessed on R.

D. Hare's Psychopathy Checklist, Revised: Screening Version (PCL-R, sv, 1997)

and scored either high or low. They were interviewed with the Adult Attachment

Interview (1998) and completed the EMBU, a Swedish self-report questionnaire

tapping memories of the parent's rearing techniques. The results pointed to an

extensive over-representation of individuals who were dismissing of attachment

and attachment-related experiences (close to three times as many as in the

normal population), no secure individuals, and with the remainder being either

unclassifiable or unresolved with regard to severe early abuse/trauma. In

addition, an examination of the EMBU data revealed an association between a

higher psychopathy score and a family constellation of a rejecting father and

an emotionally very warm (idealized) mother. The discussion focuses on the

unique discourse of the dismissing individuals and on clinical implications.



Title: Attachment style and broken attachments: Violence, pregnancy, and


Author(s)/Editor(s): Allanson, Susie; Astbury, Jill

Author Affiliation: Fertility Control Clinic, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia Paper Number: 20020515

Source/Citation: Australian Journal of Psychology; Vol 53(3) Dec 2001,

Australia: Australian Academic Press; 2001, 146-151

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the relationships between women's experiences

of violence, pregnancy and abortion and their adult attachment style. Ss were

96 16-43 yr old women attending a clinic for early pregnancy termination.

Attachment style was correlated with psychosocial variables, including

education and past experience of assault or violence (physical/sexual),

previous number of pregnancies and abortions, and prior emotional problems.

Findings indicate a general pattern of anxious women reporting the most

adverse life circumstances, and physiologically and psychologically demanding

experiences, including the highest incidence of violence, pregnancy, abortion,

emotional problems, and poor education. Secure attachment demonstrated the

least association with such experiences. Secure attachment was associated with

fewer pregnancies and abortions, a lower incidence of both violence and

emotional problems, and higher educational attainment. It is suggested that

pregnancy may be uniquely placed to highlight more complex attachment

processes. Links between insecure attachment, maternal ambivalence, multiple

models, and trauma/violence may best be pursued via a collaboration of

attachment and posttraumatic stress frameworks.  ========================================


Title: The effects of early trauma on autobiographical memory and schematic


Author(s)/Editor(s): Reviere, Susan L.; Bakeman, Roger

Author Affiliation: Georgia State U, Dept of Psychology, Atlanta, GA, US Paper Number: 20020403

Source/Citation: Applied Cognitive Psychology: Special Issue: Trauma, stress,

and autobiographical memory.; Vol 15(7) Dec 2001, United Kingdom: John Wiley

& Sons; 2001, S89-S100

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated clinical assumptions regarding deficits

in autobiographical memory and schematic self-representation associated with

early interpersonal trauma. 110 female undergraduates (aged 17-51 yrs)

completed a protocol involving interviews and questionnaires related to trauma

history, early autobiographical memory, and other clinical factors not used in

the immediate study. An adult autobiographical memory coding scheme was

developed to determine degree of elaboration of memories. It was hypothesized

that in a group positive for trauma history as compared with non-trauma

controls, deficits in the elaboration of autobiographical memory would be

found and that such deficits would be a basis for impairments in schematic

self-representation. No differences were found between trauma and no-trauma

groups on most major variables. One of 3 dimensions of self-representation, a

factor named identity integration, was significantly related to trauma

severity, suggesting that greater severity is related to less integration of

identity. In an exploratory analysis of the memory narratives, there was 1

additional significant finding suggesting that memories that participants

self-labeled as traumatic were more elaborated than all other memories.



Title: The role of cardiac rehabilitation in dealing with psychological loss

among survivors of a cardiac event.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hudson, Joanne; Board, Elizabeth Mary; Lavallee, David

Author Affiliation: U Teesside, Middlesbrough, England U Teesside,

Middlesbrough, England

Source/Citation: Journal of Loss & Trauma; Vol 6(4) Oct-Dec 2001, United

Kingdom: Taylor & Francis/Brunner Routledge; 2001, 301-312

Abstract/Review/Citation: The aim of the current study was to examine the

experiences of 12 male cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients (aged 46-78 yrs)

within the framework of psychological loss. All participants in this study

reported experiencing losses of some nature, some of which were tangible and

others less so. However, these do not appear to be strictly independent from

each other in that tangible losses, such as loss of income, were underpinned

by intangible losses, such as loss of self-esteem. For CR patients, it seems

that the losses reported are experienced at more than one level.The first is

an externally visible and objectively quantifiable level (for example, loss of

occupation) , whereas the second is a more symbolic, phenomenologically based

level (for example, loss of purpose as previously defined through one's

occupational role). The CR program examined in this study helped patients to

effectively deal with these losses and to experience additional developmental




Title: Emplotting the traumatic self: Narrative revision and the construction of


Author(s)/Editor(s): Stewart, Alan E.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

Author Affiliation: U Memphis, Memphis, TN, US

Source/Citation: Humanistic Psychologist; Vol 29(1-3) Spr-Fal 2001, US:

Humanistic Psychologist; 2001, 8-39

Abstract/Review/Citation: In this article the authors provide a

constructivist-narrative conceptualization of the origins and

psychotherapeutic methods for treating trauma. The authors believe that the

experience of trauma ensues when lived events outpace peoples' abilities to

emplot or narrate these events from the perspective of dominant life

narratives. The sights, sounds, and smells associated with traumatic events

preclude such emplotment. The therapeutic objectives of narrative therapy

include finding ways to develop meanings for the trauma and subsequently to

integrate these with the dominant narrative. Two case studies (males of 42 and

48 yrs, respectively) are provided to illustrate the authors'

conceptualization and therapeutic approach.  ========================================


Title: Dissociative experiences, response bias, and fantasy proneness in college


Author(s)/Editor(s): Merckelbach, Harald; Muris, Peter; Horselenberg, Robert; Stougie, Suzanne

Source/Citation: Personality & Individual Differences; Vol 28(1) Jan 2000,

England: Elsevier Science Ltd.; 2000, 49-58

Abstract/Review/Citation: Two studies with a total of 112 undergraduates (aged

16-43 yrs) examined the connection between dissociative experiences as

measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and memory distortions.

In the 1st study, DES scores of 42 female students were not found to be

related to reality monitoring failures. There was, however, a significant

association between DES and false positive memory failures, suggesting a

response bias in participants scoring high on the DES. In the 2nd study, 70

students (58 females) completed the DES, a measure of fantasy proneness, and

the Life Events Inventory (LEI). The LEI lists a large number of discrete

events and requires respondents to indicate whether these events have happened

to them before the age of 10 yrs. A positive connection between DES and LEI

was found, such that higher DES scores were accompanied by more positive

answers to the LEI. The connection between DES and positive response

tendencies to LEI items was evident for both neutral and negative items and

was carried by fantasy proneness. Taken together, the data indicate that high

DES scores are related to a positive response bias tendency. This may have

substantial implications for retrospective studies that attempt to link high

DES scores to traumatic antecedents.  ========================================


Title: Women survivors of childhood abuse: The impact of traumatic stress on

education and work.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hall, Joanne M.

Source/Citation: Issues in Mental Health Nursing; Vol 21(5) Jul-Aug 2000, US:

Taylor & Francis; 2000, 443-471

Abstract/Review/Citation: A disempowering after-effect of childhood abuse that

is not well-researched in nursing is the inability of many women abuse

survivors to perform successfully in adulthood tasks such as working, managing

money, and parenting. A critical/feminist interview study involved 20 urban

low-income female abuse survivors (aged 22-47 yrs), who were mostly women of

color. Participants were recovering cocaine misusers who had suffered multiple

forms of childhood maltreatment. This article reports on a secondary analysis

of narratives given by survivors, focused on learning and work difficulties.

Findings were grouped into 5 broad domains: (1) school as problematic, (2)

lack of adult life skills, (3) problems with academic and health literacy, (4)

legitimate and illicit forms of work, and (5) means of help.  ========================================


Title: Individual predictors of traumatic reactions in firefighters.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Regehr, Cheryl; Hill, John; Glancy, Graham D.

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 188(6) Jun 2000,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000, 333-339

Abstract/Review/Citation: Increasingly, theorists and researchers in the area of

trauma are pointing to the importance of individual differences in resilience

and vulnerability as key determinants of the intensity and duration of

trauma-related symptoms. Determining the relative influence of individual

predictors is important for the further development of theoretical models for

understanding trauma responses and for the subsequent development of

intervention strategies that are sensitive to individual differences. This

study explores the influence of individual factors and social support on

traumatic reactions in firefighters exposed to tragic events in the line of

duty. A total of 164 Australian firefighters (aged 16-63 yrs) completed

questionnaires targeting locus of control, self-efficacy, patterns of

interpersonal relating, social support and level of emotional distress (Beck

Depression Inventory and Impact of Event Scale). Results indicate that

individuals with feelings of insecurity, lack of personal control, and

alienation from others were more likely to experience higher levels of

depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms subsequent to exposure to

traumatic events on the job. 



Title: Blindness and high suicide risk?

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hine, Trevor J.; Pitchford, Nikki J.; Kingdom, Fred A. A.; Koenekoop, Robert

Source/Citation: Psychosomatics; Vol 41(4) Jul-Aug 2000, US: American

Psychiatric Press, Inc.; 2000, 370-371

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by D. De Leo et al  which concludes that loss of sight can lead to psychological

distress that can lead to suicide. In this comment, the authors state that the

data, characteristics of the sample, gender distributions, and case summaries

presented do not substantiate the claims of the study. In particular, the

authors see no compelling reasons for the conclusion that psychopathology,

which can be linked solely to sight loss or fear of sight loss, is more likely

to lead to suicide than psychopathology caused by any other physical or

psychological trauma. 



Title: Using Study Circles in the workplace as an educational method of

facilitating readjustment after a traumatic life experience.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Barski-Carrow, Barbara

Source/Citation: Death Studies; Vol 24(5) Jul-Aug 2000, US: Taylor &

Francis; 2000, 421-439

Abstract/Review/Citation: While employees who have undergone a traumatic life

experience (TLE) are often referred for counseling and therapy, most

organizations do not prepare managers and co-workers for the issues posed by

TLE employees when they 1st return to work. The author introduces the Study

Circle, a "democratic," interactive adult learning format that

educates managers and co-workers about the various stages in the trauma

recovery process and teaches them how to facilitate a TLE employee's re-entry

to the workplace. Two groups of Study Circles included employees and managers

(aged 45-64 yrs) in the research project. The 1st Group A included 8 Ss, and

Group B included 11 Ss. Each Study Circle program consisted of 3 sessions

where participants, managers, and returning TLE employees engaged in open

dialogue and discussed questions pertaining to that session's theme. The

author found that Group A was more concerned with getting a result and giving

guidance on how a re-entry person's job could be handled better. Conversely,

Group B Ss were swayed by the experts in the session, who seemed most

concerned about teaching communication and listening skills, not about

solutions. However, every S in both groups reported that the educational goals

of the Study Circle were accomplished.  ========================================


Title: Schematic change as a result of an intensive group-therapy day-treatment


Author(s)/Editor(s): Welburn, Ken R.; Dagg, Paul; Coristine, Marjorie; Pontefract, Amanda

Source/Citation: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training; Vol 37(2)

Sum 2000, US: Division of Psychotherapy, A.P.A.; 2000, 189-195

Abstract/Review/Citation: Treatment effects of a 12-wk day-treatment program

were explored on measures of psychiatric distress (Brief Symptom Inventory)

and maladaptive schemas (Schema Questionnaire Short Form; J. Young, 1990). 84

program completers (aged 22-57 yrs) showed significant pre-post change in

psychiatric distress and on 3 of 15 schema: vulnerability to harm, social

alienation, and defectiveness. Other schema did not change over the 12 wks. 15

waiting-list controls demonstrated no improvement in either distress level or

in any of the 15 schema while waiting to be admitted to the program. Only 1 of

the 15 schema, abandonment, predicted treatment outcome on changes in

psychiatric distress level. 



Title: The link between childhood trauma and later violent offending: A case


Author(s)/Editor(s): Renn, Paul

Source/Citation: Violent children and adolescents: Asking the question why.,

London, England: Whurr Publishers, Ltd; 2000, (xx, 230), 71-90 Source editor(s): Boswell, Gwyneth (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Illustrates the application of an integrated

relational perspective through a case study of a 48-yr-old male on probation.

The main intention of this case study is to emphasize the connection between

childhood trauma and subsequent violent offending. In line with G. Boswell's

(1998) advocacy of research minded practice, this study seeks to demonstrate

the vital importance of asking offenders about their traumatic backgrounds at

the point of assessment. It is argued that such pertinent information is

fundamental to one of the key principles of effective practice, that of

matching the offender's risk, needs and style of learning to an appropriate

method of intervention. 



Title: The role of pre-injury IQ in the determination of intellectual impairment

from traumatic head injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Gao, Beilin; Jiang, Shaoai; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Jingdong

Source/Citation: Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences; Vol

12(3) Sum 2000, US: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.; 2000, 385-388

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the contribution of considering preinjury IQ

scores in the neuropsychiatric determination of intellectual impairment from

traumatic head injury. The Ss were 17 18-53 yr old head trauma patients whose

preinjury IQ and postinjury IQ scores on the Chinese Revised Version of the

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-RC) were collected and analyzed. All

patients had a neuroradiological imaging study. Changes in IQ scores were

compared with neuroradiological findings and clinical determinations on the

presence or absence of intellectual impairment from head trauma that were made

by neuropsychiatrists: without knowledge of preinjury IQ scores. 13 patients

were clinically determined not to have suffered intellectual impairment,

primarily because their postinjury IQs on the WAIS-RC were higher than 70.

However, 3 of the 13 had significantly higher preinjury IQ scores, and they

also showed brain damage on CT or MRI. Consideration of preinjury IQ can

improve the determination of intellectual impairment from head injury.



Title: Childhood trauma, dissociation, and self-harming behaviour: A pilot study.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Low, Gail; Jones, David; MacLeod, Andrew; Power, Mick; Duggan, Conor

Source/Citation: British Journal of Medical Psychology: Special Issue: Cognitive

analytic therapy.; Vol 73(Pt2) Jun 2000, England: British Psychological

Society; 2000, 269-278

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated the mediating mechanisms between

childhood traumas and subsequent deliberate self-harm (DSH) in a sample of 50

mentally disordered women (aged 18-51 yrs) in a high security setting. The 50

women were classified in three groups: non-harmers, infrequent harmers, and

frequent harmers. These three groups were then compared on several measures

believed to be associated with DSH. The frequency of DSH was related to low

self-esteem, increased dissociation, anger (both inwardly and outwardly

directed), impulsivity, and a history of sexual and physical abuse. When these

variables were entered into a path analytic model exploring the relationship

between childhood trauma and subsequent DSH, two paths emerged: one major path

which linked childhood sexual abuse to DSH via increased dissociation and

another, more minor association, linked childhood sexual abuse via reduced

self-esteem. This study shows a strong association between high levels of

dissociation and an increased frequency of self-harming behavior. This

association is theoretically plausible and has therapeutic implications.



Title: Lack of efficacy for fluoxetine in PTSD: A placebo controlled trial in

combat veterans.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hertzberg, Michael A.; Feldman, Michelle E.; Beckham, Jean C.; Kudler, Harold S.; Davidson, Jonathan R. T.

Source/Citation: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry; Vol 12(2) Jun 2000, US: Kluwer

Academic; 2000, 101-105

Abstract/Review/Citation: 12 male veterans (aged 44-48 yrs) with posttraumatic

stress disorder (PTSD) were enrolled in a 12 wk double-blind evaluation of

fluoxetine and placebo. Mean fluoxetine dose at endpoint (wk 12) was 48 mg/day

with a range of 10 mg to 60 mg. One fluoxetine patient responded and 2 of the

6 placebo patients responded. Fluoxetine patients did not show a greater

response than placebo patients in this small sample of male combat veterans

with severe, chronic PTSD. The reasons for the low response rate to fluoxetine

in this study is unknown and will await further study examining variables

other then symptoms that might influence outcome, such as gender, comorbidity,

prior treatment history, trauma type, severity and chronicity.  ========================================


Title: Coping style and psychological trauma after road accidents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Jeavons, Sue; Horne, D. J. de L.; Greenwood, K. M.

