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African American Females and Trauma
African American Females and PTSD
African American Females and Depression II
African Americans and BiPolar Disorder
African American Females and Depression
African American Children and Trauma
African Americans and Depression I
African Americans and Depression
African American Males and Trauma II
African American Children and PTSD
African American Males and Trauma
African American Children and Depression
African Americans and Health
African Americans and PTSD
African Americans and Religion
African Americans and Spirituality
African Americans and Wellness
African Americans
African Americans and Traumatic Childhood
African Americans and PTSD II
African Americans and Psychological Trauma
African Americans and MPD
African Americans and Mental Health
African Americans and Depression III
African Americans and Depression IV
African Americans and DID
African Americans and Dissociation
African Americans and Depression V
African American Children and Trauma
African American Females and PTSD
African American Adolescents and Trauma
African American Adolescents and PTSD
African Americans and Depression II
African American Adolescents and Depression
African American Females and Depression
Black Americans and Psychological Trauma
Black Americans and Psychological Trauma II


and Physiological

Trauma Research



Seize Your Journeys



Traumatic stress is found in many competent, healthy, strong, good people.  No one can completely protect themselves from traumatic experiences.  Many people have long-lasting problems following exposure to trauma.  Up to 8% of persons will have PTSD at some time in their lives. People who react to traumas are not going crazy.  What is happening to them is part of a set of common symptoms and problems that are connected with being in a traumatic situation, and thus, is a normal reaction to abnormal events and experiences.  Having symptoms after a traumatic event is NOT a sign of personal weakness.  Given exposure to a trauma that is bad enough, probably all people would develop PTSD.

By understanding trauma symptoms better, a person can become less fearful of them and better able to manage them. By recognizing the effects of trauma and knowing more about symptoms, a person will be better able to decide about getting treatment.



Depression and African Americans

“Depression doesn’t life at the end of the day or disappear when others try to cheer us up.  When feelings of helplessness and depression worsen and grow into a full-blown clinical depression, it is truly an illness, not a character flaw or an insignificant bout with the flues.”  --Meri Nana-Ama Danquah, Willow Weep for Me

Clinical depression is more than life’s “ups” and downs”

“Life is full of joy and pain, happiness and sorrow.  It is normal to feel sad when a loved one dies, or when you are sick, going through a divorce, or having financial problems.

But for some people the sadness does not go away, or keeps coming back.  If you “blues” last more than a few weeks or cause you to struggle with daily life, you may be suffering from clinical depression.

You cannot “snap out of” clinical depression, nor can you will it or wish it away.  Clinical depression is not a personal weakness, gracelessness or faithlessness—it is a common, yet serious, medical illness.

Clinical depression is a “whole-body” illness.  It affects your mood, thoughts, body and behavior.  Depression changes the way you eat and sleep, the way you feel about yourself and the way you think about things.  Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, months or years.  Appropriate treatment, however, can help most people who have clinical depression.”

“We have all, to some degree, experienced…when nothing is going our way, when even the most trivial events can trigger tears, when all we want to do is crawl into  a hole and ask ‘Why me?’  For most people, these are isolated occurrences.  When the day ends, so too does the sadness.”  --Willow Weep for Me


Clinical depression can affect anyone, at any time of life

Young or old, man or woman, regardless of race, creed or income—anyone can experience clinical depression.  Clinical depression does not discriminate.  Every year more than 17 million Americans suffer from some type of depressive illness.  This includes major, or clinical, depression; bipolar disorder (often called manic-depressive illness); and dysthimia, a milder, longer-lasting form of depression. 

Although depression is common, it can be a very serious illness.  In fact, depression robs people of the enjoyment found in daily life and can even lead to suicide.

One of the most common myths about depression is that it is “normal” for certain people to feel depressed—older people, young adults, new mothers, menopausal women, or those with a chronic illness.

The truth is that depression is not, and should not be accepted as, a normal part of life any African American regardless of age or life situation.”

“Emotional hardship is supposed to be built into that structure of our lives.  It went along with the territory of being black and female…It seemed that suffering, for a black women, was part of the package.  Or so I thought.”  --Willow Weep for Me


Myths about clinical depression can cause unnecessary pain

“The myths and stigma that surround depression create needless pain and confusion, and can keep those with depression from getting proper treatment.  An important part of overcoming depression is recognizing the myths and understanding the facts.  The following statements reflect some common misbeliefs about African Americans and depression:

‘What do you have to be depressed about?  If our people could make it through slavery, we can make it through anything.”

‘When a black woman suffers from a mental disorder, the overwhelming opinion is that she is weak.  And weakness in black women is intolerable.’

‘Black women are supposed to be strong—caretakers, nurturers, healers of other people.”

‘You should take your troubles to Jesus, not some stranger/psychiatrist.’ “ --Willow Weep for Me

“Stereotypes and clichés about mental illness are as pervasive as those about race.”  --Willow Weep for Me

No one is immune to the potentially debilitating symptoms of depression.  The truth is that getting help, a critical step in conquering depression, can be a sign of strength.  People with depression cannot just ‘pull themselves together’ and get better.  Spiritual support can be an important part of healing, but for those with clinical depression, the care of a qualified mental health professional is essential.  As with many illnesses, if treatment is needed, the earlier it begins, the more effective it can be.”


Clinical depression can be successfully treated

“The good news is that, like other illnesses such as heart disease or diabetes, clinical depression is both diagnosable and treatable with the help of a health care professional.  In fact, over 80 percent of people with depression can be treated successfully with medication, psychotherapy or a combination of both.  With treatment, generally on an outpatient basis, most people improve and return to daily activities, usually in a matter of weeks.

Only a qualified healthcare professional can diagnose depression.  As with other illnesses, the earlier treatment begins, the more effective it can be.”


Treating clinical depression requires the help of others

“Depression saps energy, making a person feel tired, worthless and hopeless.  The nature of clinical depression often makes it difficult for the depressed person to find the strength, motivation or energy to seek treatment on their own.

Friends and family can help the depressed person get treatment.  People with depression need encouragement to get an accurate diagnosis and to seek the treatment that can ease their pain.  It may be helpful for family, a friend or minister to accompany the depressed person to the initial physician’s evaluation for support of to ask questions an note instructions.

Some people think that it they just ‘tough it out’ the depression will go away on it own, or that the support of their religious community alone will cure their depression.  The fact is, like other medical illnesses, clinical depression needs to e diagnosed and treated by a doctor or other mental health professional.”


Learning to recognize clinical depression

“Does this sound like your, or a friend or family member?

‘I felt like I was fading away, being erased.  I just wanted to sleep and disappear.  Living felt like a waste of time and effort.’

‘It’s been more than a year since her husband died and she still can’t seem to get back on her feet.’

“Daily tasks—bathing, ironing clothes, dressing, braiding hair, making breakfast, preparing lunch, school drop-offs and pick-ups—require every bit of get-up-and-go I have.’

‘She’s always liked good food, but now she eat alls the time.’

‘I’m so tired of everything.  I feel like I just want the world to sop spinning for a while so I can take a break.’

‘My mother shouldered so many heavier burdens and her I am thinking my life is too much to bear.  I feel so guilty, and weak—unworthy of my heritage’

I don’t know what’s wrong with me.  I seem to be crying over the dumbest things lately.’”


Clinical depression is a treatable medical illness and getting treatment can save lives

“The most common ways to treat clinical depression are with antidepressant medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of the two.  The choice of treatment depends on how severe the depressive symptoms are and the history of the illness.

When you talk to your doctor or mental health professional, make sure they tell you about all of these treatment options.


Recent research strongly supports the use of medication for the more severe episodes of clinical depression.  Antidepressant medication acts on the chemical pathways of the brain related to moods.  There are a number of very effective antidepressants.  The two most common types are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRSs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs).  Monamine oxidase inhibitors (MOAIs) are also prescribed by some doctors.

Antidepressant medications are not habit-forming.  It may take as many as eight weeks before you notice an improvement.  It is usually recommended that medications be continued for at least four to nine months after the depressive symptoms have improved.  Those with chronic or recurrent depression may need to stay on medication to prevent or lessen further episodes.

People taking antidepressants should be monitored by a doctor who knows about treating clinical depression to ensure the best treatment with the fewest side effects.

Do not stop taking your medication without first talking with your doctor, since some medications cause problems if stopped abruptly.

Psychotherapy can help teach better ways of handling problems by talking with a trained mental health professional.  Therapy can be effective in treating clinical depression, especially depression that is less severe.  Scientific studies have shown that short term (10-20 weeks) courses of therapy are often helpful in treating depression.

Cognitive/behavioral therapy helps change negative styles of thinking and behaving that may contribute to clinical depression.

Interpersonal therapy focuses on dealing more effectively with other people, and working to change relationships that can cause or worsen clinical depression.

Other treatments

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be recommended in the following cases:

When people cannot take or do not improve with medication;

When the risk of suicide is high, or

If someone is debilitated due to another physical illness.

Today, ECT is a safe and effective treatment that can save lives.

Some people may experience side effects such as memory loss.  A thorough discussion between patient and doctor needs to take place when ECT is being considered.”

Check List

“Different people have different symptoms.  Not everyone experiences clinical depression in the same way.  To help decide if you—or someone you care about –need an evaluation for clinical depression, review the following check list of symptoms and mark the descriptions that best apply.  If you experience five or more of thee symptoms for longer than two weeks, if you feel suicidal, of if the symptoms are severe enough to interfere with your daily routine, see your doctor, and bring this sheet with you.  As a first step, your doctor ore another health professional may recommend a thorough examination to rule out other illnesses.

Symptoms of clinical depression

A persistent sad, anxious or ‘empty’ mood, or excessive crying.

Reduced appetite and weight loss or increased appetite and weight gain.

Persistent physical symptoms that do not respond to treatment, such as headaches, digestive disorders and chronic pain

Irritability, restlessness

Decreased energy, fatigue, feeling ‘slowed down’

Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, helplessness, hopelessness, pessimism

Sleeping too much or too little, early-morning waking

 Loss if interest or pleasure in activities, including sex

Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions

Thoughts of death or suicide, or suicide attempts”


Commonly asked questions about clinical depression

“How do I get help for clinical depression?

The first step is to talk to your doctor.  Bring in your checklist and explain the symptoms you hae been experiencing.  He or she may recommend a physical cause for the depressive symptoms.  If clinical depression is diagnosed, then your physician, health maintenance organization or a local mental health association may make referrals to a mental health specialist.

Mental health professionals include psychiatrists, psychologists, pastoral counselors and social workers.  Psychiatrists can prescribe antidepressant drugs because they are physicians.

Mental health professionals who are not physicians cannot prescribe medication, but can provide psychotherapy and often work with psychiatrists and other doctors to ensure that heir patients receive the medications they may need.

What if I don’t feel comfortable talking to my doctor?  Is there anyone else who can help me?

Many people find strength and support through their religious and spiritual communities.  While counseling and support are considered an important part of any ministry, only a physician or mental health professional is able to diagnose clinical depression.  Pastoral counselors with degrees in psychology and theology, offer an integrated religious and spiritual approach to treatment.

How do I pay for treatment?

There are many different options to help you pay for treatment of clinical depression.  If you participate in a private insurance or a health maintenance organization (HMO) plan, your costs for treatment may e covered.  A mental health benefit may be included in your overall health benefit, but pay close attention to the restrictions.  Unfortunately, many plans do not provide equal coverage for physical and mental illnesses.  Contact your health insurance provider for details on your coverage for treatment of clinical depression.

If you are over 65 years old, Medicare now pays for 50 percent of the costs of treatment, and Medigap insurance will typically reimburse the remainder if you have this type of coverage.  Counseling by a certified pastoral counselor is generally covered by health care plans if the pastoral counselor is licensed by the state.  Your workplace may also have an employee assistance professional available to provide counseling or to help you find appropriate care.

If you do not have insurance or are unable to afford treatment, your community may have publicly-funded mental health centers and other mental health programs that charge you for services according to what you can afford to pay.  This is called sliding-scale or sliding-fee basis of payment.  So, even if you have little or no money, services may still be available.  Some mental health professionals in private practice may also accept patients on a sliding-fee basis.  University or teaching medical centers can also be a source of low-cost or free treatment services.

If is important to note that many publicly-funded entities have limited waiting lists or other barriers to treatment.  If you have trouble accessing treatment contact your local mental health association for further assistance.

The National mental health Association sponsors a state health care  reform training program to advocate for improved coverage for mental illnesses.  Contact your local mental health association for further information.

What contributes to clinical depression?

Many things can contribute to clinical depression.  For some, a number of factors seem to be involved, while for others a single factor can cause the illness.  Often time, people become depressed for no apparent reason.  Regardless of the factors involved, clinical depression needs to be diagnosed and treated.

Biological—People with depression typically have too little or too many of certain brain chemicals, called ‘neurotransmitters.’  Changes in these brain chemicals may cause, or contribute to, clinical depression.

Cognitive—People with negative thinking patterns—people who are pessimistic, have low self-esteem, worry too much or feel they have little control over life events-may be more likely to develop clinical depression.

Gender—Women are twice as likely as men to experience clinical depression.  While the reasons for this are still unclear, they may include the hormonal changes women go through during menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth and menopause.  The stress of the many roles and responsibilities women have, including homemaker, mother, employee and spouse may also be a reason.  In some cases, being a victim of abuse, of poverty or of low self-esteem may contribute to an increased risk of clinical depression.

Medications—Some medications can prompt clinical depression.  That’s why it is important to tell your doctor abut all the medications you are taking, even over-the-counter medications.

Co-occurrence—Clinical depression is more likely to occur along with certain illnesses, such as stroke, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes and hormonal disorders.  This is called ‘co-occurring depression.’  Any depressive symptoms with other illnesses should be reported to your doctor.  It is important that co-occurring depression be treated in additional to the physical illness.

·         Depression can ‘co-occur’ in people who suffer from other mental illnesses such as eating disorders or anxiety disorders including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.

·         In an effort to cope with the emotional pain caused by depression, some people try to ‘self-medicate’ through the abuse of alcohol or illegal drugs.  Therefore, depression can also ‘co-occur’ with alcohol and/or substance abuse. Recent studies show that one out of three people with depression also suffer from some form of substance abuse or dependence.

Genetic—A family history of clinical depression increases the risk for developing the illness.  However, clinical depression can also occur in people who have had no family history of clinical depression.

Situational—Difficult life events, including the death of a loved one, divorce, financial problems, moving to a new place or significant loss can contribute to clinical depression.



Making the most of your treatment

“Make treatment a partnership

Treatment is a partnership between the person with clinical depression and their health care provider.  Be sure to discuss treatment options and voice concerns with your doctor or therapist.  Become informed—ask questions and make sure you get answers.

Continue your treatment

It can often take time to find the right treatment for each individual.  Be patient and do not stop taking your antidepressant medication too soon or without your doctor’s knowledge.  Inform your doctor about any side-effects.  Remember, it may take up to eight weeks before you start feeling better.  It is usually recommended that you continue to take your medication for four to nine months after you feel better in order to prevent a recurrence of clinical depression.  Carefully follow your doctor’s instruction to because you take the proper dose.

Change your treatment or get a second opinion

Treatment changes may be necessary if there is no improvement after six to eight weeks of treatment, or if symptoms worsen.  Trying another treatment approach, another medication or getting a second opinion from another health care professional may e appropriate.

Join a patient support group

In addition to treatment, participation in a patient support group can also be very helpful during the recovery process.  Support group members share their experiences with the illness, learn coping skills and exchange information on community providers.

Take care of yourself

Take good care of yourself during treatment for clinical depression.  Be sue to get plenty of rest, exercise in moderation and eat, regular, well-balanced meals.  Many people also find strength and support through religious and spiritual affiliations.

Share this information with your family and friends and ask for extra support and understanding.

You can enjoy your life again!  With proper diagnosis and treatment, clinical depression can be overcome.”

From: National Mental Health Association



What is Depression?

“Depression is a serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act.

Depression has a variety of symptoms, but the most common are a deep feeling of sadness or a marked lose of interest or pleasure in activities.  Other symptoms include:

Changes in appetite that result in weight losses or gains unrelated to dieting.

Insomnia ore oversleeping

Loss of energy or increased fatigue

Restlessness or irritability

Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt

Difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions

Thoughts of death or suicide or attempts at suicide

Depression is common.  It affects nearly one in 10 adults each year—nearly twice as many women as men.  It’s also important to note that depression can strike at any time, but on average, first appears during the late teens to mid-20s.Depression is also common in older adults.

Fortunately, depression is very treatable.

How Depression and Sadness are Different

The death of a loved one, loss of a job, or the ending of a relationship are difficult experiences for a person to endure.  It is normal for feelings of sadness or grief to develop in response to such stressful situations.  Those experiencing trying times often might describe themselves as being “depressed.”

But sadness and depression are not the same.  While feelings of sadness will lessen with time, the disorder of depression can continue for months, even years.  Patients who have experienced depression note marked differences between normal sadness and the disabling weight of clinical depression.

Postpartum  Depression

Postpartum depression—an illness associated with the delivery of a child—is caused by changes in hormones and can run in families.  It is distinguished from “baby blues”—an extremely common reaction following delivery—both by its duration and the debilitating effects of indifference the mother has about herself and her children.  About one in 10 new mothers experience some degree of postpartum depression; women with severe premenstrual syndrome are more likely to suffer from it.

Women with postpartum depression love their children but may be convinced that they are not able to be good mothers.

What Causes Depression?

Depression can affect anyone—even a person who appears to live in relatively ideal circumstances.

Buts several factors can play a role in the onset of depression:

Biochemistry.   Abnormalities in two chemicals in the brain, serotonine and norepinephrine, might contribute to symptoms including anxiety, irritability and fatigue.  Other brain networks undoubtedly are involved as well; scientists are actively seeking new knowledge in this area

Genetics.  Depression can run in families.  For example, if one identical twin has depression, the other has a 70% chance of having the illness sometime in life.

Personality. People with low self-esteem, who are easily overwhelmed by stress, or who are generally pessimistic appear to be vulnerable to depression.

Environmental factors.  Continuous exposure to violence, neglect, abuse or poverty may make people who are already susceptible to depression all the more vulnerable to the illness.

Also a medical condition (e.g., a brain tumor or vitamin deficiency) can cause depression, so it is important to be evaluated by a psychiatrist or other physician to rule out general medical causes.

How is Depression Treated?

For many people, depression cannot always be controlled for any length of time simply by exercise, changing diet, or taking a vacation.  It is, however, among the most treatable of mental disorders; between 80% and 90% of people with depression respond well to treatment, and almost all patients gain some relief from their symptoms.

Before a specific treatment is recommended, a psychiatrist should conduct a thorough diagnostic  evaluation, consisting of an interview and possibly a physical examination.  The purpose of the evaluation is to reveal specific symptoms, medical and family history, cultural settings and environmental factors to arrive at a proper diagnosis and to determine the best treatment.

Medication.  Antidepressants may be prescribed to correct imbalances in the levels of chemicals in the brain.  These medications are not sedatives, “uppers” or tranquilizers.  Neither are they habit-forming.  Generally antidepressant medications have no stimulating effect on those not  experiencing depression.

Antidepressants may produce some improvement within the first week or two of treatment.  Full benefits may not be realized for two to three months.  If a patient feels little or no improvement after several weeks, his or her psychiatrist will alter the dose of the medication or will add or substitute another antidepressant.

Psychiatrists  usually recommend that patients continue to take medication for six or more months after the symptoms have improved.  After two or three episodes of major depression, long-term maintenance treatment may be suggested to decrease the risk of future episodes.

Psychotherapy.  Psychotherapy, or “talk therapy,” is sometimes used alone for treatment of mild depression; for moderate to severe depression, it is often used in combination with antidepressant medications.

