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Attachment and Human Development
Attachment and Child Development
Attachment and Avoidance
Attachment and Relational Trauma
Attachment and Trauma
Attachment and Traumatic Loss
Attachment I
Attachment II
Attachment V
Attachment III
Attachment IV
Attachment and Traumatic Separation
Attachment and Trauma II
Attachment and Separation
Attachment and Relational Trauma II
Attachment and Affect Development
Attachment and Infant Development


and Physiological

Trauma Research



Seize Your Journeys



Traumatic stress is found in many competent, healthy, strong, good people.  No one can completely protect themselves from traumatic experiences.  Many people have long-lasting problems following exposure to trauma.  Up to 8% of persons will have PTSD at some time in their lives. People who react to traumas are not going crazy.  What is happening to them is part of a set of common symptoms and problems that are connected with being in a traumatic situation, and thus, is a normal reaction to abnormal events and experiences.  Having symptoms after a traumatic event is NOT a sign of personal weakness.  Given exposure to a trauma that is bad enough, probably all people would develop PTSD.

By understanding trauma symptoms better, a person can become less fearful of them and better able to manage them. By recognizing the effects of trauma and knowing more about symptoms, a person will be better able to decide about getting treatment.



Secure Attachments as a Defense Against Trauma

“All people mature and thrive in a social context that has profound effects on how they cope with life’s stresses.  Particularly early in life, the social context plays a critical role in suffering an individual against stressful situations, and in building the psychological and biological capacities to deal with further stresses.  The primary function of parents can be thought of as helping children modulate their arousal by attuned and well-timed provision of playing, feeding, comforting, touching, looking, cleaning, and resting—in short, by teaching them skills that will gradually help them modulate their own arousal.  Secure attachment bonds serve as primary defenses against trauma-induced psychopathology in both children and adults (Finkelhor & Browne, 1984).  In children who have been exposed to severe stressors, the quality of the parental bond is probably the single most important determinant of long-term damage (McFarlane, 1988).”

van der Kolk, Bessel, Alexander C. McFarlane, and Lars Weisaeth, eds.  1996. Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society.  New York and London: Guilford Press. .p. 185

 Affect Dysregulation in Traumatized Individuals

“As children mature, they gradually become less vulnerable to over-stimulation and learn to tolerate higher levels of excitement.  Over time, their need for physical proximity to their primary caregivers to maintain comfort decreases, and children start spending more time playing with their peers and with their fathers (Field, 1985). Secure children learn how to take care of themselves effectively as long as the environment is more or less predictable; simultaneously, they learn how to get help when they are distressed.  In contrast, avoidant children learn how to organize their behavior effectively under ordinary conditions, but they remain unable to communicate or interpret emotional signals.  In other words, they know how to handle cognition, but not affect (Crittenden, 1994

            Cole and Putnam (1992) have proposed that people’s core concepts of themselves are defined to a substantial degree by their capacity to regulate their internal states and by their behavioral responses to external stress.  The lack of development, or loss, of self-regulatory processes in abused children leads to problems with self-definition: (1) disturbances of the sense of self, such as a sense of separateness, loss of autobiographical memories, and disturbances of body image; (2) poorly modulated affect and impulse control, including aggression against self and others; and (3) insecurity in relationships, such as trouble functioning in social settings; they tend either to draw attention to themselves or to withdraw from social interactions.  Thus, they tend to display either angry, threatening, fearless, acting-out behavior or meek, submissive, fearful, incompetent behavior.  Problems in articulating cause and effect make it hard for them to appreciate their own contributions to their problems and set the stage for paranoid attributions.”

van der Kolk, Bessel, Alexander C. McFarlane, and Lars Weisaeth, eds.  1996. Traumatic stress: The effects o overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society.  New York and London: Guilford Press. .p. 187

 Manifestations of the Absence of Self-Regulation

“The lack or loss of self-regulation is possibly the most far-reaching effect of psychological trauma in both children and adults.  The DSM-IV field trials for PTSD clearly demonstrated that the younger the age at which the trauma occurred, and the longer its duration, the more likely people were to have long-term problems with the regulation of anger, anxiety, and sexual impulses (van der Kolk, Roth, Pelcovitz, & Mandel, 1993).  Pitman, Orr, and Shalev (1993) have pointed out that in PTSD, hyperarousal goes well beyond simple conditioning.  The fact that the stimuli that precipitate emergency responses are not conditioned enough and that many triggers not directly related to the traumatic experience may precipitate extreme reactions is merely the beginning of the problem.  Loss/lack of self-regulation may be expressed in many different ways: as a loss of ability to focus on appropriate stimuli; as attentional problems; as an inability to inhibit action when aroused (loss of impulse control); or as uncontrollable feelings of rage, anger, or sadness.  The results of a study by McFarlane, Weber, and Clark (1993) of event-related potentials in people with PTSD illustrate these various effects.”

Van der Kolk, Bessel, Alexander C. McFarlane, and Lars Weisaeth, eds.  1996. Traumatic stress: The effects o overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society.  New York and London: Guilford Press. .p. 187


 Eating Disorders

 Substance Abuse









Trauma and Separation



Title: Unresolved conflicts in a divorced family: Case of Charlie, age 10.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Robinson, Howard

Source/Citation: Play therapy with children in crisis:  Individual, group, and

  family treatment (2nd ed.)., New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press; 1999, (xxi,

  506), 272-293

Source editor(s): Webb, Nancy Boyd (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This chapter presents the treatment of a 10-yr-old boy

  in play therapy, whose crisis emerged years after witnessing marital violence,

  living in shelter for battered women, and experiencing the hostile separation

  and divorce of his parents. The boy's symptoms rekindled unresolved family

  conflicts, demonstrating how trauma can be expressed years later as disorder

  in behavior, emotion, and family interaction. The boy's treatment posed

  numerous therapeutic challenges:engaging a parent who was also a trauma

  survivor; using nondirective play techniques with a child and family in

  crisis; and determining what treatment modalities to combine for comprehensive

  treatment planning.



Title: Supportive group therapy for bereavement after homicide.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Rynearson, E. K.; Sinnema, Cindi S.

Source/Citation: Group treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder.,

  Philadelphia, PA, US: Brunner/Mazel, Inc; 1999, (xix, 237), 137-147 The series

  in trauma and loss.

Source editor(s): Young, Bruce H. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Describes supportive group therapy for treating

  bereaved individuals after a homicide. The authors draw from clinical

  experience with trauma survivors and provide a clear multidimensional

  heuristic for viewing traumatic vs separation distress. The authors present a

  model of nonrecovery that suggests that intervention will include supportive

  group therapy as but 1 aspect of a more inclusive approach. This model

  suggests that comorbid psychiatric disorders and intense trauma distress are

  early risk factors for nonrecovery and need intervention before considering a

  support group. The authors recommend an initial involvement in a time-limited

  support group with an agenda that focuses on this aftermath with clarification

  and pragmatic support. Later recovery will deal with the more subjective

  aftermath of trauma and separation distress for which the authors recommend a

  time-limited support group with a different agenda assisting in the

  clarification and shared resolution of persistent trauma distress. ========================================


Title: Promoting successful adoptions:  Practice with troubled families.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Smith, Susan Livingston; Howard, Jeanne A.

Source/Citation: Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc; 1999, (xiv, 274)

  Sage sourcebooks for the human services series, Vol. 40.

Abstract/Review/Citation: This book seeks to build on the authors' own research

  on adoption disruption, adoption dissolution, and postlegal adoption services

  to provide a knowledge based for work with troubled adoptive families. There

  is a great need for social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, residential

  treatment staff, teachers, and others who work with adopted children and

  families to understand the issues, dynamics, and strategies intrinsic to

  adoption preservation work. Such understanding is even more important for

  professionals working with special needs adoptive families. The purpose of

  this book is to present a comprehensive overview of adoption preservation work

  that is linked with the available empirical literature on adoption,

  theoretical knowledge underlying adoption practice, practice knowledge in this

  area, and the insights gained by the authors from their own adoption

  preservation research.  The book makes a case for post-adoption services,

  along with presenting an overview of the needs of adoptive families, common

  dynamics in troubled adoptive families, and a framework for understanding

  issues and interventions.

Notes/Comments:  Preface Special needs don't disappear

  with adoption: The case for post-adoption services Every clinician is in

  post-adoption practice We never thought it would be like this: Presenting

  problems of troubled adoptive families They cry out in many different ways:

  Behavior problems of special needs children Adoption means somebody loves you

  and somebody doesn't: Separation, grief, and attachment issues in work with

  families Invisible wounds: Trauma and its wake I just want to know more about

  who I am: Identity issues A place to turn when there's no place else to go: An

  overview of adoption preservation services No longer all alone in the twilight

  zone: Support groups for children and parents Parenting developmentally

  disabled children Toward a better future: Partnerships to strengthen adoptive

  families Appendix References Index About the authors overview of needs &

  dynamics of troubled adoptive families & framework for understanding

  issues & interventions in providing adoption preservation services



Title: Trauma and adolescence.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Sugar, Max

Source/Citation: Madison, CT, US: International Universities Press, Inc; 1999,

  (xv, 322) Monograph series of the International Society for Adolescent

  Psychiatry, Vol. 1.

Abstract/Review/Citation: Trauma and Adolescence  consists of 3 sections:

  Psychoanalytic Aspects, The Trauma of Physical and Psychosomatic Illness; and

  Social Disruption and the Adolescent Process. Although the topic of trauma in

  adolescence has by no means been exhausted, by examining it from the

  psychoanalytic, somatic, and societal viewpoints as it pertains to

  adolescence, the volume illuminates special areas needing further attention.

Notes/Comments: Preface Acknowledgments Contributors Part I. Psychoanalytic aspects Trauma in adolescence: Psychoanalytic perspectives Samuel E. Rubin Trauma as a potential psychic organizer in adolescence Paola Carbone and Eleda Spano

  Mourning in children and adolescents: The analysis of a bereaved child and his

  reanalysis in late adolescence H. Gunther Perdigao The psychodrama of trauma

  and the trauma of psychodrama Maja Perret-Catipovic and Francois Ladame Part

  II. The trauma of physical and psychosomatic illness The

  separation-individuation process in adolescents with chronic physical illness

  Magda Liakopoulou Difficulties encountered by adolescent thalassemia patients

  Dionysia Panitz Psychodynamic aspects of adolescents' therapeutic compliance

  following a kidney transplant Sylvie Pucheu, Paola Antonelli and Silla M.

  Consoli The developmental impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment for

  adolescents Margaret L. Stuber and Anne E. Kazak Part III. Social disruption

  and the adolescent process What children can tell us about living with

  violence James Garbarino Severe physical trauma in adolescence Max Sugar

  Assessing the long-term effects of disasters occurring during childhood and

  adolescence: Questions of perspective and methodology Richard G. Honig, Mary

  C. Grace, Jack D. Lindy, C. Janet Newman and James L. Titchener Lethal

  identity: Violence and identity formation David A. Rothstein Xenophobia and

  violence by adolescent skinheads Annette Streeck-Fischer Adolescent survivors

  of the Holocaust Max Sugar Name index Subject index psychoanalytic

  perspectives on & understanding & treatment of psychic trauma of

  physical & psychosomatic illness & social disruption, adolescents



Title: The separation-individuation process in adolescents with chronic physical


Author(s)/Editor(s): Liakopoulou, Magda

Source/Citation: Trauma and adolescence., Madison, CT, US: International

  Universities Press, Inc; 1999, (xv, 322), 93-107 Monograph series of the

  International Society for Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 1.

Source editor(s): Sugar, Max (Ed) Description/Edition Info.: Chapter; 160

Abstract/Review/Citation: Separation and individuation is not a smooth process

  for many adolescents. Chronic physical illness slows down the

  separation-individuation process of adolescents, but not in a uniform way. The

  innate push toward separation and individuation becomes apparent in a number

  of ways, and despite the regressions which take place, a forward movement

  occurs. The difficulties caused by the illness as well as the interaction

  between the illness on the one hand, and the process of adolescence, parents,

  social class, and culture on the other hand, are illustrated through the

  examples of adolescents with diabetes and other endocrine illnesses. Mental

  health professionals can assist adolescents and their parents to avoid lengthy

  and regressive periods while this process is at work. Countertransference

  issues can be an obstacle in working with these adolescents and have to be




Title: Attachment disorganization.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Solomon, Judith; George, Carol

Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press; 1999, (xxiii, 420)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This volume begins by examining how the construct of

  disorganization corresponds to central elements of J. Bowlby's classic theory

  of attachment. In particular, disorganization is discussed as the consequence

  of the extreme insecurity that results from feared or actual separation from

  the attachment figure. The chapters investigate psychological and biological

  dimensions of the phenomenon. The contributions of frightening and frightened

  caregiving to disorganization are explored, and views on the impact of

  unresolved trauma in a parent's own attachment history are delineated. Also

  addressed are child temperament and other individual factors, as well as

  disorganization in such populations as children from divorced families,

  children with disabilities, and undernourished children. Presenting

  significant findings on longitudinal developmental outcomes, it demonstrates

  how infant and early childhood disorganization affects relationships,

  behavior, and coping skills in middle childhood and beyond. A measure of

  attachment in adults is also presented. This book's audience includes

  researchers and teachers of developmental psychology, child psychology and

  psychiatry, social work, pediatrics, and nursing; practitioners working with

  children; and graduate-level students in these fields.

Notes/Comments:  Part 1: The etiology of attachment disorganization

  The place of disorganization in attachment theory: Linking classic

  observations with contemporary findings Judith Solomon and Carol George A

  relational diathesis model of hostile-helpless states of mind: Expressions in

  mother-infant interaction Karlen Lyons-Ruth, Elisa Bronfman and Gwendolyn

  Atwood Unresolved loss and infant disorganization: Links to frightening

  maternal behavior Carlo Schuengel, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H.

  van IJzendoorn and Marjolijn Blom Individual and physiological correlates of

  attachment disorganization in infancy Gottfried Spangler and Karin Grossmann

  Part 2: Social and cognitive sequelae of attachment disorganization

  Developmental pathways from infant disorganization to childhood peer

  relationships Deborah Jacobvitz and Nancy Hazen Disorganized attachment and

  developmental risk at school age Ellen Moss, Diane St-Laurent and Sophie

  Parent Part 3: Attachment disorganization in atypical populations:

  Methodological and definitional issues Indices of attachment disorganization

  among toddlers with neurological and non-neurological problems Douglas

  Barnett, Kelli Hill Hunt, Christine M. Butler, John W. McCaskill IV, Melissa

  Kaplan-Estrin and Sandra Pipp-Siegel Conceptualizations of disorganization in

  the preschool years: An integration Douglas M. Teti The effects on attachment

  of overnight visitation in divorced and separated families: A longitudinal

  follow-up Judith Solomon and Carol George Explaining disorganized attachment:

  Clues from research on mild-to-moderately undernourished children in Chile

  Everett Waters and Marta Valenzuela Part 4: Adult and clinical applications

  Disorganization of attachment as a model for understanding dissociative

  psychopathology Giovanni Liotti The Adult Attachment Projective:

  Disorganization of adult attachment at the level of representation Carol

  George, Malcolm West and Odette Pettem Attachment quality in young children of

  mentally ill mothers: Contribution of maternal caregiving abilities and foster

  care context Teresa Jacobsen and Laura J. Miller Resolving the past and

  present: Relations with attachment organization Robert C. Pianta, Robert S.

  Marvin, and Maria C. Morog Appendix: Summary of procedures for identifying and

  rating attachment disorganization Index psychological & biological &

  developmental dimensions of attachment disorganization, children & adults



Title: Consensus criteria for traumatic grief: A preliminary empirical test.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Prigerson, H. G.; Shear, M. K.; Jacobs, S. C.; Reynolds, C. F. III; Maciejewski, P. K.; Davidson, J. R. T.; Rosenheck, R.; Pilkonis, P. A.; Wortman, C. B.; Williams, J. B. W.; Widiger, T. A.; Frank, E.; Kupfer, D. J.; Zisook, S.

Source/Citation: British Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 174 Jan 1999, England: Royal

  College of Psychiatrists; 1999, 67-73

Abstract/Review/Citation: Studies suggest that symptoms of traumatic grief

  constitute a distinct syndrome worthy of diagnosis. This study developed and

  tested diagnostic criteria for traumatic grief. An expert panel proposed

  consensus criteria for traumatic grief. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC)

  analyses were used to test the performance of the proposed criteria on 306

  widowed respondents (mean age 61 yrs) at 7 mo post-loss. ROC analyses

  indicated that 3 of 4 separation distress symptoms (e.g., yearning, searching,

  loneliness) had to be endorsed as at least "sometimes true" and 4 of

  the final 8 traumatic distress symptoms (e.g., numbness, disbelief, distrust,

  anger, sense of futility about the future) had to be endorsed as at least

  "mostly true" to yield a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of

  0.93 for a diagnosis of traumatic grief. Preliminary analyses suggest the

  consensus criteria for traumatic grief have satisfactory operating

  characteristics, and point to directions for further refinement of the

  criteria set.