Source/Citation: Psychology, Health & Medicine; Vol 5(2) May 2000, US:

Carfax Publishing Ltd; 2000, 213-221

Abstract/Review/Citation: This prospective study aimed to follow a cohort of

road accident victims for 6 mo and to examine changes in psychological trauma

and coping styles over this time. It also aimed to examine the relationship

between initial coping style and subsequent psychological trauma. 72

consecutive hospital attendees (aged 18-62 yrs) were assessed using the

General Health Questionnaire, Impact of Event Scale, Posttraumatic Stress

Disorder Interview and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Results

showed that there was little change in reported coping style over the 6 mo but

there was a significant decrease in scores on trauma symptom measures. Initial

emotion-focused coping style and to a lesser extent avoidance had strong

positive relationships with later trauma scores.  ========================================


Title: The effects of trauma among kidnap victims in Sardinia, Italy.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Favaro, A.; Degortes, D.; Colombo, G.; Santonastaso, Paolo

Source/Citation: Psychological Medicine; Vol 30(4) Jul 2000, US: Cambridge

University Press; 2000, 975-980

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed the general health status and the presence of

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MDD) in a sample of

kidnap victims. The authors also focused attention on dissociative experiences

and on the development of the Stockholm syndrome during captivity. The authors

investigated the traumatic experiences and reported general health status of

24 kidnap victims (aged 27-80 yrs) using a semistructured interview. The

Structured Clinical Interview for Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) was used to

assess the presence of PTSD and MDD. The Dissociative Experiences Scale was

also administered. The lifetime frequency of PTSD and MDD were 45.9% and 37.5%

respectively. The Stockholm syndrome had been present in 50% of the sample

during captivity. The presence of PTSD can be predicted by the number of

violent experiences, whereas the number of humiliating or deprivation

experiences predicts the development of the Stockholm syndrome. Ss with both

PTSD and the Stockholm syndrome reported a greater number of physical

complaints at the interview. There was no significant connection between PTSD

and the Stockholm syndrome.The presence of both syndromes appears to have a

detrimental effect on physical health.  ========================================


Title: Responses to traumatic stress among community residents exposed to a

train collision.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Chung, Man Cheung; Werrett, Julie; Farmer, Steven; Easthope, Yvette; Chung, Catherine

Source/Citation: Stress Medicine; Vol 16(1) Jan 2000, US: John Wiley & Sons

Inc; 2000, 17-25

Abstract/Review/Citation: Describes the degree of traumatic stress of community

residents who resided in an area of a train collision. The article also

describes their traumatic responses at the time and during the aftermath of

the collision. The authors hypothesized that there was a significant degree of

traumatic stress among these residents and that the greater the impact of the

collision they experienced, the more severe their traumatic stress became. 49

22-91 yr-old residents participated in the study and were assessed using the

Impact of Event Scale (IES), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the

Stafford train crash questionnaire. The results indicate that among the whole

sample, the residents experienced more intrusive thoughts than avoidance

behavior, but their scores were significantly lower than those of the

standardized stress clinic samples. 41% of the residents scored at or above

the cutoff point of the GHQ. Two groups, high symptom and low/medium symptom

groups, were then divided, according to the cutoff of the IES, and compared.

The results show that the high symptom group scored significantly higher in

the sub-scales of the IES, and the GHQ. There was a tendency that the greater

the impact of the collision residents experienced, the more severe the

distress was. 



Title: Evaluation of an anger management therapy programme following acquired

brain injury: A preliminary study.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Medd, Jessica; Tate, Robyn L.

Source/Citation: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation; Vol 10(2) Apr 2000, United

Kingdom: Psychology Press; 2000, 185-201

Abstract/Review/Citation: Problems with anger management after traumatic brain

injury are one of the most frequent changes in the long term reported by

relatives on injured people. This study evaluated a cognitive-behavioral

intervention for anger management difficulties following acquired brain

injury. 28 brain injured Ss (aged 16-60 yrs) with post-trauma onset of

problems in anger management were screened and randomly allocated to either a

treatment group (TREAT) or waiting list group (WAIT). Each participant in

TREAT received approximately 6, hourly individual sessions of anger-management

therapy while those in WAIT monitored their anger daily. Changes in anger

expression were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAXI).

Additionally, Ss were assessed for generalisation aspects of the treatment

programme to self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and self-awareness. 16

participants proceed through the final stages of the study. A significant

decrease in anger on the STAXI was found for TREAT in comparison with WAIT at

post-treatment. Repeated-measures analyses for TREAT showed significant

improvements between pre- and post-treatment measures (immediate and 2-mo

follow-up) on the STAXI. 



Title: Staff perceptions of emotional distress in paitents with burn trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Adcock, Rebecca J.; Goldberg, Myron L.; Patterson, David R.; Brown, Paul B.

Source/Citation: Rehabilitation Psychology; Vol 45(2) May 2000, US: Educational

Publishing Foundation; 2000, 179-192

Abstract/Review/Citation: Objective: To compare staff and patient perceptions of

patients' emotional distress after acute burn trauma. Design: Staff ratings

of patients' psychological states on 6 dimensions of emotional functioning

were compared with patient self-report. Results: Staff as a whole and by

discipline tended to overestimate depression and underestimate optimism in

patients. Moreover, the more experienced (more than 2 years of burn care

experience) nurses and occupational/physical therapists were less accurate in

estimating depression and optimism than their less experienced counterparts.

Conclusion: Consistent with results from spinal cord injury research, findings

from the current study indicate a distinct tendency on the part of burn care

staff to overestimate their patients' emotional distress and underestimate

their positive outlook, supporting the notion that staff may be imposing a

'requirement for mourning' on their patients.  ========================================


Title: Implications of traumatic brain injury for survivors of sexual abuse: A

preliminary report of findings.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Reeves, Russell H.; Beltzman, David; Killu, Kim

Source/Citation: Rehabilitation Psychology; Vol 45(2) May 2000, US: Educational

Publishing Foundation; 2000, 205-211

Abstract/Review/Citation: The authors' purpose for presenting these cases is to

report on some clinical observations that may have relevance for a subgroup of

individuals recovering from a traumatic brain injury. Specifically, the

authors observe that a group of patients who reported histories of childhood

sexual trauma and then sustained a TBI as adults are experiencing a

reemergence of intrusive recollections and other symptoms related to the

abuse. Further, the appearance of these posttraumatic stress-type

symptoms--sometimes after years of nonoccurrence--frequently proves disruptive

to the patient's rehabilitation process. Possible structural, chemical, and

phenomenological factors are discussed. The authors' observations raise the

possibility that individuals who have made the best recoveries from childhood

sexual trauma are the most vulnerable to the reemergence of posttraumatic

stress disorder symptoms subsequent to the TBI. These provisory observations

would suggest that sensitive inquiry regarding abuse history should be

considered as part of any clinical interview with patients who have sustained

neurological trauma. 



Title: Compulsive cybersex: The new tea room.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Schwartz, Mark F.; Southern, Stephen

Source/Citation: Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: Special Issue: Cybersex:

The dark side of the force; Vol 7(1-2) 2000, US: Brunner/Mazel; 2000, 127-144

Abstract/Review/Citation: Cybersex has become the new tea room for meeting

anonymous partners and engaging in a fantasy world in which survivors of

childhood abuse escape the demands of daily life as well as the pain and shame

of past trauma. Compulsive cybersex is described as a survival mechanism

involving dissociative reenactment and affect regulation. Descriptive data

from a clinical population of cybersex abusers (aged 17-66 yrs) were reviewed

to construct four subtypes of cybersex addiction: male cybersex addicts,

female cybersex addicts, loner cybersex addicts, and paraphiliac cybersex

addicts. Treatment strategies for each of the subtypes are recommended.



Title: Cognitive factors in traumatic stress reactions: Predicting PTSD symptoms

from anxiety sensitivity and beliefs about harmful events.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Fedoroff, Ingrid C.; Taylor, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.; Koch, William J.

Source/Citation: Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy; Vol 28(1) Jan 2000,

US: Cambridge Univ Press; 2000, 5-15

Abstract/Review/Citation: Evaluated the relative importance of different

cognitive factors (anxiety sensitivity and trauma-related beliefs) in

predicting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and

treatment-related changes in these symptoms. 81 victims (aged 18-64 yrs) of

motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) completed self-report measures of PTSD

symptoms, anxiety sensitivity (AS), MVA-related beliefs and control variables

(e.g., medication use, pain severity). A subsample of 28 patients, who

received cognitive-behavioral treatment for PTSD, completed these measures pre

and posttreatment. For the combined sample, regression analyses indicated that

AS and pain severity were significant predictors of PTSD symptoms, whereas

MVA-related beliefs were not. For patients completing treatment, regression

analyses indicated that reductions in AS and pain severity were significant

predictors of reductions in PTSD symptoms. MVA-related beliefs did not

significantly predict symptom reduction once AS, pain severity and medication

status was controlled for. These findings suggest that AS is a significant

cognitive risk factor for exacerbating and maintaining PTSD symptoms.

Treatment implications are discussed.  ========================================


Title: Sexual trauma, substance abuse, and treatment success in a sample of

African American women who smoke crack cocaine.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Young, Amy M.; Boyd, Carol

Source/Citation: Substance Abuse; Vol 21(1) Mar 2000, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum

Publishers; 2000, 9-19

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the relationship among sexual trauma,

severity of substance use, and treatment success for African American women

who smoke crack cocaine. 208 Ss (aged 19-48 yrs) were interviewed for 2-4 hrs

and asked a variety of questions about their health, relationships, sexuality,

and drug use. Women with a history of sexual trauma reported being addicted to

more substances than women who had not been sexually traumatized, despite the

fact that the 2 groups did not differ on the number of substances used.

Differences in the self-reported level of substance abuse was corroborated

with external evidence of group differences in substance abuse severity. Women

with a history of sexual trauma were admitted to the hospital or emergency

room more often for health issues related to their substance use and were more

likely to be negligent in caring for their children because of their drug use.

The authors also found evidence to suggest that there are differences in

treatment success between the 2 groups; women with a history of sexual trauma

reported having been to substance abuse treatment programs more often than

women without such a history. These findings are discussed in light of the

particular treatment needs of women with a history of sexual trauma.  ========================================


Title: Examining patterns of vulnerability to domestic violence among African

American women.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wyatt, Gail E.; Axelrod, Julie; Chin, Dorothy; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas; Loeb, Tamra Burns

Source/Citation: Violence Against Women; Vol 6(5) May 2000, US: Sage

Publications, Inc; 2000, 495-514

Abstract/Review/Citation: Explored the relationship between child abuse and

neglect, other traumatic events, background variables, and HIV status as they

relate to the continuum of conflict in adulthood, specifically verbal conflict

and physical abuse that can increase women's risk for domestic violence. 135

African American women, aged 19-61, of mixed HIV serostatus were interviewed.

Almost half of the women reported both physical and verbal conflict and

moderate to severe levels of physical abuse with current or recent intimate

partners. Simple correlations and multiple regressions revealed that women

with histories of child abuse were more likely to experience partner violence

as adults. Other traumatic events were not associated with partner violence.

Income and HIV status were related to specific patterns of partner violence.

The influence that early experiences have on African American women eventually

entering abusive adult intimate relationships is discussed.  ========================================


Title: The role of media and hospital exposure on Rorschach response patterns by

patients reporting satanic ritual abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Leavitt, Frank; Labott, Susan M.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Forensic Psychology; Vol 18(2) 2000, US:

American Coll of Forensic Psychology; 2000, 35-55

Abstract/Review/Citation: Patients reporting satanic ritual abuse (SRA) draw on

a perceptual information base that differs from that used by other psychiatric

patients. In Study 1, Rorschach content shared by 131 female Ss alleging

exposure to satanic cults discriminated the SRA group from 92 female Ss with

(but not alleging satanic involvement) and 92 female Ss without a history of

childhood sex abuse. The mean number of satanic content produced was 6.74,

1.71 and 0.88 responses, respectively. In Study 2, the shared satanic content

was examined as an artifact of exposure to (1) media materials on SRA and (2)

a hospital milieu specializing in sexual trauma in 82 female patients

reporting histories of satanic abuse and those sexually abused. High exposure

to these two variables was not associated with increased production of satanic

response in sexually abused Ss who are non-SRA. In the group reporting satanic

abuse, however, less media exposure was paradoxically associated with

significantly higher numbers of satanic responses. Hospital exposure was not

associated with more satanic response in this group. The best predictor of

satanic content on the Rorschach was low media exposure and a patient report

of satanic experience. 



Title: Communication with police supervisors and peers as a buffer of

work-related traumatic stress.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Stephens, Christine; Long, Nigel

Source/Citation: Journal of Organizational Behavior; Vol 21(4) Jun 2000, US:

John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2000, 407-424

Abstract/Review/Citation: In this study, specific types of social support

predicted to buffer the psychological and physical health effects of trauma

are drawn from theory and empirical evidence in the area of post-traumatic

stress. Social support, measured as the content of communication, and the ease

of talking about trauma was tested with 527 21-62 yr old working police

officers who responded to a questionnaire survey. Hierarchical regression

analysis shows that the communication variables contributed to the variance in

post-traumatic stress disorder and physical symptoms with differential effects

for different aspects of communication. Analysis of the effects of traumatic

stress on symptoms for sub-groups at different levels of communication show

that some types of communication, such as the ease of talking about trauma or

positive communications about work, moderate the effects of stress for police

officers, in that higher levels are associated with a weaker trauma-strain

relationship. However, some types of communication buffered stress only at

moderate levels and other types may not be protective. These results are

discussed in terms of the types and sources of social support that are likely

to buffer post-traumatic stress at work.  ========================================


Title: Defense styles and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Birmes, Philippe; Warner, Barbara Ann; Callahan, Stacey; Sztulman, Henry; Charlet, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Laurent

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 188(5) May 2000,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000, 306-308

Abstract/Review/Citation: Evaluated defense styles that may indicate risk for

the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after

exposure to trauma among 25 trauma victims (aged 16-69 yrs). Ss were assessed

by a specific psychiatric trauma team. Ss completed the Traumatic Stress

Inventory Scale at Week 1. At the 2nd assessment during Week 2, the Ss

completed the 40-item Defense Style Questionnaire and the Impact of Event

Scale. Victims with PTSD had mature, neurotic, and immature defense scores not

significantly different from those without PTSD. However, the complete

assessment of each defense style showed that Ss with PTSD were significantly

more likely to use reaction formation than Ss without PTSD.  ========================================


Title: Symptom structure of PTSD following breast cancer.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Cordova, Matthew J.; Studts, Jamie L.; Hann, Danette M.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Andrykowski, Michael A.

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 13(2) Apr 2000, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2000, 301-319

Abstract/Review/Citation: Identification of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

symptoms and diagnoses in survivors of cancer is a growing area of research,

but no published data exist regarding the symptom structure of PTSD in

survivors of malignant disease. Findings from investigations of the PTSD

symptom structure in other trauma populations have been inconsistent and have

not been concordant with the re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, and arousal

symptom clusters specified in the Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). The present

study employed confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the extent to which

the implied second-order factor structure of PTSD was replicated in a sample

of 142 breast cancer survivors. PTSD symptoms were measured using the PTSD

Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). Fit indices reflected a moderate fit of

the symptom structure implied by the DSM-IV These findings provide some

tentative support for the DSM-IV clustering of PTSD symptoms and for the

validity of cancer-related PTSD. 



Title: Accident cognitions and subsequent psychological trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Jeavons, Sue; Greenwood, Kenneth M.; de L. Horne, David J.

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 13(2) Apr 2000, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2000, 359-365

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined a sample of 72 consecutive attendees (aged

18-62 yrs) to hospital following motor vehicle accidents. The study assessed

the relationship between demographic variables, details of the accident and

cognitions about the accident recorded soon afterward, and degree of

psychological trauma 3 and 6 months later Psychological trauma was assessed

using the General Health Questionnaire, Impact of Event Scale, and

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Interview. A structured interview was used to

gain information about demographic, accident, and accident cognition

variables. Results showed that initial cognitions such as perceived threat to

life, rather than demographic or accident variables, had the strongest

relationships to subsequent trauma.  ========================================


Title: Emotional processing in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A

comparison with traumatized and normal controls.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Amdur, Richard L.; Larsen, Randy; Liberzon, Israel

Source/Citation: Journal of Anxiety Disorders; Vol 14(3) May-Jun 2000, US:

Elsevier Science Inc; 2000, 219-238

Abstract/Review/Citation: Emotional numbing (EN) symptoms are an important but

poorly understood component of the response to trauma. To try to demonstrate

EN, this laboratory study examined subjective and psychophysiological emotion

responses to standardized visual stimuli in Vietnam veterans with

combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), combat veterans without

PTSD, and nontraumatized controls. PTSD Ss showed no evidence of generalized

reduction in subjective or psychophysiological emotion responses. In response

to a subset of more evocative stimuli, PTSD Ss reported less experience of

Positive Emotions, and more experience of Negative Emotions than controls. For

controls, valence and arousal were uncorrelated, while they were negatively

correlated for PTSD Ss. Verbal and nonverbal subjective emotion measures were

positively correlated for all subject groups, but there was little correlation

between subjective emotion measures and psychophysiological indices. Viewing

time was positively correlated with Positive Emotions for PTSD Ss, and with

Negative Emotions for combat controls.  ========================================


Title: The effect of prior trauma exposure on the development of PTSD following

spinal cord injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Radnitz, Cynthia L.; Schlein, Ilana S.; Hsu, Louis

Source/Citation: Journal of Anxiety Disorders; Vol 14(3) May-Jun 2000, US:

Elsevier Science Inc; 2000, 313-324

Abstract/Review/Citation: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs in only a

subset of individuals who sustain traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs).