Psychotherapy may involve only the individual patient, but it can include others.  For example, family or couples therapy can help address specific issues arising within these close relationships.  Group therapy involves people with similar illnesses.

Depending on the severity of the depression, treatment can take a few weeks or substantially longer.  However, in many cases, significant improvement can be made in 10 to 15 sessions.


Depression is never normal and always produces needless suffering.  With proper diagnosis and treatment, the vast majority of people with depression will overcome it.”

American Psychiatric Association, 2005


Depression and Chronic Conditions

Depression is more than just feeling “blue” or “down in the dumps.”  Clinical depression is a medical condition just like diabetes or high blood pressure.  Up to a third of people who are coping with a chronic medical condition show symptoms of depression.  And the more severe the medical condition(s), the more likely the person is to be clinically depressed.

Illness  upon illness…

While it hardly seems fair that someone already struggling with heart disease or the effects of a stroke also has to be concerned about depression, it’s the truth.  Experts believe that some medical conditions may contribute biologically to depression, and that depression may be an emotional reaction to being ill.

A medical illness that results in disabilities and losses can affect the role a person plays as a provider and/or parent and can cause the person to feel inadequate or damaged.  Other factors that may contribute to depression include chronic pain, dietary restrictions, and medical regimens.  Alcohol is also a well-known contributing actor to depression.

To treat or not to treat

There is growing evidence that treating depression in patients with chronic physical conditions may improve their health, reduce their pain, increase activity levels, help them in following their treatment plans, and, in general, enhance their quality of life.

Clinical depression is a highly treatable illness.  In fact, 80 percent of those with depression can be helped by behavioral change, therapy, antidepressants or some combination of these approaches.  Symptoms can often be relieved in a matter of weeks.

If you think you may have symptoms of depression along with your medical condition, the first step is to see your doctor.

Your doctor must first find out whether you have one diagnoses or two.  This requires careful evaluation.

Your medical illness may have symptoms similar to depression.  Weight loss, trouble sleeping and low energy, for example, occur in diabetes, cardiovascular disease, vitamin or mineral imbalances and endocrine disorders.

If the symptoms are part of the medical illness or side effects of medications, the doctor may need to change your medications or treatments to help you feel better.

If depression is an additional problem, the doctor may treat you or refer you to a specialist.

National Institute of Mental Health, InteliHealth/National Mental Health Association, 2002.i-health



African Americans


African Americans and Spirituality

Title: Are cultural values predictors of moral reasoning in African American
Author(s)/Editor(s): Woods, LaKeesha N.; Jagers, Robert J.
Author Affiliation: Howard U, Washington, DC, US
Source/Citation: Journal of Black Psychology; Vol 29(1) Feb 2003, US: Sage
Publications; 2003, 102-118
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study explored the effect of cultural orientation
on African American adolescent moral reasoning. Because African communal
values are cornerstones of African American communities and related concepts
such as perspective-taking and social relationships influence morality,
African cultural values were expected to positively predict moral reasoning in
the youth. Individualistic values were expected to negatively predict moral
reasoning. 50 13- and 14-yr old African American male and female adolescents
completed sociomoral reasoning and cultural orientation questionnaires.
Pearson correlations, analyses of variance, and standard multiple regressions
were conducted. As hypothesized, the African values of spirituality,
communalism, and affect positively correlated with moral reasoning.
Communalism, affect, and the Anglocultural value of interpersonal competition
positively predicted moral reasoning. The findings suggested that communal
values positively influence the development of African American youth.

Title: The meaning of health in mammography screening for African American
Author(s)/Editor(s): Russell, Kathleen M.; Swenson, Melinda M.; Skelton, Alta M.; Shedd-Steele, Rivienne
Author Affiliation: Indiana U School of Nursing, Indianapolis, IN, US Indiana U
School of Nursing, Indianapolis, IN, US National Cancer Inst, Midwest Region,
Indianapolis, IN, US
Source/Citation: Health Care for Women International; Vol 24(1) Jan 2003, United
Kingdom: Taylor & Francis; 2003, 27-39
Abstract/Review/Citation: Inadequate use of mammography screening for early
detection of breast cancer is an important factor associated with the
disproportionate breast cancer death rates in African American women. To
improve understanding of the mammography screening experience and health for
African Americans, focus groups were held with 30 African American women (aged
40+ yrs). Seven categories emerged: (a) the mind, body, and spirit connection;
(b) living your life; (c) looking good; (d) good health-bad health; (e)
prevention detection confusion; (f) being afraid of cancer; and (g) what gets
in the way. Implications for developing tailored messages and for addressing
system barriers are discussed.

Title: Counseling African American families.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Sanders, Jo-Ann Lipford; Bradley, Carla
Source/Citation: Alexandria, VA, US: American Counseling Association; 2002,
(xviii, 97) The family psychology and counseling series.
Abstract/Review/Citation: Illuminates original research on the evolution of
African American family structures; family childrearing, disciplinary
practices, and parenting styles; racial socialization and the construction of
positive self-identity in children and adolescents; the special role of Black
fathers; intergenerational healing practices and rites of passage; and the
influence of the Black church. This test is an excellent resource for
therapists seeking culturally sensitive direction for working with African
American clients.
Notes/Comments:  From the series editor [by] Jon Carlson
Preface [by] Jo-Ann Lipford Sanders and Carla Bradley Biographies Contributors
Part I: Family structures African American families in the postmodern era Mary
Smith Arnold The peripheral African American father: Is there a Black man in
the house? Sylvester Huston, Terry D. Lipford and Jeffrey Smith Part II:
Parenting concerns Parenting: A community responsibility Carla Bradley Racial
socialization Jo-Ann Lipford Sanders Part III: Indigenous social supports
Africentric rites of passage: Nurturing the next generation Paul Hill, Jr. The
Black church: Bridge over troubled water Rufus G. W. Sanders Part IV: Pulling
things together Implications Jo-Ann Lipford Sanders counseling; socialization;
childrearing; family structures; intergenerational practices; parenting
styles; Black church; self-identity; role of Black fathers; cultural
sensitivity; African Americans

Title: The Black church: Bridge over troubled water.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Sanders, Rufus G. W.
Source/Citation: Counseling African American families., Alexandria, VA, US:
American Counseling Association; 2002, (xviii, 97), 73-84 The family
psychology and counseling series.
Source editor(s): Sanders, Jo-Ann Lipford (Ed); Bradley, Carla (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: One of the primary sources of support for many African
American people is spirituality. This spirituality is often tied in with some
form of organized religion. The organized Black church is the oldest and most
influential institution founded, maintained, and controlled by Black people.
This chapter discusses the Black church's influence on African American
families; highlights its historical evolution and its social and strength
agencies, and offers implications for counseling. The focus is organized
 hristian bodies, although no particular denomination (such as Baptist,
Methodist, or Pentecostal) is featured.

Title: Spirituality and psychological adaptation among women with HIV/AIDS:
Implications for counseling.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Simoni, Jane M.; Martone, Maria G.; Kerwin, Joseph F.
Author Affiliation: Yeshiva U, Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology, New York,
NY, US Yeshiva U, Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology, New York, NY, US
Source/Citation: Journal of Counseling Psychology; Vol 49(2) Apr 2002, US:
American Psychological Assn; 2002, 139-147
Abstract/Review/Citation: Survey interviews with 230 predominantly African
American and Puerto Rican low-income women who were living with HIV/AIDS in
New York City revealed high levels of spirituality and spiritually based
coping with HIV. Both spirituality indicators positively correlated with the
frequency of receipt of HIV-related social support; they were negatively
related to recent drug use. Two hierarchical regression analyses that
controlled relevant covariates indicated positive correlations between the
spirituality indicators and psychological adaptation (i.e., a composite
measure of depressive symptomatology, mood states, mastery, and self-esteem).
The beneficial effect of spiritually based coping persisted even when other
types of coping were controlled. The discussion considers implications for
counseling women living with HIV as well as for research and theory in the
area of spiritually based coping.

Title: Development of the Teenager Experience of Racial Socialization scale:
Correlates of race-related socialization frequency from the perspective of
Black youth.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Stevenson, Howard C. JR; Cameron, Rick; Herrero-Taylor, Teri; Davis, Gwendolyn Y.
Author Affiliation: U Pennsylvania, Interdisciplinary Studies in Human
Development Program, Philadelphia, PA, US U Pennsylvania, School, Community,
and Clinical Child Psychology Program, Philadelphia, PA, US U Pennsylvania,
School, Community, and Clinical Child Psychology Program, Philadelphia, PA, US
Source/Citation: Journal of Black Psychology; Vol 28(2) May 2002, US: Sage
Publications; 2002, 84-106
Abstract/Review/Citation: Reports the development of the Teenager Experience of
Racial Socialization (TERS), which asks Ss how often they receive
socialization about managing racism, cultural pride, and spirituality. A
factor analysis was conducted with 26O African American youth (mean age 14.3
yrs). Results reveal 5 meaningful and reliable factors, including Cultural
Coping With Antagonism, Cultural Pride Reinforcement, Cultural Legacy
Appreciation, Cultural Alertness to Discrimination (CAD), and Cultural
Endorsement of the Mainstream (CEM), and 1 composite factor (combines the
first 4 TERS factors) called Cultural Socialization Experience (CULTRS).
Findings reveal that boys experience more CAD communications than do girls, a
moderate degree of family conversations about race is associated with greater
frequency of racial socialization, family member experiences with racism are
associated with higher frequency of CULTRS, and personal experience with
racism is associated with lower CEM in girls but not boys. The presence of a
small correlation between racial socialization experiences and racial
socialization beliefs supports the discriminant validity of the TERS.
Implications for adolescent and family research are discussed. A copy of the
TERS is appended.

Title: Spirituality and academic performance among African American college
Author(s)/Editor(s): Walker, Katrina L.; Dixon, Vicki
Author Affiliation: East Carolina U, Greenville, NC, US
Source/Citation: Journal of Black Psychology; Vol 28(2) May 2002, US: Sage
Publications; 2002, 107-121
Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined spirituality and religious participation,
measured as 2 distinct constructs, among African American and European
American college students. Of particular interest was the relationship between
these variables and academic performance. A questionnaire was administered to
192 (109 European American, 83 African American) 18-55 yr old college
students. Findings were consistent with previous research suggesting that
African Americans have higher levels of spiritual beliefs and religious
participation than European Americans do. Correlation analyses suggests that
spiritual beliefs and religious participation are positively related to
academic performance for both groups; however, pattern of the relationship is
 ifferent. Beliefs and participation were salient for African Americans,
whereas participation was salient for European Americans. This study raises
questions of how to incorporate spirituality into programming as well as
treatment and interventions.

Title: Sisters-to-sisters: Bridging the gap between Christian spirituality,
Afrocentricity, and psychology.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Campbell-Burden, Bernadine Mavis
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 62(9-A) Apr 2002, US: University Microfilms
International; 2002, 3072
Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess
the attitudes of the Sisters-to-Sisters' Support Group members toward the use
of counseling services, including group work, especially within the context of
an African American church. All interviewees participated in the
Sisters-to-Sisters' Groups held from June 21-July 27, 1999. All group members
were African American women, and from 25 years old to 60 years old. They were
all members of the same church. This study also examined the role of the
African American church in the lives of the women who participated in the
six-week Sisters-to-Sisters' group. I explored how the participants defined
spirituality, Afrocentricity and psychology and how these factors were a part
of their own church experience. This exploration helped to provide a
foundation to understand what purposes have been served by attending a
church-based support group for African American women. The last portion of the
study investigated if the women's group experience changed the participants'
view or attitudes toward psychologists, mental health professionals, and their
services. Finally, the women were invited to share how the group's integration
of spirituality, Afrocentricity and psychology enhanced their lives.  For this
qualitative study, a semi-structured interview format was used to collect the
data. Twelve of the sixteen participants were interviewed and each interview
was transcribed verbatim. I used the constant comparative method of data
analysis for this study was explored, in order to capture the themes as they
emerged and as the related to the research question.  The results suggested
that spirituality was the solid foundation for each of the members. Their
faith in God was the catalyst for their belief that anything was possible
through Christ. This awareness, often shown within the context of their church
involvement, was transferred into their expectations of the
Sisters-to-Sisters' group. The Kwanzaa principles that were discussed in the
group placed labels on their cultural identity as African American women and
as members of their community. These principles also captured their combined
inherent strength, combined abilities and experiences, sense of empowerment,
and sense of sisterhood, that allowed the members to face the obstacles that
tended to impede their growth. Psychology, through group therapy and
psycho-spiritual approaches, provided each woman with the tools to carry out
their goals. This ultimately enhanced their lives.  Finally, the analyses
revealed that all of the participants would be very selective about the mental
health professional that they will work with in the future. Spirituality
seemed to be the defining characteristic for counselor selection. All of the
participants, particularly the ones who received counseling before the
Sisters-to-Sisters' group would prefer an African American female
psychologist, who was a Christian for counseling. If this selection were not
available, they would seek out a Christian psychologist regardless of their
ethnicity or gender.

Title: The relationship among religious coping, spiritual well-being, and
quality of life in veteran psychiatric patients.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Lyn, Michelle Marie King
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 62(9-B) Apr 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2002, 4225
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study is based on previous research indicating
that religion and spirituality are related to high psychological well-being.
The current study examines the relationship among religious coping, spiritual
well-being, and quality of life in veteran psychiatric patients (N = 128).
Data were collected in individual and small group settings in three Veterans
Affairs mental health clinics in a southeastern rural area. The purpose of
this study was to (a) examine differences and determine relationships among
religious coping, spiritual well being, and quality of life for African
American and European American veteran psychiatric patients; and (b) assess
the degree to which specific participant demographic characteristics predict
religious coping, spiritual well-being, and quality of life.  Data analyses
included multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), bivariate correlations,
and standard multiple regression. Results of the MANOVAs indicated that
African Americans were significantly higher than European Americans in
positive religious coping. Moderate to high correlations were found among all
of the religious coping scales, spiritual well-being scales, and quality of
life. Negative religious coping was negatively and significantly related to
quality of life and spiritual well-being.  Demographic predictors for
religious coping were age, frequent religious service attendance, being
African American (positive religious coping only), having a DSM-IV diagnosis
other than a mood disorder, and being affiliated with a Protestant
denomination. Younger and Catholic veterans were more likely to utilize
negative religious coping. Veterans who were older, attended religious
services frequently, and affiliated with Protestant denominations were also
more likely to have high spiritual well-being. The demographic predictors for
QOL were older age, being male, and having higher income.  The results of this
study indicate that veteran psychiatric patients were higher in religious
coping and spiritual well being; and lower in quality of life than the general
public. Therefore veteran psychiatric patients might be receptive to and
benefit from the exploration of religious coping and spirituality in therapy.
Clinicians could explore these issues in the live of veterans and recognize
the influence of positive vs. negative religious coping on quality of life and
spiritual well-being. Additional implications for practice, education and
training, and future research are discussed.

Title: A multidisciplinary model of health promotion incorporating spirituality
into a successful aging intervention with African American and White elderly
Author(s)/Editor(s): Parker, Michael W.; Bellis, Jeffrey M.; Bishop, Phillip; Harper, Mary; Allman, Richard M.; Moore, Cynthia; Thompson, Paula
Author Affiliation: U Alabama, School of Public Health, Birmingham, AL, US U
Alabama, Dept of Education, Tucaloosa, AL, US U Alabama, Tucaloosa, AL, US U
Alabama, Div of Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine, Birmingham, AL, US U
Montevalla, AL, US Samford U, McWhorter School of Pharmacy, Birmingham, AL, US
Source/Citation: Gerontologist; Vol 42(3) Jun 2002, US: Gerontological Society
of America; 2002, 406-415
Abstract/Review/Citation: A community and faith-based intervention with elderly
persons and their adult children involving religious, medical, and academic
communities is described. Lifestyle changes and individual and corporate forms
of spirituality were affirmed using an expanded Rowe and Kahn model of
successful aging. Faculty from academic, medical, state, and religious
institutions presented a variety of workshops at a multichurch-sponsored
conference that hosted over 500 seniors. Results revealed that postconference
surveys suggested extremely favorable satisfaction rates across all groups
represented. The African American religious community provided critical
leadership in achieving an excellent African American participation rate. The
model described has the capacity to generate collaborations across
denominational, racial, and class barriers, and has the potential of helping
to unify the religious community around the important task of promoting
successful aging.

Title: The HIV/AIDS epidemic in African American communities: Lessons from
UNAIDS and Africa.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Okigbo, Charles; Okigbo, Carol A.; Hall, William B. JR; Ziegler, Dhyana
Author Affiliation: North Dakota State U, ND, US Morehead State U, MN, US
Florida A&M U, FL, US
Source/Citation: Journal of Black Studies; Vol 32(6) Jul 2002, US: Sage
Publications; 2002, 615-653
Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses lessons for African Americans from the
African experience with the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In the US, the AIDS scourge has
disproportionately affected African American communities. The authors suggest
that, in their tragic experiences with HIV/AIDS, both African states and
African American communities can benefit from the new communication framework
that the United Nations Global AIDS Programme and the Pennsylvania State
University have developed to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The framework
contains 5 universal values that are recommended for AIDS intervention
programs across the world: incorporation of government policies, SES, culture,
gender issues, and spirituality. There are 6 additional values, 2 of which
apply uniquely to each of the 3 world regions of Africa, Asia, and Latin
America. For Africa, the 2 unique values are community-based approaches and
regional cooperation. The situation in Africa is seen to present valuable
lessons for African Americans in the US.

Title: Religiosity and racial identity attitudes: Clinically relevant factors in
psychotherapy with African Americans.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Davis-Russell, Elizabeth
Source/Citation: The California School of Professional Psychology handbook of
multicultural education, research, intervention, and training., San Francisco,
CA, US: Jossey-Bass; 2002, (xvii, 344), 263-276
Source editor(s): Davis-Russell, Elizabeth (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: The chapter focuses on the importance of religious or
spiritual beliefs and practices and racial identity attitudes in conducting
culturally competent psychotherapy that considers the context of the client.
179 African American participants completed the Religious Orientation Scale
and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale. Gender differences in racial identity
attitudes and religiosity are interpreted in light of nigrescence models.
Generally, world views and spirituality or religiosity are important factors
that clinicians need to include in their understanding of the African American client.

Title: Influences of racism, spirituality, positive social support, and negative
social exchange on depressive symptomology among lower socioeconomic African
American women.
Author(s)/Editor(s): John, Saira Elizabeth
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 62(10-B) May 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2002, 4789
Abstract/Review/Citation: The current study identified variables that influence
levels of depressive symptoms in a sample of urban African American women from
lower socioeconomic statuses. A total of 207 women were assessed on dimensions
of depressive symptoms, racist events, positive social support, spirituality,
and negative social exchange. In general, depressive symptoms among this
sample of women were considered to be elevated. Contrary to prior research,
incidence of racist events was not significantly related to depressive
symptoms in this sample of women. When controlling for racist events, the
independent variables were protective factors against experiencing depressive
symptoms. Positive social support and spirituality were significantly
inversely related to depressive symptoms. Negative social exchange was also
significantly related to depressive symptoms, with lower levels of this type
of support related to lower levels of depressive symptoms. Despite the
elevated depressive symptoms endorsed by this sample, it seems that many
African American women may benefit from their positive social supports,
minimal negative social exchanges, and spirituality.