Title: Einsicht und Blindheit. Zur Aktualitaet von Otto Rank./ Insight and

  blindness: On Otto Rank's topicality.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kramer, Raobert

Source/Citation: Psyche: Zeitschrift fuer Psychoanalyse und ihre Anwendungen;

  Vol 53(2) Feb 1999, Germany: J.G. Cotta'sche Buchhandlung Nachfolger GmbH;

  1999, 158-200

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses the continued relevance of German lay

  analyst, Otto Rank, one of Freud's early disciples, closest associates and

  collaborators. Theoretical and personal differences caused a breach with Freud

  in the mid-1920s, shortly after publication of Rank's arguably most important

  work, "The trauma of birth" (1924). The present author summarizes

  Rank's central ideas and the factors leading to the dissent between him and

  Freud. Rank's approaches to the theories and techniques of psychoanalysis

  became incompatible with Freud's positions: most notably, Rank's emphasis on

  the pre-oedipal mother-child relation and the separation problematics, along

  with Rank's notions of therapeutic techniques, that mark him as a predecessor

  of M. Klein and H. Kohut.



Title: Childhood trauma and perceived parental dysfunction in the etiology of

  dissociative symptoms in psychiatric inpatients.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Draijer, Nel; Langeland, Willie

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry; Vol 156(3) Mar 1999, US:

  American Psychiatric Assn; 1999, 379-385

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examined the level of dissociation in

  relation to childhood trauma (sexual/physical abuse, witnessing interparental

  violence), early separation from a parent, and perceived parental dysfunction.

  160 Ss (mean age 35.6 yrs) admitted to a psychiatric hospital were given the

  Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and the Structured Trauma Interview. The

  mean DES score was 17.4; 18.0% of Ss scored beyond 30. Early separation was

  reported by 26.4% of the patients; 30.1% had witnessed interparental violence;

  23.6% reported physical abuse; 34.6% reported sexual abuse; 11.7% reported

  rape before age 16; and 42.1% reported sexual and/or physical abuse. The level

  of dissociation was related to reported sexual and physical abuse. When sexual

  abuse was severe, dissociative symptoms were more prominent. Highest

  dissociation levels were found in Ss reporting cumulative sexual trauma or

  sexual and physical abuse. In particular, maternal dysfunction was related to

  the level of dissociation. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated

  that severity of dissociation was predicted by sexual and physical abuse and

  maternal dysfunction. These findings indicate that dissociation is trauma- and




Title: The relation of continuing attachment to adjustment in conjugal


Author(s)/Editor(s): Field, Nigel P.; Nichols, Christina; Holen, Are; Horowitz, Mardi J.

Source/Citation: Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology; Vol 67(2) Apr

  1999, US: American Psychological Assn; 1999, 212-218

Abstract/Review/Citation: The role of continuing attachment in adjustment to

  conjugal loss was examined. At 6 months postloss, 70 midlife bereaved

  participants were interviewed to assess different forms of continuing

  attachment. They also engaged in a monologue role-play with their deceased

  spouse, providing a behavioral measure of grief-related distress. In addition,

  they completed general and grief-specific symptom inventories at 6 months and

  again at 14 and 25 months postloss. The results indicated that use of the

  deceased's possessions to gain comfort was positively correlated with

  concurrent distress in the role-play and predictive of less of a decrease in

  grief-specific symptoms over time in a growth curve analysis. In contrast,

  attachment through fond memories was related to less distress in the

  role-play. The results, therefore, suggest that whether continuing attachment

  is adaptive or not depends on its form. ========================================


Title: Therapeutic termination with the early adolescent who has experienced

  multiple losses.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bembry, James X.; Ericson, Carolyn

Source/Citation: Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal; Vol 16(3) Jun 1999,

  US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1999, 177-189

Abstract/Review/Citation: Often, children who come into therapy have experienced

  the loss of parents and/or other loved ones, losses they have not processed

  adequately. Due to the nature of the therapeutic relationship, these children

  will eventually face the loss of the therapist as well. This article suggests

  that the early adolescent is particularly susceptible to the trauma inherent

  in these losses. A case illustration of a 9 yr old, emotionally disturbed

  client is provided. The authors discuss the developmental challenges of early

  adolescence and how issues of loss complicate this developmental period. The

  authors conclude by suggesting that preparation for the "undeniable

  ending" of the therapeutic relationship must start in the beginning of

  the relationship and remain as a constant theme throughout. ========================================


Title: An 18-month longitudinal study of posttraumatic disorders in children who

  were taken hostage in their school.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Vila, Gilbert; Porche, Luc-Michel; Mouren-Simeoni,


Source/Citation: Psychosomatic Medicine; Vol 61(6) Nov-Dec 1999, US: Williams

  & Wilkins Co.; 1999, 746-754

Abstract/Review/Citation: Studied the course of direct and indirect

  posttraumatic disorders over 18 mo in 6-9.5 yr olds after they were taken

  hostage in their school. 26 hostages were evaluated by using standardized

  clinical interviews and self-administered questionnaires (State and Trait

  Anxiety Inventory for Children [STAIC] and Revised Impact of Event Scale

  [IES]) 2, 4, 7, and 18 mo after the event. They were compared with 21 children

  from the same school who were not taken hostage (indirect exposure). Symptoms

  of acute stress were observed in 25 (96%) of the children who were directly

  involved in the traumatic event. After 2 mo, 18 children had developed

  disorders according to criteria of the Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) including

  7 cases of full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 11 cases of subclinical

  PTSD, 3 cases of separation anxiety, 1 case of specific phobia, and 2 cases of

  major depressive disorder. Children who were indirectly exposed to the trauma

  manifested protracted posttraumatic symptomatology (2 full cases of PTSD and 6

  cases of subclinical PTSD), but their IES-intrusion scores were significantly

  lower. Children under the age of 9 yrs can develop high rates of posttraumatic

  disorders that follow a protracted course despite early intervention and

  careful monitoring.



Title: "Ich bin wieder ein Mensch:" Transformation des fruehen

  psychischen Traumas durch Neubildung von Representanzen./ "I'm a human

  being again:" Transformations of the early psychic trauma by regeneration

  of intrapsychic representations.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Volz-Boers, Ursula

Source/Citation: Psyche: Zeitschrift fuer Psychoanalyse und ihre Anwendungen;

  Vol 53(11) Nov 1999, Germany: J.G. Cotta'sche Buchhandlung Nachfolger GmbH;

  1999, 1137-1159

Abstract/Review/Citation: Notes that patients who suffered a severe separation

  trauma in their 1st yr of life often activate fragments of trauma reaction

  during the 1st treatment sessions. Against this expected retraumatization,

  these patients defend themselves by fleeing the analysis. Through the detailed

  narrative of a clinical case, the author shows how her early construction of

  an inner link between the threat of breaking off the analysis and early trauma

  creates confidence in the analytic relationship. As the analysis proceeds, the

  deepened affective experiencing of trauma reaction in countertransference and

  transference increasingly forms metaphorical and verbal, i.e., symbolic

  representations. Thus a new building of representations (of a protecting

  maternal object and a changed self) occurs. After that, the trauma reaction

  can increasingly be worked out as a defense against oedipal conflicts within

  the framework of the standard analytic treatment for neuroses. Results from

  this technique lead to a transformation of the trauma through a gradual change

  of its intrapsychic representations. ========================================


Title: Unresolved/disorganized responses to attachment-related trauma in

  adolescent psychiatric patients.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Pine, Denise Jacqueline

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

  & Engineering; Vol 59(7-B) Jan 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;

  1999, 3708

Abstract/Review/Citation: There is conflicting evidence on whether early

  attachment-related trauma (loss, abuse, and separation) predict maladaptive

  outcomes. Based on attachment theory, recent research suggests that

  cognitive-emotional disorganization may mediate this relationship. The present

  study examined differences between 132 adolescent psychiatric patients

  classified as Unresolved/disorganized (U/d), non-Unresolved/disorganized

  (non-U/d), or no trauma (i.e., no experience of attachment-related trauma),

  using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Adam, Sheldon-Keller, and

  West's (1995) scoring criteria for traumatic separation. Results partially

  confirmed study hypotheses. As expected, univariate analyses indicated that

  U/d attachment trauma status was significantly related to: (1) low SES

  (measured by parent occupational status) and non-intact families, from the

  Sociodemographic domains; (2) highly involving or role-reversing mothers on

  the AAI scale, from the Inferred Past Experiences With Parents domain; (3)

  overprotective mothers and fathers on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI),

  from the Current Perceptions of Family domain; (4) more passivity of thought

  processes and less insistence upon lack of recall of childhood memories on the

  AAI scales, from the Overall States of Mind With Regard to Attachment domain;

  and, (5) more internalizing and externalizing behavior based on the Youth

  Self-Report, from the Current Psychological Status domain. Logistic regression

  analyses provided an overall 87% correct classification rate for

  discriminating U/d adolescents from those with non-U/d or no experiences of

  attachment-related trauma. Results indicated that being female, current

  perceptions of uncaring fathers on the PBI, more passivity of thought

  processes on the AAI, and more incoherence of speech on the AAI significantly

  predicted membership in the U/d group, compared to the non-U/d group. A second

  logistic regression analysis found that past inferred experiences with highly

  involving or role-reversing mothers and greater incoherency of speech on the

  AAI were significant predictors of U/d status, compared to no trauma status.

  Other results did not support the study hypotheses. Possible explanations of

  the results and implications for future research and clinical intervention are




Title: Adaptation to prolonged separation and loss in institutionalized

  children: Influences on the psychological capacities of adults 'orphaned'

  throughout childhood.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Batchelor, Judith

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities

  & Social Sciences; Vol 59(8-A) Feb 1999, US: University Microfilms

  International; 1999, 3205

Abstract/Review/Citation: This exploratory study drew primarily upon narrative

  interviews and secondarily on corroborative archival data from a small sample

  of adults who were institutionalized throughout childhood. The purpose of the

  study was to explore how, over their life course, these individuals adapted to

  prolonged separation and loss, considering their institutional upbringing. The

  data were assessed using psychoanalytic case study methods and the Scales of

  Psychological Capacities, which were modified and used qualitatively. The

  study yielded extensive clinical data, with repetitions organized around

  idiosyncratic preoccupations associated with childhood trauma and losses which

  shaped individual adaptations and capacities. Subjects were intensely

  object-seeking, with most attaining increasing relational satisfactions over

  time. They internalized the institutional experience as replacement phenomena,

  maintaining resiliency through work and order, while sustaining hope through

  religious ideals. While subjects achieved remarkable functional stability,

  their internal psychological world reflected the profound way that childhood

  losses and separations continued to reverberate deeply. ========================================


Title: The role of feeding motivation and individual differences in the

  development and maintenance of regurgitation and reingestion (r/r) in captive

  lowland gorillas. (gorilla gorilla gorilla) (primates).

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lukas, Kristen Elizabeth

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

  & Engineering; Vol 60(5-B) Dec 1999, US: Univ Microfilms International;

  1999, 2327

Abstract/Review/Citation: Regurgitation and reingestion (R/R) is a familiar, but

  poorly understood, phenomenon in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla

  gorilla gorilla ). It consists of the voluntary retrograde movement of food

  and/or fluid from the esophagus or stomach followed by subsequent consumption

  of the regurgitant. Because it has never been reported in wild gorillas, many

  people hypothesize that R/R takes the place of natural consumption behaviors

  and would not occur if the captive environment provided adequate opportunities

  for feeding and foraging. This paper includes a review of nutritional and

  motivational factors that may contribute to the sustained performance of R/R

  in captive gorillas, and synthesizes information reported on human rumination

  and stereotypic behavior in other captive species. In addition, this paper

  evaluates the role of individual differences in stereotypic behavior

  development and performance. Three studies were conducted: Study I described

  the temporal pattern of feeding and R/R in a sample of 40 captive gorillas

  from three zoos; Study II evaluated the behavioral effect of removing milk

  from the gorilla diet at Zoo Atlanta; and Study III examined the relationship

  between individual differences and R/R performance. Results indicated that

  gorilla R/R resembles self-stimulatory human rumination in both form and

  temporal pattern. Although it may be elicited under conditions of hypo- or

  hyper-arousal, the development and maintenance of R/R in captive gorillas may

  be explained by frustrated feeding motivation. Removing milk from the gorilla

  diet led to a decrease in R/R and an increase in feeding during the

  post-prandial period. Results indicated that gorillas that engage in R/R may

  be more behaviorally stable than those that do not exhibit the behavior. In

  this study, regurgitators were predominantly adult gorillas of 'desirable'

  weight housed in species-typical social groups. Performance of R/R was not

  significantly associated with birth history, age of maternal separation,

  presence of chronic health problems, experience of early trauma, degree of

  dental erosion, or rearing history. Additional research is needed to confirm

  these trends in the North American population of captive gorillas, to develop

  a practical yet species-appropriate diet for captive gorillas, and to further

  investigate mechanisms of R/R development, maintenance, and performance.



Title: The evolution of alter personality states in dissociative identity


Author(s)/Editor(s): Pica, Michael

Source/Citation: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training; Vol 36(4)

  Win 1999, US: Division of Psychotherapy, A.P.A.; 1999, 404-415

Abstract/Review/Citation: Though several theories have been proposed to explain

  the manifestation of alter personality states in dissociative identity

  disorder (DID), the majority have failed to explain how alters develop over

  the life span and why the disorder becomes more complex after childhood.

  Expanding on S. S. Marmer (1991) and F. W. Putnam's (1995) concept of a

  developmental window of vulnerability for DID, this article proposes a 3-stage

  model of alter personality formation, integrating theory and research on

  hypnotizability and imaginary companionship with perspectives on individuation

  and identity formation in adolescence. The author also speculates about

  possible courses of development leading to other trauma-related disorders. The

  author proposes that alters evolve out of childhood imaginary companions that

  merge with dissociative states of consciousness before individuating into

  distinct personality states during adolescence. Treatment considerations are

  raised emphasizing the need to diagnose DID early in its course of development

  before the alters have become invested in their separateness and begun

  fighting for control over the body. ========================================


Title: Part III: Topics, contributors, and database A. Topics and Contributors.

Author(s)/Editor(s): No authorship indicated

Source/Citation: General Hospital Psychiatry: Special Issue:

  Consultation-Liasion psychiatry database 2000 millennium update.; Vol 21(6)

  Nov-Dec 1999, US: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc; 1999, 430-437

Abstract/Review/Citation: Includes the topics, contributors, and bibliography of

  the Consultation-liaison Psychiatry database.  Some topics include: adjustment

  disorders, AIDS, substance abuse, anxiety, asthma, the effects of parental

  death or separation on children, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression in the

  medically ill, eating disorders and obesity, dissociative disorders, organic

  mental disorders, overdose, psychotherapy, sexual disorders in the medically

  ill, social work services, somatoform disorders, stress, suicide, and trauma.



Title: Alcune riflessioni sul ruolo della figura paterna nello sviluppo della

  patologia borderline in adolescenza./ Some observations on the role of the

  paternal imago in the development of borderline pathologies in adolescence.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Carau, Bachisio; Imparato, Giampaolo

Source/Citation: Richard e Piggle; Vol 7(3) Sep-Dec 1999, Italy: Pensiero

  Scientifico Editore sri; 1999, 324-335

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses the significance and the role of the

  father's imago in the development of psychopathological organizations in

  adolescence. The authors illustrate their theme with a clinical case, preceded

  by a theoretical introduction. The various theories on this subject find their

  common denominator in the role played by the father in the transformation of

  the early mother-child relationship by helping the child's separation from its

  mother with the offer of identificatory supports. The clinical case described

  here involves a 20-yr old male, severely traumatized by the premature death of

  his 50-yr old father when the patient himself was only 14 yrs old. The loss of

  the patient's father had been felt by him insidiously and gradually, rather

  than with devastating suddenness. It had compounded early childhood traumas,

  erupting during the subject's protracted adolescence, with the strength of

  non-elaborated, psychopathogenic mourning. ========================================


Title: Cocukluk Oerselenme Yasantilari Oelcegi'nin bir ueniversite oegrencisi

  oernekleminde gecerlik, guevenirlik ve faktoer yapisi./ Reliability, validity

  and factor structure of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire for university


Author(s)/Editor(s): Aslan, S. Halime; Alparslan, Z. Nazan

Source/Citation: Turk Psikiyatri Dergisi; Vol 10(4) Win 1999, Turkey: Turk

  Psikiyatri Dergisi; 1999, 275-285

Abstract/Review/Citation: Administered the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ),

  Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory, Dissociative

  Experiences Scale and Toronto Alexithymia Scale to 744 students (418 male, 326

  female) from Kocaeli U. The reliability and validity of the CTQ were

  supported. Scores of types of abuse tended to be higher among those Ss who

  experienced death or separation from a parent before age 18. ========================================


Title: The poisoning of nostalgia: Commentary.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Howell, Amb. W. Nathaniel

Source/Citation: Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies: Special Issue:

  Traumatic migrations and their psychic vicissitudes; Vol 1(2) Apr 1999, US:

  Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 1999, 163-167

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by M. Apprey regarding historical trauma, transgenerational hatred, and reinventing the self in the African American community. Additionally, this paper explores elements of traumatic separation associated with involuntary migration by individuals and groups. Loss of "home," one's sense of

  security, familiarity, and historical continuity--without physical threat or

  actual injury--is examined within a cultural and historical context. The

  author addresses the complex implications of traumatic separation by conscious

  human choice, rather than natural processes, such as the "poisoning of

  nostalgia," the process by which normal mourning of loss is undermined by

  a potentially transgenerationally enduring sense of betrayal of trust.