Several previous studies have examined the effects of additive trauma on the

development of PTSD and found that a history of prior trauma increases the

risk for later development of PTSD. The present study examines additive trauma

by investigating the effects of previous combat exposure on the development of

PTSD following spinal cord injury in 123 male veterans (mean age 49).

Significant differences in prevalence rates for current PTSD were found for

the comparisons of war theater (both combat and noncombat) versus non-war

theater veterans but not for the comparison between combat and noncombat war

theater veterans. Moreover, for all the comparisons, no significant

differences were found in lifetime PTSD diagnoses. This implies that veterans

with SCI who served in a war zone have increased difficulty recovering from

their PTSD following a spinal cord injury than do non-war theater veterans.



Title: Relationships between different types of maltreatment during childhood

and adjustment in adulthood.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Higgins, Daryl J.; McCabe, Marita P.

Source/Citation: Child Maltreatment: Journal of the American Professional

Society on the Abuse of Children; Vol 5(3) Aug 2000, US: Sage Publications

Inc; 2000, 261-272

Abstract/Review/Citation: Evaluated the interrelationships among 5 different

types of child maltreatment (sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological

maltreatment, neglect, witnessing family violence) in a community sample of

175 women and men (aged 15-64 yrs). The relationships between the reported

experience of these forms of maltreatment in childhood, family characteristics

during childhood, and current psychological adjustment (trauma symptomatology

and self-depreciation) were assessed. As hypothesized, family characteristics

predicted maltreatment scores and adjustment, and maltreatment scores

predicted adjustment after controlling for family environment. There were high

correlations between scores on the 5 maltreatment scales. Results highlight

the need to assess all forms of maltreatment when looking at relationships of

maltreatment to adjustment and the importance of childhood familial

environment for the long-term adjustment of adults.  ========================================


Title: A holocaust hozzajarulasa a tudattalan tanulmanyozasahoz./ Contribution

of the Holocaust to the study of the unconcious.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Terez, Virag

Source/Citation: Psychiatria Hungarica; Vol 15(3) 2000, Hungary: Magyar

Pszichiatriai Tarsasag; 2000, 298-310Description/Edition Info.: Journal Article; 250

Abstract/Review/Citation: The paper demonstrates through case histories the

contribution of the therapeutic observations made with Holocaust survivors to

the psychoanalytic theory and the therapeutic practice. In the introduction it

gives a brief account of the developments through which the therapists

encountered first the specific neurotic and psychotic symptoms of the first

generation survivors, and later gradually the symptom formation of the second

and third generation descendants. In the case of Holocaust survivors the

neurotic symptoms are rooted basically in the life-endangering social trauma,

and not in the disorders of the sexual life of the patient. The paper presents

the characteristics of the Holocaust syndrome through 3 case histories. Julia

(64) is first generation survivor, came to therapy showing panic syndrome. Job

(50) belongs to the second generation and has been treated after having

developed psychotic episodes. Noemi (20) represents the third generation of

survivors; her Holocaust syndrome presented itself in obesity, mobility

deprivation and sense of shame due to her overweight. During the therapy it

became clear how the painful memories of the past are interconnected with the

symptom formation. 



Title: More questions about recovered memories.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Good, Michael I.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 157(8) Aug 2000, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2000, 1345-1346

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by J. A. Chu et al (see record

1999-13809-011) which investigated the relationship between self-reported

childhood abuse and dissociative symptoms and amnesia. It is noted that in a

key but methodologically problematic finding, "[a] majority of

participants were able to find strong corroboration of their recovered

memories." The present author contends that this "strikingly

high" corroboration rate was based on self-reported information recalled

by the participants and accepted as recounted.  ========================================


Title: "Memories of childhood abuse: Dissociation, amnesia, and

corroboration": Comment.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Piper, August Jr.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 157(8) Aug 2000, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2000, 1346

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by J. A. Chu et al which investigated the relationship between self-reported

childhood abuse and dissociative symptoms and amnesia. The present author

argues that the article suffers from several methodological deficiencies. It

is concluded that Chu et al failed to prove their participants were amnestic.



Title: "Memories of childhood abuse: Dissociation, amnesia, and

corroboration": Comment.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Merckelbach, Harald

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 157(8) Aug 2000, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2000, 1346-1347

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by J. A. Chu et al which investigated the relationship between self-reported

childhood abuse and dissociative symptoms and amnesia. The present author

contends that the findings reported by Chu et al are difficult to interpret

because all their pertinent comparisons and correlations involved individuals

with high scores on the Dissociative Experiences Scale. It is suggested that

studies like that of Chu et al would allow for more convincing conclusions if

they included a measure of response bias.  ========================================


Title: "Memories of childhood abuse: Dissociation, amnesia, and

corroboration": Comment.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Powell, Russell A.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 157(8) Aug 2000, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2000, 1347-1348

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by J. A. Chu et al which investigated the relationship between self-reported

childhood abuse and dissociative symptoms and amnesia. The present author

contends that it remains plausible that the vast majority of recovered

memories reported by the Ss in Chu et al were never corroborated. It is

concluded that the study by Chu et al does little to alleviate concerns that

recovered memories of abuse are often false.  ========================================


Title: "Memories of childhood abuse: Dissociation, amnesia, and

corroboration": Comment.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Merskey, D. M.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 157(8) Aug 2000, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2000, 1348

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by J. A. Chu et al which investigated the relationship between self-reported

childhood abuse and dissociative symptoms and amnesia. The present author

argues that the article by Chu et al stretches credibility by describing a

remarkable skewed clinical population. It is contended that Chu et al

misrepresents the literature, misunderstands the nature of proof, and mistakes

belief for evidence. 



Title: "Memories of childhood abuse: Dissociation, amnesia, and

corroboration": Reply.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Chu, James A.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 157(8) Aug 2000, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2000, 1348-1349

Abstract/Review/Citation: Responds to M. I. Good, A. Piper, H. Merckelbach, R.

A. Powell, and H. Merskey's  comments on J. H. Chu et al's article which investigated the

relationship between self-reported childhood abuse and dissociative symptoms

and amnesia. The present author addresses the comments concerning the

methodological difficulties of the use of participant self-reports in the

research and notes that these limitations were acknowledged in the study. It

is argued that the results should not be dismissed for methodological reasons.

The author concludes that although the Chu et al study cannot be described as

conclusive or definitive, it does underscore the presence and aftereffects of

the still underreported and often-denied reality of child abuse in American




Title: Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual

and physical abuse in childhood.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Heim, Christine; Newport, D. Jeffrey; Heit, Stacey; Graham, Yolanda P.; Wilcox, Molly; Bonsall, Robert; Miller, Andrew H.; Nemeroff, Charles B.

Source/Citation: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association; Vol 284(5)

Aug 2000, US: American Medical Assn; 2000, 592-597

Abstract/Review/Citation: Hypothesized that stress early in life results in a

persistent sensitization or hyperactivity of CNS corticotropin-releasing

factor (CRF) systems to even mild stress in adulthood, contributing to the

development of mood and anxiety disorders. 49 females (aged 18-45 yrs)

completed the Early Trauma Inventory. For the induction of stress, the authors

used a standardized psychosocial stress protocol. Hormone and heart rate data

were analyzed. Maximum adrenocorticotropic hormone responses minus baseline

were more than 6-fold higher in abused women with depression. Abused women

with current depression exhibited higher cortisol responses than all other




Title: "Marrying my rapist?!": The cultural trauma among Chinese rape


Author(s)/Editor(s): Luo, Tsun-Yin

Source/Citation: Gender & Society; Vol 14(4) Aug 2000, US: Sage Publications

Inc; 2000, 581-597

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study conceptualizes rape trauma as embedded in

the cultural construction of rape and consequently manifested in the

psychological process of individual rape survivors. The author conducted

in-depth interviews with 35 female rape survivors (aged 14-43 yrs) in Taiwan

to examine their self-reported traumatic experiences in relation to the

cultural meaning of rape in Chinese society. In analyzing the interview

accounts, this study identified several kinds of trauma predominantly

experienced among the interviewed rape survivors. This study found that the

psychological trauma among individual rape survivors in Taiwan, although

similar to rape trauma symptoms documented in Western literature, seems to

manifest a relatively distinct cultural construction of rape in Chinese

society. Study implications for rape-related educational and treatment

programs in Taiwan are suggested in the context of Chinese cultural

construction of rape. A table of demographic and assault information of study

participants is appended. 



Title: Cognitive processing of trauma cues in adults reporting repressed,

recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): McNally, Richard J.; Clancy, Susan A.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Pitman, Roger K.

Source/Citation: Journal of Abnormal Psychology; Vol 109(3) Aug 2000, US:

American Psychological Assn.; 2000, 355-359

Abstract/Review/Citation: Psychologically traumatized people exhibit delayed

color naming of trauma words in the emotional Stroop task. Four groups of

participants were asked to color name positive words, neutral words, and

trauma words; these groups included 15 women who believed that they harbored

repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), 13 women who reported

recovered memories of CSA, 15 women who had never forgotten their CSA, and 12

women who had never been abused. Repressed-memory participants exhibited

patterns of interference indistinguishable from those of the nonabused control

group participants. Irrespective of group membership, the severity of

self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms was the only significant

predictor of trauma-related interference, r(48) = .30 , p < .05.



Title: Parallel selves as the end of grief work.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Liiceanu, Aurora

Source/Citation: Loss and trauma: General and close relationship perspectives.,

Philadelphia, PA, US: Brunner-Routledge; 2000, (xxv, 415), 112-120

Source editor(s): Harvey, John H. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: The material for this chapter is drawn from a larger

study of collective and personal memory and the reciprocal nurturing function

in a small village community during the last 50 yrs. Among the life stories

collected, one refers to the death of 2 boys and the process of identity

change of their mother. She is about 60 yrs old and the death happened quite a

long time ago--15 yrs. Bereavement as a central part of her life story seems

to be a normal human experience, out of grief complications or pathology. 

My purpose was to capture the intersection between the presence of the other

as helping agent and the individual subject to the experience of the

children's death. The psychology of loss needs to focus not only on people's

perceptions and stories of loss, but also on how their perceptions and stories

change over time. As R. A. Neimeyer (1998) shows, recent research makes

emergent the idea that meaning reconstruction in response to a loss is the

central process in grieving. The experience of grieving, even treated as a

private act, does not happen outside the context of interpersonal

interactions. In such contexts, sometimes, the other can strongly contribute

to restoration-oriented coping. 



Title: Posttraumatic stress disorder, dissociation, and trauma exposure in

depressed and nondepressed veterans.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wilkeson, Adele; Lambert, Michael T.; Petty, Frederick

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 188(8) Aug 2000,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000, 505-509

Abstract/Review/Citation: Increasing evidence indicates that exposure to

traumatic events predisposes individuals to depressive symptoms as well as to

emotional and psychophysiological symptoms covered under the diagnostic

criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma exposure history and

PTSD symptoms would, therefore, be expected to be more common in a depressed

population than in a nondepressed group. To examine the association between

trauma exposure (trauma load), dissociation, and depression, the authors

administered clinical interviews and an assessment package derived from

existing instruments (including the Dissociative Experiences Scale; DES) to

101 veteran patients (mean age 47 yrs) with histories of clinically

significant depression and a comparison group of 49 medical patients with no

history of depression. The depression group had experienced significantly

higher numbers of traumatic incidents, had higher average DES scores, and more

frequently met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The findings support the argument

for a causal or predisposing effect of trauma in the expression of clinically

significant depression. 



Title: Traumatized psychotherapists.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Miller, Laurence

Source/Citation: Cognitive-behavioral strategies in crisis intervention (2nd

ed.)., New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press; 2000, (xxii, 470), 429-445

Source editor(s): Dattilio, Frank M. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This chapter describes the particular stresses and

intervention strategies for psychotherapists who are often on the front lines

of crisis intervention: emergency mental health clinicians and trauma

therapists. A case study of a 55-yr-old psychologist and a 29-yr-old social

worker is presented. 



Title: Does a visual perceptual disturbance characterize trauma-related anxiety


Author(s)/Editor(s): Tym, Robert; Dyck, Murray J.; McGrath, Gaye

Source/Citation: Journal of Anxiety Disorders: Special Issue: Current clinical

challanges in the treatment of anxiety disorders; Vol 14(4) Jul-Aug 2000, US:

Elsevier Science Inc; 2000, 377-394

Abstract/Review/Citation: The i-test was developed to assess the

visual-perceptual disturbances (VPDs) frequently reported by anxious patients.

Persons with the disturbance report a specific abnormal illusion of movement

when they maintain a fixed gaze at the i-test stimulus. Base rates for

positive responses to the i-test and for reports of a "recurrent specific

memory" (RSM) of a fear experience were obtained in a psychiatric

outpatient (n = 301) and community (n = 128) samples (aged 12-82 yrs). In each

case, approximately one fifth of participants had a positive response to the

i-test and one fifth of participants reported an RSM of fear. When psychiatric

patients with both an abnormal illusion of movement response and an RSM of

trauma are treated with eye movement desensitization, both symptoms are

removed in 70% of cases; when these patients undergo some other form of

treatment, both symptoms are removed in 30% of cases. These results indicate

that the i-test is an effective way of identifying VPDs associated with

psychopathologic conditions; the association between the abnormal illusion of

movement and reports of recurrent specific memories of fear experiences

suggests that the VPD may be a marker of traumatic stress syndromes.  ========================================


Title: Collusion and denial of childhood sexual trauma in traditional societies.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Yueksel, Sahika

Source/Citation: International handbook of human response to trauma., New York,

NY, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2000, (xvi, 477), 153-162 The

Plenum series on stress and coping.

Source editor(s): Shalev, Arieh Y. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the occurrence and the nature of child sexual

abuse (CSA) in Turkey in help-seeking patients to evaluate the dimensions of

the problem and to help those who survived. Ss included 96 female patients

(aged 14-45 yrs) referred for psychiatric treatment who reported a history of

CSA before the age of 16. The Ss' cases were evaluated in terms of

sociodemographic features, histories of physical and sexual trauma, patterns

of family relationships, psychopathology, and other long-term adjustments

problems. Clinical diagnoses were made on the basis of Mental

Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) criteria. Beyond formal diagnoses, other

adjustment problems were also investigated. Most of the Ss asked for help long

after the incident. Only 12% came during the time of abuse, and 15% in the 3

mo following it. The duration of the abuse ranged from 1-17 yrs. Most of the

Ss' mothers were housewives, and the others were unskilled workers; Ss'

fathers tended to have higher educational levels than mothers, and most of

them had regular jobs. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was the most

frequent diagnosis. The results indicate that CSA is frequent in Turkey. The

supporting of traumatized individuals within the specific constraints of the

Turkish culture is discussed. 



Title: Using a metaphor in working with disaster survivors.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Carmichael, Karla D.

Source/Citation: Journal for Specialists in Group Work; Vol 25(1) Mar 2000, US:

Sage Publications Inc; 2000, 7-15

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the metaphorical use of the story of The

Wizard of Oz in counseling tornado disaster survivors in a small US

community. A 3-hr introductory session was attended by 30 residents (aged

8-late 50s), approximately a quarter of the community. In the last hr a

counselor educator began group telling of the story, metaphorically

interpreting various aspects, including Dorothy's shoes as inner strength, the

dog as significant people, and the Yellow Brick Road as the trauma recovery

process. Discussion progressed to residents offering their personal

interpretations, allowing them to indirectly and less painfully express their

perspectives. Members then began directly discussing their experiences, with

the story providing a common reference point. It is concluded that The Wizard

of Oz was an effective intervention with these tornado disaster survivors,

serving the 3 functions of remembrance, teaching, and motivation.  ========================================


Title: Acute stress disorder scale: A self-report measure of acute stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.