Title: Using the H.I.S. model in counseling African-American men.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Madison-Colmore, Octavia; Moore, James L. 33
Author Affiliation: U South Carolina, Counselor Education Program, Columbia, SC,
Source/Citation: Journal of Men's Studies; Vol 10(2) Win 2002, US: Mens Studies
Press; 2002, 197-208
Abstract/Review/Citation: The H.I.S. (History, Identity, and Spirituality) model
is a 3-step approach to working with African-American men. Information from
both the Biopsychosocial and the Affirmation models forms the basis of the
H.I.S. model. However, this conceptual framework takes on a more holistic
approach, incorporating universal concepts that are essential to effective
counseling. The case of a 24-yr-old African American male is presented.
Although the model has not been empirically tested, the implications are
believed to be helpful for practicing counselors.

Title: The power of the drum: A multi-cultural journey into spiritual
transformations and mind-body healing experiences by eight professional women
Author(s)/Editor(s): Lounsberry, Joyce Beverly
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 62(11-B) Jun 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2002, 5381
Abstract/Review/Citation: This qualitative research study examined how drumming
is perceived to affect spiritual awareness and explored its physical, mental,
and emotional accompaniments. Eight women representing various cultures
(Brazilian, Germanic, Iranian, Jamaican, Japanese, Jewish, Korean, Native
American, Siberian, and West African), with 9 to 25 years of professional
drumming, told of 1 or more spiritual and mind-body healing experiences
induced by the power of the drum. Using the case study method informed by
organic and feminist approaches, data were collected by a 32-item
questionnaire, individual 2-hour in-depth interviews, and a professional video
of the coresearcher observation group gathering. A thematic analysis indicated
all 8 coresearchers were influenced by the call of the drum, the power of the
drum, transformative changes, spirituality, healing, altered states, cultural
aspects, and community. Five coresearchers experienced sexual awareness from
playing the drum, while only 4 commented about gender issues pertaining to
being a woman drummer. The literature review was substantiated by findings of
psychospiritual experiences that complemented psychophysiological and
psychosocial effects of drumming through identification with ancestral roots,
generating altered states of consciousness, and connection with spiritual
realms. In the world's oldest cultures drumming of rhythms is linked with
spirituality and healing. As we blend modern science with the principles of
ancient spiritual and healing systems, we find validity in how and why these
methods are used in other cultures and traditions. A universally identified
psychosocial theme was the sense of developing a new tradition while honoring
the old ones through combining rhythmic ancestral patterns with those of
modern society. This study suggests that the drum is a universal tool capable
of initiating and contributing to healing and transformative change throughout
and among all world cultures.

Title: Chronic illness in context:  Examining sociocultural factors in women's
experience of lupus .
Author(s)/Editor(s): Zeddies, Andrea Mcbride
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 62(12-B) 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International; 2002, 5985
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examines the influences of sociocultural
factors such as gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and emotional
expression as they are related to psychological adjustment and physical
symptomatology of the lupus disease. A major purpose of the study was to find
the voices of women with this disease who have been previously
underrepresented in research, including African American, Latina, and Native
American women. This qualitative investigation consisted of semi-structured
interviews with 14 ethnically diverse women with lupus and participant
observation of two lupus support group meetings. Data collection and analysis
were guided by an interpretive framework, in which primary attention was given
to the meanings the participants ascribed to their experiences as well as my
own interpretations. A feminist grounded theory analysis was the primary means
by which the data was evaluated and interpreted. The qualitative analysis was
organized around three main areas of experiential inquiry: (a) the process by
which the women's identity and roles are negotiated and transformed; (b)
issues of power and control that are linked both to self-experience and
experiences in the surrounding social environment; and (c) the nature of
coping and stages involved in the coping process. Other major themes that
emerged in the data included experiences in interfacing with the medical
establishment, negotiating social relationships, ethnic differences with
regard to the expression of emotion, and the role of religion and spirituality
in the healing process. The dissertation advocates an interactionist approach
to the study of health and illness, in which the interplay of mind, body,
emotion, and culture is viewed as crucial to examining women's experience of
lupus. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for theory,
research, and practice as well as for a feminist-hermeneutic ontology which
allows psychology to acknowledge a deeper sense of the historical and social
character of human living.

Title: Religious participation, spirituality, and coping among African American
college students.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Constantine, Madonna G.; Wilton, Leo; Gainor, Kathy A.; Lewis, Erica L.
Author Affiliation: Binghamton U, US Montclair State U, Montclair, NJ, US
Columbia U, Teachers Coll, New York, NY, US
Source/Citation: Journal of College Student Development; Vol 43(5) Sep-Oct 2002,
US: ACPA Executive Office; 2002, 605-613
Abstract/Review/Citation: The authors explored the relationships among religious
participation, spirituality, Africultural coping styles, and religious
problem-solving styles in a sample of 144 African American college students
(aged 17-29 yrs). Results revealed that religious participation and
spirituality accounted for significant variance in aspects of Africultural
coping styles and religious problem-solving styles. Implications of the
findings for college and university counseling center personnel are discussed.

Title: Patient attitudes concerning the inclusion of spirituality into addiction
Author(s)/Editor(s): Arnold, Ruth M.; Avants, S. Kelly; Margolin, Arthur; Marcotte, David
Author Affiliation: Yale U, School of Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry, Div of
Substance Abuse, New Haven, CT, US Yale U, School of Medicine, Dept of
Psychiatry, Div of Substance Abuse, New Haven, CT, US Yale U, School of
Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry, Div of Substance Abuse, New Haven, CT, US
Source/Citation: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment; Vol 23(4) Dec 2002, US:
Elsevier Science; 2002, 319-326
Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of this exploratory study was 3-fold: (a)
to determine how "spirituality' is defined by inner-city HIV-positive
drug users; (b) to determine perceived relationships between spirituality and
abstinence, harm reduction, and health promotion; and (c) to assess interest
in a spirituality-based intervention. Opioid-dependent patients enrolled in an
inner-city methadone maintenance program participated in the study; 21 (18 men
and 3 women; mean age 44.2 yrs) participated in focus groups and 47 completed
a questionnaire. In the focus groups, two predominant themes emerged:
spirituality as a source of strength/protection of self, and spirituality as a
source of altruism/protection of others. A large majority of the larger sample
expressed an interest in receiving spirituality-focused treatment, reporting
that such an intervention would be helpful for reducing craving and HIV risk
behavior, following medical recommendations, and increasing hopefulness.
African American women perceived spirituality as more helpful in their
recovery than did African American men.

Title: African-American spirituality: A concept analysis.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo
Author Affiliation: Yale U, School of Nursing, New Haven, CT, US Yale U, School
of Nursing, New Haven, CT, US
Source/Citation: Advances in Nursing Science; Vol 25(2) Dec 2002, US: Aspen
Publishers; 2002, 57-70
Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses the concept of African-American
spirituality. 20 qualitative and quantitative studies from the fields of
nursing, psychology, and sociology were analyzed to identify key terms or
phrases describing the antecedents, attributes, and consequences of
African-American spirituality. Results show that African-American spirituality
is multidimensional, involving quintessential, internal, external, consoling,
and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings suggest that defining
attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally
prominent. Culturally competent health care for African Americans requires
sensitivity to the spirituality component of their culture.

Title: The resilient African American child:  Parents', teachers', and students'
perceptions of factors that influence resilience.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Mccormick, Christopher Gerard
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 63(4-A) Oct 2002, US: University Microfilms
International; 2002, 1256
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examined the perceptions of four parents,
four teachers, and four resilient African American students regarding the
factors that influenced the high academic achievement of these resilient
students. The study used in-depth semi-structured interviews with each of the
parents, teachers, and resilient African American students to answer the
following questions: (1) How do African American students, their parents, and
their teachers perceive the influence of individual agency on the students'
resiliency? (2) How do African American students, their parents, and their
teachers perceive the influence of parents on the students' resiliency? (3)
How do African American students, their parents, and their teachers perceive
the influence of teachers on the students' resiliency?  Research suggests that
resilient children can succeed academically regardless of minority ethnic
status, single parent families, and low socioeconomic status (Clark, 1983;
Huang & Waxman, 1996b; Rak & Patterson, 1996; Werner, 1989).  This
study supports the findings of past literature by finding that the resilient
African American students demonstrated excellent leadership skills and
contributed actively to community service. Parents of the resilient African
American students were involved, committed, and supportive. The teachers of
resilient students expressed intimate knowledge about the resilient students,
their families, and their community. Moreover, these teachers cared about and
supported the resilient students.  This dissertation, however, challenges
current resilience literature. One pervasive theme found in this research is
that resilience in African American students is related to their ability to
communicate effectively with peer, parents, and teachers. Their ability to
communicate to their teachers the obstacles in their life may have nurtured an
environment of emotional connection and understanding. Teachers who better
understand their students are better equipped to teach them. The students in
this study were able to make that connection and subsequently elicited help
from anyone who could offer them assistance including teachers,
administrators, or adult mentors. In addition, this study extended the
periphery of resilience literature by finding that all four parents held
strong values and beliefs regarding achievement. They believed either that the
purpose of education was to gain material possessions or to achieve personal
freedom and power. All of the mothers in this study also attributed their
success with their children ultimately to their spirituality, a variable not
even considered in past resilient studies.  The mothers were resilient, not
always in an educationally specific domain but resilient as survivors who
raised their children despite adversity. These survival skills were
transferred to their children through modeling and their children successfully
applied them in the arena of academics. In other words, resilience may be a
set of survival strategies that can be transferred intergenerationally and
translated across domains, a finding not adequately explored in the study of
African Americans.

Title: Empowered by choices of entrepreneurship:  An intervention for female
African American high school students through the My Entrepreneurial Journey
(MEJ) program.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Jones, Margaret Ann
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 63(5-B) Dec 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2002, 2632
Abstract/Review/Citation: The number of women entrepreneurs has significantly
increased since 1987 and continues to grow. Furthermore, thirteen percent of
all women owned minority women own businesses. The success and growth rate of
Asian American and Hispanic women owned businesses however, far outpace the
success and growth rates of African-American women owned businesses. Research
discusses two factors relevant to successful entrepreneurial pursuits. The
first factor is early exposure to an entrepreneurial parent, relative or close
friend. Studies have shown that exposure to an entrepreneurial role model
greatly increases one's likelihood of pursuing entrepreneurship as a career
option, citing that people are more likely to 'do' what they 'see.' The second
factor related to successful entrepreneurship is the awareness of and access
to human, social and financial capital resources and/or skill development.
African American women lack both the entrepreneurial role model as well as the
awareness of and access to the resources deemed necessary for small business
development and growth. The present research seeks to narrow this gap with the
female African-American community. Utilizing the experiences of practicing
African American female entrepreneurs and the perceptions of African-American
female youth hold regarding small business ownership, and the literature on
 entrepreneurial education, the researcher has designed a 14-week
entrepreneurial program for African-American female high school students. The
purpose of the program, entitled My Entrepreneurial Journey (MEJ), is to
introduce entrepreneurship as a career option at an early age.  The program
share fundamental principles of other youth entrepreneur education programs,
but differs from them in the following ways. First, the MEJ program
incorporates elements of spirituality and encourages self-esteem and
self-knowledge development. Second, the program integrates a mentoring
relationship so the participants will have continued supports in the
achievement of established future goals after completing the program. Third,
the program has African-American women entrepreneurs as guest speakers so that
the participants can learn from the experiences of these small business
owners. Limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are also

Title: The lived-experience of psychospiritual integration:  A qualitative study
with licensed psychotherapists who actively integrate spirituality into their
practice of psychotherapy.
Author(s)/Editor(s): White, Frank E.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 63(5-B) Dec 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2002, 2613
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study contributes to an understanding of the
impact of the spirituality of therapists who actively integrate spirituality
into their clinical practice. The study consisted of 7 female and 5 male
licensed psychotherapists from Montana, Minnesota, Texas, and California,
ranging in age from 49-75 years, with more than 15 years of clinical
experience. Ethnic diversity included one African American, one Native
American, and one Japanese American. Participants were asked to explore their
lived-experience of psychospiritual integration (PSI) rather than how they  integrated spirituality in a therapeutic setting. None of the participants had
been formally trained to include spiritual and religious components in a
clinical setting. The goal of this study was to obtain a deep and robust
description of PSI through a phenomenologically informed analysis of data from
a single semi-structured interview with each participant. The resulting
analysis conceptualized the PSI phenomenon as having 4 core themes: (a)
Universality and Transparency-the process by which spiritual events become integrated into one's life and by which mental-egoic structures evolve towards
the transegoic and universal; (b) Spirituality is the Basis of Everything-the
teleological basis on which PSI is founded; (c) Receptivity to That Which is
Greater Than the Self-the method of engagement with the sacred and the role of
the participants in the PSI phenomenon, including acts of surrender and
openness; and (d) Mystery and the Tolerance for the Unknown-the motivation
behind PSI and its perpetuation. The sense of mystery is perceived as the
basis of curiosity, creativity, joy, awe, wonder, grief, and loss. Tolerance
for the unknown determines therapeutic interventions and the unfolding
therapeutic process. The findings of this study contribute to the body of
research on spirituality and psychotherapy assisting therapists to respond
ethically and competently to the diverse spiritual needs of their clients.

Title: A transpersonal approach to relapse prevention:  An exploration of the
determinants of relapse during a period of long-term sobriety.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Nosal, Barbara
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 63(5-B) Dec 2002, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2002, 2597
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study explored the experiences of 12 individuals
in recovery from substance dependence in order to discover the predictors of
relapse in long-term sobriety. It validated the importance of remaining active
in 12-step programs and indicated that for some individuals 12-step programs
did not provide adequate support and additional adjuncts to recovery were
needed. The participants (5 men, 7 women, ages 28-70, 11 Caucasian, and 1
African-American) had been sober a minimum of 5 years yet relapsed, and were
currently sober a minimum of 6 months. Through interviews and written
questionnaires participants recounted events and experiences that preceded and
contributed to relapse, the actual event of relapse, and current sobriety.
This study used a thematic analysis and grounded theory method, from which
themes and patterns emerged and theories were constructed.  The data suggested
that many of the predictors of relapse in long-term sobriety are the same as
those in early sobriety. However, predictors in long-term sobriety were often
more subtle and accompanied by denial, complacency, and arrogance. Common
experiences in long-term sobriety illustrated the importance of managing
emotional states, particularly anger, depression, and stress, and addressing
relationship, career, and physical health issues, as well as the significance
of spirituality and creativity in relapse prevention. Even though it was shown
that a combination of these factors most often precedes relapse, inattention
to even one life situation, or not addressing issues that commonly arise in
later stages of recovery, may threaten sobriety. In addition, it was found
that success and overall satisfaction in life could lead to relapse. The  results of this research supported the premise that an integrated holistic
approach to relapse prevention would be the preferred method of treatment, and
suggested a variety of methods and modalities which could be easily
incorporated into a successful long-term recovery program. (PsycINFO Database

Title: Cultural resources and psychological adjustment of African American
children: Effects of spirituality and racial attribution.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Christian, Marcelle D.; Barbarin, Oscar A.
Source/Citation: Journal of Black Psychology; Vol 27(1) Feb 2001, US: Sage
Publications Inc; 2001, 43-63
Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the effect of parental religiosity and racial
identity on parental reports of child behavior problems in a sample of 40
low-income African American children (aged 5-18 yrs old) from Ohio and
Southeastern Michigan.  Data were collected in the form of structured
interviews and questionnaires from 1989-1991 as part of a study on families
coping with sickle cell disease. The results show that children of parents
attending church at least weekly had fewer problems compared to those whose
parents attended less frequently. Furthermore, the use of racial attributions
to explain negative life outcomes was related to more frequent behavior
problems. The authors contend that these data confirm the importance of
religion as a sociocultural resource in African American families, one that
potentially contributes to resilience of children at risk for behavioral or
emotional maladjustment as a function of growing up in poor families and
communities. In contrast, the data point out the complexity in the effects of
reliance on racial attributions to explain outcomes. It is suggested that
although many have argued that such attributions may be a protective factor
they did not protect against children's behavior problems. 

Title: Trial and lifetime smoking risks among African American college students.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Hestick, Henrietta; Perrino, S. Carrol; Rhodes, Warren A.; Sydnor, Kim Dobson
Source/Citation: Journal of American College Health: Special Issue:  ; Vol 49(5)
Mar 2001, US: Heldref Publications; 2001, 213-219
Abstract/Review/Citation: The authors surveyed 614 African American university
students to determine the magnitude of cigarette use, identify risk factors,
and develop models to predict smoking. More than half (58.3%) of the
participants had smoked at least once, and 9.3% of that group were lifetime
smokers. Among the lifetime smokers, 71.3% had smoked during the 30 days
preceding the survey. More women (66.8%) than men (56.1%) had tried smoking
and were classed as lifetime smokers. Residence, parental, and peer smoking
(current and childhood) were associated with trying smoking; age,
race/ethnicity, and marital status were additional factors for becoming a
lifetime smoker. The risk of being a lifetime smoker was reduced when neither
friends nor parents of the student smoked and the student viewed spirituality
as important. The results of this study add to the growing understanding of
health risk behaviors among African Americans and can be useful in reducing

Title: Understanding achievement attribution and achievement motivation among
African-American youth:  Racism, racial socialization, and spirituality.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Miller, Jamie L.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 61(8-A) Mar 2001, US: Univ Microfilms
International; 2001, 3053
Abstract/Review/Citation: High school dropout rates among ethnic minority youth
remain disproportionately high. Researchers indicated that less education is
associated with poorer health outcomes, alienation, powerlessness and poorer
occupational functioning later in life, specifically among historically
oppressed groups. The purpose of this study was to examine ecological and
cultural factors such as, experiences of racism, racial socialization and
spirituality on achievement attribution and general achievement motivation
among African-American youth. The participants were African-American students
(N = 101) that attended high school in South Los Angeles. The sample
reportedly came from working and middle class families. Fifty-four percent
were 14 or 15 years old. The participants and their families frequently
attended church. The following measures were administered: The Personal and
Group Racism Experiences scales of the Racism and Life Experiences Scales
(RaLES; Harrell, 1996); a modified version of the Teenager  Experience of
Racial Socialization Scale (TERS; Stevenson, 1996); the Spirituality Scale
(SS; Jagers 1996); the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire
(IAR; Crandall, Katkovsky & Crandall, 1965), and the General Achievement
Motivation Scale (GAM; Miller 1996). An eight-item background questionnaire
was also administered to participants. The predictions in this study were
partially confirmed. Racism, racial socialization, and spirituality
significantly related to achievement attribution and achievement motivation in
different ways. As predicted, when racism increased, internal attribution for
success and failure, and general achievement motivation decreased. Proactive
racial socialization was a positive predictor of internal attribution for
success and general achievement motivation. Contrary to the direction
predicted, proactive messages were inversely related to internal attribution
for failure. Further, as reactive racial socialization increased, internal
attribution for success decreased, which was also contrary to the direction
predicted. Spirituality was positively related to internal attribution for
success and failure but not to general achievement motivation. In addition,
other notable findings emerged among achievement attribution, racial
socialization, and worship variables.  The findings suggest that ecological
and cultural aspects of academic achievement among some African-American youth
should not be ignored. Further, intervention programs aimed to improve
academic achievement and attribution issues among African-American youth
should incorporate proactive racial socialization messages and spirituality
discussions. Recommendations for future research are suggested.