Title: La incognita sin respuesta. Elaboraciones del trauma temprano./ The

  enigma without an answer. Elaborations of early trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Diaz, Alicia Elena

Source/Citation: Tropicos: Revista de Psicoanalisis; Vol 7(1) 1999, Venezuela:

  Sociedad Psicoanalitica de Caracas; 1999, 16-29

Abstract/Review/Citation: In this paper the author exposes the vicissitudes of

  the analytical process with a female patient (aged 36 yrs) who presents

  conflicts related with traumatic experiences suffered at an early age, due to

  abandonment. The clinical material presented is prior to a vacation period, in

  which can be appreciated how the analysand re-edits, in the transference and

  through acting-out intense separation anxieties connected with the abandoning

  maternal object.



Title: Terapia para sobrevivientes con mujeres golpeadas./ Survivor therapy with

  battered women.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Walker, Lenore E.

Source/Citation: Revista Argentina de Clinica Psicologia: Special Issue:  ; Vol

  8(3) Nov 1999, Argentina: AIGLE; 1999, 201-210

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses symptoms and the development of battered

  woman syndrome, a subcategory of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and a

  psychotherapeutic program designed to enable an abuse victim to become a

  survivor. Psychological and physiological effects of abuse, societal responses

  to victims, the role of support systems, and therapist preparation for

  treating abuse victims are discussed. The 7 steps of the treatment system are:

  recognition of abuse; finding protection; development of cognitive clarity and

  judgment; direct treatment of PTSD symptoms; selection and separation of life

  experiences and intrapsychic processes that have developed as a result of

  abuse; reestablishment of interpersonal relationships; and integration of

  trauma in daily life and reconstruction of a new life. The impact of abuse on

  children and prevention methods are also discussed. ========================================


Title: Women with children in violent relationships: The choice of leaving may

  bring the consequence of custodial challenge.  .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Butts Stahly, Geraldine

Source/Citation: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma: Special

  Issue: Vol 2(2) 1999, US: Haworth Press; 1999, 239-251

Abstract/Review/Citation: Custody issues for battered women means continuing

  involvement with a violent, abusive, intimidating partner. This article

  explores the continuing power and control dynamics of the domestic violence

  relationship after the woman with children leaves, and presents some

  preliminary findings. The custody of the children, visitation and financial

  arrangements often become the basis of terrorism as the man attempts to

  continue to control the woman's behavior with threats against the children.

  Fear of losing her children may force a woman to stay in a violent

  relationship, or return in spite of danger to her children and herself. On the

  other hand, the history of violence may make it difficult for the mother to

  cooperate with the court orders regarding joint custody or visitation even

  when safety appears not to be an issue. It is important for professionals

  working with children of violent families to understand the continuing effects

  of domestic violence after separation in order to provide assistance to

  children "caught in the middle" in custody disputes. ========================================


Title: Indigenous people in a multicultural society: Unique issues for human


Author(s)/Editor(s): Weaver, Hilary N.

Source/Citation: Social Work; Vol 43(3) May 1998, US: National Assn of Social

  Workers; 1998, 203-211

Abstract/Review/Citation: Indigenous peoples have a unique place within a

  multicultural society. The history of indigenous people in the United States

  differs from those who came here as immigrants. For many Native Americans a

  primary goal has been self-preservation through separation and isolation

  rather than seeking a place within a multicultural society. Many people are

  not aware that the federal government and some state governments have specific

  moral and legal rights and responsibilities toward Native Americans, unlike

  other groups in the United States. Human services providers who work with

  Native Americans must understand the issues specific to indigenous people in a

  multicultural society. This article examines the unique status of Native

  Americans in the United States and explores the practice implications of that

  status. The article begins with an overview of the components of culturally

  competent social work with Native Americans, then examines specific issues

  such as historical trauma, citizenship, cultural identity, and sovereignty

  with which social workers and other human services workers should be familiar

  to serve Native American clients effectively. ========================================


Title: Neural plasticity and emotional memory.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Post, Robert M.; Weiss, S. R. B.; Li, H.; Smith, M. A.;

Zhang, L. X.; Xing, G.; Osuch, E. A.; McCann, U. D.

Source/Citation: Development & Psychopathology: Special Issue: Risk, trauma,

  and memory; Vol 10(4) Fal 1998, US: Cambridge Univ; 1998, 829-855

Abstract/Review/Citation: Posttraumatic stress disorder is the pathological

  replay of emotional memory formed in response to painful, life-threatening, or

  horrifying events. In contrast, depression is often precipitated by more

  social context-related stressors. New data suggest that different types of

  life experiences can differentially impact biochemistry, physiology, anatomy,

  and behavior at the level of changes in gene expression. Repeated separation

  of neonatal rat pups from their mother results in many long-lasting

  alterations in biology and behavior paralleling that in depression, including

  hypercortisolism. The role of the amygdala in modulating emotional memory is

  highlighted, as well as some of its unique properties such as metaplasticity

  (i.e., the differential direction of long-term adaptation,  either

  potentiation or depression) in response to the same input as a function of the

  prior history of stimulation. The implications of these emerging data on the

  physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying emotional memory emphasize

  the particular importance of prevention and early intervention. ========================================


Title: Multigenerational perspectives on coping with the Holocaust experience:

  An attachment perspective for understanding the developmental sequelae of

  trauma across generations.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bar-On, Dan; Eland, Jeanette; Kleber, Rolf J.; Krell, Robert; Moore, Yael; Sagi, Abraham; Soriano, Erin; Suedfeld, Peter; van der Velden, Peter G.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

Source/Citation: International Journal of Behavioral Development; Vol 22(2)

  1998, United Kingdom: Psychology Press; 1998, 315-338

Abstract/Review/Citation: Advances a new approach to the intergenerational

  transmission of Holocaust experiences, by focusing on attachment theory. The

  approach is used as a framework for interpretation of the results of 3 studies

  on Holocaust survivors and their offspring, from different countries (the

  Netherlands, Canada, and Israel), and based on different conceptual approaches

  and methods of data collection (quantitative as well as qualitative). The

  literature is divided with regard to the extent and depth of long-term effects

  of the Holocaust. Attachment theory allows the integration of the phenomena of

  attachment, separation, and loss, which appear to be core concepts in the 3

  studies presented here. The notion of insecure-ambivalent attachment sheds

  some light on the observed preoccupation with issues of attachment and

  separation in the 2nd generation. Furthermore, the theme of "the

  conspiracy of silence" is discussed in the context of attachment

  disorganization. Attachment theory transcends the traditional boundaries

  between clinical and nonclinical interpretations, in stressing the continuous

  and cumulative nature of favorable and unfavorable childrearing circumstances.

  In this context, insecure attachment should be regarded as coping with

  suboptimal childrearing environments. ========================================


Title: The trauma of Oedipus: Toward a new psychoanalytic psychotherapy for men.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Pollack, William S.

Source/Citation: New psychotherapy for men., New York, NY, US: John Wiley &

  Sons, Inc; 1998, (xviii, 318), 13-34

Source editor(s): Pollack, William S. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: The author, in his redefinition of psychoanalytic

  psychotherapy for men, "The Trauma of Oedipus: Toward a New

  Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy for Men," posits that much of men's

  unconscious pain is linked to a repressed trauma of abandonment or premature

  separation caused by male-role socialization processes. Consequently, men

  seeking treatment require the provision of an empathic holding environment in

  which that early pain can be assuaged without confronting their dependency

  needs before they are ready to acknowledge them. Therapy should not exacerbate

  men's sense of shame concerning the need for others, and therapists must

  tolerate their own narcissistic depletion in accepting many patients' need to

  deny the efficacy of therapy, even in the midst of process. Healing is

  conceptualized as both a relational and an interpretive process; it reaffirms

  the vibrancy of the hidden core self through the empathic self-object

  functions of the therapist.



Title: Separacao e angustia de morte./ Separation and death anxiety.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Fialho, Orlando

Source/Citation: Revista Portuguesa de Psicanalise; No 17 May 1998, Portugal:

  Edicoes Afrontamento; 1998, 21-42

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses death anxiety in connection with separations

  between analysand and analyst. The author bases his findings on analytic work

  with patients who have suffered serious psychic disorders as a consequence of

  traumatic precocious relationships. Fialho highlights some symptoms related

  with psychic trauma and separation anxiety. Illustrating his theme with

  abundant material, the author relates finding in all of his cases the

  repetition of a "death anxiety" that surfaces in the imminence of,

  and during, separation periods from the analyst. The linkage between the

  transferential anxiety experienced by patients and the possibility of

  "universal anxiety" suffered on account of the most precocious

  trauma of all, the "birth trauma," should be considered. ========================================


Title: Destruction and gratitude: Some thoughts on "The Use of an


Author(s)/Editor(s): Rappaport, David

Source/Citation: Contemporary Psychoanalysis; Vol 34(3) Jul 1998, US: W. A.

  White Institute; 1998, 369-378

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses revolutionary ideas concerning

  object-relations presented in D. Winnicott's  The Use of an Object and

  Relating Through Identification. One area discussed is the re-creation in the

  transference of a terrifying family interaction in which the therapist can

  laugh and thus crash through the taboo against healthy laughter. This opens a

  door to reexperiencing the trauma on a new characterological level that offers

  unrealized opportunities of perspective, mastery, and separation. A case

  involving a 60-yr-old unmarried, almost friendless female from the author's

  clinical practice is presented as an example of this process. ========================================


Title: Psychic links and traumatic events: Some implications of premature birth.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Urwin, Cathy

Source/Citation: Journal of Child Psychotherapy; Vol 24(1) Apr 1998, England:

  Routledge Journals; 1998, 61-84

Abstract/Review/Citation: Illustrates a relationship between the containment of

  anxiety and the capacity to work through and recover from traumatic events as

  it emerged in psychotherapy with an 8-yr-old boy, born 3 mo prematurely. At

  referral, his presentation strongly suggested the impact of his parents'

  separation and divorce 3 yrs previously, and the implications of being unable

  to express, comprehend, and work through his feelings. He was depressed,

  disillusioned, and caught up in deception and self-destructive behavior. As

  the psychotherapy progressed, the significance of his premature birth became a

  focus. This had impeded his establishing a containing function in infancy. A

  major contribution of the psychotherapy was to create the possibility for

  primitive anxiety to be thought about and to some extent made bearable. This

  contributed to a greater capacity for thinking reflectively, for dialogue with

  others, and for modifying harsh internal figures. The implications of the

  parents' divorce could then be worked through more adequately. Due to external

  pressures on the parents, the therapy was terminated after 4 terms with a

  planned ending. A review 6 mo later indicated sustained changes in the child's

  ability to relate to his parents and in his capacity to regulate his anxiety

  and think reflectively.



Title: Poison glue: The child's experience of Munchhausen syndrome by proxy.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Dowling, Deirdre

Source/Citation: Journal of Child Psychotherapy; Vol 24(2) Aug 1998, England:

  Routledge Journals; 1998, 307-326

Abstract/Review/Citation: This article examines the emotional impact of

  Munchausen syndrome by proxy on a child aged 6 who had been poisoned by her

  mother. It describes her treatment in child psychotherapy over 20 mo at the

  Cassel Hospital where the family worked towards her successful rehabilitation

  home. The work with her showed her experience of dangerous relationships in

  her family that left her distrustful of any new relationship, and doubtful of

  her capacity to be close without being destructive. Like her parents, she was

  terrified of facing the murderous feelings in the family, retreating into

  denial when life was too painful. The article describes 3 phases of treatment:

  fear of separation and preoccupation with the trauma of poisoning, ambivalence

  about facing the destructiveness in the family and the move into more

  appropriate latency behaviour as she prepared to go home with her parents. It

  concludes with an overview of the impact of Munchausen syndrome by proxy on

  the developing child, as shown in this treatment; the delay in emotional and

  cognitive development, the interference with the capacity to relate, the

  retreat into illness under stress, and the fear of permanent damage caused by

  the emotional and physical abuse. ========================================


Title: Attachment, pain and detachment for the adults in divorce.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Reibstein, Janet

Source/Citation: Sexual & Marital Therapy; Vol 13(4) Nov 1998, United

  Kingdom: Carfax Publishing Limited; 1998, 351-360

Abstract/Review/Citation: Despite increased sophistication about divorce as

  trauma, there is little concomitant literature on the psychological effects on

  the divorced partners themselves. Apart from empirical facts, surprisingly

  little noise is made about the emotional consequences of divorce for the

  couple divorcing. This article suggests that once children are involved in

  divorce, detachment can never be total; the continuing loosened, yet still

  real, attachment continues, perhaps after intense anger and resentment

  subside, leaving the impression that the detachment is total. However, the

  attachment becomes live again within the context of contact and shared

  concerns around children. Four cases are presented which illustrate the

  author's theoretical points that complete detachment in a relationship in

  which there are children is not a realistic goal. ========================================


Title: The Echo of trauma and the trauma of Echo.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Greenberg, Judith

Source/Citation: American Imago; Vol 55(3) Fal 1998, US: Johns Hopkins Univ

  Press/Assn for Applied Psychoanalysis; 1998, 319-347

Abstract/Review/Citation: Proposes that Ovid's rendition of Echo, as well as

  other depictions of her myth and the actual physical phenomenon of an

  acoustical echo itself, share structural similarities with posttraumatic

  stress disorder (PTSD). The myth of Echo is a story of separation from one's

  body due to grief and the persistence of belated and fragmentary resonances in

  the aftermath of the disembodiment. By drawing parallels between descriptions

  of the structure and features of PTSD on the one hand, and the salient aspects

  of the story of Echo on the other, the author attempts to show how trauma

  studies help to expose issues at stake in Ovid's story of Echo and,

  conversely, how the myth of Echo can provide a paradigm for listening to

  survivors' stories. The problems, limitations, and strategies of and for

  narrating and listening to stories of trauma are also explored. ========================================


Title: Meine Mutter, das ist der Kreig: Die Auswirkung von Flucht und Migration

  auf die Kleinkind-Eltern-Beziehung und die Entwicklung von Elternschaft./ My 

  mother, that is war: The impact of flight and migration on the

  infant-parent-relationship and the development of parenthood.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bruendl, Peter

Source/Citation: Zeitschrift fuer Psychoanalytische Theorie und Praxis; Vol

  13(3) 1998, Netherlands: Van Gorcum & Co.; 1998, 289-308

Abstract/Review/Citation: The author reports on the treatment of a childless,

  depressive woman who was 46 at the beginning of her psychoanalytic

  psychotherapy which lasted nearly six years. As an infant she had shared

  severe trauma with her mother escaping to the West; later on up to early

  adulthood she was cumulatively traumatized. In treatment she could take up the

  process of separation and individuation from the internalized early preoedipal

  mother again (a developmental step which in the life cycle normally cannot be

  mastered for the first time before late adolescence) which had been blocked by

  traumatization. By means of integrating the infanticidal and life-giving

  aspects of the early mother as well as those of her own self which had

  remained dissociated before, the patient became capable to mourn her

  limitations, her own guilt and shame (which she could separate from the

  transgenerationally transmitted guilt and shame) and her definite




Title: Relationship between perinatal complications and attention deficit

  hyperactivity disorder and other behavioral characteristics.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Spadafore, Lori Ann

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities

  & Social Sciences; Vol 58(10-A) Apr 1998, US: University Microfilms

  International; 1998, 3836

Abstract/Review/Citation: The present study was undertaken to determine the

  relationship between perinatal complications and subsequent development of

  Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and other behavioral

  characteristics. The biological mothers of 74 children diagnosed with ADHD and

  77 children displaying no characteristics of the disorder completed the

  Maternal Perinatal Scale (MPS), the Behavior Assessment System for

  Children-Parent Rating Scales (BASC-PRS), and a demographic survey. In

  addition, the biological mothers of 120 children with no characteristics of

  ADHD or any other behavior disorders completed only the MPS so that

  exploratory factor analysis of the MPS could be completed. Following factor

  analysis, stepwise discriminant analysis of the resulting five factors was

  utilized to explore the nature of the relationship between such perinatal

  factors and ADHD. Results of this analysis indicated that emotional factors,

  or the amount of stress encountered during pregnancy and the degree to which

  the pregnancy was planned, were the items that maximized the separation

  between the ADHD and Non-ADHD groups. Additional discrimination between the

  groups was attributed to the extent of insult or trauma to the developing

  fetus and the outcome of prior pregnancies. ADHD children were also found to

  have experienced twice as many behavioral, social, or medical problems, and

  were more likely to reach developmental milestones with delays. Stepwise

  discriminant analysis also revealed the Attention Problems and Hyperactivity

  scales of the BASC-PRS were most significant in differentiating between the

  ADHD and Non-ADHD subjects. Using the BASC-PRS resulted in approximately 90%

  of the total sample being correctly classified as ADHD or Non-ADHD. Canonical

  correlation analysis indicated that emotional factors and the general health

  of both the mother and the developing fetus were the best predictors of later

  behavioral patterns reported on the BASC-PRS. ========================================


Title: Mental models of caregiving and their relationship to trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Dimmock, Jacqueline A.