Source/Citation: Psychological Assessment; Vol 12(1) Mar 2000, US: American

Psychological Assn.; 2000, 61-68

Abstract/Review/Citation: The Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS) is a

self-report inventory that (a) indexes acute stress disorder (ASD) and (b)

predicts posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The ASDS is a 19-item,

inventory that is based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria.

The ASDS possessed good sensitivity (95%) and specificity (83%) for

identifying ASD against the ASD Interview on 99 civilian trauma survivors.

Test-retest reliability of the ASDS scores between 2 and 7 days was strong (r

= .94). The ASDS predicted 91% of bushfire survivors who developed PTSD and

93% of those who did not; one third of those identified by the ASDS as being

at risk did not develop PTSD, however. The ASDS shows promise as a screening

instrument to identify acutely traumatized individuals who warrant more

thorough assessment for risk of PTSD.



Title: The alpha-sub-1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin ameliorates combat trauma

nightmares in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: A report of 4 cases.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Raskind, Murray A.; Dobie, Dorcas J.; Kanter, Evan D.; Petrie, Eric C.; Thompson, Charles E.; Peskind, Elaine R.

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry; Vol 61(2) Feb 2000, US:

Physicians Postgraduate Press Inc; 2000, 129-133

Abstract/Review/Citation: CNS adrenergic hyperresponsiveness may be involved in

the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, 4

consecutively identified combat veterans (aged 50-75 yrs) with chronic PTSD

and severe intractable combat trauma nightmares participated in an 8-wk open

trial of escalating-dose prazosin, an alpha-sub-1-adrenergic antagonist.

Nightmare severity response was rated using the nightmare item of the

Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (D. D. Blake et al, 1995) and the Clinical

Global Impressions-Change scale (E. Lehmann, 1984). The 2 Ss who achieved a

daily prazosin dose of at least 5 mg were markedly improved, with complete

elimination of trauma nightmares and resumption of normal dreaming. The 2 Ss

limited to 2 mg of prazosin to avoid excessive blood pressure reduction were

moderately improved with at least 50% reduction in nightmare severity. These

clinical observations, together with neurobiological evidence for

alpha-sub-1-adrenergic regulation of CNS neurobiological systems relevant to

PTSD, provide rationale for placebo-controlled trials of prazosin for PTSD

combat trauma nightmares. 



Title: Postraumatic stress dysfunction and other reactions of the victims of

house burglary.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Caballero, Miguel Angel; Ramos, Luciana; Saltijeral, Maria Teresa

Source/Citation: Salud Mental; Vol 23(1) Feb 2000, Mexico: Revista Salud Mental;

2000, 8-17

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the psychological effects in Mexicans,

derived from their experience of being burglarized at home. Tape recorded

interviews were made in 20 informants (aged 20-68 yrs) 1 mo and 6 mo after the

burglary. The analyses were done according to the characteristics of the

house-burglary and the reactions developed by it, including the symptoms of

such disorder. Results show that house burglary is experienced mainly as a

severe violation or intrusion of their intimacy. The more common symptoms were

the memories and the psychological distress when exposed to similar

situations. Ss usually avoid thoughts and feelings related to the experienced

burglary. Another frequent reaction is their concern for the future, and the

prevalence of irritability and hypervigilance. Most of the victims experienced

sadness and blue feelings. The comparison of the symptoms 1 mo and 6 mo after,

showed that although in general most of the reaction decreased with time, some

of them persisted, producing much distress in the informants. The duration of

some reactions and the suffering related to them are emphasized and discussed.



Title: The lived experience of adult male survivors who allege childhood sexual

abuse by clergy.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Fater, Kerry; Mullaney, Jo Ann

Source/Citation: Issues in Mental Health Nursing; Vol 21(3) Apr-May 2000, US:

Taylor & Francis; 2000, 281-295

Abstract/Review/Citation: Phenomenological study that describes the essential

structure of the lived experience of adult male survivors of childhood sexual

abuse by clergy. A purposive sample of seven survivors (aged 28-48 yrs old)

related their subjective experiences in semistructured interviews. P.

Colaizzi's (1978) phenomenological method was used for data analysis.

Survivors describe a bifurcated rage and spiritual distress that pervades

their entire "lifebeing." Learning about adult survivors of

childhood sexual abuse by clergy will assist nurses to identify potential risk

factors, design prevention strategies, and enhance empathy for a healing




Title: Prevalence and patterns of posttraumatic stress disorder in abused and

postabused women.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Woods, Stephanie J.

Source/Citation: Issues in Mental Health Nursing; Vol 21(3) Apr-May 2000, US:

Taylor & Francis; 2000, 309-324

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examined the prevalence and patterns of

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in abused and postabused

women. A convenience sample of 53 abused, 55 postabused, and 52 nonabused

women (ages 18-67 yrs old) completed measures related to physical and

emotional abuse by an intimate partner, risk of homicide, and PTSD. Results

indicated that PTSD symptoms were present in both the abused and postabused

women and were positively correlated with the severity of abuse and risk of

homicide that the women experienced. The postabused women were out of the

abusive relationship an average of nine years, yet continued to experience

PTSD symptoms. The results of this investigation provides direction for future

research needed to examine the association between lifetime exposure to

violent trauma and PTSD symptomatology in women who have been abused by

intimate partners. 



Title: Emotional outbursts and post-traumatic stress disorder during

intracarotid amobarbital procedure.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Masia, S. L.; Perrine, K.; Westbrook, L.; Alper, K.; Devinsky, Orrin

Source/Citation: Neurology; Vol 54(8) Apr 2000, US: Lippincott Williams &

Wilkins; 2000, 1691-1693

Abstract/Review/Citation: Severe emotional outbursts (SEOs) during intracarotid

amobarbital procedures (IAP) rarely jeopardize preoperative language and

memory testing. All 4 epileptic patients (female 13, 36, and 43 yr olds and a

male 40 yr old) with outbursts in this study had experienced significant

emotional trauma (3 were raped and 1 witnessed a decapitation), compared with

26 of 546 patients (4.8%) without outbursts. Evocative injections were

ipsilateral to seizure focus. IAP may disrupt emotional balance in some

traumatized patients; however, counseling may prevent SEOs.  ========================================


Title: Stay-leave decision making in battered women: Trauma, coping and


Author(s)/Editor(s): Lerner, Christine Fiore; Kennedy, Linda Thomas

Source/Citation: Cognitive Therapy & Research; Vol 24(2) Apr 2000, US:

Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2000, 215-232

Abstract/Review/Citation: Most often, for battered women, the decision to stay

or leave is not made at a single point in time with finality, but instead

unfolds over time, and represents the most fundamental and difficult decision

women may face. In order to increase knowledge of the complex factors involved

in stay-leave experiences for women in violent relationships, this study

focused on explicating multiple variables relevant to battered women who were

either in a violent relationship or who had left a violent relationship. Five

relationship status groups were examined to better understand the potential

differences in in women's experiences at different points in time: (1) women

in violent relationships; (2) women out of a violent relationship for up to 6

mo; (3) women out of a violent relationship from 6 mo to 1 yr; (4) women out

of a violent relationship 1-3 yrs; (5) women out of a violent relationship 3

yrs or more. One hundred ninety-one women (aged 18-58 yrs) participated in

this study. Results indicated that dynamic psychological variables such as

self-efficacy, trauma symptoms, and coping varied depending on whether women

were in or out of the relationship and how long it had been since they had

left the relationship. 



Title: Fluvoxamine reduces physiologic reactivity to trauma scripts in

posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Tucker, Phebe; Smith, Kurt L.; Marx, Brian; Jones, Dan; Miranda, Robert Jr.; Lensgraf, Jay

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology; Vol 20(3) Jun 2000, US:

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000, 367-372

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed the effect of open-label fluvoxamine

treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms, and

physiologic arousal to trauma cues. Baseline psychometric ratings and

physiologic assessments of heart rate and blood pressure responses to

individualized, taped trauma scripts were determined for 16 18-65 yr old

patients with PTSD and 16 mentally healthy age- and gender-matched control Ss

exposed to at least 1 serious trauma. Patients with PTSD had greater autonomic

reactivity than control Ss at baseline, with physiologic measures correlating

with the severity of the PTSD for the combined groups. Discriminant analyses

indicated that systolic blood pressure best classified patients with PTSD and

control Ss, with a stepwise discriminant analysis showing that combined

physiologic variables correctly classified 75% of patients with PTSD and 100%

of control Ss. After 10 wks of fluvoxamine treatment, patients' PTSD,

depression, and physiologic reactivity improved significantly. Medicated

patients with PTSD could not be distinguished statistically from untreated

control Ss in any physiologic measure.  ========================================


Title: Systematic assessment of mental health following various types of

posttrauma support.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Larsson, Gerry; Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom

Source/Citation: Military Psychology; Vol 12(2) 2000, US: Lawrence Erlbaum

Associates; 2000, 121-135

Abstract/Review/Citation: Evaluated the influence of different forms of support

(peer support, ventilation or defusing led by the ordinary group leader, and

more formal debriefing sessions led by an external counselor) on mental health

following traumatic experiences, using a prospective study design. The sample

consisted of a 510 members of a Swedish batallion in Bosnia (20-53 yrs of

age), who was part of NATO's implementation force in 1996. Preservice

assessment was made of personality, sense of coherence, and mental health.

One-third of the soldiers experienced traumatic situations during their

service. Results showed that poor mental health after service was related more

to preservice mental health and sense of coherence than to trauma exposure and

posttrauma support. Peer support followed by a defusing session had a positive

effect on postservice mental health, although this did not apply to the

individuals with the worst preservice mental health. The value of formal

debriefings could not be evaluated due to insufficient data.  ========================================


Title: Urinary catecholamines and cortisol in recent-onset posttraumatic stress

disorder after motor vehicle accidents.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hawk, Larry W.; Dougall, Angela Liegey; Ursano, Robert J.; Baum, Andrew

Source/Citation: Psychosomatic Medicine; Vol 62(3) May-Jun 2000, US: Williams

& Wilkins Co.; 2000, 423-434

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined relationships among stress hormone levels,

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis and symptoms, and gender

shortly after a common civilian trauma. Levels of catecholamines and cortisol

in 15-hr urine samples were examined in 31 female and 24 male 18-65 yr olds

who had been in serious motor vehicle accidents and in 22 age-matched

controls. Results show that catecholamines were related to PTSD diagnosis and

symptoms, but only among men: PTSD-symptomatic men who had been in an accident

exhibited elevated levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine 1 mo after the

accident and had higher epinephrine levels 5 mo later. Intrusive thoughts

predicted catecholamine levels at 1 mo, and avoidance of trauma-relevant

stimuli was associated with higher epinephrine levels 5 mo later. These

effects were not significant among women. Urinary cortisol was also elevated

among PTSD-symptomatic men, but not women, and only immediately (1 mo) after

the accident. For men and women, greater emotional numbing predicted a lower

cortisol level 6 mo after the accident.  ========================================


Title: Impaired social response reversal. A case of 'acquired sociopathy'.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Blair, R. J. R.; Cipolotti, L.

Source/Citation: Brain; Vol 123(6) Jun 2000, England: Oxford Univ Press; 2000,


Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents the case of a male patient with acquired

sociopathy following trauma to the right frontal region, including the

orbitofrontal cortex. J. S. (aged 56 yrs) fulfilled the criteria for

Antisocial Personality Disorder and was rated at average or above on a number

of intelligence measures. J. S. showed no reversal learning impairment, but

showed severe difficulty in emotional expression recognition, autonomic

responding, and social cognition. He displayed difficulty in identifying

violations of social behavior. J. S.'s performance was contrasted with another

patient who also presented with a grave dysexecutive syndrome but no socially

aberrant behavior, and with 5 prison inmates with developmental psychopathy.

Results show that acquired sociopathy is distinguishable from developmental

psychopathy and need not be associated with general reversal learning

impairments. It is not an inevitable result of executive dysfunction. It is

concluded that multiple neurocognitive systems are involved in social cognition. 



Title: Psychological debriefing for road traffic accident victims: Three-year

follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mayou, R. A.; Ehlers, A.; Hobbs, M.

Source/Citation: British Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 176 Jun 2000, England: Royal

College of Psychiatrists; 2000, 589-593

Abstract/Review/Citation: Psychological debriefing is widely used for trauma

victims, but there is uncertainty about its efficacy. The authors previously

reported a randomized controlled trial (M. Hobbs et al, 1996) which concluded

that at 4 mo it was ineffective. This study evaluated the 3-yr outcome in a

randomized controlled trial of debriefing for consecutive Ss (aged 16-65 yrs)

hospitalized following a road traffic accident. Patients were assessed while

in the hospital by methods including the Impact of Event Scale (IES) and Brief

Symptom Inventory (BSI), and were reassessed at 3 mo and 3 yrs. The

intervention was psychological debriefing. The intervention group had a

significantly worse outcome at 3 yrs in terms of general psychiatric symptoms

(BSI), travel anxiety when being a passenger, pain, physical problems, overall

level of functioning, and financial problems. Patients who initially had high

intrusion and avoidance symptoms (IES) remained symptomatic if they had

received the intervention, but recovered if they did not receive the

intervention. Findings suggest that psychological debriefing is ineffective

and has adverse long-term effects, and thus is not an appropriate treatment

for trauma victims. 



Title: Exploring the counselor's experience of working with perpetrators and

survivors of domestic violence.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Iliffe, Gillian; Steed, Lyndall G.

Source/Citation: Journal of Interpersonal Violence; Vol 15(4) Apr 2000, US: Sage

Publications Inc; 2000, 393-412

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the professional and personal impact on

counselors from working with domestic violence (DV) clients. Semi-structured

interviews with 18 counselors (mean age 45.8 yrs) having case loads of more

than 50% DV clients yielded themes including initial impact of DV counseling,

personal impact of hearing traumatic material, changes to cognitive schema,

challenging issues for DV counselors, burnout, and coping strategies. Ss

described classic symptoms of vicarious trauma, and reported changes in

cognitive schema, particularly in regard to safety, world view, and gender

power issues. Challenging aspects of DV counseling included changes in

counseling practice to meet the unique needs of DV clients, difficulties with

confidentiality, and feelings of isolation and powerlessness. 12 Ss reported

feelings of burnout. Reported adaptive strategies included monitoring client

caseloads, debriefing, peer support, self-care and political involvement for

social change. 



Title: Cocaine dependence with and without posttraumatic stress disorder: A

comparison of substance use, trauma history and psychiatric comorbidity.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Back, Sudie; Dansky, Bonnie S.; Coffey, Scott F.; Saladin, Michael E.; Sonne, Susan; Brady, Kathleen T.

Source/Citation: American Journal on Addictions; Vol 9(1) Win 2000, US: Taylor

& Francis; 2000, 51-62

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the relationship between substance use

severity, trauma history, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and

psychiatric comorbidity in a treatment-seeking sample of 91 cocaine dependent

individuals (aged 18-55 yrs). Structured clinical interviews revealed that

42.9% of the sample met Mental Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) criteria for

lifetime PTSD. Comparisons between individuals with and without lifetime PTSD

revealed that individuals with PTSD had significantly higher rates of exposure

to traumatic events, earlier age of 1st assault, more severe symptomatology,

and higher rates of Axis I and Axis II diagnoses. The results illustrate a

high incidence of PTSD among cocaine dependent individuals. Routine assessment

of trauma history and PTSD may assist in the identification of a subgroup of

cocaine users in need of special prevention and treatment efforts.  ========================================


Title: The timing, triggers and qualities of recovered memories in therapy.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Andrews, Bernice; Brewin, Chris R.; Ochera, Jenny; Morton, John; Bekerian, Debra A.; Davies, Graham M.; Mollon, Phil

Source/Citation: British Journal of Clinical Psychology; Vol 39(1) Mar 2000,

England: British Psychological Society; 2000, 11-26

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reports descriptive data on memory recovery of

traumatic material including degree of prior amnesia, triggers to recovery,

qualities of the memory and length of time taken to recover different types of

memory. Practitioners who reported having clients with recovered memories were

contacted for an in-depth interview in which they each provided information on

up to 3 such clients. Using telephone interviews with 108 therapists, 236

detailed accounts of clients recovering a traumatic memory were examined.