Title: Communal behavior and quality of care:  Differences between European
American and African American caregivers.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Rosenthal, Robin Felice
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 61(8-B) Mar 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2001, 4480
Abstract/Review/Citation: In this study, the author tested differences between
European American and African American caregivers to family and friends over
the age of 60 who are chronically ill or disabled, using a model based on the
Clark and Mills (1979) theory of communal relationships. Their theory suggests
that the strength of the communal relationship between the caregiver and care
recipient prior to the onset of the chronic illness of disability influence,
for example, quality of care provided by the caregiver, even when the care
recipient cannot offer equal benefits in return. Variables in this model
include mutual communal behaviors, amount of care provided by the caregiver,
caregiver pastimes spent without the care recipient, rewards in the
relationship between caregiver and care recipient, restriction of routine
caregiver activities, caregiver depression, and quality of care.  It was
hypothesized that European American and African American caregivers would
differ significantly such that African American caregivers would be less
depressed and provide higher quality care, while providing at least as much
care as European Americans. No significant results were found to support the
hypothesis as stated. Significant differences were found, however, indicating
that higher relationship rewards are more strongly related to less depression
among European Americans than among American Americans. In addition, the
association between higher relationship rewards and higher quality of care was
significantly stronger for African American caregivers than for European
American caregivers. Suggestions for future research include expanding the
sample of African Americans, incorporating qualitative data to better
understand the meaning of the caregiving experience within and between groups,
and giving greater attention to the role of religion or spirituality and to
adequacy of income as they pertain to ethnic differences in caregiving.

Title: Parent and child relationships in African American families.
Author(s)/Editor(s): McAdoo, Harriette Pipes
Source/Citation: Culturally diverse parent-child and family relationships:  A
guide for social workers and other practitioners., New York, NY, US: Columbia
University Press; 2001, (xxv, 378), 89-105
Source editor(s): Webb, Nancy Boyd (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Provides family, parent, and child backgrounds on the
dynamics of African American families. Topics discussed include historical and
socioeconomic background of African American families, overview of extended
family and religion or spirituality, parenting issues related to child
rearing, mental health concerns related to parenting, preparation for working
with African American parents, attitudes of Blacks toward counseling, and the
future of parenting for children.

Title: A relational framework for the study of religiosity and spirituality in
the lives of African Americans.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Jagers, Robert J.
Source/Citation: Journal of Community Psychology: Special Issue: Spirituality,
religion, and community psychology II: Resources, pathways, and perspectives.
Vol 29(5) Sep 2001, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2001, 519-539
Abstract/Review/Citation: Religiosity and spirituality are defining features of
African American life. However, within psychology, research on African
American religiosity and spirituality has proceeded without benefit of a
conceptual framework. This paper labors toward a framework that examines the
roles of religion and spirituality in the development and maintenance of
social relationships. We review empirical research on the role of religion and
spirituality in the lives of African Americans with an eye toward illuminating
the affective, cognitive, and behavioral mechanisms through which religion and
spirituality shape individual, family, and communal relationships across the
developmental span. Future directions for quantitative and qualitative
research on African American religious and spiritual life are suggested.

Title: Spirituality in African-American mothers coping with a seriously ill
Author(s)/Editor(s): Wilson, Sonja M.; Miles, Margaret S.
Source/Citation: Journal of the Society of Pediatric Nurses: Special Issue:  ;
Vol 6(3) Jul-Sep 2001, US: Nursecom Inc; 2001, 116-122
Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined how African American mothers' spirituality
helped them cope during the time of their infants' hospitalization for a
serious illness. 14 mothers (aged 18-44 yrs) whose infants were seriously ill
in the early months of life were interviewed for this retrospective,
descriptive study. The core theme related to prayer. Four mothers reported a
strengthened faith, while 2 mothers continued to have difficulty relating to
God or attending church. These findings support the importance of
understanding and respecting the spiritual needs and expressions of
spirituality in African-American mothers who are coping with a serious illness
in one of their children.

Title: The need to belong: A theory of the therapeutic function of the Black
church tradition.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Thompson, Delores A.; McRae, Mary B.
Source/Citation: Counseling & Values; Vol 46(1) Oct 2001, US: Assn for
Spiritual Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling; 2001, 40-53
Abstract/Review/Citation: A theory of belonging is used as a framework for
analyzing and interpreting focus group data from 7 congregations in the Black
church tradition. A total of 84 church congregation members (aged 20-79 yrs)
were interviewed in a group setting regarding the relevance and meaning of the
Black church in their lives. Findings suggest that church membership may
reflect the need to belong with a group rather than to a group. Within this
context, multiple dimensions of the self as interdependent and independent, as
well as same and different, find opportunities for expression. Positive
therapeutic outcomes in affect, cognition, and behavior result. Implications
for research, practice, and training are given.

Title: Living in a complex social world:  The influence of cultural value
orientation, perceived control, and racism-related stress on coping among
African-American adolescents.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Scott, Lionel D. Jr.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 61(12-A) 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International; 2001, 4950
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study was guided by four primary objectives: (a)
to examine to what degree African American adolescents endorsed a Black/Afro
and mainstream/Anglo value orientation and if this endorsement influenced the
strategies used to cope with perceived everyday racism; (b) to examine the
degree to which racial stressors were perceived as controllable and if
perceived control influenced the use of approach and avoidance coping
strategies; (c) to examine whether the level of stress associated with
perceived everyday racism experiences influenced the use of approach and avoidance coping strategies; and (d) to examine whether a Black/Afro value
orientation and mainstream/Anglo value orientation influenced coping over and
above background characteristics and race-related factors.  The theoretical
framework that served as the basis for this study was Triple Quandary which
posits that the African American social experience is complex and
simultaneously transverses three distinct social realms: minority, mainstream
American, and Black. Triple Quandary theory was operationalized through the
Cultural Questionnaire for Children that assessed the degree to which values
distinctive of Black culture (affect, communalism, and spirituality) and
mainstream American culture (competition, effort optimism, and individualism)
were endorsed. Using a median-split criterion on the Black/Afro and
mainstream/American value orientation scales, 139 African American adolescents
between the ages of 14 to 18 were classified as high or low in these
orientations as well as either mainstream-oriented, Black-oriented,
bicultural, or marginal in their value orientations. Based on previous studies
on the influence of perceived control and stress level on coping, African
American adolescents were similarly classified as high- or low in perceived
control over racial stressors and racism-related stress using a median-split
criterion. The results indicated significant variability in the degree to
which participants endorsed a Black/Afro value orientation and
mainstream/Anglo value orientation. The degree of endorsement of both value
orientations and their interaction was related to coping in complex ways.
Consistent with previous research on stress and coping, high perceived control
over racial stressors was significantly and positively related to the use of
approach coping strategies but not avoidance coping strategies. A high level
of racism-related stress was significantly and positively related to greater
use of internalizing and externalizing coping strategies and less use of
self-reliance/problem solving coping. Hierarchical regression analysis
indicated that greater endorsement of the values distinctive of mainstream
American culture was related to greater use of self-reliance/problem solving
coping over and above background characteristics and race-related factors. The
results also indicated that greater endorsement of the values distinctive of
Black culture was a significant and negative predictor of externalizing coping
over and above background characteristics and race-related factors.

Title: Ingredients for success:  The factors that contribute to the internal
motivation for achievement in African American women in nontraditional
Author(s)/Editor(s): Wells, Angela Leita
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 61(12-B) 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International; 2001,
Abstract/Review/Citation: This qualitative study explored the influence of
self-concept on the development of internal achievement motivation among
highly successful African American women in non-traditional professions. Eight
women between the ages of 26 and 31, who worked in non-traditional or male
dominated professions, were interviewed about the development of their
careers, lives and relationships. Each interview was one to three hours.
Interviews were tape-recorded and verbatim transcripts were made.  A
particular model of self-concept development specific to African American
women developed by Brown-Collins and Sussewell (1986) was used to develop
interview questions. This model postulated that different aspects of
African-American women's self-concept developed from their unique history.
Aspects of the African American woman's identity as a nurturer, her connection
to others, her oppression, resilience, and individual uniqueness were
explained through what were called categorical referents. There were three
categorical referents identified by Brown-Collins and Sussewell (1986), the
Psychophysiological, African American, and the Myself referents. Categorical
referents house possible selves, the mediators for action. Possible selves
determine a person's ideas of what they might become, would like to become, or
are afraid of becoming (Markus and Nurius, 1986).  Each woman's verbatim
transcript was analyzed and compared against the Brown-Collins and Sussewell
theory. The results from the analysis indicated that internal and external
factors for motivation and achievement were interrelated and influenced
individual's behaviors on all levels. Self-confidence and self-determination,
aspects of the Myself referent, were described as important internal in
motivators. For the women, in this study, a parental figure or a significant
person's encouragement, praise, positive modeling, and protection aided in the
development of self-confidence and self-determination. The women's exposure to
different neighborhoods, people, cultures, and religions was also important.
In addition, seven of the eight women spontaneously described spirituality, a
belief in God, as a sustaining force in their motivation for achievement. 
This study's findings supported the premise that in an effort to better
understand the development of internal motives for achievement in African
American women, future research could benefit from a focus on African American
women's self-concept as it relates to motivation.

Title: African-American individuals' perceived relationships with God and
psychological well-being.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Hatcher, Carrie Anne
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 62(1-B) Jul 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2001, 549
Abstract/Review/Citation: Previous studies have generally found a positive
association between religiosity/spirituality and improved psychological
outcomes. However, there is little understanding of the specific ways in which
spirituality and religion are linked to individuals' psychological status.
This study examines the association between individuals' perceptions of the
nature of their relationships with God and psychological well-being in a
sample of 131 African American adults. Two scales based on Relational theory
and research were developed to examine the degree of co-creativity (i.e.,
mutuality as defined by Genero, Miller, & Surrey, 1992: enhanced
engagement, empathy, empowerment, authenticity, zest, and diversity) in
individuals' communication and relationships with God. The measures of
communication and relationship with God were named the Mutual Psychological
Development Questionnaire - God (MPDQ-G) and Relationship with God (RWG)
scales respectively and were based on the Mutual Psychological Development
Questionnaire (Genero, et al., 1992) and the Relational Health Indices (Liang,
Taylor, Williams, Tracy, Jordan, & Miller, 1998), scales devised by
Relational theorists to examine mutuality in interpersonal relationships. The
new measures were found to be reliable and valid and each captured two
distinct factors. The MPDQ-G consisted of empathic/empowering and
unengaged/discouraged communication with God factors. The RWG consisted of
factors capturing affirming/authentic and disappointing/punishing qualities in
relationship with God. Models of psychological well-being were examined which
included demographic characteristics, friendship network quality (i.e.,
perceived friendship support and friendship satisfaction), religious
involvement factors (i.e., organizational and subjective religiosity), and the
MPDQ-G and RWG. Regression and structural equation models revealed that
co-creativity in communication with God (i.e., MPDQ-G scores), co-creativity
in relationship with God (i.e., RWG scores), and perceived friendship support
were consistently predictive of psychological well-being. Friendship
satisfaction, organizational religiosity, and subjective religiosity did not
directly predict psychological well-being, although indirect associations were
found. Regression models provided evidence for an association between gender
and depression such that women tended to be more depressed. Structural
equation models revealed that education indirectly influenced life
satisfaction and depression through the RWG. More educated participants tended
to indicate higher levels of co-creativity in their relationships with God,
and higher RWG scores were associated with decreased depression and increased
life satisfaction.

Title: Religiosity, spirituality, and the subjective quality of African American
men's friendships: An exploratory study.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Murray, Yohance F.; Hatcher, Carrie A.; Hearn, Kimberly D.; Lawhon, G. Dawn; Murphy, Eleanor J.; Washington, Tracee A.
Source/Citation: Journal of Adult Development: Special issue on spirituality and
adult development, part I.; Vol 8(4) Oct 2001, US: Kluwer Academic; 2001,
Abstract/Review/Citation: Drawing on a sample of 171 African American men (aged
17-79 yrs), this study examined the relative utility of subjective
religiosity, subjective spirituality, advice exchange, and affective sharing
as predictors of the level of perceived support from male and female friends.
Survey findings reveal age differences in subjective religiosity, subjective
spirituality, and in level of advice and affective exchange in men's same-sex
as well as cross-sex friendships. Age differences emerged in men's perceptions
of the supportiveness of their friendships with women but not with men. Age
was not a predictor of perceived supportiveness of same-sex or cross-sex
friendships. Subjective religiosity positively predicted perceived support in
men's same-sex friendships but not in cross-sex friendships. Implications of
these findings are discussed.

Title: African American women's spiritual beliefs: A guide for treatment.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Thomas, Anita Jones
Source/Citation: Women & Therapy; Vol 23(4) 2001, US: Haworth Press; 2001,
Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses Afrocentric values, spiritual and religious
beliefs, and the relationship between identity, spirituality, and religious
beliefs. Implications for treatment of African American women are also
discussed through case examples.

Title: Understanding African American learners' motivations to learn in
church-based adult education.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Isaac, E. Paulette; Talmadge, Guy; Valentine, Tom
Source/Citation: Adult Education Quarterly; Vol 52(1) Nov 2001, US: Sage
Publications; 2001, 23-38
Abstract/Review/Citation: Examines the motivations for learning among African
American adults in 3 church-based adult education programs. The authors note
that the adult education literature is clearly lacking as a source of
knowledge about learning among African Americans. Responses from 330 church
members were drawn from a survey developed for this study. A 7-factor
structure was utilized for the analysis. Four factors were identified that are
consistent with findings of prior research (spiritual and religious
development, love of learning, social interaction, and service to others).
Three factors appear to contribute new insights into adults' motivations to
learn (familiar cultural setting, support in facing personal challenges, and
family togetherness). The African American church as a site for learning is
discussed in light of these motivations.

Title: Spirituality as a salutogenic factor in African American adolescents: 
Understanding the relationships among religion, health, and well-being.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Chase, Myron Wayne
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 62(3-B) Sep 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2001, 1568
Abstract/Review/Citation: This descriptive, correlational study examined the
relationship between African American adolescents' religious and spiritual
beliefs and their practices with several areas relating to salutogenic (i.e.,
prohealth) and prosocial attitudes and behaviors, and physiological and
psychological well-being. A new measure constructed for the purpose of
discriminating the construct of religiosity from the construct of
spirituality, and for this specific sample, was found efficacious.  Five
hypotheses were tested. Each yielded varying outcomes.  Utilizing multiple
regression analysis, it was found that spirituality is predictive of
salutogenic health factors among this sample of African American adolescents,
beta; = .382, p = .006. Other findings included: (a) a statistically
significant association between religion and spirituality in the sample, r =
.731, p < .00011; and, (b) spirituality is positively associated with
prosocial behavior; academic achievement and regular church attendance are
predictive of salutogenic health practices.  It was concluded spirituality is
positively associated with attitudes and behaviors of healthy living,
emotional and physiological well-being, and a subjective sense of life
satisfaction among this sample of Black teenage youth. Further, it seems that
spirituality also accounts for good citizenship and academic achievement among
the study's participants. It is offered that a next step in scientific
research might examine the nature and role of spiritual development, examining
the efficacy or inefficacy of specific models with regards to human behavior.

Title: Objective and subjective indicators of quality of life: Effect of
African-American acculturation.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Webb, Fern Jureidini
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 62(3-B) Sep 2001, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2001, 1356
Abstract/Review/Citation: This research examined the relationship between
acculturation and quality of life (QOL) among African-American elders.
Hypotheses were that traditional African-Americans would have: (1) poorer
health-related QOL (HRQOL), (2) better subjective QOL (SQOL) and (3) similar
concordance between HRQOL and SQOL when compared with acculturated
African-Americans. Data from the Hillsborough Elder African-American Life
Study, including 246 community-based elders aged 60 to 84 were examined.
Acculturation was measured using the African-American Acculturation-33 scale.
The SF-36 physical component score, Katz's Assessment of Physical Function
instrument and chronic diseases were selected to measure HRQOL, while an
overall life quality question, the LSI-Z and FACES scales were selected to
measure SQOL. Mastery, social support, spirituality and sociodemographic
indicators also were measured. Results showed that traditional
African-Americans had better HRQOL compared with acculturated
African-Americans (beta; = .14, p < .027). Acculturation, age, sex,
depression, life satisfaction, marital status, mastery, tangible support and
total support received explained 50% of the variance in HRQOL while sex (beta;
= -.20), depression (beta; = -.39) and tangible support (beta; = -.36) were
statistically significant at the p < .001 level. Traditional
African-Americans had higher SQOL (beta; = .16, p < .012). Acculturation,
physical impairment, chronic diseases, sex, household participation, marital
status, mastery and tangible support received explained 33% of the variance in
SQOL, while acculturation (p < .05), physical impairment (p < .001) and
mastery (p < .001) significantly contributed to SQOL.  Dichotomizing life
satisfaction into 50% percentiles revealed that satisfied African-Americans
were 82% less likely to be acculturated and have poor health compared with
dissatisfied African-Americans (OR = .18, 95% CI: .06-.52,  p < .002).
Conversely, satisfied African-Americans were 14% less likely to be
acculturated and have good health compared with dissatisfied African-Americans
(OR = .86, 95% CI: .40-1.86, p < .71). Satisfied African-Americans were 25%
less likely to be traditional and have poor health compared with dissatisfied
African-Americans (OR = .75, 95% CI: .17-3.22, p < .70).  Results suggest
that cultural differences influence HRQOL and SQOL interpretations, and that
accounting for these differences may improve approaches to health care in an
older, ethnically diverse population.

Title: Claiming our soul: An empowerment group for African-American women in
Author(s)/Editor(s): O'Brien, Patricia
Source/Citation: Journal of Progressive Human Services; Vol 12(1) 2001, US:
Haworth Press; 2001, 35-51
Abstract/Review/Citation: Describes an 'empowerment' group, the Stop Violence
Women's Group, that was managed by mostly African-American women inmates at a
prison facility in conjunction with a non-inmate outside sponsor. Ways in
which the women used the group to address issues of loss of identity and role,
grief, cultural and community isolation, spirituality, and recovery from
addiction are discussed. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

Title: Living single:  A phenomenological study of the lived experience of
never-married professional African American women.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Fuller, Patricia Anne
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 62(4-A) Oct 2001, US: University Microfilms
International; 2001, 1592
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study is a phenomenological investigation into
the lived experience of singlehood as perceived by 10 professional African
American women who had never married. Participants were interviewed, and
transcriptions were analyzed following phenomenological methods and
procedures. The qualitative software program NUD*IST 4 was used to organize
and analyze data. Eleven themes emerged consistent with this group of women's
experiences: (a) Singleness as Freedom and Independence, (b) Singleness as
Burdensome Self-Reliance, (c) Singleness as Stigma, (d) Singleness as Blaine,
(e) Singleness as Loss and Grief, (f) Singleness as Faith and Spirituality,
(g) Singleness as a Catalyst for Growth and Opportunity, (h) Singleness as
Choice, (j) Singleness as Pressure, (k) Singleness as a Temporary Life-Stage,
and (l) Singleness as Self-Acceptance and Well-Being. These themes addressed
the personal dynamics and issues faced by professional African American women
who had never married. The study found that never-married women are aware of
the advantages and disadvantages of living as a single woman, as well as the
internal and external factors that attribute to their singleness. However,
regardless of their desire to marry or remain single, the participants
described their lives as very satisfying and meaningful.

Title: Negotiating cross-cultural issues at the end of life: "You got to go
where he lives".
Author(s)/Editor(s): Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Blackhall, Leslie J.
Source/Citation: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association; Vol 286(23)
Dec 2001, US: American Medical Assn; 2001, 2993-3001
Abstract/Review/Citation: Using 2 case studies as examples of cross-cultural
encounters--an African American couple in the Southern US and a Chinese
American family in Hawaii and California--the authors examine 6 specific
issues with end-of-life care. Main topics discussed include the following: (1)
patient autonomy--the dominant culture, the dominant mode; (2) responses to
inequities: social and historical context to trust in the clinical encounter;
(3) communication; (4) religion and spirituality; (5) truth telling: prognosis
and informed refusal; (6) family involvement in decision making; and (7)
hospice care: filial responsibility.