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

  & Engineering; Vol 59(2-B) Aug 1998, US: Univ. Microfilms International;

  1998, 0912

Abstract/Review/Citation: A recent focus in attachment research has been the

  study of how a traumatic medical diagnosis in the child affects the caregiving

  system of his or her mother (Pianta & Marvin, 1996). Researchers have

  shown that a mother's failure to resolve this diagnosis has been linked to an

  insecure status of attachment for that child. Goals of the current study were

  twofold: (1) to describe underlying attributes of the maternal caregiving

  model in general as a function of resolution status; (2) to assess the impact

  of resolution on specific components of the caregiving model (i.e., a subpart

  relating to attachment-caregiving interactions). Participants included 77

  mothers of children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy, and 44 mothers of

  comparison (i.e., healthy) children. Resolution status (Resolved, Unresolved)

  was derived based on maternal response to the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview

  (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992). A recent adaptation of the Parent

  Development Interview (PDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1990) was used to assess

  affective and narrative attributes of the maternal caregiving model. This

  measure is unique in its use of rating scales assigned at the level of

  individual questions, and in its broadened description of the caregiving

  system. Responses to the entire interview and a subset of questions on

  separation themes were used to index the larger caregiving model and its

  attachment-caregiving subpart, respectively. As predicted, a mother's

  resolution status was associated with underlying differences in her caregiving

  model. After controlling for maternal age and her child's participation in

  either daycare or school, the caregiving model of a Resolved mother was

  characterized by increased levels of pleasure and perspective-taking. Results

  of this study provided some support for the notion of underlying coherence

  across various components of the maternal caregiving model. However,

  resolution status was not associated with a mother's attachment-caregiving

  part of her overall model, which may be due to methodological limitations. As

  the first validity study of the current PDI, this project provided support for

  the use of rating scales assigned at the level of individual questions in

  conducting research on mental models of relationships. ========================================


Title: I, you and the art: The interactive space in art therapy with children.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Ball, Barbara

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

  & Engineering; Vol 59(5-B) Nov 1998, US: Univ. Microfilms International;

  1998, 2411

Abstract/Review/Citation: The therapeutic action of art therapy with children

  has been described in psychoanalytic terms, either emphasizing the art as

  royal road to unconscious fantasies, or as royal road to sublimation and

  symbol formation. However, there are few systematic studies of the interaction

  between the art therapist, the children and the art. The purpose of this

  research was to study in depth what happens in art therapy sessions. The

  researcher observed individual and group sessions with traumatized and

  emotionally disturbed children over a fourteen-months-period and interviewed

  the art therapist. In this qualitative study the art therapy process is

  presented from the therapist's, the children's and the researcher's

  perspectives. The research rests on the probability of multiple perspectives

  and multiple meanings in any interaction. The art therapy process could be

  characterized as a dynamic, triangular relationship between the child, the art

  therapist and the art. The researcher found that the art therapist and the

  children regulated the intensity of emotional needs through art making. The

  art functioned as a space in which potentially overwhelming experiences were

  framed and distanced. Organizing aspects of the art making fostered the

  emergence of more integrated representations of the self in figure drawings

  and stories about the self. Within the therapeutic relationship the art making

  played a central role in regulating needs for relatedness and aloneness. While

  children created experiences of connectedness in playing with the art

  therapist, art making was more associated with sustaining aloneness and

  separation. The art therapist understood the process to develop in two steps.

  She focused primarily on reality-oriented and goal-directed aspects of the art

  making, that facilitated the organization of experiences in the art.

  Secondarily she explored feelings and fantasies in the art or in the

  therapeutic relationship. The choice and scope of verbal and nonverbal

  interventions are discussed in the light of the art therapist's constructs

  about the process. The researcher questions the common assumption that the art

  making should be the primary locus of the art therapist's interventions. In

  this context the understanding and handling of transference enactments in art

  therapy with children are discussed. ========================================


Title: The impact of armed conflict on children.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Onyango, Philista

Source/Citation: Child Abuse Review; Vol 7(4) Jul-Aug 1998, US: John Wiley &

  Sons Inc; 1998, 219-229

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examines the impact of armed conflict on children.

  Characteristics of contemporary conflicts are explored and the problems caused

  to the general population are highlighted. These problems include death and

  injuries, displacement, internment in camps, and separation of parents from

  children. Next, the specific impact on children is addressed, with a focus on

  the physical, mental, and emotional effects. At the physical level, conflicts

  which are increasingly more civil target everybody instead of just soldiers,

  and a large number of victims are children. The mental and emotional

  consequences discussed include trauma of witnessed or forced perpetration of

  violence, reduced access to education, substandard nutrition which affects

  learning, and difficulty adjusting to abrupt displacement to unfamiliar




Title: Experiences of patients hospitalized during the Texas mental health


Author(s)/Editor(s): Mohr, Wanda K.

Source/Citation: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care; Vol 34(4) Oct-Dec 1998, US:

  Nursecom Inc; 1998, 5-17

Abstract/Review/Citation: Studied the impact of psychiatric hospitalization on

  19 children and adolescents (aged 3-18 yrs at admission and 8-24 yrs at time

  of interview) hospitalized during the Texas mental health scandal. A content

  analysis was conducted of archival data, including medical records of 550

  patients, patient questionnaires, and in-depth interviews of the 19 Ss. Ss

  voiced complaints about the stigma resulting from the hospitalization and

  about lack of individual care, violations of personal boundaries, ineffectual

  outcomes, permanent disruption to family relations, separation from family,

  trauma of seeing others restrained, and effects of being restrained

  themselves. Thus, unnecessary psychiatric hospitalization has long-term

  ramifications for children and adolescents in terms of self-view, family, and

  social relationships.



Title: Gender differences in children's play therapy themes: Comparisons of

  children with a history of attachment disturbance or exposure to violence.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Holmberg, John R.; Benedict, Helen E.; Hynan, Linda S.

Source/Citation: International Journal of Play Therapy; Vol 7(2) 1998, US: The

  Assn for Play Therapy; 1998, 67-92

Abstract/Review/Citation: The use of thematic content of the play of children in

  therapy is a common aspect to play therapy and an integral part of Thematic

  Play Therapy. In this project, the researchers investigated the possibility

  that gender and trauma history influence the play themes of children in

  therapy. Using the Benedict Play Theme Analysis System (BPTAS), a study of

  themes demonstrated by 44 children (aged 39-63 mo) participating in therapy

  through Head Start was conducted. The data were analyzed by comparing equally

  numbered groups of gender alone (male vs female), trauma history alone

  (attachment trauma vs attachment trauma plus exposure to violence in the

  history) and a combination of the possible influences (gender and trauma

  history). Results indicate that gender and trauma histories, as well as a

  possible interaction of the two influences, impact the frequency and types of

  themes that children play in therapy. ========================================


Title: Turn of fortune in psychoanalysis: The 1924 Rank debates and the origins

  of hermeneutic psychoanalysis. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bokay, Antal

Source/Citation: International Forum of Psychoanalysis: Special Issue:  ; Vol

  7(4) Dec 1998, Sweden: Taylor & Francis; 1998, 189-199

Abstract/Review/Citation: The history of psychoanalysis can be characterized by

  conflicts that besides their personal content meant a closure and an opening

  in the development of the theorecial and practical (self )understanding of the

  discipline. The 1923-24 conflict that resulted in the separation of O. Rank

  from the movement and showed the 1st signs of uneasiness against the

  mainstream of psychoanalysis in S. Ferenczi's approach is relatively less

  known. However, its theoretical, or more general, discoursive impact on

  psychoanalysis was enormous. Rank and Ferenczi were on 1 side of the debate

  and E. Jones, K. Abraham, H. Sachs were on the other. In the center of the

  discussion there were 2 books, "The Trauma of Birth" by Rank and the

  "The Development of Psychoanalysis" by Ferenczi and Rank. The author

  tries try to show that Freud 1st supported his Vienna-Budapest friends and

  later changed to the other camp. It is suggested that this debate resulted in

  the withdrawal from the earlier more hermeneutic-dialogical, therapy centered

  psychoanalysis toward a medical, objective, systematic and metapsychology

  oriented discipline. Besides the general theoretical change the power centers

  of psychoanalysis shifted toward West, Vienna and Budapest was substituted 1st

  by Berlin, later by London and New York. ========================================


Title: Parameters of childhood sexual abuse in female patients.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Paris, Joel; Zweig-Frank, Hallie

Source/Citation: Role of sexual abuse in the etiology of borderline personality

  disorder., Washington, DC, US: American Psychiatric Press, Inc; 1997, (xii,

  247), 15-28 Progress in psychiatry, No. 49.

Source editor(s): Zanarini, Mary C. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: borderline patients have a high rate of reported

  childhood sexual abuse (CSA) / to what extent can the trauma of sexual abuse

  in childhood account for the complex pathology seen in adults with borderline

  personality disorder (BPD) / our research . . . was designed to examine

  histories of CSA in sufficient detail both to determine their severity and to

  examine to what extent the effects of sexual abuse can be accounted for by the

  presence of other risk factors during childhood / the 1st goal of the

  present study was . . . to examine in a large sample of borderline patients

  all the parameters of CSA that have been looked at in the community studies in

  order to determine whether, in addition to any overall relationship between

  CSA and BPD, any of these CSA parameters have a specific relationship with the

  borderline diagnosis / other psychological risk factors shown to be associated

  with BPD need to be examined in the same study as measures of sexual abuse /

  these factors include significantly higher frequencies of intrafamilial

  physical abuse . . . , of separation from or loss of parents early in life . .

  . , and of abnormal parental bonding in BPD / it is important to determine

  whether the effects of CSA are related to BPD above and beyond these other

  factors / the examination of CSA and other psychological risk factors in

  multivariate analyses was, therefore, the 2nd goal of the present study /

  borderline patients were compared with a group of patients who had other Axis

  II disorders / describe the findings of the 1st stage of the project, which

  was confined to female patients / all Ss were female current or former

  patients between the ages of 18 and 48



Title: Relationship of two measures of injury severity to pediatric

  psychological outcome 1-3 years after acute head injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Papero, Patricia H.; Snyder, Heather M.; Gotschall,

Catherine S.; Johnson, Dennis L.; Eichelberger, Martin R.

Source/Citation: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; Vol 12(3) Jun 1997, US:

  Aspen Publishers Inc; 1997, 51-67

Abstract/Review/Citation: Compared the strength of relationship of the Glasgow

  Coma Scale (GCS) vs the ASCOT probability of survival (Ps) test, a

  multidimensional trauma severity index, with a comprehensive range of core

  areas of psychological functioning assumed to influence quality of life in

  pediatric head injury survivors. The ordering effects of level of severity on

  outcome were studied through analyses of variance for the GCS vs the Ps. 86

  children, aged 6-15 yrs, with mild to severe traumatic brain injury were

  retrospectively recruited from consecutive head injury admissions for a 30-mo

  period and completed a battery of psychological assessments, including the

  Wechsler Intelligence Scale for ChildrenRevised (WISCR) and the Achenbach

  Child Behavior Checklists. Results show significant correlations between each

  of the severity indices and the IQ and neuropsychological variables. Both Ps

  and GCS were able to distinguish between severe and lesser injury groups. Ps

  yielded a stronger pattern of correlations and a clearer step-wise separation

  of the injury severity levels on neuropsychological variables. Only the GCS

  was related to adaptive behavior. Neither severity index showed strong

  correlational patterns with behavioral or self-perception psychological




Title: Enhancing therapeutic intervention during divorce.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Beck, Peggy; Biank, Nancee

Source/Citation: Journal of Analytic Social Work; Vol 4(3) 1997, US: Haworth

  Press Inc; 1997, 63-81

Abstract/Review/Citation: Nearly one million children per year are faced with

  the transition of divorce. The needs of the divorcing family require a great

  deal of attention and support. More often than not, parents are overwhelmed

  and focus on their own needs during this transition and may often use the

  children to this end. The repercussions from this can be devastating to the

  children. At the time of divorce, children are vulnerable and unable to speak

  for themselves. This paper examines and discusses divorce mediation,

  separation trauma, separation anxiety, and  transition anxiety. A child

  assessment process is presented that helps therapists, divorce mediators, and

  parents sift through the problems, broaden their perspective and focus on the

  needs of the children during this crucial time. ========================================


Title: Differences between Black and White students in the effect of parental

  separation on school grades.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Smith, Thomas Ewin

Source/Citation: Journal of Divorce & Remarriage; Vol 27(1-2) 1997, US:

  Haworth Press Inc; 1997, 25-42

Abstract/Review/Citation: Effects of parental separation on self-reported school

  grades are examined in a sample of 1,709 7th and 9th grade public school

  students, 44.5% of whom are Black. A significant statistical interaction

  between parental separation and race reveals a marked Black/White difference

  in the effect of the timing of separation on grades. Only separation after the

  2nd grade has a significant negative effect on the White students, while only

  separation before kindergarten has a significant negative effect on the Black

  students. It is tentatively concluded that the White students have been

  negatively affected by conflict between their parents and/or emotional trauma

  associated with separation, while the Black students have been negatively

  affected mainly by structural weakness of the mother-only family as an

  economic unit and/or agency of socialization. ========================================


Title: Change in relationship status following traumatic brain injury.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Wood, Rodger L1.; Yurdakul, Levent K.

Source/Citation: Brain Injury; Vol 11(7) Jul 1997, US: Taylor & Francis;

  1997, 491-502

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined how frequently relationships break down in

  the years following traumatic brain injury (TBI)to determine whether

  separation is a legacy of head trauma and whether it is related to severity of

  injury, age of the couple, the duration of relationships, presence of

  children, or time since injury among 131 adults with TBI. Demographic data

  provided information on age, date of injury, relationship status at time of

  injury, and length of posttraumatic amnesia. Data on Ss' current relationship

  status was obtained through neuropsychological interviews or postal inquiry.

  Results show that (1) 49% of Ss had divorced or separated from their partners

  during a 5-8 yr period following brain injury; (2) the presence of children

  under 15 yrs old did not have a stabilizing effect on the relationship; and

  (3) in general, partners of head-injured Ss in the long relationships (15+

  yrs) were more accepting of the changes in their partner as a result of the

  TBI and did not see separation as an option. ========================================


Title: Compounding of preimigration trauma and postimigration stress in asylum


Author(s)/Editor(s): Sinnerbrink, Ingrid; Silove, Derrick; Field, Annette; Steel, Zachary; Manicavasagar, Vijaya

Source/Citation: Journal of Psychology; Vol 131(5) Sep 1997, US: Heldref

  Publications; 1997, 463-470

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated premigration exposure to organized

  violence, SES, and postmigration stressors in 40 Ss (mean age 35 yrs) seeking

  asylum who were attending a community welfare center in Sydney, Australia.

  Almost 80% reported exposure to premigration trauma such as witnessing

  murders, having their lives threatened, being separated from family members,

  and brainwashing; 25% had been tortured. Ss reported a marked decline in SES.

  Common ongoing sources of severe stress included fears of being repatriated,

  barriers to work and social services, separation from family, and issues

  related to the process of pursuing refugee claims. More than one third had

  problems obtaining health services in Australia--the same number who reported

  similar difficulties in their home countries. Results suggest that salient

  aspects of the asylum-seeking process may compound the stressors suffered by

  an already traumatized group.



Title: Attachment, detachment and borderline personality disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Sable, Pat

Source/Citation: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training; Vol 34(2)

  Sum 1997, US: Division of Psychotherapy, A.P.A.; 1997, 171-181

Abstract/Review/Citation: In an attempt to expand understanding of more severe

  pathology, attachment theory, developed by John Bowlby, is applied to

  borderline personality disorder in adults. Conceptualized as a condition of

  profound insecure attachment, with extreme vacillations between a desire for

  proximity and attachment and a dread and avoidance of engagement, borderline

  pathology reflects traumatic attachment experiences, beginning early in life.

  Besides the importance of trauma, disturbances in affect regulation and

  cognitive distortions are emphasized. The secure base of a therapeutic bond

  provides consistency, reliability, and affirmation while encouraging

  exploration of separation and loss experiences, both current and past, in

  order to modify inner working models of oneself and relationships with others.