Results show that the degree of amnesia varied widely according to therapists:

some clients bad prior total amnesia, others a prior vague sense or suspicion,

and others prior partial memories. Time in therapy before first recall was

longer for memories involving child sexual abuse than for memories of other

traumas. The majority of the memories, but not all, were similar to those

reported by patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): they were

fragmented, accompanied by high levels of emotion, and experienced as a

reliving of the original event. On the basis of current understanding of

memory processes, several mechanisms may be needed to explain all the data,

including disruptions to the encoding and retrieval of traumatic events and

errors in the attribution of the source of specific memories.  ========================================


Title: Relationships among trauma exposure, chronic posttraumatic stress

disorder symptoms, and self-reported health in women: Replication and extension.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kimerling, Rachel; Clum, Gretchen A.; Wolfe, Jessica

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 13(1) Jan 2000, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2000, 115-128

Abstract/Review/Citation: 52 women (mean age 48.7 yrs) who served during the

Vietnam era were assessed for war-zone exposure, traumatic life events,

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and self-reported health status.

Symptoms of PTSD were examined as mediators in the relationship between

traumatic exposure and subsequent reports of health problems. Results showed

that PTSD symptoms accounted significantly for variance in health problems

reported by women with prior traumatic stressor exposure. When the cardinal

symptom domains of PTSD (reexperiencing, numbing, avoidance, hyperarousal)

were analyzed separately, the symptom cluster representing hyperarousal

accounted uniquely for the variance associated with health complaints, beyond

that contributed by other symptom clusters. Discussion of the results focuses

on mechanisms underlying the relationship between specific symptoms of PTSD

and self-reported health. Implications for intervention within the medical

system are also considered. 



Title: "Amnesia" for summer camps and high school graduation: Memory

work increases reports of prior periods of remembering less.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Read, J. Don; Lindsay, D. Stephen

Source/Citation: Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol 13(1) Jan 2000, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2000, 129-147

Abstract/Review/Citation: Claims regarding amnesia for childhood sexual abuse

have often been based on studies of adults' responses to questions of the

form, "Was there ever a period of time when you remembered less of the

abuse than you do now?" In this experiment, 43 adults (aged 27-69 yrs)

rated their current and prior memories of several nontraumatic

childhood/adolescent events. Reports of prior periods of less memory were

fairly common. Ss then engaged in "reminiscence" or

"enhanced" retrieval activities directed toward remembering more

about a selected target event. Following retrieval, 35% of the reminiscence

condition Ss reported prior poor memory for the target event, as did 70% of

the enhanced condition Ss. Results highlight the need for appropriate control

conditions in retrospective studies of amnesia for childhood trauma.  ========================================


Title: Neurological findings in complex regional pain syndromes--analysis of 145


Author(s)/Editor(s): Birklein, Frank; Riedl, B.; Sieweke, N.; Weber, M.; Neundoerfer, B.

Source/Citation: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica; Vol 101(4) Apr 2000, US:

Munksgaard Scientific Journals; 2000, 262-269

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examines the neurological symptoms which characterize

complex regional pain syndromes (CRPSs). Diagnoses for CRPSs were made for 145

patients aged 15-80 yrs. CRPSs followed limb trauma, surgery, and lesion, and

all Ss were assessed clinically. Pain was quantified using the McGill pain

questionnaire, skin temperature was measured by an infrared thermometer, and a

subgroup of 57 Ss was retested in order to determine thermal thresholds (QST).

In a structured interview, 61 Ss reported serious life events in a close

relationship to the onset of CRPS and 60 Ss had a history of chronic pain

before CRPS. The latter group of Ss gave a higher rating of CRPS pain, and the

major symptoms were pain at rest in 77% and hyperalgesia in 94%. Typical pain

was deep in the limb having a tearing character, and Ss getting physical

therapy had significantly less pain than those without. Autonomic signs were

frequent (98%) and often changed with the duration of CRPS. Skin temperature

was warmer in acute and colder in chronic stages. Also, edema had a higher

incidence in acute stages. There was no correlation found between pain and

autonomic dysfunction. Motor dysfunction was present in 97% of Ss. QST

revealed increased warm perception thresholds and decreased cold pain

thresholds of the affected limb. 



Title: Residual catatonic state following neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Caroff, Stanley N.; Mann, Stephan C.; Keck, Paul E. Jr.; Francis, Andrew

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology; Vol 20(2) Apr 2000, US:

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000, 257-259

Abstract/Review/Citation: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is usually a

self-limited disorder, with most cases resolving within 2 wks after

antipsychotic drug discontinuation. However, the course of NMS may not always

be short-lived. This report describes 5 patients (aged 21-78 yrs) with

dementia, mental retardation, or head trauma who developed a residual

catatonic state that persisted after acute hyperthermic symptoms of NMS had

subsided and compares them with 27 similar cases in the literature. Two of the

patients recovered gradually with supportive treatment. Three patients were

treated with ECT. Of these, 2 showed a positive response, although 1 died

later of intercurrent pneumonia. A 3rd patient did not respond to ECT, but

recovered gradually thereafter. Although dopamine agonists or benzodiazepines

have been advocated for the treatment of residual symptoms in previous case

reports, ECT was the treatment most often associated with a rapid response and

no mortality, even in patients refractory to pharmacotherapy. It is concluded

that catatonic and parkinsonian symptoms of NMS may persist as a residual

state lasting for weeks to months after more fulminant acute symptoms abate.

These residual symptoms may be more likely to develop in patients with

preexisting structural brain disorders.  ========================================


Title: Multimodal early onset stimulation (MEOS) in rehabilitation after brain


Author(s)/Editor(s): Gruener, M. Lippert; Terhaag, D.

Source/Citation: Brain Injury; Vol 14(6) Jun 2000, US: Taylor & Francis;

2000, 585-594

Abstract/Review/Citation: An early and consistent administration of the correct

rehabilitation programme is of crucial importance for the restoration and

improvement of cerebral function, as well as social reintegration. This has

led to the development of a multimodal onset stimulation therapy (MEOS), which

the neurosurgical intensive care unit administers during an early phase of

rehabilitation of patients who have been in a coma for more than 48 hours

after trauma. This study, which was carried out over a period of 2 years,

focuses on 89 patients aged 16-65 years suffering from severe brain injury. 16

of these fulfill the criteria required to start the MEOS. The authors were

able to identify significant changes in 2 of the patients' vegetative

parameters (e.g.,. heart and respiratory frequencies), even in cases of deep

coma. The most significant changes were caused by tactile and acoustic

stimulation. Standardized behavioural assessment turned out to be particularly

advisable in cases of medium coma. Here, too, a stimulation of the tactile and

acoustic senses resulted mainly in head and eye movements.  ========================================


Title: Interactive psychoeducational group therapy in the treatment of authority

problems in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lubin, Hadar; Johnson, David Read

Source/Citation: International Journal of Group Psychotherapy; Vol 50(3) Jul

2000, US: Guilford Publications; 2000, 277-269

Abstract/Review/Citation: The use of interactive psychoeducational group therapy

to ameliorate authority problems of Vietnam veterans with combat-related

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is described. Despite the common

occurrence of authority problems in this population, and the degree of damage

they have caused in family, work, and legal domains, they are rarely

specifically targeted by treatment interventions. A conceptual framework

linking psychological trauma with distortions in authority relations is

presented, followed by the format, procedures, and case examples of this form

of group therapy. By uncovering the distorted beliefs associated with

traumatic schemas as they emerge in the group interaction, the group therapist

can first help the clients question their assumptions about authority, and

then explore more adaptive behaviors. The need to examine in greater detail

the causes and impact of authority problems among clients with posttraumatic

stress disorder is emphasized. 



Title: Relationship to perpetrator and posttraumatic symptomatology among sexual

abuse survivors.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lucenko, Barbara A.; Gold, Steven N.; Cott, Melissa A.

Source/Citation: Journal of Family Violence; Vol 15(2) Jun 2000, US: Kluwer

Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2000, 169-179

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated the association of several dimensions of

relationship to perpetrator of childhood sexual abuse to posttraumatic

symptomatology (PTS) in adulthood. A structured clinical interview, the Impact

of Event Scale, and the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 were administered to 67

women survivors (aged 18-58 yrs) seeking psychotherapy. The t-tests for

significant differences indicated that Ss whose perpetrators were not

caretakers experienced higher levels of PTS in adulthood than those abused by

caretakers. No significant differences were found in traumatic symptomatology

between those whose perpetrators were family members and those whose

perpetrators were not or between those abused by someone in the home and those

abused by someone outside the household. Implications for future research and

clinical practice are explored. 



Title: Terminal illness and schizophrenia.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kelly, Brendan D.; Shanley, David

Source/Citation: Journal of Palliative Care; Vol 16(2) Sum 2000, Canada:

Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Center for Bioethics; 2000, 55-57

Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents the case of a 59-yr-old man with a background

of paranoid schizophrenia and a terminal brain tumor. To meet the needs of

this patient and of his family, the psychiatry and palliative hospital care

teams provided combined care. The S was admitted to a psychiatry unit because

his symptoms were related to an exacerbation of his psychiatric illness

attributable to his malignancy, because the S was familiar with the staff of

the psychiatry unit, and because the unit was attached to a general hospital

with an active palliative care team. The S's existing psychiatric symptoms

were worsened by his physical illness and by the trauma of hospital admission

and investigation. The successful management of psychosis created optimal

conditions for palliative care intervention and gave the patient the

opportunity to speak with his family between psychotic episodes.  ========================================


Title: Profiling the trauma related symptoms of Bosnian refugees who have not

sought mental health services.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Weine, Stevan M.; Razzano, Lisa; Brkic, Nenad; Ramic, Alma; Miller, Ken; Smajkic, Amer; Bijedic, Zvezdana; Boskailo, Esad; Mermelstein, Robin; Pavkovic, Ivan

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 188(7) Jul 2000,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000, 416-421

Abstract/Review/Citation: The objective of this study was to profile

trauma-related psychiatric symptoms in a group of refugees not seeking mental

health services. The study involved research assessments of 2 groups of

Bosnian refugees (aged 19-89 yrs): those who have not presented for mental

health services and those who have. A total of 28 of 41 nonpresenters (70%)

met symptom criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. All

service presenters (N = 29) met symptom criteria for PTSD diagnosis. The group

that did not present for services reported substantial but lower trauma

exposure, PTSD symptom severity, and depression symptom severity. They had

significant differences on all subscales of the MOS SF-36 (J. E. Ware and C.

D. Sherbourne, 1992), indicating better health status. The authors concluded

that those who do not seek services have substantial symptom levels, but their

self-concept appears to be less oriented toward illness and help seeking.

Innovative access, engagement, and preventive interventions are needed to

address those who have symptoms but do not readily seek help for trauma mental

health services. 



Title: "Disability associated with psychiatric comorbidity and health

status in Bosnian refugees living in Croatia": Commentary.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Coyne, James C.; Kagee, Ashraf

Source/Citation: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association; Vol 283(1)

Jan 2000, US: American Medical Assn; 2000, 55

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by R. F. Mollica about the disability associated with psychiatric comorbidity and health status in Bosnian refugees living in Croatia. Here, J. C. Coyne and A. Kagee question both Mollica et al's conclusion that the survey of Bosnian refugees supports the "ubiquitousness of comorbid psychiatric illness in traumatized refugees,' and the attribution of substantial disability to the

described psychiatric conditions. Coyne and Kagee comment on the problems in

self-reporting and other methodological procedures used in the Mollica et al

study. Also expressed is the notion that an overestimation of the prevalence

of psychiatric morbidity, and a misattribution of physical disability to

psychiatric conditions are likely to lead to a misallocation of scarce




Title: "Disability associated with psychiatric comorbidity and health

status in Bosnian refugees living in Croatia": Commentary.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Karcic, Arsad A.; Karcic, Edin

Source/Citation: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association; Vol 283(1)

Jan 2000, US: American Medical Assn; 2000, 55-56

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by R. F. Mollica et al about the disability associated with psychiatric comorbidity and health status in Bosnian refugees living in Croatia. The present authors criticize Mollica et al's narrow definition of trauma used in the article as one which fails to include prewar or postwar trauma, focusing

instead on open warfare aspects such as shelling, snipers, and torture. The

fact that data from only a single refugee camp was analyzed could prevent

reliable conclusions about all Bosnian refugees.  ========================================


Title: Trauma exposure and alcohol use in battered women.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Clark, Alicia H.; Foy, David W.

Source/Citation: Violence Against Women; Vol 6(1) Jan 2000, US: Sage

Publications, Inc; 2000, 37-48

Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of the present study was to examine the

relationship between battering severity and alcohol use among battered women.

The study used multiple regression analyses to examine predictive

relationships between 3 forms of trauma exposure--childhood physical and

sexual abuse and domestic violence-and alcohol use. A sample of 78 battered

women (aged 18-55 yrs) drawn from both shelter and nonresidential community

agencies. Ss completed a demographic questionnaire, the Sexual Abuse Exposure

Questionnaire, the Assessing Environments III, and the Conflict Tactics

Scales. Both battering severity and childhood sexual abuse were positively

correlated with alcohol use. Multiple regression analysis showed that

childhood sexual abuse was the stronger predictor when collinearity was




Title: Dissociation, psychopathology, and abusive experiences in a nonclinical

Latino university student group.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Bernal, Guillermo

Source/Citation: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology; Vol 6(1)

Feb 2000, US: Educational Publishing Foundation; 2000, 32-41

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the possible relationship between different

types of traumatic experiences and the self-report of dissociative

experiences, depressive symptoms, and general psychopathology in a sample of

198 Puerto Rican undergraduate students between the ages of 17 and 42 yrs

through the application of several psychological testing instruments. The

study also examined the psychometric properties of the Dissociative

Experiences Scale (DES) in a Latino sample. Results support the hypothesis

that those individuals who report frequent and severe traumatic experiences

are also the most likely to experience psychological malaise. Those reporting

frequent and severe traumatic experiences scored higher on the DES.

Psychometric characteristics of the DES are consistent with those reported in

the United States and other countries. The authors conclude that individuals

with a marked history of trauma and abuse are more likely to use dissociative

defenses as a coping response. 



Title: Deployment and the probability of spousal aggression by U.S. Army soldiers.

Author(s)/Editor(s): McCarroll, James E.; Ursano, Robert J.; Liu, Xian; Thayer, Laurie E.; Newby, John H.; Norwood, Ann E.; Fullerton, Carol S.

Source/Citation: Military Medicine; Vol 165(1) Jan 2000, US: Assn. of Military

Surgeons of the U.S.; 2000, 41-44

Abstract/Review/Citation: Explored the relationship between length of soldier

deployment (0 vs <3 vs 3-6 vs 6-12 mo) in the past year and self-report of

moderate and severe spousal violence. The Conflict Tactics Scale was used to

measure self-reports of behaviors exhibited in marital conflict. Surveys were

administered to a 15% random sample of 26,835 deployed and nondeployed married

active duty US Army men and women in the US during 1990-1994. The multinomial

logistic regression model showed that percentage of Ss endorsing moderate and

severe aggression increased with length of deployment. After controlling for

demographic variables, probability of severe aggression was significantly

greater for Ss who had deployed in the past year than in Ss who had not

deployed, and that probability increased for each length of deployment.




Title: Predictors of comorbid personality disorders in patients with panic

disorder with agoraphobia.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Latas, Milan; Starcevic, Vladan; Trajkovic, Goran; Bogojevic, Goran

Source/Citation: Comprehensive Psychiatry; Vol 41(1) Jan-Feb 2000, US: WB

Saunders & Co; 2000, 28-34

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined predictors of comorbid personality disorders

in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDAG). 60 outpatients (aged

21-53 yrs) with PDAG were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for

DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Logistic regressions were used

to identify predictors of any comorbid personality disorder, any DSM-IV

cluster A, B, or C personality disorder. Independent variables were gender,

age, duration of panic disorder (PD), severity of PDAG, and patients'

perception of their parents, childhood separation anxiety, and traumatic

experiences. High levels of parental protection on the Parental Bonding

Instrument (PBI) emerged as the only statistically significant predictor of

any comorbid personality disorder. This finding was attributed to the

association between parental overprotection and cluster B personality

disorders, particularly borderline personality disorder. The duration of PD

was a significant predictor of any cluster B and any cluster C personality

disorder. Any cluster B personality disorder was also associated with younger

age. The findings of suggest some specificity for the association between

parental overprotection in childhood and personality disturbance in PDAG

patients, particularly cluster B personality disorders.  ========================================


Title: Women's experience of traumatic stress in cancer treatment.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hampton, Mary Rucklos; Frombach, Inger

Source/Citation: Health Care for Women International; Vol 21(1) Jan-Feb 2000,

US: Taylor & Francis; 2000, 67-76

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated gender differences in the prevalence and

predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of cancer

patients. 87 patients (59 women and 28 men) recruited from a local cancer

clinic completed measures of individual coping style, social support

resources, symptoms of PTSD, and the nature of the trauma associated with

these symptoms. PTSD symptoms were more frequently reported by women (27% vs

10%). Predictors of PTSD for women were (1) perceived intensity of cancer

treatment; (2) problems with health care professionals; and (3) cognitive

avoidant coping style. For men, the sole predictor of elevated PTSD scores was

behavioral avoidance. Women reported significantly higher levels of treatment

intensity, greater numbers and types of treatment, and more problems with

health care professionals. Interpersonal and relational aspects of their

illness were reported as most stressful, compared with men who were more

concerned with work and finances. These differences may, in part, reflect an

androcentric model of cancer treatment, which women experience as particularly




Title: Delay in disclosure of childhood rape: Results from a national survey.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Smith, Daniel W.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Best, Connie L.