Title: Explaining illness to African Americans: Employing cultural concerns with
Author(s)/Editor(s): Stroman, Carolyn A.
Source/Citation: Explaining illness:  Research, theory, and strategies., Mahwah,
NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers; 2000, (xvi, 360),
299-316 LEA's communication series.
Source editor(s): Whaley, Bryan B. (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: This chapter provides a framework for highlighting the
pivotal role of culture in the explanation and understanding of illness by
focusing on African Americans. Specifically, the chapter describes several
features of African-American culture that have particular relevance for
communicating about illness, with special attention focused on the role of
religion, spirituality, and social support. It examines extant research on
explaining illness to African Americans and offers communication strategies
for explaining illness and improving health outcomes. The chapter concludes
with suggestions for future research pertaining to illness explanation among
African Americans.

Title: Handbook of psychotherapy and religious diversity.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Richards, P. Scott; Bergin, Allen E.
Source/Citation: Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association; 2000,
(xx, 518)
Abstract/Review/Citation: This book provides practitioners with the information
they need to increase their competency in working sensitively with members of
each of the major faith communities in North America. This volume examines
over 2 dozen religious denominations and faith traditions in the context of
clinical practice. Chapter authors describe the unique history, beliefs,
rituals, and practices of the religion as well as commonly held views on
social and moral issues such as divorce, homosexuality, birth control,
abortion, suicide, and euthanasia. Worldviews, including conceptions of a
deity, life after death, and the purpose of life, are also discussed. 
Within the context of the particular faith, chapter authors describe the
therapeutic process, including building relationships with clients from that
tradition, assessment and diagnosis, common clinical issues, and interventions
most congruent with the faith. Additional resources that help psychotherapists
to deepen their understanding of a particular faith are also recommended. This
book helps all practitioners to more fully honor and make use of the unique
religious beliefs and spiritual resources of their clients.
Notes/Comments:  Contributors Preface Acknowledgments I. Introduction and overview Toward religious and spiritual competency for mental health professionals P. Scott Richards and Allen E. Bergin Religious diversity in North America Roger R. Keller II. Christianity Psychotherapy with Roman Catholics Edward P. Shafranske Psychotherapy with Eastern Orthodox Christians Tony R. Young Psychotherapy with mainline Protestants: Lutheran, Presbyterian, Episcopal/Anglican, and Methodist Michael E. McCullough, Andrew J. Weaver, David B. Larson and Kimberly R. Aay Psychotherapy with Evangelical and Fundamentalist Protestants Nancy Stiehler Thurston Psychotherapy with
Pentecostal Protestants Richard D. Dobbins Psychotherapy with Latter-Day
Saints Wendy L. Ulrich, P. Scott Richards and Allen E. Bergin Psychotherapy
with Seventh-Day Adventists Carole A. Rayburn III. Judaism Psychotherapy with
Orthodox Jews Aaron Rabinowitz Psychotherapy with conservative and reform Jews
Lisa Miller and Robert J. Lovinger IV. Islam Psychotherapy with Muslims Zari
Hedayat-Diba V. Eastern traditions Psychotherapy with Buddhists Mark Finn and
Jeffrey B. Rubin Psychotherapy with Hindus Anu R. Sharma VI. Ethnic-centered
spirituality Psychotherapy with members of African American Churches and
spiritual traditions Donelda A. Cook and Christine Y. Wiley Psychotherapy with
members of Latino/Latina religions and spiritual traditions Maria Cecilia Zea,
Michael A. Mason and Alejandro Murguia Psychotherapy with members of Asian
American Churches and spiritual traditions Siang-Yang Tan and Natalie J. Dong
Psychotherapy with Native Americans: A view into the role of religion and
spirituality Alex Trujillo VII. Afterword Religious diversity and
psychotherapy: Conclusions, recommendations, and future directions P. Scott
Richards and Allen E. Bergin Author index Subject index About the editors
psychotherapy & religious diversity, clients from various faith
communities in North America

Title: Religious diversity in North America.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Keller, Roger R.
Source/Citation: Handbook of psychotherapy and religious diversity., Washington,
DC, US: American Psychological Association; 2000, (xx, 518), 27-55
Source editor(s): Richards, P. Scott (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: This chapter provides an introduction to the major
religions of the world, their distribution globally and in North America, and
the basic tenets which they hold. Most persons whom therapists encounter in
North America will be of Christian origin and, therefore, a large portion of
this chapter deals with various major Christian denominations, citing the
unique elements that might be helpful in a counseling setting. However, the
North American religious landscape is clearly pluralistic. Hence, it is not
sufficient to assume that all clients will be Christians. Therapists will be
seeing practicing Jews, Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists, Sikhs, and members of a
variety of other spiritual traditions, including those influenced by African,
Asian, Latino/Latina, and Native American worldviews. This chapter provides
therapists with a sampling of the great religious and spiritual diversity that
exists in North America. It is hoped that familiarity with the basic ideas and
practices of these faiths and traditions will be helpful to therapists as they
seek to assist people live healthier, fuller lives.

Title: Psychotherapy with members of African American churches and spiritual
Author(s)/Editor(s): Cook, Donelda A.; Wiley, Christine Y.
Paper Number: 20000201
Source/Citation: Handbook of psychotherapy and religious diversity., Washington,
DC, US: American Psychological Association; 2000, (xx, 518), 369-396
Source editor(s): Richards, P. Scott (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Before addressing the implications of African American
churches and Afrocentric spiritual traditions for counseling and
psychotherapy, the authors provide a historical context for understanding the
spiritual worldview of many African Americans as related to African culture
and the rise of African American Christian churches from slavery through the
present. Because of the rich oral tradition of African American culture, the
past is implicitly ingrained in racial identity development and other aspects
of mental health of African Americans today (N. Boyd-Franklin, 1989; J. E.
Helms & D. A. Cook, 1999; W. W. Nobles, 1972).

Title: Psychotherapy with members of Latino/Latina religions and spiritual
Author(s)/Editor(s): Zea, Maria Cecilia; Mason, Michael A.; Murguia, Alejandro
Source/Citation: Handbook of psychotherapy and religious diversity., Washington,
DC, US: American Psychological Association; 2000, (xx, 518), 397-419
Source editor(s): Richards, P. Scott (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: This chapter discusses psychotherapy with clients of
Latino/Latina religions and spiritual traditions. Topics include: diversity
within the Latino culture; African-based traditions: the Afro-Yoruba tradition
in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the US; African-based traditions: the Afro-Yoruba
tradition in Brazil and the US; Spiritism in Latino culture; indigenous-based
traditions in the Americas; and implications of religious or spiritual
traditions for counseling and psychotherapy (relationship issues, treatment
issues and approaches).

Title: Boys into men:  Raising our African American teenage sons.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A.J.; Toussaint, Pamela
Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: Dutton/Penguin Books; 2000, (x, 260)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses problems facing African-American teenagers
such as violence, drugs, peer influences, gangs, sex, and racism, as well as
the effects of rap music, the media, and sports. Based on the authors' own
experiences as psychologists and as the parents of 4 children, and including
stories from dozens of other African American families whom they have
counseled, the book offers strategies for problem-solving, improving
communication, and instilling a positive racial identity in African American
boys. Issues addressed include ways of advocating on a son's behalf in school,
recognizing a possible substance abuse problem, and realizing when it's time
to seek professional help. The book also provides resources for finding a
professional counselor and offers related reading, web sites, and helpful
Notes/Comments:  Acknowledgments Introduction You must act as if it is impossible to fail: Challenges in raising African American teenage sons If we stand tall it is because we stand on the backs of those who came before us: African American families and the
manchild No one can uproot the tree which God has planted: Spirituality and religion in raising our sons The bell rings loudest in your own home: Positive parenting, love, communication, and discipline Education is your passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to the people who prepare for it today When I discover who I am I'll be free: Black kids in White schools and communities Our future lies chiefly in our own hands: The journey to manhood and peer pressure We cannot silence the voices that we do not like hearing: Rap, media influences, and hoop dreams Children make foolish choices when they have nothing to lose: Sex and sexuality A man who stands for nothing will fall for
anything: Drug and alcohol abuse Force against force equals more force:
 Violence and gangs If you are on a road to nowhere, find another road: Taking
our sons back from the street The one who asks questions doesn't lose his way:
Getting past the fear of counseling Keep your eyes on the prize, hold on: A
parent's survival guide Index influences on & problems facing
African-American boys & resources & strategies for problem-solving
& improving communication & fostering a positive racial identity

Title: Spiritual intelligence as a theory of individual religion: A case
Author(s)/Editor(s): Kwilecki, Susan
Source/Citation: International Journal for the Psychology of Religion: Special
Issue: The spiritual intelligence; Vol 10(1) 2000, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc;
2000, 35-46
Abstract/Review/Citation: This article considers the utility of R. A. Emmons's
theory of "spiritual intelligence" (see record 2000-03802-001) for
the analysis of the religions of individuals. The hypothesis is divided into a
proposed description, explanation, and assessment of the consequences of
personal faith. The spiritual biography of Gladys Day, a contemporary African
American Pentecostal, provides an empirical format for the consideration of
each formulation. Accordingly, the "core components" receive high
marks for capturing the essential dynamics of spiritual growth. However, the
explanation of personal religion as an expression of a universal capacity for
transcendence is relatively weak vis-a-vis one that identifies immediate
biographical causes. Attentiveness to differences in religious and secular
conceptions of health and adaptation would improve Emmons's assessment of the
fruits of spiritual intelligence.

Title: The role of religion in the lives of resilient, urban, African American,
single mothers.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Brodsky, Anne E.
Source/Citation: Journal of Community Psychology: Special Issue: Spirituality,
religion, and community psychology.; Vol 28(2) Mar 2000, US: John Wiley &
Sons Inc; 2000, 199-219
Abstract/Review/Citation: Explores the role, impact, and mechanisms of religious
beliefs for 10 26-46-yr-old resilient, African-American, single mothers who
are raising families in risky, urban neighborhoods. Half of the participants
are church-affiliated, while the other half are not. Participants' discussions
of the role of religion and religious thought in their lives is explored in
terms of 4 mechanisms through which religion impacts their lives--religious
settings and people; internal and individual values; behavior, and protection
and blessing. Implications of the findings, for community psychology and for
the design of prevention and ameliorative interventions, are discussed.

Title: Psychological distress among HIV-impacted African-American and Latino
Author(s)/Editor(s): Domanico, Rocco; Crawford, Isiaah
Source/Citation: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community; Vol
19(1) 2000, US: The Haworth Press, Inc.; 2000, 55-78
Abstract/Review/Citation: Investigates the psychological experience of
ethnic/racial minority men who are HIV positive, have different coping styles,
and also examines the role spirituality has in managing one's illness. 100
males (aged 22-58 yrs) infected with HIV participated in the study, 92 % of
which were men of color. Data was collected regarding the presence of
psychological distress, coping styles, spirituality and sexual orientation. A
series of analyses examined the relationship between these variables and
specific coping methods. The results show a strong relationship between
increased positive mood when participants used an active coping style as
compared with a passive-avoidant coping style. Greater levels of spiritual
well being were correlated with positive mood. It was also found that gay
Latino males presented as having greater levels of psychological distress as
compared to their gay African-American and Caucasian counterparts. It is
suggested that this finding was largely attributed to gay Latino males having
a greater number of HIV physical symptoms and encountering profound
homo-negative attitudes associated with Latino cultural norms and religious

Title: African American women's definitions of spirituality and religiosity.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Mattis, Jacqueline S.
Source/Citation: Journal of Black Psychology: Special Issue: African American
culture and identity: Research directions for the new millennium.; Vol 26(1)
Feb 2000, US: Sage Publications Inc; 2000, 101-122
Abstract/Review/Citation: These 2 qualitative studies explored the meanings of
spirituality for African American women (mean age 31.9 yrs) and the
distinctions that women made between spirituality and religiosity. In Exp 1,
content analyses of 128 women's written narratives revealed 13 categories of
meaning that were assigned to spirituality. In Exp 2, in-depth interviews with
a subsample of 21 women revealed 3 key differences between religiosity and
spirituality. First, whereas religiosity was associated with organized
worship, spirituality was defined as the internalization of positive values.
Second, religion was conceptualized as a path and spirituality as an outcome.
Finally, whereas religion was tied to worship, spirituality was associated
with relationships.

Title: Addressing spiritual and religious issues in counseling African
Americans: Implications for counselor training and practice.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Constantine, Madonna G.; Lewis, Erica L.; Conner, Latoya C.; Sanchez, Delida
Source/Citation: Counseling & Values; Vol 45(1) Oct 2000, US: Assn for
Spiritual Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling; 2000, 28-38
Abstract/Review/Citation: Addressing spiritual and religious issues in the
context of counseling relationships may be beneficial to many African American
clients. The authors discuss various roles and functions of spirituality and
religion in the lives of many African Americans, with particular attention to
the impact of these issues on their mental health functioning and willingness
to seek formal mental health services. The importance of academic training
programs that prepare counselors to address potential spiritual and religious
issues with their clients is also highlighted.

Title: Substance abuse in African American women.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Curtis-Boles, Harriet; Jenkins-Monroe, Valata
Source/Citation: Journal of Black Psychology; Vol 26(4) Nov 2000, US: Sage
Publications Inc; 2000, 450-469
Abstract/Review/Citation: Employed a combined quantitative and qualitative
design to investigate substance abuse in African American women ages 21-48
yrs. Life experiences of women with histories of chemical dependence were
compared with women who were maintaining a nonabusing lifestyle. Variables
examined were history of parental substance abuse and child abuse, exposure to
racism and traumatic events, and social support and spirituality. The
substance abusing and nonabusing women were distinguished from each other in
the areas of spirituality and family connectedness. Although all Ss reported
high violence exposure and personal losses, significantly more substance
abusing women reported being battered, experiencing homelessness, and more
traumatic events. Ss described multiple experiences with racism, though their
descriptions of their responses to these experiences suggested different
styles of coping. The authors contend that findings have significant
implications for prevention of substance abuse, particularly in the areas of
religious involvement family support, and the development of active
problem-solving strategies.

Title: An examination of spirituality among African American women in recovery
from substance abuse.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Brome, Deborah Ridley; Owens, Michelle Deaneen; Allen, Karen; Vevaina, Tinaz
Source/Citation: Journal of Black Psychology; Vol 26(4) Nov 2000, US: Sage
Publications Inc; 2000, 470-486
Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined spirituality and its relationship to mental
health outcomes (self-concept and coping style), family attitudes (family
climate and attitudes toward parenting), and satisfaction with social support
among African American women in recovery from substance abuse. Using the
Spiritual Well-Being Scale as a measure of spirituality, the median split
method was used to divide a sample of 146 African American women (mean age
33.11 yrs) in recovery from substance abuse into high and low spirituality
groups. The results indicate women in the high spirituality group expressed a
more positive self-concept, active coping style, perceptions of family
climate, and attitudes toward parenting than women in the low spirituality
group. In addition, the high spirituality group expressed greater satisfaction
with their social support than women in the low spirituality group. The
implications of these results were discussed in light of the potential
benefits that spirituality offers in the lives of African American women in
recovery from substance abuse.

Title: Perceiving benefits in adversity: Stress-related growth in women living
with HIV/AIDS.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Siegel, Karolynn; Schrimshaw, Eric W.
Source/Citation: Social Science & Medicine; Vol 51(10) Nov 2000, United
Kingdom: Elsevier Science Ltd; 2000, 1543-1554
Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined perceptions of illness-related positive
change or stress-related growth among a sample of 54 African American, Puerto
Rican, and non-Hispanic White women (aged 25-44 yrs) living with HIV/AIDS.
While these women acknowledged the negative stresses of living with HIV/AIDS,
83% reported at least one positive change in their lives that they attributed to their illness experience. A number of different domains of potential growth
were identified including: health behaviors, spirituality, interpersonal

relationships, view of the self, value of life, and career goals. While growth
was reported by nearly all the women, some variation was found in the forms of
growth reported in relation to the women's ethnic/racial background, class,
and IV drug use history. These data suggest an expanded conceptualization of
stress-related growth that includes behavioral aspects of growth in response
to stress and illness, and which takes into account the diverse ways in which
growth may be experienced.

Title: Palliative and end-of-life care in the African American community.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Crawley, LaVera; Payne, Richard; Bolden, James; Payne, Terrie; Washington, Patricia; Williams, September
Source/Citation: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association; Vol 284(19)
Nov 2000, US: American Medical Assn; 2000, 2518-2521
Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses palliative and end-of-life care in the
African American community.  The authors discuss the barriers to palliative
care and end-of life-care. The main topics discussed are (1) history and
heritage; (2) religion and spirituality; (3) socialization; (4) education; (5)
bioethical issues; (6) breach of trust; (7) health policy and reimbursement
issues.  The authors conclude by discussing opportunities for improvement in
the system and setting an agenda for change.

Title: Spiritual and religious problem-solving in older adults: Mechanisms for
managing life challenge.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Nelson-Becker, Holly Beth
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 60(8-A) Mar 2000, US: Univ Microfilms
International; 2000, 3138
Abstract/Review/Citation: Older adults face many challenges as they move through
this later life stage. One support that older adults may apply to manage
unwelcome change is spiritual and/or religious. Such a support may address an
individual's relationship to a power that transcends the self and can include
a connection to other individuals and places in a way regarded as sacred. The
problem-solving perspective and critical application of a practical theology
perspective inform this study. This was a descriptive and correlational study
that utilized interviews with an available sample of 79 low-income older
adults residing in four subsidized housing facilities in a large midwestern
city. Two sites (37 respondents) elicited primarily Caucasian and Jewish
residents and two sites (42 respondents) elicited primarily African American
residents. Qualitative questions focused on the nature of life challenges and
responses to these challenges, personal definitions of religion and
spirituality, and application of religious and spiritual problem-solving
strategies by study participants. Quantitative measures included exploratory
analysis of an 18-item Spiritual Strategies Scale for older adults developed
from a review of the literature and clinical observations. These items were
refined prior to this study in a field test. Respondent life satisfaction and
mental health status were assessed using the Life Satisfaction Index
(Neugarten, Havighurst, & Tobin, 1962) and the Geriatric Depression Scale
(& Yesavage, 1983). Finally, the Problem Solving Inventory (Heppner &
Petersen, 1982) was administered to determine self-appraisal of  problem-solving ability. Because many older adults in the current cohort of
elders are grounded in religion, further research should center on specific
ways older adults engage spirituality and religion as resources for
resilience. Initial analysis of the Spiritual Strategies Scale shows promise
for use in behavioral assessment.

Title: The path to wholeness: Effective coping strategies of African-American
adult survivors of childhood violent experiences.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Bryant, Thema Simone
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 60(8-B) Mar 2000, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2000, 4205
Abstract/Review/Citation: Far too many African-American children have been
victims and witnesses of physical and sexual violence. A retrospective
exploratory study of African-American adult survivors of childhood violent
experiences was conducted to determine the effectiveness of various coping
strategies. Seventy participants were recruited to form a community sample of
African-American adults. The coping strategies focused on were community
support, spirituality, creativity, and activism. While trauma history was
predictive of psychological adjustment, utilization of community support as a
coping strategy was predictive of lower symptoms of distress. Qualitative
analyses provided insight into the use of coping strategies and contextualized
their helpfulness within the theoretical framework of 'thriving'. The
investigator speaks to cultural influences on the body of trauma recovery
research, as well as cultural issues in methodology and interpretation. This
study provides an opportunity for the voices of African-American survivors to
be heard as they tell about their quest toward renewal and restoration.