  Implications for prevention are discussed. ========================================


Title: Separation, termination process and long-term outcome in psychotherapy

  with severely disturbed patients.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Werbart, Andrzej

Source/Citation: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic; Vol 61(1) Win 1997, US:

  Menninger Foundation; 1997, 16-43

Abstract/Review/Citation: Long-term consequences of the working through of

  intratherapeutic separations were studied in combined psychotherapy and milieu

  therapy with 10 severely disturbed adult patients (aged 20-30 yrs). Seven of

  the 10 cases were consistent with the hypothesis about the significance of

  therapeutic work with separation for the longitudinal outcome. The working

  through of these difficulties and new solutions of crises in the middle phase,

  while not assuring a trauma-free termination, had consequences for the course

  after discharge. Unsolved difficulties with separation, dependence, and

  hostility in the middle phase resulted in traumatic and extremely painful

  terminations. The greatest obstacle to the therapeutic task was a combination

  of the patient's emotional needs being awakened and monopolized by the

  treatment setting while, at the same time, the problems of separation,

  dependence, and hostility were neglected in the therapeutic work.



Title: Precious lives honored to serve.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hurlburt, Kris

Source/Citation: Sharing the front line and the back hills:  International

  protectors and providers:  Peacekeepers, humanitarian aid workers and the

  media in the midst of crisis., Amityville, NY, US: Baywood Publishing Co, Inc;

  2002, (xiv, 429), 161-169

Source editor(s): Danieli, Yael (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Outlines some of the issues and solutions involving

  aid workers affiliated with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red

  Crescent Societies. In particular, the need for psychological support is

  emphasized. The roles of security, telecommunications, and the need for

  mission preparedness are explored in relation to issues such as cultural

  differences, foreign languages, separation from loved ones, loneliness, fear,

  and guilt.



Title: A psychoanalytic approach to language delay: When autistic isn't

  necessarily autism.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Urwin, Cathy

Source/Citation: Journal of Child Psychotherapy; Vol 28(1) Apr 2002, United

  Kingdom: Taylor & Francis/Routledge; 2002, 73-93

Abstract/Review/Citation: Describes family work with 4 children (aged 3-4 yrs)

  from different ethnic backgrounds presenting with autistic features in the

  context of delayed or deviant language development and in 1 case, elective

  mutism. This paper begins by describing how psychoanalytic approaches to

  language development have tended to see the process as underpinned by symbol

  formation as a compensation for loss of the object. This is contrasted with an

  approach which emphasizes language development as an aspect of a broad process

  concerned with enabling emotional experience to become thought. The

  significance of the survival and development of the self in achieving

  separation is emphasized. In case studies, the degree of trauma in the

  parents' backgrounds, which had impeded them from containing their children's

  developmental anxieties is highlighted. The parents' telling their stories was

  both valuable to them and enabled them to become more emotionally available to

  their children. In all cases the work promoted language development and

  autistic features disappeared or waned considerably after relatively brief

  intervention. The conclusions discuss the relevance of these findings to the

  autistic child population and the value of child psychotherapy to differential

  diagnosis within the autistic spectrum.



Title: Supporting adolescents in times of national crisis: Potential roles for

  adolescent health care providers.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Schonfeld, David J.

Source/Citation: Journal of Adolescent Health; Vol 30(5) May 2002, US: Elsevier

  Science; 2002, 302-307

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses adolescents' reactions to the terrorist

  attacks of September 11th, and possible counseling strategies. Manmade

  disasters, especially when there is an underlying human intent to cause harm,

  often result in more psychological distress than do natural disasters.

  Potential symptoms of adjustment reactions may include sleep problems, anxiety

  and trauma-related fears, separation anxiety, school avoidance, difficulties

  in concentration, sadness, depression, avoidance of previously enjoyed

  activities, regression, somatization, onset of or increase in substance abuse,

  and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Adolescents may attempt to

  withhold complaints of symptoms because of concerns that they are abnormal.

  Adolescents should be advised to consider limiting the amount of television

  viewing, especially those most affected.



Title: Disentangling the link between disrupted families and delinquency.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Juby, Heather

  Farrington, David P.

Source/Citation: British Journal of Criminology: Special Issue:  ; Vol 41(1) Win

  2001, England: Oxford Univ Press; 2001, 22-40

Abstract/Review/Citation: The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development is a

  prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males from 8 to 46 yrs

  old. Delinquency rates were higher among boys who were living in permanently

  disrupted families on their 15th birthday compared to boys living in intact

  families. Results were very similar whether juvenile convictions, juvenile

  self-reported delinquency or adult convictions were studied. Delinquency rates

  were similar in disrupted families and in intact high conflict families. Boys

  who lost their mothers were more likely to be delinquent than boys who lost

  their fathers, and disruptions caused by parental disharmony were more

  damaging than disruptions caused by parental death. Boys from disrupted

  families who continued living with their mothers had similar delinquency rates

  to boys from intact harmonious families. These results are more concordant

  with life course theories than with trauma or selection theories of the

  effects of family disruption.



Title: An art therapy group for children traumatized by parental violence and


Author(s)/Editor(s): Kozlowska, Kasia; Hanney, Lesley

Source/Citation: Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry; Vol 6(1) Jan 2001,

  England: Sage Publications Ltd; 2001, 49-78

Abstract/Review/Citation: Describes the treatment of five traumatized children

  (aged 4-8 yrs) using adjunctive group art therapy, and reviews the theoretical

  basis for such a treatment strategy. All the children had been exposed to

  cumulative traumatic experiences of parental violence. The children presented

  symptoms of post-traumatic stress, developmental problems related to trauma,

  had difficulties with any discussion of traumatic events or family concerns,

  and reacted with hyperarousal and/or an 'emotional shutdown' response.

  Previous treatments included a combination of social, family, psychological

  and biological interventions. The group was a therapeutic intervention

  developed by a child psychiatrist and an art therapist to facilitate further

  therapeutic change. The therapeutic use of artworks facilitated exposure to

  traumatic cues in a less direct manner, allowed for desensitization of anxiety

  and unpleasant body sensations, helped the children recount the story of the

  parental separation and to label and articulate affective states using art and

  narrative. Positive family changes and coping skills the children were using

  to manage ongoing stresses were made overt. Positive expectations of the

  future were promoted. Key therapeutic and theoretical aspects of the group

  intervention are described.



Title: The Zurich School of Psychiatry in theory and practice. Sabina

  Spielrein's treatment at the Burghoelzli clinic in Zuerich. 

Author(s)/Editor(s): Graf-Nold, Angela

  Wharton, Barbara

Source/Citation: Journal of Analytical Psychology: Special Issue:  Vol 46(1)

  Jan 2001, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishers Ltd; 2001, 73-104

Abstract/Review/Citation: Sabina Spielrein was treated for hysteria at the

  Burghoelzli Psychiatric Clinic from 1904 to 1905 by Jung. The remarkably

  caring and privileged treatment Spielrein received at the Burghelzli Hospital

  (as shown by the records) exemplifies the standards and key concepts of the

  Zuerich School of Psychiatry, founded by A. Forel and represented by the then

  current director E. Bleuler, as well as the specific dynamics between Bleuler,

  his first assistant Jung, and Spielrein herself. Bleuler, in accordance with

  the trauma theory of hysteria, steadfastly promoted the separation from her

  traumatizing family and supported her scientific education. Jung, deeply and

  emotionally involved, revealed how she had been traumatized, but in focusing

  on her masochistic feelings rather than on her victimization, he established a

  rather conflicted personal relationship with her, foreshadowing his later

  ambivalent attitude to Freud's sexual theory. Thus Sabina was discharged with

  a reasonable psychiatric and scientific education but an unreasonable need for

  personal dependency.



Title: Psychopathology in children of Holocaust survivors: A review of the

  research literature.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Kellerman, Natan P. F.

Source/Citation: Israel Journal of Psychiatry & Related Sciences: Special

  Issue: The Holocaust on child survivors and children of survivors. ; Vol 38(1)

  2001, Israel: Gefen Publishing House Ltd; 2001, 36-46

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examines the transgenerational effect of the Holocaust

  on offspring. The main question involves the presence or absence of specific

  psychopathology in the population. It is noted that psychotherapists kept

  reporting various characteristic signs of distress while research failed to

  find significant differences between offspring and comparative groups. This

  review of the research literature provides a summary of the findings of

  comparative studies on the mental state of offspring of Holocaust survivors,

  published between 1973-1999. The authors argue that this research indicates

  rather conclusively that the non-clinical population of children of Holocaust

  survivors does not show signs of more psychopathology than others do. Children

  of Holocaust survivors tend to function rather well in terms of manifest

  psychopathology and differences in the mental state of offspring and people in

  general are small according to most research. The clinical population of

  offspring, however, tend to present a specific "psychological

  profile" that includes a predisposition to posttraumatic stress disorder

  (PTSD), various difficulties in separation-individuation and a contradictory

  mix of resilience and vulnerability when coping with stress. ========================================


Title: Marital violence: Impact on children's emotional experiences, emotional

  regulation and behaviors in a post-divorce/separation situation.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Lee, Mo-Yee

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal: Special Issue:  ;

  Vol 18(2) Apr 2001, US: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001, 137-163

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examined the mediating effects of

  children's emotional experiences and regulation strategies on the relationship

  between marital violence and children's behavioral problems following

  divorce/separation. Ss were 50 children aged 6-12 yrs old. Mothers were 23-50

  yrs old. Findings indicated marital violence as reported by the mothers was

  associated with children's internalizing problems as measured by the Achenbach

  Behavior Checklist. Marital violence was also associated with children's

  reported experience of negative emotions, with sadness and anger emerging as

  statistical predictors of children's behavioral problems. A weak relationship

  was found between emotional regulation strategies and children's behavioral

  problems, with the exception that "direct intervention" and the

  range of strategies used by children were positively associated with

  behavioral problems. Children's reported anger was also found to mediate the

  relationship between marital violence and children's total behavioral

  problems. Implications of findings for treatment of children and adolescents

  from separated, conflicted homes are discussed. ========================================


Title: Trauma and extended separation from family among Latin American and

  African refugees in Montreal.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Rousseau, Cecile; Mekki-Berrada, Abdelwaheed; Moreau, Sylvie

Source/Citation: Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes: Special

  Issue: Vol 64(1) Spr 2001, US: Guilford Publications; 2001, 40-59

Abstract/Review/Citation: Surveyed 113 refugees from Latin America and Africa

  living in Canada to assess the impact of premigration trauma and prolonged

  separation resulting from migration on emotional distress, and the role of

  family as an anchor of emotion and identity. Semistructured interviews were

  conducted and life stories related by 20 Salvadoran and Congolese Ss were

  collected. The emotional profile of the Ss was measured using the Symptom

  Checklist. Trauma was assessed to create 3 weighted scores for personal,

  family, and global trauma. A content analysis was conducted of the interviews

  and life stories of Ss. Data reveal a similar pattern of family separation for

  both groups of refugees. The relationship between personal trauma and

  psychological distress is reversed when Ss are with all or part of their

  families. Severe trauma resulting from armed conflict, under certain

  circumstances, strengthened S's ability to face migration and associated

  losses. The data also suggest that family trauma is a much more important

  issue to African Ss. Data support the clinical literature indicating that

  cultural characteristics may modulate the development of various family

  strategies for coping with separation and trauma. ========================================


Title: Commentary on "Trauma and extended separation from family among

  Latin American and African Americanin Montreal": The trauma story: A

  phenomenological approach to the traumatic life experiences of refugee


Author(s)/Editor(s): Mollica, Richard F.

Source/Citation: Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes: Special

  Issue:  ; Vol 64(1) Spr 2001, US: Guilford Publications; 2001, 60-63

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by C. Rousseau, A.

  Mekki-Berrada, and S. Moreau (see record 2001-06736-006) regarding the impact

  of trauma and prolonged family separation on the emotional distress of Latin

  American and African refugees in Canada. The article raises a number of

  methodological issues in the study of the lifes of traumatized persons. The

  article comments on Roussea, Mekki-Berrada, and Moreau's use of life stories

  to study the impact of premigration trauma and family separation on on the

  refugees' resettlement and adaptation. ========================================


Title: Commentary on "Trauma and extended separation from family among

  Latin American and AFrican reAfricanin Montreal": Forced relocation: A

  family researcher/clinician's perspective.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Steinglass, Peter

Source/Citation: Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes: Special

  Issue: Vol 64(1) Spr 2001, US: Guilford Publications; 2001, 64-68

Abstract/Review/Citation: Comments on the article by C. Rousseau, A.

  Mekki-Berrada, and S. Moreau regarding the impact

  of trauma and prolonged family separation on the emotional distress of Latin

  American and African refugees in Canada. The present author addresses two

  issues highlighted by Rousseau, Mekki-Berrada, and Moreau: the key role of the

  family in regulating emotions and as the source of personal identity, and the

  positive as well as negative implications of challenges from outside

  stressors. These issues raise three questions addressed in this article: the

  utility of conceptualizing political relocation as a stress family event; the

  characterization of the study from the perspective of a family research; and

  the conclusions that might be drawn from this and other studies about service

  delivery to refugee populations who have been forcefully relocated. ========================================


Title: The role of childhood interpersonal trauma in depersonalization disorder.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Simeon, Daphne; Guralnik, Orna; Schmeidler, James;

Sirof, Beth; Knutelska, Margaret

Electronic Access:

Source/Citation: American Journal of Psychiatry: Special Issue:  ; Vol 158(7)

  Jul 2001, US: American Psychiatric Assn; 2001, 1027-1033

Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigated the role of childhood interpersonal

  trauma in depersonalization disorder. 49 Ss (mean age 33.84 yrs) with Mental

  Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) depersonalization disorder and 26 healthy comparison Ss

  (mean age 30.50 yrs) who were free of lifetime axis I and II disorders and of

  comparable age and gender were administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale

  and the Childhood Trauma Interview, which measures separation or loss,

  physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, witnessing of violence, and

  sexual abuse. Childhood interpersonal trauma as a whole was highly predictive

  of both a diagnosis of depersonalization disorder and of scores denoting

  dissociation, pathological dissociation, and depersonalization. Emotional

  abuse, both in total score and in maximum severity, emerged as the most

  significant predictor both of a diagnosis of depersonalization disorder and of

  scores denoting depersonalization but not of general dissociation scores,

  which were better predicted by combined emotional and sexual abuse. The

  majority of the perpetrators of emotional abuse were either or both parents.

  Childhood interpersonal trauma and, in particular, emotional abuse may play a

  role in the pathogenesis of depersonalization disorder. ========================================


Title: Childhood interpersonal trauma and severity of adult depression.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Pacoe, Elizabeth M.

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

  & Engineering; Vol 61(8-B) Mar 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

  2001, 4421

Abstract/Review/Citation: While research has begun to document connections

  between childhood trauma and adult depression, it has focused mostly on

  childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The goal of the current study was to broaden the

  range of childhood traumas included and study their relationships with adult

  depression. Interviews with 69 depressed adult outpatients resulted in four

  measures of their severity of depression (number of previous depressive

  episodes, presence of a past suicide attempt, chronicity of depression and

  number of psychiatric hospitalizations). The subjects were asked about the

  frequency and severity of six types of childhood interpersonal trauma

  including, emotional abuse, physical abuse and neglect, sexual abuse,

  separation from a caregiver, and witnessing violence. The reported rates of

  childhood trauma were relatively high, ranging from 36.2-84.1% of the sample.

  When examined together, the severity of the childhood traumas were

  significantly related to the number of psychiatric hospitalizations and the

  number of previous depressive episodes. When the unique contributions of the

  traumas were analyzed, three significant relationships were found: emotional

  abuse and the chronicity of depression; CSA and the number of psychiatric

  hospitalizations; and separation from a caregiver and the number of previous

  depressive episodes. In examining the effects of multiple incidents and types

  of trauma, significant relationships were seen between the presence of

  multiple traumas and past suicide attempts, the number of psychiatric

  hospitalizations, and the number of previous depressive episodes. A thorough

  discussion of the results and implications is provided. ========================================


Title: Childhood trauma has dose-effect relationship with dropping out from

  psychotherapeutic treatment for bulimia nervosa: A replication. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mahon , Jennifer; Bradley, S. Nicole; Harvey, Peter K.;

Winston, Anthony P.; Palmer , Robert L.