Source/Citation: Child Abuse & Neglect; Vol 24(2) Feb 2000, US: Elsevier

Science Inc; 2000, 273-287

Abstract/Review/Citation: Gathered representative data regarding the length of

time women who were raped before age 18 delayed prior to disclosing such

rapes, whom they disclosed to, and variables that predicted disclosure within

1 mo. Data were gathered from 3,220 Wave II respondents from the National

Women's Study, a nationally representative telephone survey of women's experiences with trauma and mental health. Of these, 288 retrospectively reported at least 1 rape prior to their 18th birthday. Details of rape experiences were analyzed to identify

predictors of disclosure within 1 mo. Fully 28% of child rape victims reported

that they had never told anyone about their child rape prior to the research

interview; 47% did not disclose for over 5 yrs post-rape. Close friends were

the most common confidants. Younger age at the time of rape, family

relationship with the perpetrator, and experiencing a series of rapes were

associated with disclosure latencies longer than 1 mo; shorter delays were

associated with stranger rapes. Logistic regression revealed that age at rape

and knowing the perpetrator were independently predictive of delayed




Title: Neurologic soft signs in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Gurvits, Tamara V.; Gilbertson, Mark W.; Lasko, Natasha B.; Tarhan, Alexandra S.; Simeon, Daphne; Macklin, Michael L.; Orr, Scott P.; Pitman,

Roger K.

Source/Citation: Archives of General Psychiatry; Vol 57(2) Feb 2000, US:

American Medical Assn; 2000, 181-186

Abstract/Review/Citation: Attempted to replicate previous findings reporting

more neurologic soft signs (NSSs) in a sample of male Vietnam War combat

veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with male Vietnam

veterans without PTSD (T. V. Gurvits et al, 1993). Ss were 21 females exposed

to childhood sexual abuse (CSA), of whom 12 had PTSD and 9 did not, and 38

male Vietnam War combat veterans, of whom 23 had PTSD and 15 did not. Ss were

given the protocol for evaluating NSSs in which 41 NSSs were scored.

Information about neurologic and medical conditions, past head injury, and

neurodevelopmental problems was elicited. All Ss completed the Michigan

Alcoholism Screening Test and the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Veterans completed

an abbreviated version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence ScaleRevised (WAISR)

and the Combat Exposure Scale. Results replicate and extend previous findings

of neurologic compromise in persons with chronic PTSD, as revealed by a more

frequent history of neurodevelopmental problems and a greater number of

objective NSSs in Ss with PTSD compared with trauma-exposed controls. The

individual NSS items that best discriminated Ss with PTSD from those without

were copying 2- and 3-dimensional figures and rhythmically and sequentially

touching the thigh with the fist, then the palm, then the side of the left

hand for 15 repetitions. 



Title: Risk factors associated with PTSD and major depression among Cambodian

refugees in Utah.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Blair, Robert G.

Source/Citation: Health & Social Work; Vol 25(1) Feb 2000, US: National Assn

of Social Workers; 2000, 23-30

Abstract/Review/Citation: The study reported in this article is a secondary

analysis of data collected from a random sample of 124 Cambodian adults (aged

18 -76 yrs). Participants were interviewed about their mental health status

and factors associated with a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder

(PTSD) or major depression. From analysis of the data, the following risk

factors were identified with PTSD and depression: experiencing a greater

number of war traumas increased the risk of both PTSD and major depression;

experiencing a greater number of resettlement stressors during the past year

increased the risk of both PTSD and major depression; and having financial

stress increased the risk of major depression.  ========================================


Title: Hypersomnia after head-neck trauma: A medicolegal dilemma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Guilleminault, Christian; Yuen, K. M.; Gulevich, M. G.;

Karadeniz, D.; Leger, D.; Philip, P.

Source/Citation: Neurology; Vol 54(3) Feb 2000, US: Lippincott Williams &

Wilkins; 2000, 653-659

Abstract/Review/Citation: Evaluated the severity of daytime sleepiness in

patients with a history of head trauma who complained of daytime somnolence,

investigated polygraphic abnormalities during sleep, and determined whether

daytime sleepiness was the cause or consequence of head trauma. The authors

performed a systematic evaluation of 184 patients (aged 18-54 yrs) comprised

of clinical interviews, sleep disorders questionnaires, sleepiness and

depression scales, medical and neurologic evaluations, sleep logs with

actigraphy, nocturnal polysomnography, and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test

(MSLT). Post-traumatic complaint of somnolence was associated with variable

degrees of impaired daytime functioning in more than 98% of patients. Ss who

were in a coma for 24 hrs, who had a head fracture, or who had immediate

neurosurgical interventions were likely to have scores >16 points on the

Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and <=5 minutes on the MSLT. Pain at night

was an important factor in nocturnal sleep disruption and daytime sleepiness.

Extensive evaluation of pretrauma behavior supported the conclusion that the

onset of symptomatic sleep-disordered breathing was associated with the

trauma. Ss who showed a "compulsive presleep behavior" were severely

impaired in performing their daily activities.  ========================================


Title: Are neurological abnormalities in schizophrenic patients and their

siblings he result of perinatal trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Ismail, B.; McNeil, T. F.

Source/Citation: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica; Vol 101(2) Feb 2000, US:

Munksgaard Scientific Journals; 2000, 142-147

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the role of perinatal trauma in the etiology

of neurological abnormality. Obstetric information obtained from hospital

records for 55 schizophrenic patients (aged 19-35 yrs) and 19 non-psychotic

siblings (mean age 17-51 yrs) was scored blindly and separately from a

neurological assessment of hard and soft signs. Obstetric complications (OCs)

were significantly increased in patients but not in siblings compared to their

respective neonatal control groups. Neurological abnormalities were related to

OCs in siblings but not in patients. Neurological abnormalities in patients

were negatively related to reduced neonatal head circumference. Early somatic

trauma may increase the probability of neurological abnormality in individuals

who are genetically 'at risk.' 



Title: Prior interpersonal trauma: The contribution to current PTSD symptoms in

female rape victims.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Nishith, Pallavi; Mechanic, Mindy B.; Resick, Patricia A.

Source/Citation: Journal of Abnormal Psychology; Vol 109(1) Feb 2000, US:

American Psychological Assn.; 2000, 20-25

Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of the current study was to disentangle

the relationship of childhood sexual abuse and childhood physical abuse from

prior adult sexual and physical victimization in predicting current

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in recent rape victims. The

participants were a community sample of 117 adult rape victims assessed within

1 month of a recent index rape for a history of child sexual abuse, child

physical abuse, other adult sexual and physical victimization, and current

PTSD symptoms. Results from path analyses showed that a history of child

sexual abuse seems to increase vulnerability for adult sexual and physical

victimization and appears to contribute to current PTSD symptoms within the

cumulative context of other adult trauma.  ========================================


Title: Emotional processing in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Litz, Brett T.; Orsillo, Susan M.; Kaloupek, Danny; Weathers, Frank

Source/Citation: Journal of Abnormal Psychology; Vol 109(1) Feb 2000, US:

American Psychological Assn.; 2000, 26-39

Abstract/Review/Citation: The emotional deficits associated with posttraumatic

stress disorder (PTSD) are the least understood and the most understudied

aspect of the syndrome. In this study, the connection was evaluated between

trauma-context reactivity and subsequent emotional deficits in PTSD. Combat

veterans with PTSD and well-adjusted veteran control participants were exposed

to reminders of combat, after which their emotional behavior was assessed in

response to a series of emotionally evocative images. Under the neutral

condition, both groups exhibited emotional behavior modulated by stimulus

valence. Partially consistent with the conceptual model described by B. Litz

(1992), the PTSD group exhibited suppressed expressive-motor responses to

positively valenced images, in comparison with the control group, only after

being exposed to a trauma-related prime. Contrary to expectations, the PTSD

group showed no augmentation of emotional response to negatively valenced cues

after being exposed to trauma reminders. However, the PTSD group responded to

all images, in both prime conditions, with higher heart rate reactivity,

suggesting an automatic preparation for demand or threat in any uncertain

emotional context. Possible causes and consequences of these results are




Title: The epidemiology of major depression: Implications of occurrence,

recurrence, and stress in a Canadian community sample.

Author(s)/Editor(s): De Marco, Richard R.

Source/Citation: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 45(1) Feb 2000, Canada:

Canadian Psychiatric Assn; 2000, 67-74

Abstract/Review/Citation: Studied the effects of stress process variables on the

prevalence of major depression (MD) and explored the factors related to its

onset and recurrence, using comprehensive measures of stress and disorder.

Data were collected from a randomly selected community sample of 1,393 adult

respondents in Toronto. Depression was measured using the Composite

International Diagnostic Interview. Demographic and stress process correlates

of MD and the effects of childhood experiences on lifetime MD were examined.

Multivariate analysis tended to show agreement with established findings.

Results using a subsample of people with lifetime depression to predict

recurrence tended to mirror results using the full sample, except with respect

to gender, birthplace, and stress differences. Finally, childhood traumas and

early childhood experiences involving parental substance abuse and mental

health problems were significant predictors of the onset of MD.  ========================================


Title: Emergency cesarean section: 25 women's experiences.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Ryding, E. L.; Wijma, K.; Wijma, B.

Source/Citation: Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology; Vol 18(1) Feb

2000, United Kingdom: Carfax Publishing Limited; 2000, 33-39

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated the possibility: (1) To record women's

individual experiences of emergency cesarean section according to a

time-spatial model. (2) To categorize the narratives of the event into

different groups, based on different patterns displayed. (3) To demonstrate

relations between features of the patterns described and a traumatic delivery

experience, as well as posttraumatic intrusive stress reactions. 25

consecutive women (aged 23-42 yrs) were interviewed a few days and 1-2 months

after emergency cesarean section. The occurrence of a traumatic delivery

experience and of posttraumatic intrusive stress reactions 6 wks postpartum in

various categories was assessed. The narratives of the women were be

categorized as follows: Pattern 1--confidence whatever happens; Pattern

2--positive expectations turning into disappointment; Pattern 3--fears that

come true; and Pattern 4--confusion and amnesia. In the 2nd and 3rd groups all

women had experienced the delivery as traumatic. The women in the 2nd group

had the highest prevalence of posttraumatic intrusive stress reactions 6 wks

after the emergency cesarean section.  ========================================


Title: Intrusive traumatic recollections and comorbid posttraumatic stress

disorder in depressed patients.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Carlier, Ingrid V. E.; Voerman, Bert E.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.

Source/Citation: Psychosomatic Medicine; Vol 62(1) Jan-Feb 2000, US: Williams

& Wilkins Co.; 2000, 26-32

Abstract/Review/Citation: Recent studies have found evidence of the presence and

role of intrusive traumatic memories in depressed patients. This study

attempted to replicate these findings by examining a full range of early and

later traumatic events, as well as comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder

(PTSD) in 24 male and 45 female depressed outpatients (aged 21-81 yrs). Ss

completed a semistructured interview inquiring about traumatic events they had

experienced. Reexperiencing of the traumatic events in question, as well as

avoidance and hyperarousal, were recorded by means of a structured interview

operationalizing Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria for PTSD. 75% of Ss

were found to have had one or more early and/or more recent traumatic

experience(s), The symptom category of reexperiencing was diagnosed in 48% of

these trauma-exposed Ss. Comorbid PTSD was diagnosed in 13% of the total

sample. Ss with the reexperiencing symptom of acting/feeling as if trauma were

recurring suffered a greater number of depressive episodes. No significant

associations appeared between the total reexperiencing category and either

intensity of depression or number of depressive episodes. Findings show that

depressed patients are highly likely to have experienced traumatic events and

to suffer from intrusive traumatic recollections.  ========================================


Title: Blood and love.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Herzog, James

Source/Citation: International Journal of Psychoanalysis; Vol 81(2) Apr 2000,

England: Institute of Psychoanalysis; 2000, 263-272

Abstract/Review/Citation: In this clinical presentation both transgenerationally

transmitted and directly inflicted trauma are examined as constituents in the

psychic life of a gifted little girl called Natalia. Her attempts to eroticise

and thus modulate those aspects of her experience which have deformed her play

processes are described and the ways in which the analysis served to help her

both recognise and regulate this material is detailed. The paper is organised

around material from the opening phase of the work, the play which

characterised the middle of the analysis and the examination of an essay which

the patient wrote in the closing phase. The central role of affect for each

participant in the analytic work is stressed as a pivotal component of the

play process. 



Title: Childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms in panic disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Marshall, Randall D.; Schneier, Franklin R.; Lin, Shu-Hsing; Simpson, H. Blair; Vermes, Donna; Liebowitz, Michael

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 157(3) Mar 2000, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2000, 451-453

Abstract/Review/Citation: Childhood trauma has been associated with increased

risk for both panic disorder and dissociative symptoms in adulthood. The

authors hypothesized that among individuals with a primary diagnosis of panic

disorder, those experiencing depersonalization/derealization during panic

attacks would be more likely to have a history of childhood trauma. Rates of

traumatic events were compared between 34 panic disorder patients with and 40

without prominent depersonalization/derealization during panic attacks.

Symptom severity in the 2 groups was also examined. Contrary to the authors'

hypothesis, no evidence was found that depersonalization/derealization during

panic attacks was associated with childhood trauma. Minimal differences in

severity of illness were found between patients with dissociative symptoms and

those without such symptoms. 



Title: Sleep in a community sample of elderly war veterans with and without

posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Engdahl, Brian E.; Eberly, Raina E.; Hurwitz, Thomas D.; Mahowald, Mark W.; Blake, Julee

Source/Citation: Biological Psychiatry; Vol 47(6) Mar 2000, US: Elsevier Science

Inc; 2000, 520-525

Abstract/Review/Citation: Studied sleep in a community sample of war veterans

with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). 59 elderly males (aged

61-80 yrs) exposed to war trauma 28-50 years ago and free from sleep-affecting

medications and disorders other than PTSD completed 3 nights of

polysomnography. Of these Ss, 30 met criteria for current PTSD; 3 were

receiving supportive outpatient psychotherapy. Two significant differences

were observed: Those with PTSD had a higher percentage of REM sleep and fewer

arousals from non-REM sleep. The perceptions of sleep quality among the Ss

with PTSD were lower than the perceptions of non-PTSD Ss. Although Ss with

untreated obstructive sleep apnea and sleep movement disorders were not

included in the sample, many cases were detected on initial screening.

Treatment resulted in improved sleep and increased feelings of well being.

Alterations in REM and arousals characterized PTSD in this sample. When

comorbid sleep disorders were ruled out, sleep was clinically similar across

the groups. Trauma-related sleep disturbances that Ss reported as arising

early in the course of the disorder appear to have declined over time.



Title: Serotonergic blunting to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) highly

correlates with sustained childhood abuse in impulsive and autoaggressive

female borderline patients.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Rinne, Thomas; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; den Boer, Johan A.; van den Brink, Wim

Source/Citation: Biological Psychiatry; Vol 47(6) Mar 2000, US: Elsevier Science

Inc; 2000, 548-556

Abstract/Review/Citation: Tests the hypothesis that sustained traumatic stress

in childhood affects the responsivity of the postsynaptic serotonergic (5-HT)

system of traumatized borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients.