Title: An ethnographic study of academic success in African-American doctoral
recipients:  The effects of persistence, psychological, and social
psychological factors.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Adams, Grace Marie
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 60(9-A) Apr 2000, US: Univ Microfilms
International; 2000, 3266
Abstract/Review/Citation: According to the American Council on Education,
minority doctorates granted by United States universities grew by 27 percent
between 1982-1992, while the overall number of U.S. doctorates grew by only 6
percent during the same period. These increases mask declines in doctorates
among certain ethnic groups such as African Americans whose numbers have
declined by 9 percent between 1982-1992. African Americans constitute more
than 13 percent of the relevant college-age population but earned less than 4
percent of all doctoral degrees. Given this fact, an ethnographic case study
consisting of 14 African-American doctoral recipients was launched to offer
insight into their academic success.  This investigation utilized a hybrid of
qualitative and quantitative research methods which examined subjective
interpretations of psychological and social psychological variables
contributing to their academic success. Participants responded to factors
which influenced their decision to earn doctorates, discouragement,
significance of the doctorate and barriers for African Americans earning
doctorates. A questionnaire was completed in order to obtain participants'
demographic information, as well as academic and socioeconomic information
related to the respondents' families.  The grounded theory methodological
approach was used to identify response patterns, i.e., commonality and/or
exceptionality. This investigation was based on research by Susan King and J.
R. Chepyator-Thomson (1996) on African American doctoral holders whose
persistence toward the doctoral degree was impacted by institutional,
motivational and environmental factors. In addition to these expectations, an
assumption was made that during doctoral pursuit, respondents experienced
discouragement and persisted in spite of these feelings.  The most noteworthy
responses in this study revealed that respondents had a sense of
self-efficacy, determination, exposure to motivating and stimulating
educational environments beginning in childhood with parental involvement, and
relied on their spirituality in times of discouragement. This study suggests
that educational strategies, such as employing committed faculty and
administrators who express a natural and genuine interest in the welfare of
African-American students pursuing higher education, along with reexamining
and modifying admission criteria such as waiving standardized admission tests,
may be needed to bring proportionate representation for African-American
students at the doctoral level.

Title: Perceptions of the division of labor roles in dual-career households of
married African American couples.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Thompson, Karolyn Holmes
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 60(11-B) Jun 2000, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2000, 5840
Abstract/Review/Citation: Perceptions and experiences among married African
American couples residing in the Southeastern United States were examined in
terms of the performance of tasks and childcare giving in dual-career
households. A qualitative approach was used in this study and was guided by
conceptual frameworks of cultural variations that include behaviors,
attitudes, values, and beliefs. In-depth interviews conducted in the couples'
homes were used for data collection. The research population included 15
married African American couples affiliated with a Greek fraternal
organization located in the Southeast. The couples were selected using
purposeful sampling.  Participant perceptions of the division of labor roles
in the home were compared. Response patterns specific to task performance and
childcare giving were compared among the couples with respect to preferences
for traditional family relationships, perceptions concerning the impression of
societal norms, and experiences associated with lifestyle significance. 
Common themes emerged where most couples preferred to practice traditional
customs held in families of origin. Traditional customs observed and practiced
in families of origin included the respect for egalitarian influences such as
sharing household tasks and childcare giving, parental modeling, spousal
protectionism, contracting tasks, and adherence to family values and
spirituality.  Participants Perceived that impressions of societal norms had
no impact on the manner in which they performed their spousal roles pertaining
to household tasks and childcare giving. Most thought that due to adverse
situations occurring in society related to family functioning, it was
necessary that they adhere to a different system that allowed them to function
in ways suitable to them. Several couples felt that it was imperative to
maintain a good quality of life. Experiences associated with lifestyle
significance allowed them to remain sensitive to others' needs to have a good
quality of life by volunteering for community service. Couples agreed that the
family unit functions better when its members five productive lives. AM
spouses concurred that discipline and nurturing ranked high in maintaining a
 avorable and stable environment in their homes.

Title: Exposure to chronic community violence:  Formal kinship, informal
kinship, and spirituality as stress moderators for African American children.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Saunders, Janine Michelle
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 60(12-A) 2000, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2000, 4333
Abstract/Review/Citation: In many African American communities, violence and
poverty are often part of daily living. Due to exposure to chronically violent
conditions, children are at risk for difficulties in all aspect of their
lives, particularly their emotional well being. The purpose of this study was
to explore the relationship between exposure to Chronic Community Violence
(CCV) and the development of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (C-PTSD), a
constellation of symptoms that occur as a result of repeated exposure to
traumas. This issue was explored in the context of specific African American
cultural beliefs and values that have the potential to moderate the
development of maladaptive psychological functioning. Support through formal
kinship support, informal kinship support, and spirituality are among a few of
the coping mechanisms that are utilized by African Americans. It was
anticipated that the coping mechanisms would act as stress moderators, or
buffers, to the development of symptoms of C-PTSD.  Participants in the study
included 71 African American children between the ages of 9 and 11. They were
selected from 'neighborhood schools' in the midst of a high-crime,
high-poverty community in Houston, Texas. Self-report questionnaires were
orally administered to the children in the study. The self-report
questionnaires provided indices of the following: (a) exposure to chronic
community violence, (b) Complex PTSD, and (c) the coping mechanisms (formal
kinship, informal kinship, and spirituality) used by African American
children. Through multiple regression analyses, the coping mechanisms were
investigated in the context of exposure to chronic community violence and the
development of Complex PTSD. The results indicated that each of the coping
mechanisms alone were not enough to moderate the symptoms of Complex PTSD.
However, the combination of the three supports demonstrated buffering effects
in exposure to violence. Secondary analyses using the caregivers perceptions
of their child's supports revealed that utilizing formal kinship and
spirituality were each strong enough to buffer the effects of violence such
that fewer symptoms of C-PTSD were exhibited. The combination of the three
supports also demonstrated moderating effects. Thus, the coping mechanisms,
based in African American values, moderated the relationship between exposure
to violence and C-PTSD.

Title: Associations between quality of life and the spiritual and religious
beliefs and practices of men with prostate cancer.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Mytko, Johanna Jacoba
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 60(12-B) 2000, US: Univ Microfilms International; 2000,
Abstract/Review/Citation: Little is known about the relationships among
religiosity, spirituality and quality of life in cancer patients. Stress
related to the cancer experience may elicit reliance on religiosity and
spirituality. Of the few published studies of religiosity and spirituality in
cancer patients, most have found these variables positively related to quality
of life and psychological well-being. Theoretical models of quality of life
have often included religiosity and spirituality, yet until recently these
variables have been neglected in quality of life measurement. This study was
the first to measure religiosity, spirituality and quality of life in prostate
cancer patients and to use several measures of each construct. The 150 men
participating in the study endorsed levels of religiosity and spirituality
comparable to other cancer patients and higher than healthy laypersons. A
factor analysis of religiosity and spirituality items revealed two factors:
(1) Beliefs and Practices and (2) Meaning and Peace. Consistent with prior
research, married men reported more Meaning and Peace than unmarried men and
African-American and Christian men reported higher levels of beliefs and
practices than Caucasian or non-Christian men. Relationships between the
Meaning and Peace and Beliefs and Practices subscales indicate that these
factors overlap, but measure separate aspects of religiosity and spirituality.
Subscales related to beliefs and practices were consistently associated with
social and relational well-being, whereas most quality of life components,
including physical well-being, were associated with the Meaning and Peace
factor. In addition, Meaning and Peace contributed unique variance to global
quality of life across three quality of life measures after controlling for
demographic variables and quality of life subscales. These findings support
prior research demonstrating a relationship between religiosity, spirituality
and quality of life in cancer patients and suggest the need for future studies
clarifying this complex relationship. In addition to the clinical implications
of these findings, theoretical and methodological issues are discussed.

Title: Stress and coping of the African-American physician.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Post, Douglas M.; Weddington, Wilburn H.
Source/Citation: Journal of the National Medical Association; Vol 92(2) Feb
2000, US: National Medical Assn; 2000, 70-75
Abstract/Review/Citation: Examined the nature of work-related stress and coping
experienced by African-American family physicians. Ten African-American family
physicians (aged middle 30s-late 60s) completed interviews. Results show that
reported stressors include experiences with racism in medicine, doubt, and a
strong desire to prove oneself in the medical environment. Reported coping
strategies involved spirituality, kinship, and the development of strength and
perseverance in the face of adversity. Responses to general questions on
stress and coping indicated difficulties with the shift toward managed care
and use of time-for-self types of coping strategies. Results underscore the
importance of culture and race in stress and coping processes.

Title: The effects of spirituality on the adjustment to college of African
American students who attend a predominantly White institution.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Phillips, Ferna Lenise Silva
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 61(2-A) Aug 2000, US: Univ Microfilms
International; 2000, 527
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study investigated the effects of spirituality
and religious affiliation on the adjustment to college of African American
students attending a predominantly White university. The effects, of gender
were also studied. Participants were 115 undergraduate students, 53 males and
62 females. Each participant completed a demographic questionnaire, the Index
of Core Spiritual Experiences (INSPIRIT), and the Student Adaptation to
College Questionnaire (SACQ).  Little research has been done that examines the
effects of spirituality and its impact on African American student
development. This study presents trends and contributions of spirituality and
religious practices on the adjustment to college of African American students.
Results indicated that spirituality has some effect on the level of college
adjustment. The frequency of spiritual practices affects college adjustment
and some religious affiliation helps in the overall adjustment to college.
Gender differences were found with respect to the overall adjustment to
college environment and academic adjustment. For both the African American
male and female samples, higher levels of adjustment contributed to better
academic success. There was little interactive effect relative to gender;
however, females tended to have more involvement and attachment to
institutional activities and programs than males.  The findings of this study
as they relate to the experimental hypotheses an

d research questions are
presented. The limitations of the investigation, suggestions for future
research, and implication of the results are discussed.

Title: Sociocultural perspectives on the stress process:  The moderating effects
of cultural coping resources.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Copeland, Nikeea Lynell
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 61(2-B) Aug 2000, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2000, 1132
Abstract/Review/Citation: Economic stressors, family bonds, racial identity, and
religiosity/spirituality have been identified as important factors in the
stress processes of people of African descent. This research addressed the
need for more sociocultural studies of the stress process and had the
following points of focus: (1) to examine the life stress processes in two
populations that are underrepresented in stress literature, (2) to understand
the sociocultural context of stress within each population, and (3) to test
models of the stress process positing that cultural factors unique to each
group buffer the effects of stress on physical and mental health. Two separate
studies of the stress process were conducted among People of African descent.
In the first study, 172 Black South African women were interviewed about life
stress, religiosity/spirituality, depression, and physical health concerns. A
model positing that religiosity/spirituality buffered the effects of stress
was tested. The results revealed that religiosity/spirituality buffered the
effects of stress on physical health. In the second study, the stress
processes of 262 African American adolescents were examined. The results
revealed that religiosity/spirituality and a positive relationship with mother
were associated with decreased delinquency among adolescents.

Title: Relationship of spirituality, social support, reciprocity and conflict to
resilience in individuals diagnosed with HIV.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Poblete, Sung A.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 61(3-B) Sep 2000, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2000, 1327
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study tested explanatory level theory to better
understand the concept of resilience in individuals diagnosed with human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Theories of resilience proposed that
relationships exist between resilience and (a) spirituality, (b) social
support, (c) reciprocity and, (d) conflict. Correlational and regression
analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses.  The sample was comprised of 96
adults diagnosed with HIV who were recruited from two urban HIV dedicated
outpatient clinics in northern and central New Jersey. The subjects ranged in
age between 27 and 70 years with a mean of 42 and the majority were African
American (40.6%) and men (66.7%). The mean age at the first appearance of HIV
symptom was 34.8 years, and 35 years at diagnosis.  Statistically significant
positive strong to moderate relationships were found between resilience and
(a) spirituality (r = .470,  p < .01), (b) social support (r = .407, p <
.01), and (c) reciprocity (r = .378,  p < .01). No statistically
significant negative relationship was found between resilience and conflict (r
= .123,  p = .234). The multiple regression hypothesis testing whether no
subset of the independent variables will explain resilience better than a
multivariate model comprised of the independent variables of spirituality,
social support, reciprocity and conflict was not supported. A two-variable
model consisting of spirituality and social support was supported
statistically (F(2,93) = 15.85, p < .0001), explaining 25.4% of the
variance in resilience.  Based on the empirical support generated,
spirituality, social support and reciprocity positively contribute to the
level of resilience in individuals diagnosed with HIV disease. However, only
spirituality and social support demonstrated significant power in explaining
the variance in resilience. Conflict, although theorized to be related to
resilience failed to demonstrate a significant relationship and did not
contribute to the variance in resilience.  In summary, this research provided
theoretical and empirical support for linking the variables of spirituality,
social support and reciprocity to the important concept of resilience in
individuals diagnosed with HIV disease.

Title: Spiritual development among inner city African American youth: A small
group study.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Carroll, Ambrose Frederick
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 61(4-A) Oct 2000, US: Univ Microfilms
International; 2000, 1449
Abstract/Review/Citation: The youth advisors of Third Baptist Church have set
out to enhance the spiritual growth of the young people of their community.
This project was to determine if a small group model would aid these young
people in strengthening the social aspects of their lives through
acknowledging the spiritual base of their humanness. An 'Insider Pro-Active'
research method was used. This method, culminating in a case study, showed a
moderate degree of growth along social/spiritual developmental lines. A second
curriculum was then developed which lasted 18 weeks, and provided a more
formal way of building relationships between youth and advisors.

Title: Resilient women:  Childhood sexual abuse of African-American women and
their coping and healing.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Dabney, Denise Cara
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 61(4-A) Oct 2000, US: Univ Microfilms
International; 2000, 1629
Abstract/Review/Citation: Only recently has sexual abuse emerged as a major form
of child abuse. For African-American victims of child sexual abuse, race and
ethnicity need to be considered in the research and policies for prevention
and treatment. Information and analysis on the experience of child abuse by
African-American females is virtually absent from current research. Myths,
stereotypes, and racism surround the phenomenon of child abuse, creating the
impression that child sexual abuse is problematic only for white women and
children.  This study was designed to understand as much as possible the
experiences of African-American women who confronted such abuse. Sixteen
adult, financially independent African-American women, living in several
Northeastern states were asked to tell their personal life stories. A grounded
theory approach was used throughout the intensive interviewing and analysis of
the data. The purpose of this research was to (1) identify particular
conditions or circumstances that may put African American women at risk to
sexual abuse; (2) elicit from the women their meaning of sexual abuse; and (3)
identify collective survivor skills used by the women. Open-ended questions
were constructed to allow the women to supply their own definitions. In-depth
examination of the women's sources of counseling support included questions
about individual, group, and spiritual counseling.  The policy and research
implications of this dissertation will help to deepen cultural and ethnic
understanding about African American women and their families' responses to
child sexual abuse, the role of African American religion and spirituality,
and African American females' relationships within their families and their
community, in their ability to cope and thrive. These findings will hopefully
also suggest new possibilities in the prevention and treatment of child sexual
abuse among African-Americans for white and non-white clinicians, social
workers, and pastoral counselors. Finally, the research will also aid in
shaping additional ethnographic research questions on child sexual abuse
within communities of color.

Title: African-American women and psychotherapy:  Exploring behaviors,
attitudes, beliefs, experiences, and needs.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Watkins, Valeria C.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 61(4-B) Oct 2000, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2000, 2228
Abstract/Review/Citation: This exploratory survey research is an inquiry into
the life experiences of African-American women in terms of their attitudes,
beliefs, spiritual influences, ideas, and needs along with their help-seeking
behaviors. The three standardized assessments: the Fischer Pro-Con Attitude
Scale, the Index of Core Spiritual Experiences, and the Internal, Powerful
Others, and Chance Locus of Control Scale were chosen to measure participants'
attitudes about psychotherapy, locus of control, and spiritual fervor. A
51-item questionnaire was developed to provide demographic characteristics of
the participants and to assess attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, experiences and
needs of African-American women in relation to psychotherapy. A total of 241
African-American women from 18 to 71 years of age, who were residing across
the continental United States, responded to the request to participate in this
study. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample, and frequency
distributions summarize the raw data. Chi-square analysis and correlational
techniques were used to understand the relationships between variables. The
results revealed that African-American women primarily turn to prayer and
friends for support, but are willing to seek professional help when necessary.
African-American women have a very strong spiritual or religious base which
includes many transpersonal experiences and beliefs that appear to be
integrated with a strong internal belief in their own abilities to influence
their daily lived experiences. This may be one of the reasons why they are
least likely to seek psychotherapy as a first response to personal problems
and issues.

Title: Inner resources (sense of coherence, hope, and spiritual perspective) as
predictors of psychological well-being in african american breast cancer
Author(s)/Editor(s): Gibson, Lynette M. Richardson
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 61(4-B) Oct 2000, US: Univ Microfilms International;
2000, 1869
Abstract/Review/Citation: No studies have been found on the psychological
effects of applying sense of coherence, hope, and spiritual perspective by
African American (AA) breast cancer survivors. These variables have each been
positively associated with psychological well-being. Although AA women are
exposed to major life stressors such as breast cancer, many continue to have
high levels of psychological well-being. The reasons for this are unknown. 
This descriptive study tested which variables in the Gibson Model of Inner
Resources were significant predictors of levels of psychological well-being in
AA breast cancer survivors. One hundred and sixty-two AA breast cancer
survivors completed the Abbreviated Herth Hope Index, Spiritual Perspective
Scale, Sense of Coherence Scale (13-item), Quality of Life/Breast Cancer
(Psychological Well-Being Subscale), and a Demographic Questionnaire.
Statistical analyses included correlation, multiple regression, and path
analysis.  Data from the study supported the hypotheses. There was a
significantly positive relationship between sense of coherence and hope, r s =
.535 (p < .01), a significantly positive relationship between hope and
spiritual perspective, r s = .414 (p < .01), and a significantly positive
relationship between sense of coherence and spiritual perspective,  rs = .159
(p = .05). Sense of coherence was significantly positively related to
psychological well-being,  rs = .594 (p < .01) and hope was significantly
positively related to psychological well-being, rs = .484 (p < .01). There
was a positive relationship between spiritual perspective and psychological
well-being that was not significant,  rs = .096 (p = .224). Study findings
supported the model. Sense of coherence significantly accounted for 37.5% and
hope for 5.3% of the explained variance in psychological well-being. Spiritual
perspective did not significantly account for any of the explained variance.
There were direct paths between sense of coherence and hope, sense of
coherence and psychological well-being, hope and psychological well-being, and
spiritual perspective and hope. Spiritual perspective predicted psychological
well-being indirectly through hope.  Further analysis of spirituality in AA
breast cancer survivors is necessary. Further study is needed to test the
model and interventions that reinforce survivors' inner resources as they
psychologically cope with breast cancer.

Title: Social pioneers:  Resilience among working-class achievers in American
Author(s)/Editor(s): Aronson, Rosa
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 61(6-A) Jan 2000, US: Univ Microfilms
International; 2000, 2248
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study proposed to describe, from a Social
 Foundations perspective, educational resilience among working-class achievers,
and attempted to analyze the role of resilience in the social discourse on
education. Resilience has become an important object of research since the
late 1980s, at a time when a recession was beginning to show its effect on the
economy of the United States. Defined as the ability to bounce back from
adversity, resilience has inspired hope for those who seek to assist at-risk
students. This study outlined a number of views that have been expressed on
the issue of resilience, and sought to conduct its own analysis of resilience
as it applies to working-class achievers.  Seven respondents, who had grown up
in poverty and conquered adversity, told their stories in semi-structured
interviews. Profiles of respondents included 4 women and 3 men, 3
African-Americans, 2 Whites, 1 Asian and 1 Hispanic. Ages ranged from 19 to
over 50. Data analysis revealed a transformational process from adversity to
success that included effects of adversity, enabling conditions, and coping
strategies. Another category, Looking Back, emerged as respondents reflected
upon their experiences and offered their insights into the issue of
resilience.  Adversity took many forms from racial and ethnic identity,
isolation and lack of exposure, hostile environments, lack of educational
tradition, linguistic and cultural adjustment, conflict between home and
school, neglect and abuse to other barriers. Effects of adversity included 
fear and anxiety, resentment, internalization, shame early maturity and
self-protection. Enabling conditions encompassed  strong family, support
systems, good teachers, other caring adults, role models and turning points.
Coping strategies consisted of perseverance, resistance, friendly competition,
faith and spirituality, putting an optimistic spin on the journey, creating
distance and adjusting.  Achievement represented the experience of graduating
from college or graduate school and launching a successful career, getting out
of an oppressive environment, becoming more autonomous, and starting the
process of improving their lives and, often, lives of others. In some cases,
with achievement came a certain distancing from one's social background and
family.  Looking back on their early experience of adversity, respondents were
 actively engaged in helping others and finding meaning in their past.