Source/Citation: International Journal of Eating Disorders: Special Issue:  ;

  Vol 30(2) Sep 2001, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2001, 138-148

Abstract/Review/Citation: Replicated the finding that experiences of childhood

  trauma have a dose-effect relationship with dropping out from

  psychotherapeutic treatment for bulimia nervosa. The study also aimed to

  replicate logistic regression findings that parental break-up predicts

  dropping out. The cohort consisted of 114 women consecutively presenting to an

  outpatient eating disorders clinic with bulimia nervosa or atypical bulimia

  nervosa. Data were gathered using a retrospective, case-note approach and were

  analysed using logistic regression (LR). A correlation technique was employed

  to assess the presence of a dose-effect relationship between experiences of

  trauma in childhood and dropping out. LR models were double cross-validated

  between this and an earlier cohort. The dose-effect relationship between

  experiences of childhood trauma and dropping out was confirmed. Witnessing

  parental break-up in childhood again predicted dropping out of treatment in

  adulthood. Cross-validation of LR equations was unsuccessful. ========================================


Title: Lifetime events and posttraumatic stress disorder in 4 postconflict


Author(s)/Editor(s): de Jong, Joop T. V. M.; Komproe, Ivan H.; Van Ommeren, Mark;

El Masri, Mustafa; Araya, Mesfin; Khaled, Noureddine; van de Put, Willem; Somasundaram, Daya

Source/Citation: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association: Special

  Issue: Vol 286(5) Aug 2001, US: American Medical Assn; 2001, 555-562

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the prevalence rates of and risk factors for

  posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 4 postconflict, low-income countries.

  An epidemiological survey was conducted from 1997 to 1999 among survivors of

  war or mass violence who were randomly selected from community populations in

  Algeria, Cambodia, Ethiopia, and Gaza. Prevalence rates of PTSD were assessed

  using the PTSD module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview

  version 2.1 and evaluated in relation to traumatic events, assessed using an

  adapted version of the Life Events and Social History Questionnaire. The

  prevalence rate of assessed PTSD was 37.4% in Algeria, 28.4% in Cambodia,

  15.8% in Ethiopia, and 17.8% in Gaza. Conflict-related trauma after age 12 yrs

  was the only risk factor for PTSD that was present in all 4 samples. Torture

  was a risk factor in all samples except Cambodia. Psychiatric history and

  current illness were risk factors in Cambodia and Ethiopia. Poor quality of

  camp was associated with PTSD in Algeria and in Gaza. Daily hassles were

  associated with PTSD in Algeria. Youth domestic stress, death or separation in

  the family, and alcohol abuse in parents were associated with PTSD in

  Cambodia. These findings indicate the importance of contextual differences in

  the study of traumatic stress and human rights violations. ========================================


Title: Stress and development: Behavioral and biological consequences. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Bremner, J. Douglas; Vermetten, Eric

Source/Citation: Development & Psychopathology: Special Issue: Stress and

  development: Biological and psychological consequences.  Vol 13(3) Sum 2001,

  US: Cambridge Univ; 2001, 473-489

Abstract/Review/Citation: Childhood abuse is an important public health problem;

  however, little is known about the effects of abuse on the brain and

  neurobiological development. This article reviews the behavioral and

  biological consequences of childhood abuse and places them in a developmental

  context. Animal studies show that both positive and negative events early in

  life can influence neurobiological development in unique ways. Early stressors

  such as maternal separation result in lasting effects on stress-responsive

  neurobiological systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)

  axis and noradrenergic systems. These studies also implicate a brain area

  involved in learning and memory, the hippocampus, in the long-term

  consequences of early stress. Clinical studies of patients with a history of

  abuse also implicate dysfunction in the HPA axis and the noradrenergic and

  hippocampal systems; however, there are multiple questions related to

  chronicity of stress, developmental epoch at the time of the stressor,

  presence of stress-related psychiatric disorders including posttraumatic

  stress disorder and depression, and psychological factors mediating the

  response to trauma that need to be addressed in this field of research.



Title: Psychological effects on families subjected to enforced and prolonged

  separations generated under life threatening situations. .

Author(s)/Editor(s): Busuttil, Walter; Busuttil, Angela

Electronic Access:


Source/Citation: Sexual & Relationship Therapy: Special Issue: Trauma,

  sexuality, and relationships. Vol 16(3) Aug 2001, United Kingdom: Taylor

  & Francis; 2001, 207-228

Abstract/Review/Citation: Separations enforced by, or which incorporate,

  psychological threat have the potential to cause the development of immediate

  and long-term psychological and psychiatric symptoms in family members. These

  kinds of separations also affect eventual reunion and re-integration processes

  that the family unit must pass through when separation ends. This paper will

  review the literature dealing with the psychological and psychiatric

  consequences generated by enforced separations of the family unit with a

  particular emphasis on family members who are left behind. Consideration of

  this literature is important in planning psychological and psychiatric care

  for those affected by these kinds of separations. ========================================


Title: The role of the self-object experience in the therapy of an autistic

  child: From lying flat to launching a 'spaceship.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Mori, Sachiko

Source/Citation: Journal of Child Psychotherapy; Vol 27(2) Aug 2001, England:

  Routledge Journals; 2001, 159-173

Abstract/Review/Citation: Describes the 1st part of a 7-yr period of once weekly

  therapy with an autistic boy aged 4 at the start of treatment. By careful

  attunement to his affect and internal state, the therapist was able to engage

  him, allowing him eventually to come out of withdrawal. During this process,

  the self-object experiences between the patient and the therapist played a

  remarkable role. The author was helped in her thinking by F. Tustin's (1981)

  view of the traumatized autistic child and by D. Meltzer's (1975) work

  regarding dimensionality in mental function. The patient was a child with

  cumulative psychic trauma arising from the mother-child relationship. At the

  start of therapy he was absent-minded and vacant. In the safe, protected

  therapeutic space, he was able to experience, perhaps for the first time,

  affective attunement with another. After a year of therapy, communication

  became possible when the therapist could contain the child's projective

  identification. He established a more robust skin-ego as he started to play

  out fantasies and stories symbolizing separation and reunion. ========================================


Title: Perceptions and memories of Latino adolescents separated in childhood due

  to piecemeal patterns of immigration.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Artico, Ceres Ildebrando

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities

  & Social Sciences; Vol 61(9-A) Apr 2001, US: Univ Microfilms

  International; 2001, 3472

Abstract/Review/Citation: Piecemeal immigration is common among families in poor

  and war-stricken countries. During the 1980's, Latino immigrants often left

  their children with extended family and immigrated to the United States. This

  study explored the experiences, perceptions, and memories of Latino

  adolescents and young adults reunited with their biological parents after

  prolonged separation during childhood because of piecemeal immigration

  patterns. The main hypothesis was that these children's interpretation of the

  parents' departure as abandonment or as sacrifice shaped their internal

  working models of self and others. Such representational models, in turn,

  predisposed those children to develop specific affective, cognitive,

  behavioral, and relational patterns. Attachment theory provided the conceptual

  framework for this study. Three male and four female Latino adolescents, ages

  15 to 19, described their experiences, reactions to, and memories of the

  separation from and reunification with their parents during in-depth

  interviews, and participated in an experiential activity with a sand tray. The

  interviews were audio taped, transcribed, coded and analyzed, and the sand

  tray constructions were photographed and analyzed. The context leading to the

  parent's departure; the family's interpretation of parents' actions; the

  parents' dependability as providers during the separation; and the quality of

  communication in these families upon reunification influenced how these

  children perceived the parents' immigration. The way love and affection was

  expressed by parents and caretakers; the marital status of the parents, and

  the children's perception of adults as supportive or critical influenced their

  representational model of self. The way families handled the parent's

  departure, the characteristics of the child's relationship with parents and

  caretakers, and exposure to trauma and losses influenced the participants'

  internal working model of others. All these factors influenced how these

  children negotiated developmental tasks and life challenges and how these

  families handled the process of reunification. Ignorance and lack of

  communication increased the distress among these families. Professionals can

  help these families integrate their experience and rebuild broken

  relationships by facilitating communication, recognizing and validating their

  fears and needs, and providing education about this process. Further

  investigation and research on this topic can benefit Latino and other

  immigrants and refugees with a similar history. ========================================


Title: Children and war: Current understandings and future directions.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Berman, Helene

Source/Citation: Public Health Nursing; Vol 18(4) Jul-Aug 2001, US: Blackwell

  Scientific Publications; 2001, 243-252

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses the effects of war on refugee children and

  adolescents. Many children have either witnessed or directly experienced

  trauma prior to escape from their native countries. Additionally, many have

  endured years of deplorable living conditions in refugee camps. The experience

  of migration is typically accompanied by many stressors, including separation

  from family and acculturation stress. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is

  a common experience with this population, no matter what ethnocentric biases

  underlie the conceptualization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  Research into the protective factors of age and gender has produced mixed

  results. Social, political, and ecological contexts may act as mediators.



Title: Emotional intelligence and behavior:  An exploratory study of people on


Author(s)/Editor(s): Smith, James Emory Ii

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

  & Engineering; Vol 61(11-B) Jun 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

  2001, 6168

Abstract/Review/Citation: Emotions are an integral and significant aspect of

  human nature and the motivation for behavior. This study examined a connection

  between emotion and behavior by examining the connection between the construct

  of emotional intelligence (EI) and criminal behavior. It was hypothesized that

  individuals exhibiting this behavior would manifest a low level of EI when

  compared to the general population. The study also hypothesized an association

  between EI and 10 characteristics: gender, age, ethnicity, education, marital

  status, being raised by mother or father, and trauma variables of separation

  by divorce, death of a parent, sexual abuse and physical abuse. A subject

  population of individuals (N = 56), who were on parole from prison and who

  volunteered to participate in the study, was the measure of behavior.  The

  Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) was administered to the subjects by

  the researcher as the measure of emotion and emotional intelligence. Composed

  of 133 questions, it uses a 5-point self-rating Likert scale measuring 15

  factorial components in five areas: Intrapersonal (emotional self-awareness,

  assertiveness, self-regard, self-actualization, independence); Interpersonal

  (empathy, interpersonal relationship, social responsibility); Adaptability

  (problem solving, flexibility, reality testing); Stress Management (stress

  tolerance, impulse control); and General Mood (optimism, happiness).  The raw

  data was scored by Multi-Health Systems, publisher of the instrument for both

  a group and individual report against the normative data. Data analysis

  strategies also included One-Way Analysis of Variance, Pearson Correlation,

  and T-tests using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS),

  version 9.0.  As hypothesized the EQ-i group score was below the general

  population. The group scores for each of the five factors that make up the

  Total EQ-i Score were also below average. The hypothesized association between

  Total EQ-i and personal characteristics was not fully supported. Females did

  report higher Interpersonal EQ-i. There was an association between

  race/ethnicity and Interpersonal, Intrapersonal and Total EQ-i. An association

  was found between death of a parent and interpersonal EQ-i. Intrapersonal EQ-i

  was associated with sexual abuse. No statistical association was found with

  age, education, marital status, being raised by mother or father, separation

  by divorce, or physical abuse. Conclusions and implications for future

  research, education, and treatment were discussed as part of the study.



Title: Down will come baby:  Psychosomatic functioning, trauma, and use of the

  analytic frame.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Perera, Gayathri Marini

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

  & Engineering; Vol 61(12-B) 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International; 2001,


Abstract/Review/Citation: This study drew from psychoanalytic theory and

  clinical material of my own (disguised in order to protect patient

  confidentiality) in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the

  relationship between trauma and containment. It asserted that an individual

  whose process of coming to experience her body as a containing object has been

  interrupted or interfered with has been traumatized. The trauma then becomes

  lodged in the body as a somatic symptom. Consequently, the individual will

  develop a pattern of recreating the trauma by handling and relating to her

  body in particular ways. The central thesis of this study was that there are

  observable parallels in the ways in which the individual relates to her body,

  and the ways in which she relates to the analytic frame.  The first part of

  the study examined various theories of containment to conceptualize how

  psychological experience is created out of the sensory world. Particularly, it

  examines the ways in which an infant interacts with her external environment

  and thereby comes to take possession of her body, her sexual identity, and her

  mind. The next part focused on various theories of trauma to examine how

  repeated failures in containment constitute trauma. Using these theories of

  containment and trauma, I proposed a more integrated model of understanding

  the relationship between trauma and containment by tracing the origins of

  trauma back to psychic trauma, where there has been a disruption in the early

  infant-mother relationship. This interferes with symbol formations, which are

  the inheritors of the container.  Trauma was defined as a state of disruption

  that separates the psyche (mind) and the soma (body) as a result of the abrupt

  awareness of self and other. I suggested that this disruption in the realm of

  bodily states becomes embedded in bodily tissue as a 'wound,' which escapes

  symbolization and returns to the body in the form of psychosomatic symptoms

  and self-directed violence.  Theories about the analytic frame were examined

  in order to understand the relationship between somatic symptoms and the

  therapist's role and function in cases where the analytic frame has not been

  secured. Using a clinical vignette, I examined the hypothesis that an abrupt

  awareness of bodily separation between infant and mother forces the infant to

  establish rigid boundaries, resulting in a form of organization based on

  disorganization. I proposed that this is what becomes embodied in the body and

  the frame, thus making it possible to view the analytic frame as a mirror or a

  metaphor for the body. In addition, the relationship between keeping the

  trauma alive in the body and being unable to process experiences was explored.

  Additionally, I addressed the therapist's function and how interventions were

  based on the therapist being receptive to the patient's enactment and the

  clinical implications involved in viewing these enactments as a form of

  communication. Finally, I explored how the therapist's observation of her own

  bodily and mental states, in relation to the patient's, creates a space in the

  treatment where the patient may integrate her bodily-based experiences and

  transform them into a system.



Title: The role of projective identification with domestically violent males.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Zosky, Diane Melton

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities

  & Social Sciences; Vol 62(1-A) Jul 2001, US: Univ Microfilms

  International; 2001, 336

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study explores the role of the primitive defense

  mechanism of projective identification with domestically violent males. It is

  primarily founded on object relations and family systems theory. Kernberg's

  four part model of projective identification is used to examine if men who

  batter are more likely to engage in this defense mechanism as an interactive,

  interpersonal process with their partners.  The study used Paulson's Daily

  Living Inventory to measure projective identification. The study also

  individually examined the four variables of the use of control in

  relationships, the degree of interpersonal differentiation, the use of the

  defense mechanism of splitting, and the degree that the research participants

  display disruption from the separation-individuation phase of development.

  These four variables were chosen because they are consistent with Kernberg's

  understanding of projective identification. Finally the four separate

  variables were entered into a regression analysis to determine how they

  contribute to projective identification. Domestically violent men were found

  to engage in projective identification more than non-violent, relationship

  satisfied men, but not more than non-violent, relationship discordant men.

  Contrary to the hypotheses, there was no statistically significant difference

  found between domestically violent men, non-violent relationship satisfied

  men, and non-violent relationship discordant men on the variables of

  splitting, control, and interpersonal differentiation. There was a

  statistically significant difference between the sample groups with

  non-violent relationship satisfied men scoring as less likely to have

  experienced disruptions in the separation-individuation phase of development. 

  The four variables of control, interpersonal differentiation, splitting, and

  disruptions from the separation-individuation phase were analyzed through

  linear regression analysis to determine their contribution to the concept of

  projective identification. The four variables accounted for 36% of the

  variance in projective identification, with the variable of disruption in the

  separation-individuation phase contributing 23% of the variance.  Conclusions

  from this study support the theoretical concept that men who are domestically

  violent experienced significant developmental trauma during the

  separation-individuation phase. This study also strongly supports that the

  variable of disruptions from the separation-individuation phase significantly

  contributes to the defense of projective identification. The mixed results

  regarding the role of projective identification in domestic violence needs

  further study.



Title: Understanding the trauma of racial violence in a Black patient.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Keval, Narendra

Source/Citation: British Journal of Psychotherapy; Vol 18(1) Fal 2001, England:

  Artesian Books; 2001, 34-51

Abstract/Review/Citation: Racial violence arises when infantile anxiety and

  hatred of 'difference' or 'otherness' become too unmanageable within the self

  and are displaced into the racial arena via splitting and projective

  mechanisms. The body of the 'other', particularly skin colour differences,

  becomes a salient target for locating and attacking these feared and unwanted

  aspects of the self. Those on the receiving end can experience a profound

  attack on their identity, with feelings of rejection that can result in a

  severe narcissistic blow, puncturing and even shattering the individual's

  psychic skin and existing defensive organization. This failure of containment

  can send tremors throughout the psyche to some of the most vulnerable areas in

  individuals' functioning, giving fresh life to both oedipal and pre-oedipal

  anxieties to do with separation and loss. Where these early anxieties are felt

  to be unbearable, the individual resorts to encapsulating them in a portion of

  his or her mind, effectively sealing them off from conscious awareness or

  access, but they are unconsciously re-enacted. A case study aims to describe

  some of these phenomena.



Title: Loss as a lifelong regenerative learning process.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Griffin, David

Source/Citation: Psychodynamic Counselling; Vol 7(4) Nov 2001, England: Taylor

  & Francis/Routledge; 2001, 413-430

Abstract/Review/Citation: The predisposition to internalize death and loss of

  crucial attachment objects, subjectively, as a physical attack on the body, is

  commonly acknowledged in the field of human psychological behavior. This view

  is held, essentially, according to psychoanalytic principles of the

  functioning of the mental processes, to advance the concept of mind and body

  sensations as psychical consequences, or affects, of loss trauma. It does not,

  nevertheless, preclude wider social and cultural factors from adding to our

  understanding of how and why we react to loss in deeply individual ways. In

  the affective domain of human experience, the relationship between emotional

  pain and learning may not strike an immediate connection, since emotions are

  assumed to be subjective psychological affects of the psyche, while learning

  involves cognitive processes associated with developed responses to external

  stimuli. The aim of this paper is to examine the concept of loss and emotional

  learning in a wider context to include lifelong processes of change and

  growth, which may be a cause for grief. It raises the psychodynamic

  significance of personal meaning(s) people attach to loss, and links this

  theme to the aetiology of separation anxiety, loss and lifelong mourning from

  a psychoanalytic perspective.