Following Axis I, Axis II, and trauma assessment, a neuroendocrine challenge

test was performed with the postsynaptic serotonergic agonist

meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) in 12 impulsive and autoaggressive female

patients with BPD and 9 matched healthy volunteers (aged 18-45 yrs). The

cortisol and prolactin responses to the m-CPP challenge in BPD patients were

significantly lower compared to those in controls. Within the group of

patients with BPD, the net prolactin response showed a high inverse

correlation with the frequency of the physical and sexual abuse. These data

suggest that severe and sustained traumatic stress in childhood affects the

5-HT system and especially 5-HT-sub-1-sub(A ) receptors. The blunted prolactin

response to m-CPP appears to be the result of severe traumatization and

independent of the BPD diagnosis.  ========================================


Title: Similarity of prior trauma exposure as a determinant of chronic stress

responding to an airline disaster.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Dougall, Angela Liegey; Herberman, Holly B.; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Inslicht, Sabra S.; Baum, Andrew

Source/Citation: Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology; Vol 68(2) Apr

2000, US: American Psychological Assn; 2000, 290-295

Abstract/Review/Citation: The cumulative effects of trauma were examined in 108

workers at the site of a major air disaster at 4 time points over a year

following the crash. The influence of trauma history on chronic distress and

physiological arousal associated with the crash were examined. Stress levels

were expected to differ on the basis of the similarity of prior trauma

exposure to work at the crash site. Prior traumatic exposure that was

"dissimilar" to this type of work was associated with greater

vulnerability to crash-related stress, that is, more distress and

crash-related intrusions during the year following the crash. Accumulation of

a variety of different traumatic experiences appeared to sensitize workers to

the new stressor and to perpetuate chronic stress. Understanding the role of

trauma history is important for improving intervention efforts aimed at

alleviating stress following a trauma.  ========================================


Title: Ethical considerations in research participation among acutely injured

trauma survivors: An empirical investigation.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Ruzek, Josef I.; Zatzick, Douglas F.

Source/Citation: General Hospital Psychiatry; Vol 22(1) Jan-Feb 2000, US:

Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc; 2000, 27-36

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined ethical considerations in research

participation among 117 physically injured, hospitalized, motor vehicle

accident and assault survivors (aged 14-61 yrs). Immediately following a 1-hr

research interview, Ss responded to 10 questions assessing the experience of

research participation. The majority of study Ss found participating in the

protocol a positive experience. Most of the hospitalized patients reported

that they experienced control over initiation and discontinuation of the

protocol and that they derived benefit from their research participation. A

minority of participants reported that they experienced unwanted thoughts and

unanticipated upset during the protocol and that they felt they could not

refuse participation. However, over 95% of patients reported that the benefits

of protocol participation outweighed the costs and that in retrospect they

would again agree to participate. These results suggest that while a minority

of participants may have difficulties with specific aspects of protocol

enrollment, overall research participation is well tolerated by the majority

of acutely injured, hospitalized, trauma survivors.  ========================================


Title: Two-year prospective evaluation of the relationship between acute stress

disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder following mild traumatic brain injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Harvey, Allison G.; Bryant, Richard A.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 157(4) Apr 2000, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2000, 626-628

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed the ability of acute stress disorder to

predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by determining the relationship

between acute stress disorder and PTSD over the 2 yrs following mild traumatic

brain injury. 79 survivors of motor vehicle accidents who sustained mild

traumatic brain injuries were assessed for acute stress disorder within 1 mo

of the trauma. 63 survivors were assessed for PTSD at 6 mo and 50 at 2 yrs

posttrauma (aged 17-58 yrs). Acute stress disorder was diagnosed in 14% of the

patients. Among the patients who participated in all 3 assessments, 80% of the

Ss who met the criteria for acute stress disorder were diagnosed with PTSD at

2 yrs. Of the total initial group, 73% of those diagnosed with acute stress

disorder had PTSD at 2 yrs. This study provides further support for the

utility of the acute stress disorder diagnosis as a predictor of PTSD but

indicates that the predictive power of the diagnostic criteria can be

increased by placing greater emphasis on reexperiencing, avoidance, and

arousal symptoms. 



Title: Posttraumatic stress disorder after severe traumatic brain injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bryant, Richard A.; Marosszeky, Jeno E.; Crooks, Jenelle; Gurka, Joseph A.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 157(4) Apr 2000, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2000, 629-631

Abstract/Review/Citation: Indexed the profile of posttraumatic stress disorder

(PTSD) after severe traumatic injury to the brain. 96 patients (aged 16-71

yrs) who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury were assessed for PTSD 6 mo

after the injury with the PTSD Interview, a structured clinical interview

based on Mental Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) criteria. PTSD was diagnosed

in 26 (27.1%) of the patients. While only 5 (19.2%) of the patients with PTSD

reported intrusive memories of the trauma, 25 (96.2%) reported emotional

reactivity. Intrusive memories, nightmares, and emotional reactivity had very

strong positive predictive values for the presence of PTSD. These findings

indicate that PTSD can develop after severe traumatic brain injury. The

predominance of emotional reactivity and the relative absence of traumatic

memories in patients with PTSD who suffered impaired consciousness during

trauma suggest that traumatic experiences can mediate PTSD at an implicit




Title: De novo conditioning in trauma-exposed individuals with and without

posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Orr, Scott P.; Metzger, Linda J.; Lasko, Natasha B.; Macklin, Michael L.; Peri, Tuvia; Pitman, Roger K.

Source/Citation: Journal of Abnormal Psychology; Vol 109(2) May 2000, US:

American Psychological Assn.; 2000, 290-298

Abstract/Review/Citation: Differential conditioning was assessed in 15

medication-free individuals meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of

Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria

for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 18 trauma-exposed

individuals who never developed PTSD (non-PTSD). Conditioned stimuli (CSs)

were colored circles, and the unconditioned stimulus was a "highly

annoying" electrical stimulus. Individuals with PTSD had higher resting

heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) levels and produced larger SC

orienting responses. During conditioning, the PTSD group showed larger

differential SC, HR, and electromyogrant responses to the reinforced vs.

nonreinforced stimuli (CS+ vs. CS-) compared with the non-PTSD group. Only

PTSD participants continued to show differential SC responses to CS+ vs. CS-

during extinction trials. Results suggest that individuals with PTSD have

higher sympathetic nervous system arousal at the time of conditioning and are

more conditionable than trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD.  ========================================


Title: A prospective study of psychophysiological arousal, acute stress

disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bryant, Richard A.; Harvey, Allison G.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Moulds, Michelle L.

Source/Citation: Journal of Abnormal Psychology; Vol 109(2) May 2000, US:

American Psychological Assn.; 2000, 341-344

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study investigated the role of acute arousal in

the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Hospitalized

motor-vehicle-accident survivors (n = 146) were assessed for acute stress

disorder (ASD) within 1 month of the trauma and were reassessed (n = 113) for

PTSD 6 months posttrauma. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were

assessed on the day of hospital discharge. Participants with subclinical ASD

had higher HR than those with ASD and no ASD. Participants who developed PTSD

had higher HR in the acute posttrauma phase than those without PTSD. Diagnosis

of ASD and resting HR accounted for 36% of the variance of the number of PTSD

symptoms. A formula composed of a diagnosis of ASD or a resting HR of >90

beats per minute possessed strong sensitivity (88%) and specificity (85%) in

predicting PTSD. These findings are discussed in terms of acute arousal and

longer term adaptation to trauma.  ========================================


Title: Ferenczi's "Confusion of Tongues" theory and the analysis of

the incest trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Rachman, Arnold Wm.

Source/Citation: Psychoanalytic Social Work; Vol 7(1) 2000, US: Haworth Press

Inc; 2000, 27-53

Abstract/Review/Citation: The tender-mother transference of S. Ferenczi's

humanistic analytic orientation was as important an advance in pioneering

times as was H. Kohut's selfobject transference in contemporary

psychoanalysis. Ferenczi's clinical theory and method began a focus on

pre-oedipal experiences, which eventually became an alternate to the oedipal

theory. Freud was critical of Ferenczi's formulation, leading a successful

attempt to suppress his work and remove it from mainstream psychoanalysis

because he believed it was "regressive." In actuality, Ferenczi's

"Confusion of Tongues" theory and relaxation therapy were prophetic

and pioneering attempts to understand and treat the incest trauma (ironically

the clinical data upon which Freud founded psychoanalysis 100 yrs ago). In the

case of Miss T., a 40-yr-old woman who was abused during childhood, Ferenczi's

ideas are applied to the contemporary analysis of the incest trauma.  ========================================


Title: Surviving roots of trauma: Prevalence of silent signs of sex abuse in

patients who recover memories of childhood sex abuse as adults.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Leavitt, Frank

Source/Citation: Journal of Personality Assessment; Vol 74(2) Apr 2000, US:

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2000, 311-323

Abstract/Review/Citation: Explored whether victimization imagery is chronically

accessible in sex-abused populations, and if it is helpful in distinguishing

them from nonabused populations. Eight categories of victimization imagery

were selectively activated by Rorschach stimuli. 265 women (19-62 yrs old)

with or without history of sexual abuse took part in the study . Eight

sex-abuse signs were replicated in a new sample of 36 patients with continuous

memory of sex abuse. Classification accuracy was 83%. By contrast, these signs

were present in only 4% (5 of 115) of the protocols of nonabused patients.

Taken together, the 2 studies confirm reasonably high sensitivity of the 8

signs for sex-abused populations and high specificity for nonabused

populations. The 8 signs were also differentially salient for patients who

recovered memory of childhood sexual trauma as adults. The Rorschach protocols

of 59 of 114 patients with delayed recall of sexual abuse possessed signs of

sex abuse. There was no linkage between therapy and recovered- memory cases

with and without sex-abuse signs. Emergence of trauma memories was not

uniquely traceable to treatment. Memories arose outside of the context of

therapy in over 56% of the cases. Implications for the false-memory debate are




Title: Reverse Othello syndrome subsequent to traumatic brain injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Butler, Peter V.

Source/Citation: Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes; Vol 63(1)

Spr 2000, US: Guilford Publications; 2000, 85-92

Abstract/Review/Citation: Delusional syndromes that occur following head injury

are frequently ascribed directly to the consequences of organic insult and

seen as empty of psychological significance. The presence of an organic

factor, however, does not necessarily indicate that delusional ideation is a

direct product of that factor. In this article a detailed report is given of

Reverse Othello syndrome (a delusional belief in the fidelity of a romantic

partner) appearing in a 49-yr-old male following extremely severe traumatic

brain injury. This case report highlights the interaction and interpenetration

of a complex array of biological, psychological, and social factors in the

crystallization of a delusion system. It is argued, following K. Jaspers

theory (1946/1963), that the emergence of erotically themed delusions

following trauma may represent an active attempt to regain intrapsychic

coherence and to confer meaning on otherwise catastrophic loss or emptiness.



Title: Foreign accent syndrome following a catastrophic second injury: MRI

correlates, linguistic and voice pattern analyses.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Carbary, Timothy J.; Patterson, Janet P.; Snyder, Peter J.

Source/Citation: Brain & Cognition; Vol 43(1-3) Jun-Aug 2000, US: Academic

Press Inc; 2000, 78-85

Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents a case of foreign accent syndrome (FAS)

following head and throat trauma from a physical assault, with discussion of

anatomical localization of injury and comparisons of pre- and postinjury

linguistic, phonetic, and acoustic speech characteristics. Because the 51 yr

old male patient's injury and symptoms were unrelated to a previously injured

left frontal cortex, the authors suggest that FAS has a primary subcortical

involvement. This case was also accompanied by a deficit in linguistic, but

not affective, prosodic expression. The foreign quality of the FAS speech is a

perceptual impression of the listener and not inherent in the patient's




Title: The revictimization of child sexual abuse survivors: An examination of

the adjustment of college women with child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault,

and adult physical abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Long, Patricia J.; Siegfried, Nicole J.

Source/Citation: Child Maltreatment: Journal of the American Professional

Society on the Abuse of Children: Special focus section: Repeat

victimization.; Vol 5(1) Feb 2000, US: Sage Publications Inc; 2000, 18-27

Abstract/Review/Citation: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with greater

vulnerability to victimization in adulthood. Such experiences may have a

cumulative effect. This study compared the adjustment of 633 women (aged 17-49

yrs) experiencing revictimization, multiple adult victimizations, single adult

victimization, CSA only, or no victimization. Ss completed the Life

Experiences Questionnaire, Modified Sexual Experiences Survey, Conflict

Tactics Scale, and SCL-90-R. Somatization, depression, anxiety, interpersonal

sensitivity, hostility, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

symptomatology were examined. Results support the cumulative effect of trauma

but do not indicate differential effects for child to adult revictimization.

Women with revictimization and multiple adult assaults reported more

difficulties compared to women with only one form of adult abuse or no

victimization. Women with CSA only reported similar symptoms as revictimized

women and women with multiple adult assaults reported higher levels of

distress than nonabused women and appeared somewhat more likely to experience

anxiety and PTSD-related symptoms as compared to women with only adult abuse.

Women with adult assault only and no abuse reported similar levels of distress. 



Title: Transmission of response to trauma? Second-generation Holocaust

survivors' reaction to cancer.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Baider, Lea; Peretz, Tamar; Hadani, Pnina Ever; Perry, Shlomit; Avramov, Rita; De-Nour, Atara Kaplan

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 157(6) Jun 2000, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2000, 904-910

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined cancer patients who were 2nd-generation

Holocaust survivors in an attempt to determine whether they react to their

illness with the high distress found to be a characteristic of Holocaust

survivors. In a study population of women with breast cancer, 106

2nd-generation Holocaust survivors (mean age 48.4 yrs) were compared to 102

women whose parents were not in the Holocaust. Background information was

obtained by interviews. In addition, all patients completed 3 self-reports:

the Mental Attitude to Cancer Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the

impact of Event Scale. The 2 groups had identical mean scores on the Mental

Attitude to Cancer Scale. The offspring of Holocaust survivors had scores on

the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Impact of Event Scale that were

substantially and significantly higher and in the range of psychopathology.

Within the group, married women and women whose mothers were still alive were

even more distressed. Other independent variables shed little light on why the

2nd-generation Holocaust survivors suffered from extreme distress. It was

concluded that 2nd-generation Holocaust survivors are particularly vulnerable

to psychological distress and, when faced with a trauma such as breast cancer,

react with extreme psychological distress.  ========================================


Title: Prospective study of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive

reactions after earthquake and political violence.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Goenjian, Armen K.; Steinberg, Alan M.; Najarian, Louis M.; Fairbanks, Lynn A.; Tashjian, Madeline; Pynoos, Robert S.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 157(6) Jun 2000, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2000, 911-916

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed the severity and longitudinal course of

posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive reactions among 2 groups of

adults differentially exposed to severe and mild earthquake trauma (mean ages

43 and 29 yrs, respectively) and a 3rd group exposed to severe violence (mean

age 44 yrs). In addition, interrelationships among these reactions and

predictors of outcome and compared posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

symptom category profile and course between those exposed to earthquake and

those exposed to violence was examined. 78 non-treatment seeking Ss were

assessed with self-report instruments approximately 1.5 and 4.5 years after

the 1988 Spitak earthquake in Armenia and the 1988 pogroms against Armenians

in Azerbaijan. The results show that the 2 groups that had been exposed to

severe trauma (earthquake or violence) had high initial and follow-up PTSD

scores that did not remit over the 3 yr interval. Overall, depressive symptoms

subsided. Posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive reactions were highly

intercorrelated within and across both time intervals. It is concluded that

after exposure to severe trauma, either an earthquake or violence, adults are

at high risk of developing severe and chronic posttraumatic stress reactions

that are associated with chronic anxiety and depressive reactions.  ========================================


Title: Battered women's dynamic change process: Examining self-efficacy, trauma

symptoms, anger, and coping in relationship status groups. (women victims).

