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Attachment
Attachment and Human Development
Attachment and Child Development
Attachment and Avoidance
Attachment and Relational Trauma
Attachment and Trauma
Attachment and Traumatic Loss
Attachment I
Attachment II
Attachment V
Attachment III
Attachment IV
Attachment and Traumatic Separation
Attachment and Trauma II
Attachment and Separation
Attachment and Relational Trauma II
Attachment and Affect Development
Attachment
Attachment and Infant Development

Psychological

and Physiological

Trauma Research

 

 

Seize Your Journeys

 

_______________________

Traumatic stress is found in many competent, healthy, strong, good people.  No one can completely protect themselves from traumatic experiences.  Many people have long-lasting problems following exposure to trauma.  Up to 8% of persons will have PTSD at some time in their lives. People who react to traumas are not going crazy.  What is happening to them is part of a set of common symptoms and problems that are connected with being in a traumatic situation, and thus, is a normal reaction to abnormal events and experiences.  Having symptoms after a traumatic event is NOT a sign of personal weakness.  Given exposure to a trauma that is bad enough, probably all people would develop PTSD.

By understanding trauma symptoms better, a person can become less fearful of them and better able to manage them. By recognizing the effects of trauma and knowing more about symptoms, a person will be better able to decide about getting treatment.

_______________________

 

Sleep Disorders DSMIV-R

 

            “The sleep disorders are organized into four major sections according to presumed etiology. 

 

Primary Sleep Disorders are those in which none of the etiologies listed below (i.e., another mental disorder, a general medical condition, or a substance) is responsible.  Primary Sleep Disorders are presumed to arise from endogenous abnormalities in sleep-wake generating or timing mechanisms, often complicated by conditioning factors.  Primary Sleep Disorders in turn are divided into Dyssomnias (characterized by abnormalities in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep) and Parasomnias (characterized by abnormal behavioral or physiological events occurring in association with sleep, specific sleep stages, or sleep-awake transitions).

            Sleep Disorder Related to Another Mental Disorder involves a prominent complaint of sleep disturbance that results from a diagnosable mental disorder (often a Mood Disorder or Anxiety Disorder) but that is sufficiently severe to warrant independent clinical attention.  Presumably, the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the mental disorder also affect sleep-awake regulation. 

            Sleep Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition involves a prominent complaint of sleep disturbance that results from the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition on the sleep-wake system.

            Substance-Induced Sleep Disorder involves prominent complaints of sleep disturbance that result from the concurrent use, or recent discontinuation of use, of a substance (including medications).

            That systematic assessment in individuals who present with prominent complaints of sleep disturbance includes an evaluation of the specific type of sleep complaint and a consideration of concurrent mental disorders, general medical conditions, and substance (including medication) use that may be responsible for the sleep disturbance.

            Five distinct sleep stages can be measured by polysomnography:  rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and four stages of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (stages 1, 2, 3, and 4).  Stage 1 NREM sleep is a transition from wakefulness to sleep and occupies about 5% of time spent asleep in healthy adults.  Stage 2 NREM sleep, which is characterized by specific EEG waveforms (sleep spindles and K complexes), occupies about 50% of time spent asleep.  Stages 3 and 4 NREM sleep (also known collectively as slow-wave sleep) are the deepest levels of sleep and occupy about 10%-20% of sleep time.  REM sleep, during which the majority of typical storylike dreams occur, occupies about 20%-25% of total sleep.

            These sleep stages have a characteristic temporal organization across the night.  NREM stages 3 and 4 tend to occur in the first one-third to one-half of the night and increase in duration in response to sleep deprivation.  REM sleep occurs cyclically throughout the night, alternating with NREM sleep about every 80-100 minutes.  REM sleep periods increase in duration toward the morning.  Human sleep also varies characteristically across the life span.  After relative stability with large amounts of slow-wave sleep in childhood and early adolescence, sleep continuity and depth deteriorate across the adult age range.  This deterioration is reflected by increased wakefulness and stage 1 sleep and decreased stages 3 and 4 sleep.  Because of this, age must be considered in the diagnosis of a Sleep Disorder in any individual.