Title: On being and having a mother.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Furman, Erna

Source/Citation: Madison, CT, US: International Universities Press, Inc; 2001,

  (xiv, 242)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This book examines parenting, in particular mothers

  and mothering, expressed through the author's views of parenthood as a

  developmental phase (Chapter 2). Chapter 3 discusses the death of a newborn

  and how mothers may cope with this stress, while Chapters 4-6 address loss and

  separation, the nature and origins of these maternal experiences, the ways in

  which mothers cope, and how it affects their children. The special focus in

  these chapters is on the mutually crucial process in the mother-child

  relationship during the child's earliest developmentally self-initiated steps

  toward becoming a person in his own right, including weaning and other areas

  of acquiring bodily self-care. However, there are also examples from much

  later, and more subtle milestones in the mother-child relationship and this

  theme is taken up again in Chapter 7. Additional chapters address stresses and

  hazards in the care of toddlers, the death of a parent, parenting the

  hospitalized child, children of divorce, some effects of the one-parent family

  on personality development, and the development of gender.

Notes/Comments: Introduction

  Acknowledgments  Anna Karenina: A book on mothers Parenthood as a

  developmental phase The death of a newborn: Assistance to parents Mothers have

  to be there to be left Self-care and the mother-child relationship Early

  aspects of mothering: What makes it so hard to be there to be left Helen,

  Andy, and their mothers Early steps in the development of gender Mothers,

  toddlers, and care On trauma: When is the death of a parent traumatic?

  Parenting the hospitalized child: Consulting with child life workers Children

  of divorce Some effects of the one-parent family on personality development

  [by] Erna Furman and Robert A. Furman, M.D. On motherhood Afterword References

  Name index Subject index mothers; parenting; maternal experiences; separation;

  coping; mother-child relationship



Title: Traumatic grief in the chemically abusing/dependent adolescent in


Author(s)/Editor(s): Gerardot, David D.

Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences

  & Engineering; Vol 62(3-B) Sep 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;

  2001, 1574

Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examines the likelihood that chemically

  abusing/dependent adolescents in treatment who report moderate to severe

  emotional and physical abuse/neglect are at greater risk for traumatic grief

  than those with minimal emotional and physical abuse/neglect. One hundred

  adolescents participated in this study and were categorized into two treatment

  levels: an intensive outpatient and medically monitored intensive inpatient.

  Participants were interviewed by Certified Chemical Dependency Counselors

  using the Adolescent Diagnostic Intake Assessment (ASAM). Participants were

  administered either the adolescent version of the Substance Abuse Subtle

  Screening Inventory (SASSI, Miller, 1990) or were determined by a physician or

  nurse practitioner to be chemically dependent. Histories of trauma associated

  with emotional and physical abuse/neglect were identified by Childhood Trauma

  Questionnaire (CTQ, Bernstein & Fink, 1998). Different types of loss

  associated with chemical abuse/dependence were identified by the Loss-Grief

  Inventory (L-GI, Beechem, Prewitt & Scholar, 1996). Traumatic and

  separation distress associated with traumatic grief was identified by the

  Inventory of Traumatic Grief (ITG, Prigerson, Kasl & Jacobs, 1999). In

  addition, the Attachment Object Relations Inventory (AORI, Buelow, McClain

  & McIntosh, 1996) and the Adolescent-Coping Orientation for Problem

  Experiences (A-COPE, Patterson, McCubbin, 1981) were used to measure both the

  internal and external dimensions of the self as well as other personal and

  social coping resources necessary to adjust to traumatic grief. Results

  indicated that traumatic grief was associated with physical abuse in

  chemically abusing/dependent adolescents in treatment and that different types

  of losses representative of grief were associated with emotional neglect.



Title: The traumatization of grief? A conceptual framework for understanding the

  trauma-bereavement interface.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Stroebe, Margaret; Schut, Henk; Finkenauer, Catrin

Source/Citation: Israel Journal of Psychiatry & Related Sciences; Vol

  38(3-4) 2001, Israel: Gefen Publishing House; 2001, 185-201

Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses the relationship between bereavement and

  trauma, and presents a conceptual framework. Both traumatic experiences and

  bereavement place individuals at high risk for developing a number of

  disorders independent from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or

  pathological grief. Relevant factors include types of events, determinants of

  impact intensity, psychological reactions and disturbances, life-event

  specific psychological disorders, and general psychological disorders. The

  lack of consensus about the nature of reactions and disorders of bereavement

  is due to concentration on different parts of the proposed framework.

  Furthermore, the lack of differentiation between traumatic and nontraumatic

  bereavement has caused neglect of the unique features of nontraumatic grief




Title: A child trauma treatment pilot study.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Copping, Valerie E.; Warling, Diane L.; Benner, David G.; Woodside, Donald W.

Author Affiliation: City of Hamilton, Child & Adolescent Services, Hamilton,

  ON, Canada City of Hamilton, Child & Adolescent Services, Hamilton, ON,

  Canada City of Hamilton, Child & Adolescent Services, Hamilton, ON, Canada

Source/Citation: Journal of Child & Family Studies; Vol 10(4) Dec 2001, US:

  Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2001, 467-475

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined outcomes of a promising 21-session trauma

  treatment model for children aged 3 to 17 yrs and their caregivers. All

  children in treatment had experienced at least one traumatic event (e.g.,

  sexual or physical abuse, family violence, caregiver separation, or sudden

  death of a caregiver). The treatment intervention is rooted in theories of

  trauma and attachment and combines psychoeducational parent training with

  cognitive behavioral therapy to form a comprehensive trauma treatment program.

  This study reports on 27 families who completed the program. Ss completed the

  pre- and post-treatment Standardized Client Information System that includes 9

  measures related to the child and caregiver, including Conduct Disorder,

  Oppositionality, Attention Deficit Disorder, Separation Anxiety Disorder,

  Depression, Anxiety, and Social Relationship Problems for the child, and

  Caretaker Depression and Family Functioning relating to the caregiver. Results

  reflect significant reductions in conduct disorder, problems in social

  relations, and caregiver depression at an average of a 1-yr post-treatment

  follow-up. Results from this preliminary study offer support for further

  evaluation of the model.



Title: Covictimization and inner city youth: A review.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Brill, Cristina; Fiorentino, Nancy; Grant, Jasmine

Author Affiliation: Loyola Coll, Dept of Psychology, Evergreen Campus,

  Baltimore, MD, US Loyola Coll, Dept of Psychology, Baltimore, MD, US

Source/Citation: International Journal of Emergency Mental Health; Vol 3(4) Fal

  2001, US: Chevron Publishing; 2001, 229-239

Abstract/Review/Citation: Covictimization, defined as the "the experiences

  of directly observing the violent assault of another person" (B. Shakoor

  and D. Chalmers, 1991), represents a real and present danger to inner city

  youth. This paper reviews the scope and prevalence of the problem and a

  potential emergency mental health response. Sources of covictimization include

  domestic violence, sexual assault, and community violence. Common reactions

  are discussed, including cognitive and emotional effects, behavioral problems,

  developmental and mediating factors, and the trauma constellation consisting

  of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, loss and grief reactions,

  separation anxiety, and exacerbation or renewal of prior symptoms. The number

  of treatment studies focusing on the psychological impact of covictimization

  is limited, but relevant studies are reviewed with discussion of treatment

  barriers, early intervention, triage and risk screening, and on-site

  psychological first-aid. An early intervention treatment plan is described

  including classroom, family, individual, and group interventions to address

  different aspects of the trauma constellation, along with a brief discussion

  of prevention programs.



Title: Bereavement.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Raphael, Beverley; Dobson, Matthew

Source/Citation: Loss and trauma:  General and close relationship perspectives.,

  Philadelphia, PA, US: Brunner-Routledge; 2000, (xxv, 415), 45-61

Source editor(s): Harvey, John H. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Bereavement is used in this chapter to describe the

  whole process of anticipation, and reaction to the loss of a person to whom

  the individual is attached in the sense of human affectional bonds. In this

  sense it encompasses both the inner psychological processes and their outer

  expression, for instance grief and psychological mourning, as well as the

  external, socially sanctioned behaviors and rituals. The key phenomena are

  described here as they apply to the loss of loved ones, by death, and the loss

  of primary attachment figures and the processes that follow. How these

  understandings may apply to other losses are discussed generally. The factors

  that influence the nature of bereavement reactions are also considered, as

  well as the complexities that may arise. Bereavement as it can be understood

  in terms of biological, psychological, social, and cultural contexts are also

  explored and finally bereavement and its relation to trauma, and as a model

  for human response to adversity is analyzed. Bereavement may also contribute

  significantly to human growth and development, and the strengths from grieving

  and mastering loss, and the internalizations of those loved, may all

  contribute to the character and adaptability of the individual.



Title: War trauma experience and behavioral screening of Bosnian refugee

  children resettled in Massachusetts.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Geltman, Paul L.; Augustyn, Marilyn; Barnett, Elizabeth D.;

Klass, Perri E.; Groves, Betsy McAlister

Source/Citation: Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics; Vol 21(4)

  Aug 2000, US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000, 255-261

Abstract/Review/Citation: Assessed war violence exposure and behavioral symptoms

  in Bosnian refugee children in Massachusetts and the utility of behavioral

  screening of refugees during the Refugee Health Assessment (RHA), required of

  newly arrived refugees. The study was a survey of 31 Bosnian refugee children

  in 1996 at the International Clinic of Boston Medical Center, the state's

  largest contracted provider of the RHA. Ss were also offered referrals to

  appropriate mental health services. 68% experienced long-term separation from

  a parent. 81% were directly exposed to armed combat. 71% experienced the death

  of a close friend or relative. 52% experienced economic deprivation. Families

  reported behavioral symptoms for 77% of children. Only one family expressed

  interest in psychosocial services of any kind. Large numbers of Bosnian

  refugees are likely to have experienced traumatic war violence and are at risk

  of behavioral symptoms. The RHA affords opportunities to screen for behavioral

  problems but not to intervene. Primary care providers and other clinicians

  should be aware of likely recurrences of symptoms in high-risk children such

  as these.



Title: Psychotherapy of traumatic grief: A review of evidence for

  psychotherapeutic treatments.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Jacobs, Selby; Prigerson, Holly

Source/Citation: Death Studies; Vol 24(6) Sep 2000, US: Taylor & Francis;

  2000, 479-495

Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents the concept of traumatic grief and then

  reviewed controlled studies that pertain to its psychotherapeutic treatment.

  As the concept is only recently emerging in contemporary literature, no

  controlled studies that pertain directly to its treatment were found. However,

  based on assumptions about the nature of the disorder, studies that focused on

  the treatment of separation anxiety disorders, pathological grief, or samples

  of high-risk bereaved persons were used in their stead. The authors conclude

  that it will most likely be a specific therapy for traumatic grief that will

  be proven most effective in systematic studies completed in the future.

  Proposed criteria for traumatic grief are appended. ========================================


Title: On the experience of traumatic stress in anticipatory and postdeath


Author(s)/Editor(s): Rando, Therese A.

Source/Citation: Clinical dimensions of anticipatory mourning:  Theory and

  practice in working with the dying, their loved ones, and their caregivers.,

  Champaign, IL, US: Research Press; 2000, (xiii, 601), 155-221

Source editor(s): Rando, Therese A. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Constructs the argument that anticipatory mourning

  inherently constitutes an experience of significant traumatic stress for those

  who observe and attend to the dying of someone with whom they sustain a

  meaningful attachment. After introductory comments about the nature of trauma,

  traumatic stress, and the historical separation between the fields of

  thanatology and traumatology, the chapter provides discussion of the

  conceptual and empirical associations of acute grief with all forms of

  traumatic stress. This discussion includes investigations into the generic

  issues provoking anxiety in bereavement, the dynamics of separation anxiety,

  the role of anxiety in both uncomplicated and complicated mourning, and the

  phenomenon of traumatic bereavement. Next is a delineation of evidence

  supporting the notion of acute grief as a traumatic stress response, with

  particular attention being paid to 9 areas of similarity between the 2

  phenomena. An examination of traumatic stress in medical illness is also

  included and leads into a discussion of how anticipatory mourning encompasses

  traumatic stress symptoms, correlates, and processes, and therefore

  constitutes a legitimate form of traumatic stress. ========================================


Title: Estudio psicopatobiografico de Strindberg autobiografia y psicopatologia.

  VI: El exorcista poseido y huida hacia la abadia./ A study of Strindberg's

  psychopathobiography. Autobiography and psychopathology. VI: the possessed

  exorcist and escape to the abbey.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Ruiz, M. Ruiz; Ruiz-Ruiz, F.; Fernandez-Baca, P.

Source/Citation: Psiquis:  Revista de Psiquiatria, Psicologia Medica y

  Psicosomatica; Vol 21(2) 2000, Spain: Alpe Editores, S.A.; 2000, 45-58

Abstract/Review/Citation: The hallucinations and delusional experiences continue

  in the life period described in "Legends" where the persecutory

  trauma is more evident. The delusional conviction, the meaning of revelation

  and the memories of the events lived in "Hell" structure the

  delusion upon the narcissistic omnipotence and the i individuation/separation 




Title: Posttraumatic stress in children exposed to family violence and

  single-event trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): McCloskey, Laura Ann; Walker, Marla

Source/Citation: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent

  Psychiatry; Vol 39(1) Jan 2000, US: Williams & Wilkins Co.; 2000, 108-115

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and

  other comorbid forms of psychopathology in a sample of children exposed to

  chronic abuse and single-event trauma. 337 children (aged 6-12 yrs) were

  assessed for exposure to traumatic events (family violence, violent crime,

  death or illness of someone close to child, accidents) and posttraumatic

  stress symptoms. Children and mothers received structured diagnostic

  interviews to assess child psychopathology. Children from violent households

  were no more likely to report an extrafamilial traumatic stressor than

  children from nonviolent homes. Among the children reporting a traumatic

  event, 24.6% met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The leading precipitating

  event for PTSD symptoms was death or illness of someone close to the child.

  Family violence, violent crime, but not accidents also resulted in PTSD.

  Children with PTSD displayed comorbidity across different symptom classes,

  most notably phobias and separation anxiety. Findings suggest that both type I

  and type II trauma can result in PTSD in about one quarter of children.

  Children with posttraumatic stress symptoms had many other forms of comorbid

  psychopathology, indicating a global and diffuse impact of trauma on children.



Title: Deployment and the probability of spousal aggression by U.S. Army


Author(s)/Editor(s): McCarroll, James E.; Ursano, Robert J.; Liu, Xian; Thayer, Laurie E.; Newby, John H.; Norwood, Ann E.; Fullerton, Carol S.

Source/Citation: Military Medicine; Vol 165(1) Jan 2000, US: Assn. of Military

  Surgeons of the U.S.; 2000, 41-44

Abstract/Review/Citation: Explored the relationship between length of soldier

  deployment (0 vs <3 vs 3-6 vs 6-12 mo) in the past year and self-report of

  moderate and severe spousal violence. The Conflict Tactics Scale was used to

  measure self-reports of behaviors exhibited in marital conflict. Surveys were

  administered to a 15% random sample of 26,835 deployed and nondeployed married

  active duty US Army men and women in the US during 1990-1994. The multinomial

  logistic regression model showed that percentage of Ss endorsing moderate and

  severe aggression increased with length of deployment. After controlling for

  demographic variables, probability of severe aggression was significantly

  greater for Ss who had deployed in the past year than in Ss who had not

  deployed, and that probability increased for each length of deployment.



Title: Predictors of comorbid personality disorders in patients with panic

  disorder with agoraphobia.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Latas, Milan; Starcevic, Vladan; Trajkovic, Goran; Bogojevic, Goran

Source/Citation: Comprehensive Psychiatry; Vol 41(1) Jan-Feb 2000, US: WB

  Saunders & Co; 2000, 28-34

Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined predictors of comorbid personality disorders

  in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDAG). 60 outpatients (aged

  21-53 yrs) with PDAG were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for

  DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Logistic regressions were used

  to identify predictors of any comorbid personality disorder, any DSM-IV

  cluster A, B, or C personality disorder. Independent variables were gender,

  age, duration of panic disorder (PD), severity of PDAG, and patients'

  perception of their parents, childhood separation anxiety, and traumatic

  experiences. High levels of parental protection on the Parental Bonding

  Instrument (PBI) emerged as the only statistically significant predictor of

  any comorbid personality disorder. This finding was attributed to the

  association between parental overprotection and cluster B personality

  disorders, particularly borderline personality disorder. The duration of PD

  was a significant predictor of any cluster B and any cluster C personality

  disorder. Any cluster B personality disorder was also associated with younger

  age. The findings of suggest some specificity for the association between

  parental overprotection in childhood and personality disturbance in PDAG

  patients, particularly cluster B personality disorders.