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kennedy, Linda Thomas

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

& Engineering; Vol 60(7-B) Feb 2000, US: Univ. Microfilms International;

2000, 3569

Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of this study was to increase our

understanding of variables relevant to battered women's stay-leave decision

making process and readiness for behavioral change. With a research design

drawn from the transtheoretical model stage construct of readiness for change

(Prochaska & DiClemente, 1984), participants' data were grouped according

to their relationship status at the time of the study and measured for

differences in self-reports of trauma symptoms, anger, coping, and

self-efficacy for leaving a violent relationship. Self-efficacy (Bandura,

1997a), an important component of behavior change, was further submitted to

regression analyses to examine the predictive value of trauma, coping, abuse

and demographics variables. The participants were a community sample of 191

women, 18 to 58 years of age, experiencing severe physical violence in a

current or past marital, cohabitating, or dating relationship. Each woman

completed an individually scheduled interview and ten measures including the

Trauma Symptom Checklist (Briere & Runtz, 1989), a measure of anger at

their partners (brief, project measure), the Ways of Coping Questionnaire

(Folkman & Lazarus, 1985, 1988), and the Confidence/Temptation Scales

measuring self-efficacy for leaving (Kennedy, 1996). The results of one-way

ANOVAs indicated that women out of their relationships less than six months

reported greater dissociation, similar high levels of emotion-focused coping

and low levels of confidence for leaving, but less temptation to stay with

their partners than women currently in violent relationships. In stepwise

regressions, variables predicting women's temptation to stay or return were

emotion-focused coping, adult sexual abuse, and education. Emotion-focused

coping remained as a unique predictor. Confidence for leaving was predicted by

emotion-focused coping, depression, adult sexual and psychological abuse, and

post-sexual abuse trauma-accounting for 37% of the shared variance, with

emotion-focused coping and depression remaining as unique predictors. These

results add to the developing picture of battered women's dynamic change

process. A greater understanding of this process may assist professionals to

systematically direct interventions for their most effectiveness.  ========================================


Title: Personality disorders, history of trauma, and posttraumatic stress

disorder in subjects with anxiety disorders.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Shea, M. Tracie; Zlotnick, Caron; Dolan, Regina; Warshaw, Meredith G.; Phillips, Katherine A.; Brown, Pamela; Keller, Martin B.

Source/Citation: Comprehensive Psychiatry; Vol 41(5) Sep-Oct 2000, US: WB

Saunders & Co; 2000, 315-325

Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of the study was to examine the

association of personality disorders, history of trauma, and posttraumatic

stress disorder (PTSD) in 3 groups with a total of 622 Ss (mean age 38.3-43.9

yrs) with anxiety disorders. Categorical and continuous indices of personality

disorders were compared in 3 groups from the Harvard/Brown Anxiety Disorders

Research Project (HARP): Ss with no history of trauma, Ss with a history of

trauma but no history of PTSD, and Ss with a current or past diagnosis of

PTSD. Ss with PTSD were more likely to meet criteria for borderline or

self-defeating personality disorder than Ss in the other two groups. PTSD Ss

also had higher scores on the continuous measures (total number of criteria

met) for borderline and self-defeating personality disorder than the other two

groups. The findings suggest that a diagnosis of PTSD rather than a history of

trauma is associated with borderline and self-defeating personality disorder

features. Alternative conceptualizations of axis II features in individuals

with PTSD are discussed. 



Title: Rorschach correlates of sexual abuse: Trauma content and aggression


Author(s)/Editor(s): Kamphuis, Jan H.; Kugeares, Susana L.; Finn, Stephen E.

Source/Citation: Journal of Personality Assessment; Vol 75(2) Oct 2000, US:

Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc; 2000, 212-224

Abstract/Review/Citation: Compared Rorschach records of nondissociative

outpatients with histories of (1) definite sexual abuse (n = 22; mean age 35.2

yrs), (2) suspected but unconfirmed sexual abuse (n = 13; mean age 53.6 yrs),

or (3) no sexual abuse (n = 43; mean age 33.9 yrs) on selected variables

hypothesized to be associated with sexual abuse. As predicted, clients with

definite sexual abuse scored significantly higher than clients known not to be

sexually abused on J. G. Armstrong and R. J. Loewenstein's (1990) Trauma

Content index (TC/R). Contrary to prediction, there was no significant

difference in the frequency of their Aggressive Past (AgPast; C. B. Gacono

& J. R. Meloy, 1994) scores. AgPast scores, however, did positively

correlate with sexual abuse that was violent or sadistic. As a test of

discriminant validity, the authors hypothesized that 2 Rorschach variables

(PER and Sc ) would be unrelated to sexual abuse. This was supported by the

data. Although TC/R was strongly associated with the presence and severity

of sexual abuse, it could not discriminate sexually abused from nonsexually

abused clients with great accuracy. The TC/R score is 1 factor among many

that can be used to assess the validity of clients' claims of past sexual




Title: Coping with survivors and surviving.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Skinner, Julie

Source/Citation: Bristol, PA, US: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Ltd; 2000, (255)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Based on a qualitative study exploring the effects of

child sexual abuse on children, their mothers, and their teachers, this book

considers how the reactions of these different groups relate to, and are

affected by each other. This book focuses on: (1) the family life of the

survivors and the process of disclosure, (2) how all those involved with the

child coped at the time of the disclosure and during its aftermath, and (3)

the issues and tensions which were resolved and those which have remained

unresolved. The author analyzes these different and often conflicting

perspectives, placing them in the context of the literature on coping with

trauma, and psychoanalytic and sociological theories on the mother-child

relationship. A model for exploring the ways in which interaction may affect

perceptions and outcomes is developed that suggests that mothers and teachers

may be seen as secondary victims of child sexual abuse. The author emphasizes

the necessity of support for all those involved in such cases and draws out

the implications for welfare services and makes recommendations for how they

can be improved.



Title: Psychological defense styles and childhood sexual abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Chu, James A.

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 157(10) Oct 2000, US:

American Psychiatric Assn; 2000, 1707

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by S. E. Romans (see record

1999-03084-016) regarding psychological defense styles among women who report

childhood sexual abuse. The current author argues that Romans's findings that

childhood sexual abuse was not related to higher levels of dissociation should

be understood in a larger context. Findings by Chu et al (1993, 1999) are

cited that suggest early onset and chronicity of childhood trauma are related

to the development of dissociation , factors that Romans's study did not

address. Chu argues that on a theoretical basis, some younger children are

believed to have a high capacity to dissociate and maintain that dissociation

only through repeated traumatization. Further, in a community population with

relatively low levels of psychiatric illness, it might be suspected that many

women who were sexually abused suffered relatively limited abuse, for which

they have compensated. However, the types of psychological damage that result

from chronic traumatization beginning at an early age would be more likely

found in clinical populations. 



Title: Autonomic dysregulation in panic disorder and in post-traumatic stress

disorder: Application of power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability at

rest and in response to recollection of trauma or panic attacks.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Cohen, Hagit; Benjamin, Jonathan; Geva, Amir B.; Matar, Mike A.; Kaplan, Zeev; Kotler, Moshe

Source/Citation: Psychiatry Research; Vol 96(1) Sep 2000, US: Elsevier

Scientific Publishers; 2000, 1-13

Abstract/Review/Citation: Power spectral analysis (PSA) of heart rate

variability (HRV) offers reliable assessment of cardiovascular autonomic

responses, providing a window onto the interaction of peripheral sympathetic

and parasympathetic tone. Previous studies of posttraumatic stress disorder

(PTSD) found lower resting HRV in patients compared to controls, suggesting

increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic tone. This article

describes the analysis of HRV at rest and after psychological stress in 11

panic disorder (PD) patients, 14 PTSD patients, and 25 healthy controls (all

Ss aged 19-48 yrs). ECG recordings were made while Ss were resting, while

recalling the trauma implicated in PTSD, or the circumstances of a severe

panic attack, as appropriate, and again while resting. Controls were asked to

recall a stressful life event during recall. While both patient groups had

elevated HR and low frequency (LF) components of HRV at baseline (suggesting

increased sympathetic activity), PTSD patients, unlike PD patients and

controls, failed to respond to the recall stress with increases in HR and LF.

HRV analysis demonstrates significant differences in autonomic regulation of

PTSD and PD patients compared to each other and to controls.  ========================================


Title: Trauma-related psychophysiological reactivity in women exposed to

war-zone stress.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wolfe, Jessica; Chrestman, Kelly R.; Crosby Ouimette, Paige; Kaloupek, Danny; Harley, Rebecca M.; Bucsela, Maria

Source/Citation: Journal of Clinical Psychology; Vol 56(10) Oct 2000, US: John

Wiley & Sons Inc; 2000, 1371-1379

Abstract/Review/Citation: Women are at particular risk for posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD), but surprisingly little is known about their objective

manifestations of the disorder's hallmark symptoms. Although research suggests

that people with PTSD exhibit physiological reactivity to the presentation of

trauma-related cues, the majority of studies to date have focused on men. The

authors assessed the physiological reactions of 3 groups of trauma-exposed

45-62 yr old female Vietnam veterans (n =36; those with current PTSD, lifetime

PTSD, or no PTSD) to war-related stimuli. Responses of women with current PTSD

differed significantly from those without PTSD on skin conductance and

systolic blood pressure, and mean levels of reactivity for women with lifetime

PTSD fell between the other 2 groups. Although symptom severity was correlated

with physiologic reactivity overall, results suggested differential

relationships at the symptom cluster level. Study results replicate earlier

findings with men and extend knowledge of autonomic reactivity to an important

group of female survivors. 



Title: Memory for acute stress disorder symptoms: A two-year prospective study.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Harvey, Allison G.; Bryant, Richard A.

Source/Citation: Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease; Vol 188(9) Sep 2000,

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000, 602-607

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the accuracy of memory for acute trauma

symptoms by comparing the symptoms reported by motor vehicle accident (MVA)

victims within 1 mo posttrauma with the recall of these symptoms at 2 yrs

posttrauma. 92 consecutive MVA admissions (aged 17-63 yrs) were assessed for

the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD) within 1 mo posttrauma. At 2 yrs

posttrauma, 56 Ss were reassessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and

for accuracy of recall of the symptoms reported during the 1st assessment. At

least 1 of the 4 ASD diagnostic clusters was recalled inaccurately by 75% of

patients. High levels of posttraumatic stress severity and high subjective

ratings of injury severity at 2 yrs posttrauma were associated with errors of

addition (i.e., recalling the presence of acute symptoms 2 years posttrauma

that were not reported during the first assessment). Low levels of

posttraumatic stress severity and low subjective ratings of injury severity at

2 yrs posttrauma were associated with errors of omission (i.e., omitting to

recall acute symptoms 2 yrs posttrauma that were reported during the 1st

assessment). These results suggest that retrospective reports of acute stress

symptoms should be interpreted cautiously because of the influence of current

symptoms on recall of acute symptoms.  ========================================


Title: Attitudes to emotional expression and personality in predicting

post-traumatic stress disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Nightengale, J.; Williams, Ruth M.

Source/Citation: British Journal of Clinical Psychology; Vol 39(3) Sep 2000,

England: British Psychological Society; 2000, 243-254

Abstract/Review/Citation: Determined whether negative attitudes toward emotional

expression (EE) act as a predisposing or maintaining factor for posttraumatic

stress reactions following a traumatic event. Attitudes to EE, the "Big

Five" personality factors, and initial symptoms and injury severity

within 1 wk of a road traffic accident were used to predict the development of

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 wks post-accident. 60 attenders (aged

16-61 yrs) of an accident and emergency department responded to measures of

EE, intrusion and avoidance features of traumatic experiences, and anxiety and

depression. 45 of the Ss responded to a follow-up questionnaire that included

the original battery as well as a self-report diagnostic measure of PTSD. The

percentage of the sample meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD at 6 wks

post-trauma was 30.8%. A small but significant relationship was found for

negative attitudes to EE at 1 wk to predict intrusive symptoms and diagnosis

at 6 wks, over and above the independent relationships of initial symptoms,

initial injury severity, personality and coping. The EE measure was largely

stable between the 2 points of measurement. More negative attitudes to EE were

related to less openness, extraversion and agreeableness personality domains.



Title: Dealing with post-traumatic stress disorder: The psychological sequelae

of Bloody Sunday and the response of state services.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hayes, Patrick; Campbell, Jim

Source/Citation: Research on Social Work Practice; Vol 10(6) Nov 2000, US: Sage

Publications Inc; 2000, 705-720

Abstract/Review/Citation: Describes the political context of health and social

care services in Northern Ireland at a time of intense social conflict.

Concepts from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other relevant

international psychological literature were used to study the experience of

the Bloody Sunday families, victims of a traumatic event that happened in

Derry in January 1972. 26 participants (31-56 yrs old) were asked to tell the

story of Bloody Sunday as they experienced it and to comment on the meaning of

that event in their lives. Interview data were compared with the results of

the General Health Questionnaire-12 and the PTSD Symptom Inventory. High

levels of psychological morbidity within this population are reported,

alongside some evidence that families had not received services that may have

helped resolve the trauma. The authors noted that new services planned as a

result of the current peace process may offer social workers and other

professionals new ways to address the unmet needs of people traumatized by the




Title: Aergererleben und Aergerausdrucksverhalten nach Traumatisierung: Ausmass

und Beziehung zu posttraumatischen Belastungsreaktionen nach politischer

Inhaftierung in der DDR./ Trait anger and style of anger expression following

traumatization: Extent and relationship to posttraumatic stress reaction in a

group of former East German political prisoners.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Schuetzwohl, Matthias; Maercker, Andreas

Source/Citation: Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie:

Forschung und Praxis; Vol 29(3) 2000, Germany: Verlag fur Psychologie; 2000,


Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the relationship between posttraumatic stress

reactions, trait anger and style of anger in a group of nontreatment-seeking

former East German political prisoners. 91 former prisoners (15 female, 76

male; mean age 52.7 yrs; mean duration of imprisonment 32 mo) were

administered the Diagnostisches Interview bei psychischen Stoerungen

(diagnostic interview for psychic disorders; Margraf, Schneider and Ehlers,

1994), and categorized according to DSM criteria. Additional instruments

included the revised version of the Impact of Event Scale (Maercker and

Schuetzwohl, 1998), the State-Trait-Aergerausdrucks-Inventar (anger expression

inventory; Schwenkmezger et al, 1992), the Aerger-Dispositionsskala, measuring

trait anger and other scales assessing socio-demographic and trauma-related

variables. The results show high scores on several anger measures. While found

to be unrelated to socio-demographic variables, these measures were negatively

related to the duration of imprisonment. Structural equation modeling revealed

trait anger to correlate directly with posttraumatic intrusions. The results

confirm findings from studies on other traumatic events, indicating the need

for clinicians to be aware of the implications for the treatment of

posttraumatic stress disorders. 



Title: HIV/STD risk factors for women with violent male partners.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Beadnell, Blair; Baker, Sharon A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Knox, Kay

Source/Citation: Sex Roles; Vol 42(7-8) Apr 2000, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum

Publishers; 2000, 661-689

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the relationship of primary relationship

abuse and the factors of ethnicity, relationship characteristics, HIV and

sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk, substance use, psychosocial

characteristics, sexual trauma history, and attendance at a safer sex

intervention. 167 females (aged 18-49 yrs) with steady partners during the

previous 4 mo completed a questionnaire and were categorized as nonabused,

emotionally abused, or physically abused. Results show that physically abused

Ss differed in having greater STD risk, psychosocial distress, and substance

use; more traditional gender role beliefs; lower self-esteem; more likely to

have been raped and to have engaged in sex for pay; and less likely to attend

the project's STD/HIV risk reduction groups. Within primary relationships,

they differed in amount of decision-making power about safer sex, likelihood

of nonmonogamy, use of substances before sex, and self-efficacy about

initiating condom use. African-American Ss reported higher rates of emotional

abuse than White Ss, a finding related mainly to their lower socioeconomic

status in this sample. 



Title: Trauma symptom correlates of criminal victimization in an urban community

sample, South Africa.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Peltzer, Karl

Source/Citation: Journal of Psychology in Africa; South of the Sahara, the

Caribbean & Afro-Latin America; Vol 10(1) 2000, Nigeria: Working Group for

African Psychology; 2000, 49-62

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study investigated trauma symptoms as a

consequence of violent crime in an urban South African community. The sample

included 128 adult victims of violent crime chosen by snowball sampling. The

adults were 36 (28.1%) males and 92 females (71.9%) in the age range of 18 to

52 years. The violent crime had happened among the Ss 1-96 months prior to the

study. A clinical interview was conducted including the following trauma

measures: (a) Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale (PTSS-10), (b) Impact of Event

Scale--Revised (IES-R), (c) Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences

Questionnaire (PDEQ), (d) Trauma Belief Inventory (TBI), and (e) Posttraumatic

Growth Inventory (PGI). Results indicated a rate of posttraumatic stress

disorder (PTSD) of 25.8% as indicated by the PTSS-10 and of 42.2% by the

IES-R. There were significantly positive correlations among the four trauma

symptom measures used in this study. Findings are discussed and implications

for health care services are indicated.  ========================================


Title: Intimate partner violence and stalking behavior: Exploration of patterns

and correlates in a sample of acutely battered women.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.

Source/Citation: Violence & Victims: Special Issue: Stalking and obsessive

behaviors in everyday life: Assessments of victims and perpetrators.; Vol

15(1) Spr 2000, US: Springer Publishing Co; 2000, 55-72