            Polysomnography is the monitoring of multiple electrophysiological parameters during sleep and generally includes measurement of EEG activity, electroculographic activity, and electromyographic activity.  Additional polysomnographic measures may include oral or nasal airflow, respiratory effort, chest and abdominal wall movement, oxyhemoglobin saturation, or exhaled carbon dioxide concentration; these measures are used to monitor respiration during sleep and to detect the presence and severity of sleep apnea.  Measurement of peripheral electromyographic activity may be used to detect abnormal movements during sleep.  Most polysomnographic studies are conducted during the person’s usual sleeping hours—that is, at night.  However, daytime polysomnographic studies also are used to quantify daytime sleepiness.  The most common daytime procedure is the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), in which the individual is instructed to lie down in a dark room and not resist falling asleep; this protocol is repeated fives times during the day.  Sleep latency (the amount of time required to fall asleep) is measured on each trial and is used as an index of physiological sleepiness.  The converse of the MSLT is also used:  In the Repeated Test of Sustained Wakefulness (RTSW), the individual is placed in a quiet, dimly lit room and instructed to remain awake; this protocol is repeated several times during the day.  Again, sleep latency is measured, but is it used here as an index of the individual’s ability to maintain wakefulness.

            Standard terminology for polysomnographic measures is used throughout the test in this section.  Sleep continuity refers to the overall balance of sleep and wakefulness during a night of sleep.  “Better” sleep continuity indicates consolidated sleep and wakefulness; “worse” sleep continuity indicates disrupted sleep with more wakefulness.  Specific sleep continuity measures include sleep latency—the amount of time required to fall asleep (expressed in minutes); intermittent wakefulness—the amount of awake time after initial sleep onset (expressed in minutes); and sleep efficiency—the ratio of actual time spent asleep to time spent in bed (expressed as a percentage, with higher numbers indicating better sleep continuity).  Sleep architecture refers to the amount and distribution of specific sleep stages.  Sleep architecture measures include absolute amount of REM sleep and each NREM sleep stage (in minutes), relative amount of REM seep and NREM sleep stages (expressed as a percentage of total sleep time), and latency between sleep onset and the first REM period (REM latency).

            The text for each of the Sleep Disorders contains a section describing its relationship to corresponding disorders in The International Classification of Sleep Disorders:  (ICSD) diagnostic and Coding Manual, published in 1990 by the American Sleep Disorders Association.

FUNCTIONAL NEUROANATOMY

In order to best understand this atlas it is important to have a sense of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain. Over the next several pages there is a brief summary of the 5 major brain systems that relate to behavior, along with the general location seen on SPECT of these areas.


 

The Deep Limbic System


side active view


underside surface view


underside active view

Functions

  • sets the emotional tone of the mind

  • filters external events through internal states (emotional coloring)