Title: Relationships and contemporary experiences of the African American
family: An ethnographic case study. .
Author(s)/Editor(s): Mosley-Howard, G. Susan; Burgan Evans, Cheryl
Source/Citation: Journal of Black Studies: Special Issue: Vol 30(3) Jan 2000,
US: Sage Publications Inc; 2000, 428-452
Abstract/Review/Citation: The African American family has been the subject of
numerous studies, although historically these studies have typically used a
deficit-oriented model. Contemporary analysis of the African American family
stress its cultural and indigenous strengths, a position that is emphasized in
this article. In ethnographic case studies, the authors paint a personal and
diverse view of the relationships within the African American family,
emphasizing family systems theory and Africentric world views. The primary
research question was: What did this sample of African Americans perceive as
primary forces influencing their family relationships? 14 participants (17-72
yrs old) from 4 families reflect on: role flexibility within the African
American family, expanded definitions of parents, issues in child rearing, and
elder care. The themes discussed by these family members included: reliance on
tradition to raise children, the value of taking care and maintaining
connections with extended family, pride in cultural heritage, overt teaching
about racism, negotiation between 2 cultures, education, and the role of
spirituality and the church.

Title: Commitments and constraints to intimacy for African American couples at
Author(s)/Editor(s): Carolan, Marsha T.; Allen, Katherine R.
Source/Citation: Journal of Family Issues; Vol 20(1) Jan 1999, US: Sage
Publications Inc; 1999, 3-24
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study focused on the contributors and detractors
to intimate relationships for African American couples in midlife. The
research examined how work and family responsibilities contribute to or
restrict intimacy, how gender and race affect intimacy, and what aspects of
couples' lives contribute to the maintenance of intimacy in relationships.
Qualitative data were collected from 10 couples in a committed relationship,
using open-ended, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Analysis revealed that
commitment to faith provided a foundation for familial and intimate
relationships and mediated the constraints of aging and racism. African
American couples were devoted to their families and to their spiritual
beliefs. Midlife was a time of change and stability for couples with the
competing demands of work and family. Implications for research and practice
are discussed.

Title: Balm in Gilead: Spiritual dimensions in counseling African American
Author(s)/Editor(s): Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Williams, Carmen Braun; Green, Evelyn L.
Source/Citation: Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development; Vol
27(4) Oct 1999, US: Assn of Multicultural Counseling & Development; 1999,
Abstract/Review/Citation: Discusses the broad range of issues that
African-American women bring to therapy, including emotional isolation,
internalized oppression, racial identity, and low self-esteem, and draws on
the strength of African American culture and spirituality in formulating
counseling interventions. The following interventions are described and then
applied in the case of a 32-yr-old African-American woman: the "God
within" drawing, the "Song of Self" exercise, the " Letting Loose" exercise, and the "Balm in Gilead" exercise.

Title: Black churches as therapeutic groups.
Author(s)/Editor(s): McRae, Mary B.; Thompson, Delores A.; Cooper, Sharon
Source/Citation: Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development; Vol
27(4) Oct 1999, US: Assn of Multicultural Counseling & Development; 1999,
Abstract/Review/Citation: This article examines how Black churches serve as
therapeutic groups and thus provide a source of psychological support to
African American communities. Group theory is used as a conceptual framework
to discuss the findings from 7 focus groups conducted in Black churches in the
New York metropolitan area with a total of 84 participants (aged 20-79 yrs).
Out of the 4 themes identified, spiritual renewal and church as family were
the most prominent in each group as well as across groups. The other 2 themes,
empowerment and interpersonal learning, were more dominant in some groups than
others. Implications for counselors working with clients involved in the Black
religious tradition are discussed.

Title: Spirituality-focused genograms: Keys to uncovering spiritual resources in
African American families.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Dunn, Adriana Balaguer; Dawes, Sharese Johnson
Source/Citation: Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development; Vol
27(4) Oct 1999, US: Assn of Multicultural Counseling & Development; 1999,
Abstract/Review/Citation: This article invites therapists to explore the
spiritual resources of African Americans through the use of
spirituality-focused genograms. Spiritual issues can be considered in the
context of family dynamics, as well as cultural factors including gender,
socioeconomic status, language, geographic origins and issues of racism and
oppression. Examples of the use of spirituality-focused genograms in therapy
are presented with 2 African-American women, aged 41 & 28 yrs, who have
very different religious and spiritual belief systems. The genograms are used
to explore these clients' experiences of spirituality and religion within a
multidimensional context of cultural and family influences and other critical

Title: The construction of an Africentric sentence completion test to assess the
need for achievement.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Oshodi, John Egbeazien
Source/Citation: Journal of Black Studies; Vol 30(2) Nov 1999, US: Sage
Publications Inc; 1999, 216-231
Abstract/Review/Citation: Attempted to identify and reconstruct
achievement-motivation-related tendencies of Blacks, determine inhibiting and
enhancing correlates of achievement motives, and explore the usefulness of the
Oshodi Sentence Completion Test (OSCI) as a measure of achievement motives.
107 college student volunteers, 54 of whom were in Nigeria, and 53 of whom
were in the US, were asked to complete 20 incomplete sentences from several
pools of items reflecting a variety of African-centered theories of motivation
and from a wide range of life situations. The stems were interchangeably and
nondiscretely clustered under the following attitudinal criteria for scoring:
attitude toward aspiration, obstacles, risk-taking, persistence, spirituality,
and communality. Theme analysis showed that Africentric values and beliefs, such as the collective self, spiritual supportiveness, cultural
identification, and family loyalty, were the underlying processes of
persistence, resilience, aspiration and achievement potential or need for
 achievement. Both judges' scores over the 20 items reached a reliability
coefficient of .99. The OSCI was highly instrumental in identifying client
concerns, beliefs, and values in accord with recent findings in
African-centered studies of human personality and motivation.

Title: The African unconscious:  Roots of ancient mysticism and modern
Author(s)/Editor(s): Bynum, Edward Bruce
Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: Teachers College Press; 1999, (xxvii, 355)
Counseling and development series.
Abstract/Review/Citation: This book has 4 interrelated goals on which the
themes, facts, and ideas are based: (1) To explain how the genetic, psychic,
spiritual, and cultural origins of our species,  Homo sapiens sapiens, are
traceable to a collective and common African origin in spite of apparent
differences between peoples based on "race," language, cultural
style, spirituality, geographic location, and even era in history; (2) To
reveal the innumerable ways in which all human beings are interwoven on the
loom of a primordial collective African unconscious; (3) To demonstrate how
the many pathways to our literally felt and experienced psychospiritual
awakening and unification with the energy of the universe are inextricably
connected to the genetic, psychic, spiritual, and cultural processes that are
rooted in the African origin of our species; (4) Finally, to openly and
nonapologetically encourage human beings, regardless of race and ethnicity, to
individually and collectively strive for enlightenment and unification with
themselves, other living beings, and the wider ecological and planetary energy
that binds the whole of the universe together.
Notes/Comments: Figures Notes from the series editor Foreword by Linda James Myers Acknowledgements Introduction Kiaspora, or the great dispersion The African unconscious The roots of modern science and  religion in ancient Egypt Kundalini and the spread of African mysticism The Osirian complex The African religions in their diaspora to the West Freud, Judaism, and the limits of psychodynamic insight The present confrontation in the Americas The rudiments of kemetic philosophy in African/Indian yoga
science Appendix A: Principal West African Yoruba deities (Orisha) and their expressions in the Americas Appendix B: The ten plagues of Moses Appendix C: Partial list of dances of African American origin References Index About the
author genetic & psychic & spiritual & cultural processes & African unconscious

Title: Treatment approaches for obese and overweight African American women: A
consideration of cultural dimensions.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Davis, Nancy L.; Clance, Pauline Rose; Gailis, Andra T.
Source/Citation: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training; Vol 36(1)
Spr 1999, US: Division of Psychotherapy, A.P.A.; 1999, 27-35
Abstract/Review/Citation: It is important to understand how individual factors
interact with environmental and sociocultural factors for a client in
treatment. The purpose of this article is to acknowledge the utility of an
Afrocentric systems approach to treating obese or overweight African American
women. It is suggested that a treatment program should address and integrate
the strengths and supports of the culture into the development of
interventions. African American beliefs about psychotherapy and family,
cognitive and coping styles, religiousness and spirituality, and body
satisfaction and body image, as well as current approaches to treating obesity
and overweight, are considered. This literature is used to frame guidelines
for helping African American women with eating problems, body dissatisfaction,
or weight management in ways that do not dismiss the experience of multiple
oppressions (i.e., racism, sexism, and the stigma of obesity and overweight).

Title: Constructing new realities: Integrating womanist traditions in pastoral
counseling with African-American women.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins
Source/Citation: Pastoral Psychology; Vol 47(4) Mar 1999, US: Human Sciences
Press Inc/Plenum Publishing Corp; 1999, 303-314
Abstract/Review/Citation: Womanist cultural and spiritual themes are rich
resources for pastoral counseling with African-American women. The authors
describe womanist cultural themes, present a case example of an
African-American woman struggling with identity issues, and provide specific
strategies for incorporating womanist cultural and spiritual patterns in
counseling African-American women.

Title: Counseling groups for African American women: A focus on spirituality.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn
Source/Citation: Journal for Specialists in Group Work; Vol 24(3) Sep 1999, US:
Sage Publications Inc; 1999, 260-273
Abstract/Review/Citation: Describes cultural and spiritual traditions in African
American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling
strategies. Literature regarding African American women's experience in groups
is reviewed. Specific group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery,
journaling, and rituals that aim at transcendence, empowerment, and
self-nurturance are explained. The authors describe the process, activities,
themes, and outcomes of an African American Women's Spirituality Group
conducted by the third author in which these approaches were employed.

Title: "Making it": The components and process of resilience among
urban, African-American, single mothers.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Brodsky, Anne E.
Source/Citation: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry; Vol 69(2) Apr 1999, US:
American Orthopsychiatric Assn; 1999, 148-160
Abstract/Review/Citation: In contrast to the bulk of research on urban single
mothers that focuses on risk and negative outcomes, this qualitative study of
10 resilient mothers living in risky neighborhoods uses the women's own words
to conceptualize resilience as an ongoing process of balancing risk and
protective factors in 8 life domains: neighborhood, parenting, money, family,
friends, men, personal characteristics, and spirituality. 18 semistructured
interviews were conducted with the 10 African-American Ss who were aged 26-46
yrs and were the biological mothers of at least 1 4th-6th grade daughter. The
findings question current assumptions about the universality of risk and
protective factors, and point to new directions for program and policy.

Title: Serenity for African American caregivers.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Sistler, Audrey; Washington, Kimberly S.
Source/Citation: Social Work with Groups; Vol 22(1) 1999, US: Haworth Press Inc;
1999, 49-62
Abstract/Review/Citation: Describes an 8-wk series of caregiver meetings for
African American women caring for a parent with dementia. The purpose of the
series was to assist the caregivers in caring for their own needs as well as
those of their parents. The meetings drew upon the Serenity Prayer, the
participants' spirituality, and a problem-solving approach as major themes in
an effort to help caregivers gain a greater sense of perceived control in
their situations. Pre, post and followup tests indicated greater
self-confidence in ability to solve difficult situations, improved well being
and happiness, as well as positive response on the part of the participants.

Title: Life as gift: Spiritual narratives of elderly African-American women
living in poverty.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Black, Helen K.
Source/Citation: Journal of Aging Studies; Vol 13(4) Win 1999, US:
Pergamon/Elsevier Science Inc; 1999, 441-455
Abstract/Review/Citation: Fifty elderly African-American women, over 70 yrs of
age, living in poverty were interviewed for a research project entitled,
"Chronic Poverty and the Self in Later Life." Using 4 representative
case studies from the 50 respondents, this article explores how their
spirituality informs their ability to cope with poverty. A key theme emerging
from the women's narratives is that their relationship with God, perceived as
personal, reciprocal, and empowering, allows them to take an active and
positive stance in viewing and interpreting the circumstances of their life.
Their spirituality imbues their hardship with meaning, engenders self-esteem,
keeps despair at bay, and grants hope for rewards both in this life and the next.

Title: Spiritual resources in family therapy.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Walsh, Froma
Source/Citation: New York, NY, US: Guilford Publications, Inc; 1999, (xvi, 301)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Spirituality is a powerful dimension of human
experience, with growing importance and diversity in today's changing world.
Yet it has long been regarded as off-limits in clinical training and practice,
leaving most therapists and counselors blind to its significance and reluctant
to approach it. Many have regarded clients' spirituality as a private matter
not to be intruded on and best left to clergy, pastoral counselors, or faith
healers. Some have worried that therapists might impose their own convictions
on vulnerable clients. Others fear the intensity of feelings and conflicts
that can be aroused by delving into spiritual issues.  This volume is
intended as a sourcebook to inform and inspire mental health, health care,
pastoral, and human service professionals of all disciplines about this
dimension in clinical work with couples and families. The aim of this book is
to open family therapy practice to spirituality: to explore clients' spiritual
beliefs and practices, to understand those that have constrained clients'
growth, and to tap resources for resilience and transformation.
Notes/Comments:  Part I: Overview Religion and spirituality: Wellsprings for healing and resilience Froma Walsh Opening family therapy to spirituality Froma Walsh Part II: Spiritual resources in families: Tapping into the wellsprings Spirituality, suffering, and beliefs: The soul of healing with families Lorraine M. Wright The stresses of poverty
and the comfort of spirituality Harry J. Aponte Spirituality and religion:
Implications for psychotherapy with African American clients and families
Nancy Boyd-Franklin and Tonya Walker Lockwood Religion and spiritual folk
traditions in immigrant families: Therapeutic resources with Latinos Celia
Jaes Falicov Three spiritual perspectives on resilience: Buddhism,
Christianity, and Judaism Steven J. Wolin, with Wayne Muller, Fred Taylor and
Sybil Wolin "Honor thy father and thy mother": Intergenerational
spirituality and Jewish tradition Mona DeKoven Fishbane Feet planted firmly in
midair: A spirituality for family living Herbert Anderson Part III:
Spirituality and family therapy: Bridging the divide Morality and spirituality
in therapy William J. Doherty Healing from trauma: The quest for spirituality
Mary Jo Barrett Opening therapy to conversations with a personal God Melissa
Elliott Griffith Releasing the soul: Psychotherapy as a spiritual practice
Richard C. Schwartz Stretching to meet what's given: Opportunities for a
spiritual practice Kathy Weingarten Heart and soul: Spirituality, religion,
and rituals in family therapy training Janine Roberts Spirituality expressed
in community action and social justice: A therapeutic means to liberation and
hope Alice de V. Perry and John S. Rolland Index spirituality in couples &
family therapy

Title: Spirituality and religion: Implications for psychotherapy with African
American clients and families.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Lockwood, Tonya Walker
Source/Citation: Spiritual resources in family therapy., New York, NY, US:
Guilford Publications, Inc; 1999, (xvi, 301), 90-103
Source editor(s): Walsh, Froma (Ed)
Abstract/Review/Citation: Spirituality and religion have been essential
components of the cultural heritage of African Americans and a major source of
strength and survival skills. This chapter addresses the incorporation of
these issues into the treatment process with African American clients and
families--an area that has often been neglected or ignored in the clinical
literature. Clinical case examples are presented to illustrate the central

Title: Psychosocial, physical and spiritual dimensions of ten HIV-infected
African-American women drug users: A case study.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Castro, Maria Delia
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 59(7-B) Jan 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1999, 3341
Abstract/Review/Citation: The purpose of the study was to obtain comprehensive
case histories on ten African American women who were infected with HIV and
who were drug users in order to formulate hypotheses designed to explain how
their condition had an impact on the psychosocial, physical, and spiritual
dimensions of their lives. Relevant literature on HIV individuals was reviewed
and reported. The study was conducted in the psychiatric ward of a major
hospital in Washington, D.C. The case histories were based on information
obtained from observational, medical, and interview sources. Ten hypotheses
were developed which indicated that African American women drug users with HIV
came from (1) dysfunctional families, (2) had low self-concept, (3) showed low
level of interpersonal skills, (4) showed symptoms of depression, (5)
presented several sexually transmitted diseases, (6) showed symptoms of drug
withdrawal and sleep disturbances, (7) manifested poor personal hygiene, (8)
presented low T-cell counts, (9) have been deprived of love in their lives,
and (10) reported that their children were the most significant factor in
their lives. In view of the hypotheses, it seems reasonable that mental health
practitioners should be aware of early developmental signs in children which
may be precursors to psychosocial, physical, and spiritual problems in
adulthood. Recommendations for further research are presented.

Title: The art of self care: Self-nurturance and the African-American woman with
Author(s)/Editor(s): Knight, Valerie A.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 59(7-B) Jan 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1999, 3698
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study uses grounded theory methodology to explore
the experience of self-nurturance and the African-American woman with
HIV/AIDS. The study offers a definition of self-nurturance as described
through a survey of 25 women; the development of a questionnaire of
self-nurturing activities; and in-depth interviews of eight women with
HIV/AIDS who have used the techniques of drama therapy to augment their
healing process. Eight 'lessons' are extracted from the data, intended to
assist in developing an individualized program of self-nurturance. They
include the necessity of female support to sustain self-nurturance;
prioritizing one's needs in relationships; making the pivotal decision to
live, survive, or die; and maintaining a connection with spirituality and all
living things. In addition, several theories were developed for future
research in this area. The study includes the author's artistic response and
analysis to the data. Theatrical sequences, journal excerpts, and visual art
exemplify the qualitative process of imaginative variation.

Title: The relationships among spirituality, religion, and mental health for
African Americans.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Jones, Gwendolyn L.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 59(8-A) Feb 1999, US: University Microfilms
International; 1999, 2869
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study examined the dual constructs of
spirituality and religion as they relate to mental health for African
Americans. Specifically, this study investigated the relationship among the
criterion variable of mental health, and the independent variables of
spirituality, religion, and demographics (age, gender, education, physical
health, religious denomination and socioeconomic status). Although overlap
between the two constructs was expected, the study investigated whether
spirituality and religion could be significantly discerned, and whether
results from one construct could be generalized to the other. Participants in
this study were 255 adult African Americans, between the ages of 21 and 70 +
years of age, located within a large public school system in the southeastern
part of the United States. The subjects were administered The Demographic and
Physical Health Survey, The Armstrong Measure of Spirituality, the
Religiousness Scale, and The Mental Health Index. Results indicated that there
were strong associations between spirituality and religion, between
spirituality and mental health, as well as between spirituality and physical
health. However, a series of multiple linear regression analyses indicated
that the linear combination of spirituality, physical health, and age were the
best predictors of mental health for African Americans. Study results
suggested that while both spirituality and religion were strongly associated
with mental health, spirituality was a better predictor of mental health for
African Americans. The fact that spirituality was a better predictor of mental
health than was religion might suggest differences in conceptualization of the
constructs. The religiousness instrument utilized in this research focused on
an individual's relationships with the church and with God. The spirituality
instrument measured the relationships just mentioned and additionally assessed
an individual's perception of self in relations to others, and a sense of
responsibility for one's fellowman. This conceptualization of spirituality is
expansive and includes the concept of religion. Spirituality in this sense
appears more closely aligned with the conceptual framework of community spirit
that has been so much a part of African American sociocultural history. This
research lends support to the tremendous potential for spirituality and
religion as mental health interventions with prophylactic or preventive as
well as palliating or rehabilitative possibilities. It also lends support to
the need for addressing spirituality and religion as part of the therapeutic
process, as well as the development of more culturally sensitive instruments,
if counselors are going to successfully assess and develop effective mental
health strategies when counseling African American clients.