Title: Wie erleben Achtjaehrige Panikanfaelle?/ How do eight-year-olds

  experience panic attacks?

Author(s)/Editor(s): Federer, Matthias; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Juergen;

Herrle, Johannes

Source/Citation: Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie:

  Forschung und Praxis; Vol 29(3) 2000, Germany: Verlag fur Psychologie; 2000,


Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the frequency of spontaneous and

  situationally predisposed panic attacks and their association with anxiety

  sensitivity, physical complaints, parental anxiety, and depressive

  symptomatology, birth complications, and family problems in children. 826

  children (aged 8 yrs) participated in the screening, which consisted of

  interviews during school hours with the children and a questionnaire to be

  completed at home by the parents. Teachers completed a 25-item questionnaire

  for the Ss who refused to be interviewed. The screening was followed by a

  diagnostic individual assessment based on the anxiety module of a diagnostic

  interview for psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The results

  show no spontaneous panic attacks. 21.4% of the Ss experienced situationally

  predisposed or stimulus-bound panic attacks, triggered by the dark, separation

  situations, and facing animals. Panic attacks in Ss who received an anxiety

  diagnosis hardly differed from those of Ss without such a diagnosis with

  regard to symptomatology. Positive associations were found between panic

  attacks and family problems, awareness of illness, mother's anxiety, physical

  complaints, and anxiety sensitivity. ========================================


Title: The assault on basic trust: Disappearance, protest, and reburial in


Author(s)/Editor(s): Robben, Antonius C. G. M.

Source/Citation: Cultures under siege:  Collective violence and trauma., New

  York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press; 2000, (xiv, 285), 70-101

  Publications of the society for psychological anthropology.

Source editor(s): Robben, Antonius C. G. M. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: Analyzes the "dirty war" disappearances in

  Argentina between 1976 and 1983.  It is argued that the disappearances

  carried out in the intimacy of the home invaded the primary object relation of

  parent and child, and provoked intense guilt feelings among the surviving

  parents about having failed to protect their adult and adolescent children.

  Most of the disappeared were killed within days or weeks after their detention

  by the security forces, and their bodies interred in mass graves. Parents were

  deliberately left in the dark about the fate of their missing children, and

  were thus denied the right to properly bury and mourn their dead. It was at

  this intersection of the political and domestic domain that parental trust and

  protection became mobilized. The author concludes that the politicization of

  the dead by the military led mothers to cope with their separation anxiety

  either by a projective search for the human remains or by an introjective

  vindication of the revolutionary ideals embraced by many disappeared before

  their abduction.  Topics discussed include: the transgression of inner and

  outer boundaries, desecration of the corpse in Argentine political culture,

  contested exhumations and revolutionary protest, and reburial and collective




Title: The relevance of narrative research with children who witness war and

  children who witness woman abuse.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Berman, Helene

Source/Citation: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma: Special

  Issue: Children exposed to domestic violence: Current issues in research,

  intervention, prevention, and policy development ; Vol 3(1) 2000, US: Haworth

  Press; 2000, 107-125

Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents findings from a narrative study with children

  who were witness to war and children who were witness to woman abuse. The

  sample consisted of 16 children of war and 16 children of battered women. Ss

  were 10-17 yrs old. The author found that while the experiences of the 2

  groups vary considerably, their stories are, in some senses, similar. Both

  groups witnessed a multitude of atrocities, and almost all endured at least

  some degree of loss, uprooting, and separation. Despite similarities there are

  significant differences. Most notably, the children of war experienced their

  pain and suffering collectively, with contrast, the children of battered women

  suffered alone, often going to elaborate lengths to ensure that others not

  learn about the horror in their homes. The relevance of narrative research

  with this population is discussed and implications for researchers and

  clinicians are presented.



Title: A case-study of PTSD in infancy: Diagnostic, neurophysiological,

  developmental and therapeutic aspects.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Keren, Miri; Tyano, Samuel

Source/Citation: Israel Journal of Psychiatry & Related Sciences: Special

  Issue: Mental health in early childhood in honor of professor Donald Cohen:

  Teacher, mentor and friend to child psychiatrists throughout the world. ; Vol

  37(3) 2000, Israel: Gefen Publishing House Ltd; 2000, 236-246

Abstract/Review/Citation: Presents the case of a young child experiencing

  posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in infancy and the impact of re-enactment

  of the trauma in therapy. Nir (aged 27 mo) presented with symptoms including

  irritability, physical aggression, spitting, intermittent refusal to go to

  school, separation anxiety, constricted play and withdrawn behavior, reduced

  appetite, negative mood, difficulty in sleeping, and frequent awakenings with

  inconsolable crying. He had returned from a visit with his father with 2nd

  degree burns on both hands; the father was suspected of being actively

  involved. He had also experienced domestic violence prior to his parents'

  divorce, including the attempted strangulation of the mother. The therapist

  reenacted the trauma by talking about it. Nir's initial reaction of

  dissociation reflected an inability to cope with the emotional arousal, while

  the mother displayed strong fears. Gradually, as the mother improved in her

  ability to hear the therapist talking about the trauma, the S's dissociative

  spells became rarer.



Title: Zur Psychoanalyse von Schuld und Schuldgefuehl./ Psychoanalysis of guilt

  and feelings of guilt.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Hirsch, Mathias

Source/Citation: Jahrbuch der Psychoanalyse: Special Issue:  Vol 42 2000,

  Germany: Frommann-Holzboog; 2000, 204-230

Abstract/Review/Citation: Reflects that, when psychoanalysis no longer limits

  itself to investigating the intrapsychic, it will include external traumatic

  events, not only as evidence of extreme traumatization, but also as a subtle

  relational trauma. The perpetrator's guilt becomes the introject that has

  emerged from the internalization of violence which has the effect of a

  hostile, persecuting superego. Psychoanaltic therory should carefully

  distinguish irrational feelings of guilt from real guilt, i.e., from guilt

  that has resulted from the victim's identification with the aggressor. Beyond

  understanding guilt feelings as an expression of Oedipal conflict, the author

  differentiates between guilt feelings (i.e., basic, coming from vitality,

  caused by separation and traumatic guilt feelings), thereby establishing a

  kind of personal taxonomy.



Title: Discriminability of vowel representations in cat auditory-nerve fibers

  after acoustic trauma.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Miller, Roger L.; Calhoun, Barbara M.; Young, Eric D.

Source/Citation: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; Vol 105(1) Jan

  1999, US: American Inst of Physics; 1999, 311-325

Abstract/Review/Citation: Directly analyzed the neural representation of a vowel

  in the auditory nerve following acoustic trauma in cats, particularly studying

  the normal tonotopic separation of responses to stimulus components of

  different frequencies. It has been found that the first and second formants

  (F1 and F2) normally produce responses at different places along the cochlear

  partition, consistent with their different frequencies. In an impaired animal,

  responses to F1 are seen across almost the whole cochlea and responses to F2

  spread widely away from the F2 place. The authors report here that the rate

  differences between vowels differing in F2 frequency are lost after acoustic

  trauma; at the same time, a temporal representation of the differences between

  the vowels remains, even though the temporal representation is degraded.



Title: Cognitive-behavioral treatment for adolescent depression complicated by

  childhood trauma: A case illustration.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Runyon, Melissa K.; Orvaschel, Helen

Source/Citation: Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry; Vol 4(4) Oct 1999,

  England: Sage Publications Ltd; 1999, 493-504

Abstract/Review/Citation: This article presents diagnostic, conceptualization

  and treatment issues in the case of a 17-year-old female with depression

  complicated by childhood trauma. The case attempts to illuminate the potential

  utility of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of

  adolescent depression. The case presentation illustrates 3 points: (1) the

  complexity of adolescent psychopathology, particularly problem areas that

  commonly occur with depression during this specific period of development

  (e.g., identity issues, individuation/separation from family, child-parent

  conflict); (2) the conceptualization process of an intricate adolescent case;

  and (3) the implementation of a cognitive-behavioral strategy that the patient

  was able to use to manage her depressive symptomatology. ========================================


Title: Case studies in abnormal psychology (5th ed.).

Author(s)/Editor(s): Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Neale, John M.; Davison, Gerald C.

Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 1999, (xi, 399)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This book takes mental disorders from the realm of

  theory into the complex reality of human lives. In all, 22 in-depth cases are

  presented that focus on symptoms, the client's history, treatment, and the

  outcome. These cases illustrate a variety of problems, including mood

  disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, personality disorders, and

  various disorders of childhood and aging. Many cases include excerpts of

  dialog from therapy interviews, and each case is compared with Mental

  Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for relevant disorders. Both

  treatment failures and successes are presented. All cases end with a

  discussion of etiology and treatment that illustrates the application of

  research to individual client's problems, and alerts readers to important gaps

  in our knowledge of abnormal psychology. These cases also allow students to

  see how theories in the field can be applied to real-life problems.

Notes/Comments: Preface Obsessive compulsive disorder

  Panic disorder with agoraphobia Posttraumatic stress disorder: Rape trauma

  Hypertension in an African American man Dissociative Identity Disorder:

  Multiple personality Major depressive disorder Bipolar mood disorder

  Depression, delirium, and suicidality in an older woman caring for an

  Alzheimer's patient Schizophrenia: Paranoid type Schizophrenia:

  Undifferentiated type Alcohol dependence and marital conflict Sexual

  dysfunction: Female orgasmic disorder Paraphilia: Exhibitionism Gender

  identity disorder: Transsexualism Eating disorder: Anorexia nervosa Eating

  disorder: Bulimia nervosa Paranoid personality disorder Borderline personality

  disorder Antisocial personality disorder: Psychopathy Autistic disorder

  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Separation anxiety disorder: School

  phobia References Index clinical case studies in abnormal psychology ========================================


Title: Police trauma:  Psychological aftermath of civilian combat.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Violanti, John M.; Paton, Douglas

Source/Citation: Springfield, IL, US: Charles C Thomas, Publisher; 1999, (xxiv,


Abstract/Review/Citation: This book focuses on the psychological impact of

  police civilian combat. During a police career, the men and women of our

  police agencies are exposed to distressing events that go far beyond the

  experience of the ordinary citizen. There is an increased need today to help

  police officers deal with these traumatic experiences. As police work becomes

  increasingly complex, this need will grow. Mental health and other

  professionals need to be made aware of the conditions and precipitants and

  trauma stress among the police. A goal of this books it to provide such

  information.  Our perspective in this book is based on the idea that trauma

  stress does not necessarily occur within the vacuum of the individual.

  Instead, trauma is a product of the rather complex interaction of person,

  place, situation, support mechanisms, and interventions. To effectively

  communicate this to the reader, we included some new conceptual and

  methodological considerations, essays on special cases and groups in policing,

  and innovative ideas on recovery and treatment of trauma. Our hope is that

  this information will be used to prevent or minimize trauma stress in police

  officers and, if this is not possible, that it be used to help in establishing

  improved support and therapeutic measures for police officers.

Notes/Comments:  Preface Introduction Police

  trauma: Psychological impact of civilian combat Section I: Conceptual and

  methodological issues Assessment, conceptual and methodological issues in

  researching traumatic stress in police officers Douglas Paton and Leigh Smith

  Police officers and violent crime: Social psychological perspectives on impact

  and recovery Malcolm D. MacLeod and Douglas Paton Police compassion fatigue

  (PCF): Theory, research, assessment, treatment, and prevention Charles R.

  Figley Police psychological burnout and trauma Cedric Alexander Vulnerability

  to psychological disorder: Previous trauma in police recruits Christine

  Stephens, Nigel Long and Ross Flett Chronic exposure to risk and trauma:

  Addiction and separation issues in police officers Douglas Paton, John

  Violanti and Eugene Schmuckler Trauma in police work: A psychosocial model

  John Violanti Section II: Special police populations Effects of exposure to

  violence in South African police Heidi Kopel and Merle Friedman The emotional

  aftermath of the Waco raid: Five years revisited Roger M. Solomon and Peter

  Mastin Incident response and recovery management Douglas Paton, Rhona Flin and

  John Violanti Death on duty: Police survivor trauma John M. Violanti Impact of

  duty-related death on officers children: Concepts of death, trauma reactions,

  and treatment Mary Beth Williams Intergenerational legacies of trauma in

  police families Yael Danieli Trauma of world policing: Peacekeeping duties

  Clay Foreman and Liisa Eraenen Section III: Recovery and treatment Trauma

  prevention in the line of duty Joseph M. Rothberg and Kathleen Wright Coping

  effectiveness and occupational stress in police officers George T. Patterson

  Finding meaning in police traumas Ingrid V. E. Carlier Police suicide: The

  ultimate stress reaction Robert Loo A current view from the UK on post

  incident care: "Debriefing," "defusing" and just talking

  about it Margaret Mitchell Post-intervention strategies to reduce police

  trauma: A paradigm shift Chris Dunning Trauma stress in policing: Issues for

  future consideration Douglas Paton and John M. Violanti Appendix Compassion

  satisfaction/fatigue self-test for helpers Author index Subject index role of

  person & place & situation & support mechanisms &

  interventions in & treatment of stress related trauma, police officers



Title: Chronic exposure to risk and trauma: Addiction and separation issues in

  police officers.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Paton, Douglas; Violanti, John; Schmuckler, Eugene

Source/Citation: Police trauma:  Psychological aftermath of civilian combat.,

  Springfield, IL, US: Charles C Thomas, Publisher; 1999, (xxiv, 327), 78-87

Source editor(s): Violanti, John M. (Ed)

Abstract/Review/Citation: This chapter discusses the longer-term implications

  and after-effects of exposure to high risk and repetitive duty-related

  traumatic incidents in police work. It explores the implications of acute and

  repetitive exposure to high-risk situations and traumatic events for

  dependence, behavioral addiction and separation from active police duties.

  Finally, the manner in which these experiences exercise an influence that

  extend into family life is discussed. ========================================


Title: PRISM: Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure: A brief

  nonverbal measure of illness impact and therapeutic aid in psychosomatic


Author(s)/Editor(s): Buechi, Stefan; Sensky, Tom

Source/Citation: Psychosomatics; Vol 40(4) Jul-Aug 1999, US: American

  Psychiatric Press, Inc.; 1999, 314-320

Abstract/Review/Citation: A novel instrument is described that, according to

  preliminary data, measures what in German is termed Leidensdruck--the

  perceived burden of suffering due to illness. The measure--Pictorial

  Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM)--takes less than 5 min to

  complete and is unusual in relying only minimally on language. The modified

  version of the PRISM task (called PRISM+) uses colored disks placed on a white

  board to represent the relationship between a patient's life as it is, self,

  illness, and other aspects of life. The main outcome measure of the PRISM is

  Self-Illness Separation, the distance in centimeters between the centers of

  the self and illness disks. The PRISM is being developed as a research tool

  and has been used effectively in routine clinical practice. To illustrate the

  latter application, 3 case vignettes are presented, demonstrating how the

  PRISM can enhance the patient's description and understanding of his/her

  illness and circumstances, facilitate patient-clinician communication, and

  help to monitor salient changes with treatment. The patients discussed in the

  case vignettes are a 54-yr-old man with cancer who had an acute stress

  reaction, a 33-yr-old woman coping with multiple sclerosis, and a 58-yr-old

  man coping with severe multiple trauma. ========================================


Title: Perpetrator personality effects on post-separation victim reactions in

  abusive relationships.

Author(s)/Editor(s): Dutton, Donald G.; Haring, Michelle

Source/Citation: Journal of Family Violence; Vol 14(2) Jun 1999, US: Kluwer

  Academic/Plenum Publishers; 1999, 193-204

Abstract/Review/Citation: The present study seeks to make a 2 step empirical

  connection. The 1st step links the abusive personality with relationship

  dynamics features such as physical abuse, domination/isolation and emotional

  abuse reported by battered women. In a second sample of battered women, these

  relationship features are linked to post relationship sequelae, such as

  attachment, lowered self-esteem and trauma symptoms. The current study

  combines 2 data sets; 1 bearing on the 1st of these issues, the other on the

  2nd issue, in order to connect characteristics of the perpetrator's

  personality to post-separation aspects of victim reaction. In Part 1, 120 men

  in treatment for wife assault (and 43 of their female partners), and 44

  demographically similar men (and 33 of their partners) completed a series of

  questionnaires assessing personality, anger, maltreatment of women, and

  physical abuse. All Part 1 Ss were aged 17-65 yrs. In Part 275 female victims

  of physical and/or emotional abuse (mean age 31.4 yrs) completed measures of

  relationship dynamics, trauma symptoms, attachment, and self esteem. Results

  show associations between abusive personality and relationship dynamics and

  between the latter and persistent attachment, trauma symptoms, and lowered

  self esteem in battered women.

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