Title: An exploratory study of African-American clinicians' perceptions of
spirituality and religion in the treatment of African-American clients.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Lockwood, Tonya Walker
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 59(8-B) Feb 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1999, 4471
Abstract/Review/Citation: Within recent years, the field of mental health has
begun to address the issue of spirituality in the psychological literature;
however, the utility and clinical application of spirituality with various
ethnic minority populations, particularly African Americans, still remains
largely unexamined. This explorative study expands the psychological
literature by documenting the clinical experiences of eleven African American
licensed psychologists who incorporate spirituality and religion in
psychotherapy with African American clients. Psychologists interviewed were
men and women between the ages of 37-66 working in the Northeast region of the
United States. Participants were obtained through professional contacts. Data
were gathered using a semi-structured interview format developed by the
investigator. Qualitative analysis of the data was performed using the
Grounded Theory Approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). Four salient thematic
content areas emerged through the process of interviewing, transcribing,
coding, and analyzing of the data: clinicians' conceptualization of
spirituality and religion; clinical applications and treatment interventions;
ethical and outcome related issues; and recommendations for African American,
White, and other therapists for working with African American clients in
relation to the issue of spirituality and religion. The findings are
interpreted with respect to their support of prior research and used to
discuss implications for clinical practice with African American clients,
training for pre and post doctoral psychologists, and foci for future
research. Methodological limitations are also discussed.

Title: An exploratory examination of mutuality, relationship satisfaction, and
commitment among heterosexual African American women.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Crisp, Debra Ann
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 59(9-B) Mar 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1999, 5164
Abstract/Review/Citation: The present exploratory study provided a preliminary
examination of mutuality, relationship satisfaction, and commitment between
heterosexual African American women pursuing post-baccalaureate degrees and
those who were not pursuing graduate education. The study was also designed to
ascertain the qualities African American women desire in their partners and
whether these needs are met in current or most recent relationships.
Additionally the purpose of the study was to learn whether women remain in
relationships that are no longer satisfying. Much has been written about the
'romantic jeopardy' African American women place themselves by pursuing a
graduate degree. This assertion was also examined in the research. Finally, an
attempt was made to ascertain perceptions concerning the difficulty of finding
and maintaining romantic relationships. Results revealed some differences
between the perceptions of those African American women with advanced degrees
and those without. Women in the educationally advanced group believed
significantly more strongly that they could find the qualities they desired in
an African American partner. In addition, the women differed in the qualities
they found attractive and important. Women in the advanced group valued
spirituality, honesty/integrity, financial independence/stability, career
attainment/goals/ambition, and attractiveness. Women in the non-advanced group
valued spirituality, tenderness/nurturance, kindness and understanding,
love/consideration, and attractiveness. The results of this study suggest that
African American women are similar in their perceptions of mutuality,
relationship satisfaction, and commitment, regardless of level of educational
attainment. Implications for pursuing this line of inquiry are discussed.

Title: The impact of racism, cultural orientation, and cognitive appraisal on
exaggerated cardiovascular responses and self-reported health symptoms in
African-American college students.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Bowen, Terra Lynette
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 59(11-B) Jun 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1999, 6111
Abstract/Review/Citation: Racism is habitual stressor in the lives of Black
people. Numerous studies are emerging which indicate the virulent impact this
social disease has on health outcomes. Although researchers note that it is
important to understand those associations that link racism to the adverse
health status of Blacks, systematic and empirical investigations are sparse.
Even fewer studies have attempted to integrate the effects culture plays in
buffering its impact. The purpose of this study was to examine the
psychological and physiological impact of racism and culture on health
outcomes. It was expected that racist experiences and appraisal of racist
events would significantly predict exaggerated cardiovascular responses and
self-reported health symptoms (as measured by the Symptom Checklist
(SCL-90-R). Also, it was expected that the cultural variables, spirituality
and mainstream orientation, would buffer the adverse impact on health
outcomes. One hundred-fifty-five undergraduate students of African descent
from a Howard University introductory to psychology course agreed to
participate in the study on a voluntary basis, in exchange for two credit
points. The average age of the participant was 19.7. Each subject participated
in two laboratory stressors, a mirror tracer task and a hand-grip exercise,
which were administered in random order. Blood pressure and heart rate
readings were taken at five intervals, that is: after the initial rest period,
during the first stressor, after the mid-task rest, during the second
stressor, and after the final rest period. Additionally, subjects were
requested to fill out a battery of questionnaires. Several major findings
emanated in this study. First, the results overwhelmingly support the notion
that exposure to racism is rampant among Black people. Ninety-nine percent of
the Black students used in this study reported they had encountered racist
experiences in their lifetime; and 95% marked that they had racist encounters
within the past year. Second, racist experiences and appraisal of racist
encounters were significantly related to cardiovascular responses and adverse
self-reported health outcomes. Specifically, those individuals reporting few
racist experiences tended to have more heightened cardiovascular responses to
the mirror tracer stressor. Those individuals reporting frequent racist
experiences tended to report more negative psychological and physical health
consequences. Finally, spirituality, as opposed to mainstream orientation,
significantly moderated the relationship between appraisal of racist events
and health outcomes (psychoticism and the global index of psychological
distress). The findings of this study suggest that spirituality may indeed
serve as a significant buffer against the deleterious impact of racism on
health outcome. Thus, the results of this study are encouraging as scholars
continue to unearth combative approaches in annihilating the negative
repercussions of this social enigma.

Title: The impact of spirituality on the coping process in families dealing with
pediatric HIV or pediatric nephrotic syndrome.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Armstrong, Tonya Denise
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 59(12-B) Jun 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1999, 6482
Abstract/Review/Citation: Spirituality refers to a relationship with a
transcendent force that brings meaning and purpose to one's existence, and
affects the way in which one operates in the world. Spiritual coping
mechanisms remain basically unexplored, particularly as they pertain to
families coping with HIV/AIDS. Although the historical, situational, health,
and drug contexts that are often operative in African American communities may
make African Americans more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS, there are a number of
cultural strengths such as a spiritual orientation that may ameliorate
vulnerabilities to the disease's debilitating consequences. Spiritual coping
was expected to uniquely contribute to the coping process at the levels of
stress appraisal, coping activities, and well-being. The current study
predicted differences in spirituality, religiosity, stress, coping strategies,
and well-being between groups categorized by ethnicity and illness.
Quantitative measures of these variables were administered to caregivers of
children diagnosed with HIV/AIDS (n = 18), children with nephrotic syndrome (n
= 36), and healthy children (n = 36). Qualitative interviews were also
conducted with 15 families representative of these groups. Results indicated
the highest levels of spirituality and &ldquo;turning to
religion&rdquo; as a coping strategy among African-American caregivers of
children with pediatric nephrotic syndrome. Non-African-American caregivers in
the control group reported the lowest levels of spirituality, religiosity,
turning to religion as a coping strategy, and denial as a coping strategy,
while African-American caregivers of HIV-positive children demonstrated the
highest levels of stress in the form of pessimism. As hypothesized,
spirituality moderated the relationship between stress and coping in that
higher levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of
problem-focused coping and positive reframing, and lower levels of
emotion-focused coping and denial in the face of stress. Moreover,
spirituality moderated the relationship between stress and well-being such
that, under high levels of spirituality, individuals were buffered from the
negative effects of stress on increased depression, though opposite effects
were found for life satisfaction and family cohesion as outcomes. The
cumulative findings of the present study provide evidence of the role of
spirituality as a coping mechanism associated with adaptive outcomes.

Title: AIDS, the single mother, and planning for the future.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Westpheling, Gail Scagnelli
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 60(1-A) Jul 1999, US: University Microfilms
International; 1999, 0251
Abstract/Review/Citation: This study explored how single mothers affected by
HIV/AIDS made plans for their young children as they faced death from a
stigmatizing and terminal illness. More and more children are now living in
single family households with mothers who have HIV/AIDS. The increasing number
of childbearing women affected by HIV/AIDS contributes to the growing number
of children who may become orphaned by the illness. The literature shows that
when parents are faced with the tasks associated with planning for their
children, most fail to do so. The study utilized a cross-sectional survey
research design collecting both qualitative and quantitative data within a
phenomenological context. In-person interviews were conducted with thirty
HIV-positive mothers from February to June, 1997. By way of comparison,
fifteen HIV-negative women were interviewed during July, 1997 to assess the
impact that HIV/AIDS had on planning. Both samples were comprised of primarily
single, African-American mothers who were between the ages of 18 to 42. The
results for the HIV-positive women showed that spirituality, one of twelve
independent variables, impacted both planning, the dependent variable, and the
emotional effects of death and dying, the intervening variable. Its effect was
to reduce the psychological sequelae associated with death and dying and to
hasten the activities that supported planning. Eight other independent
variables also were shown to have an impact on planning: mother's age,
children's age, race, illness symptomatology, HIV/illness disclosure, kinship
networks, children's gender, and the biological father. Socioeconomic status,
injecting drug usage and children's behavioral problems, the three remaining
independent variables, were not found to have any direct impact on planning
although their implications were discussed. The findings showed that the
HIV-negative mothers had fewer spiritual characteristics and were much less
likely to make plans than the HIV-positive women were. While the HIV-negative
women were less likely to make plans, the following variables were associated
with planning when they talked about it: mother's age, illness symptomatology,
kinship networks, children's gender, and the biological father.

Title: Factors enhancing the health of HIV seropositive men.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Heinrich, Carol R.
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 60(2-B) Aug 1999, US: Univ. Microfilms International;
1999, 0577
Abstract/Review/Citation: This research developed and tested a theoretical
model, proposed as an over-identified, recursive causal model, that explains
the relationships among perceived hope, social support, uncertainty in
illness, and spirituality and their effect on the perceived health of HIV
seropositive men. In this study, hope, social support, and spirituality were
theorized to affect perceived health in HIV seropositive men. In addition,
social support, uncertainty in illness, and spirituality were theorized to
affect hope in this population; and that social support has a negative effect
on uncertainty in illness. The sample consisted of 125 HIV seropositive men
recruited from urban HIV clinics. Age ranged from 21 to 55 (X = 38.02); 40%
were African American, 40% Caucasian, and 20% were Hispanic. The theoretical
model was tested using causal model analysis methods. Results included a
Goodness of Fit Index of.90, and a Comparative Fit index of.79 which indicated
minimal fit of the model with the data. Findings revealed significant, direct
paths from hope to perceived health (<math> <f> <g>b</g>=<hsp sp='0.212'>.57,<hsp
sp='0.265'>p&lt;<hsp sp='0.212'>.001</f> </math>), uncertainty in illness to hope (<math> <f> <g>b</g>=<hsp sp='0.212'>-.40,<hsp sp='0.265'>p&lt;<hsp sp='0.212'>.001</f> </math>), social support to uncertainty in illness (<math> <f> <g>b</g>=<hsp sp='0.212'>-.19,<hsp sp='0.265'>p&lt;<hsp sp='0.212'>.05</f> </math>), and spirituality to hope (<math> <f> <g>b</g>=<hsp sp='0.212'>-.52,<hsp sp='0.265'>p&lt;<hsp sp='0.212'>.001</f> </math>). The paths from social support to
perceived health, spirituality to perceived health, and social support to hope
were not found to be statistically significant. The indirect effects of
spirituality on perceived health through hope (<math> <f> <g>b</g>=<hsp sp='0.212'>.30,<hsp sp='0.265'>p&lt;<hsp sp='0.212'>.001</f> </math>),
and uncertainty in illness on perceived health through hope (<math> <f> <g>b</g>=<hsp sp='0.212'>-.23,<hsp sp='0.265'>p&lt;<hsp sp='0.212'>.001</f> </math>) were found to be statistically significant. The total effect of spirituality on perceived health was also found to be significant (<math> <f> <g>b</g>=<hsp sp='0.212'>.28,<hsp sp='0.265'>p&lt;<hsp sp='0.212'>.01</f> </math>).
However, the total effect of social support on perceived health was not found
to be significant. Based on the model generated by this research, it can be
concluded that hope directly contributes to perceived health among HIV
seropositive men. It can also be said that spirituality has a positive direct
effect on hope, and that social support decreases uncertainty in illness.
Therefore, it can be concluded that hope plays an important role in enhancing
perceived health in this sample and interventions need to be designed to
create or maintain hope by meeting the spiritual needs of this population.

Title: Antecedents to the development of mainstream orientation, spirituality,
and communalism in African American college students.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Lee, Judith Wanda
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 60(5-B) Dec 1999, US: Univ Microfilms International;
1999, 2402
Abstract/Review/Citation: North American culture has been synthesized from an
Anglo-European framework. A reason for this is the relatively dominant
position of European Americans with respect to economic, social, and political
power. Many of the tenets of African American culture, theoretically gleaned
from the traditions of West Africa, are diametrically opposed to the European
standard. Because of this, it is argued that African Americans may be in the
unique position to develop varying configurations of personality dimensions
consistent with African or European cultural influences. Key to this
personality development may be the social and cultural experiences encountered
by the individual. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of
socio-demographic variables on the development of European and European
American and African and African American cultural students. The Mainstream
Orientation Questionnaire (Boykin, 1987), the Spirituality Scale (Boykin &
Jagers, 1985), the Communalism Scale (Boykin, Jagers, Ellison, & Albury,
1989), and an extensive background questionnaire were administered to 295
African American college undergraduates attending a mid-Atlantic university.
It was hypothesized that (a) dimensions of mainstream culture would be
unrelated to dimensions of African American culture, (b) dimensions of African
American culture would be positively related, and selected socio-demographic
variables would be related to either mainstream or African American cultural
dimensions. The hypotheses were partially supported by the findings.
Mainstream orientation was negatively related to spirituality, but no
relationship was found between mainstream orientation and communalism.
Spirituality and communalism were found to be positively related for this
sample. No support was found for the hypothesized relationships between
mainstream orientation and the selected socio-demographic variables. However,
some support was found for the relationships between spirituality,
communalism, and selected socio-demographic variables. Factor analyses of the
instruments were conducted to determine relationships among scale items. This
analysis generated some theoretically and thematically consistent factors. The
relationships among the factors and selected socio-demographic variables were
explored, however few relationships were found. Implications from this
research and directions for future research are discussed.

Title: An Africentric womanist theory. (psychotherapy, feminist).
Author(s)/Editor(s): Le Falle, Jacqueline
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
& Engineering; Vol 60(5-B) Dec 1999, US: Univ Microfilms International;
1999, 2348
Abstract/Review/Citation: If the particular, phenomenal experiences of African
American women are placed at the center of analysis, theorizing, and vision,
how might feminist epistemology(ies) be altered? This dissertation adds a
cogent argument to the body of contemporary philosophy, as it pertains to
feminist psychotherapy, theory, and practice. It expands psychotherapy theory
by placing, at center, African American conceptualizations of psychological
well-being. Working from the sustained perspective of an Africentric womanist
standpoint, move from theory to praxis is accomplished, via the integral,
African centered contours of: spirituality, family, communalism, and
(w)holism. The phenomenological appeal to experience, and the argument for
inclusion of an Africentric Womanist Theory for psychotherapy, advances not
only from a review of the relevant literature, which highlights theoretical
problems of exclusion in the interdisciplinary fields of psychology and
feminist inquiry. Equally important is the expansion of the epistemological
basis of theory development, by including everyday, personal experience(s)-as
an African American woman and psychotherapist-as the wellspring of the
expanded, inclusive theory. The general position taken in this dissertation is
that the centrality of the paradigms and values informing western psychology
are not exhaustive. Placing African American women's experiences at the center
of analysis offers fresh insights on the prevailing concepts, paradigms and
epistemologies of our world view (Lorde, 1984), as well as valuing our
experiences. By effective use of the affirmative postmodern, pluralistic
notion of 'pivot[ing] the center' (Brown, 1986, p. 922) of western psychology,
to focus on the historically marginalized as central to analysis, hierarchical
relations are resettled without losing the potential for a shared, more
pluralistic center. The dissertation reconceptualizes psychological well-being
and the psychotherapeutic process from an Africentric womanist standpoint.
Experiential theory testing is offered, via a narrative case illustration, as
everyday, external (i.e., public) experience. In highlighting this
professional, public experience, a certain symmetry is achieved, via
(w)holistic balance of external and internal (i.e., personal) experiences, of
which the theory is born.

Title: Kinship, self-concept, and self-identity: Roles in racial identity,
spirituality, and psychopathology in African-American and Caucasian-American
Author(s)/Editor(s): Lewis, Dawn Katrina
Source/Citation: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
& Social Sciences; Vol 60(6-A) Dec 1999, US: University Microfilms
International; 1999, 1904
Abstract/Review/Citation: Kinship is a universal phenomenon, but the way it is
expressed may differ across ethnic and national groupings. For example, Hill
(1972) states that 'kinship relations tend to be stronger among Blacks than
White families' (p.5). Kinship ties are not necessarily drawn along bloodlines
and such kinship networks frequently include many individuals who are not
related in the strictest sense of the term (Boyd-Franklin, 1984). Kinship
involves not only familiness, but many other components as well. The kinship
principles apply to the constructs of self-concept, self-identity, and
group-identity as well. In order to have a healthy self-concept, it is
important to have links with one's reference groups. For the African-American,
Cross (1978) describes how 'Blacks have had and continue to have a
multi-faceted reference group orientation in which Black and White anchor
points may determine behavior depending upon the situation with which the
person is confronted.' The current study investigated relationships between
kinship indices, personal identity, racial identity, spirituality, and
psychopathology for African-American and Caucasian-American college females.
The general hypothesis stated that there is a difference in kinship patterns,
self-concept, self-esteem, racial identity, and psychopathology (anxiety and
depression) in African-American and Caucasian-American college females. The
findings of this study indicated that African-American women tend to affiliate
moreso with their own racial group than do Caucasian-American women. In
addition, findings suggest that the African-American females feel better about
themselves than do the Caucasian-Americans. These data also proved interesting
because it seems that African-American women have a sense of identity and
values, yet they have difficulty in terms of their inner feelings aspirations,
perceptions, and external environment.

Title: "I'm just glad that I'm here": Stories of seven
African-American HIV-affected grandmothers.
Author(s)/Editor(s): Poindexter, Cynthia Cannon; Linsk, Nathan L.
Source/Citation: Journal of Gerontological Social Work; Vol 32(1) 1999, US:
Haworth Press; 1999, 63-81
Abstract/Review/Citation: Reports the experiences of 7 African-American
HIV-affected grandmothers who are parenting grandchildren because of the
presence of HIV in the family. Ss were between the ages of 46 and 60 yrs and
were interviewed as part of a qualitative study in the Chicago, Illinois area.
Showcasing their stories highlights the existence and concerns of a population
which is frequently overlooked. These respondents' attitudes about caregiving
were mixed: they experienced it as a mixture of burden and honor. In the face
of multiple stressors, these grandmothers demonstrated remarkable resilience,
spirituality, and a commitment to kin. Even though Ss were heroic and
dedicated, they still needed support from social service and health care
systems. It is stated that grandparent caregiving in the HIV epidemic will
likely increase, and practitioners and policy makers should be prepared to
better address the needs of this growing population.

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