  • tags events as internally important

  • stores highly charged emotional memories

  • modulates motivation

  • controls appetite and sleep cycles

  • promotes bonding

  • directly processes the sense of smell

  • modulates libido

Problems

  • moodiness, irritability, clinical depression

  • increased negative thinking

  • perceive events in a negative way

  • decreased motivation

  • flood of negative emotions

  • appetite and sleep problems

  • decreased or increased sexual responsiveness

  • social isolation

The Basal Ganglia System


left side active view


underside active view

Functions

  • integrates feeling and movement

  • shifts and smoothes fine motor behavior

  • suppression of unwanted motor behaviors

  • sets the body's idle or anxiety level

  • enhances motivation

  • pleasure/ecstasy

Problems

  • anxiety, nervousness

  • panic attacks

  • physical sensations of anxiety

  • tendency to predict the worst

  • conflict avoidance

  • Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome/tics

  • muscle tension, soreness

  • tremors

  • fine motor problems

  • headaches

  • low or excessive motivation

The Prefrontal Cortex


dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex
outside view


inferior orbital prefrontal cortex
outside view


side surface view
dorsal lateral prefrontal area


inferior orbital prefrontal area
inside view


underside surface view
inferior orbital prefrontal area


top-down surface view
dorsal lateral prefrontal area

Functions

  • attention span

  • perseverance

  • judgment

  • impulse control

  • organization

  • self-monitoring and supervision

  • problem solving

  • critical thinking

  • forward thinking

  • learning from experience

  • ability to feel and express emotions

  • influences the limbic system

  • empathy

Problems

  • short attention span

  • distractibility

  • lack of perseverance

  • impulse control problems

  • hyperactivity

  • chronic lateness, poor time management

  • disorganization

  • procrastination

  • unavailability of emotions

  • misperceptions

  • poor judgement

  • trouble learning from experience

  • short term memory problems

  • social and test anxiety

The Cingulate Gyrus


inside side view


side active view


active top-down view


active front-on view

  • allows shifting of attention

  • cognitive flexibility

  • adaptability

  • helps the mind move from idea to idea

  • gives the ability to see options

  • helps you go with the flow

  • cooperation

Problems

  • worrying

  • holds onto hurts from the past

  • stuck on thoughts (obsessions)

  • stuck on behaviors (compulsions)

  • oppositional behavior, argumentative

  • uncooperative, tendency to say no

  • addictive behaviors (alcohol or drug abuse, eating disorders, chronic pain)

  • cognitive inflexibility

  • obsessive compulsive disorder

  • OCD spectrum disorders

  • eating disorders, road rage

The Temporal Lobes


side view


side surface view


underside surface view


active side view

Functions

Dominant Side (usually the left)

  • understanding and processing language

  • intermediate term memory

  • long term memory

  • auditory learning

  • retrieval of words

  • complex memories

  • visual and auditory processing

  • emotional stability

Problems

Dominant Temporal Lobe

  • aggression, internally or externally driven

  • dark or violent thoughts

  • sensitivity to slights, mild paranoia

  • word finding problems

  • auditory processing problems

  • reading difficulties

  • emotional instability

Non-dominant Side (usually the right)

  • recognizing facial expression

  • decoding vocal intonation

  • rhythm

  • music

  • visual learning

  • difficulty recognizing facial expression

  • difficulty decoding vocal intonation

  • implicated in social skill struggles


Either/Both Temporal Lobe Problems

  • memory problems, amnesia

  • headaches or abdominal pain without a clear explanation

  • anxiety or fear for no particular reason

  • abnormal sensory perceptions, visual or auditory distortions

  • feelings of déjà vu or jamais vu

  • periods of spaciness or confusion

  • religious or moral preoccupation

  • hypergraphia, excessive writing

  • seizures

 

 

Secure Attachments as a Defense Against Trauma

 “All people mature and thrive in a social context that has profound effects on how they cope with life’s stresses.  Particularly early in life, the social context plays a critical role in fuffering an individual against stressful situations, and in building the psychological and biological capacities to deal with further stresses.  The primary function of parents can be thought of as helping children modulate their arousal by attuned and well-timed provision of playing, feeding, comforting, touching, looking, cleaning, and resting—in short, by teaching them skills that will gradually help them modulate their own arousal.  Secure attachment bonds serve as primary defenses against trauma-induced psychopathology in both children and adults (Finkelhor & Browne, 1984).  In children who have been exposed to severe stressors, the quality of the parental bond is probably the single most important determinant of long-term damage (McFarlane, 1988).”  van der Kolk, Bessel, Alexander C. McFarlane, and Lars Weisaeth, eds.  1996. Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society.  New York and London: Guilford Press. .p. 185

_______________________

 

 

Sleep Disorders

 

            “The sleep disorders are organized into four major sections according to presumed etiology.  Primary Sleep Disorders are those in which none of the etiologies listed below (i.e., another mental disorder, a general medical condition, or a substance) is responsible.  Primary Sleep Disorders are presumed to arise from endogenous abnormalities in sleep-wake generating or timing mechanisms, often complicated by conditioning factors.  Primary Sleep Disorders in turn are divided into Dyssomnias (characterized by abnormalities in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep) and Parasomnias (characterized by abnormal behavioral or physiological events occurring in association with sleep, specific sleep stages, or sleep-awake transitions).

            Sleep Disorder Related to Another Mental Disorder involves a prominent complaint of sleep disturbance that results from a diagnosable mental disorder (often a Mood Disorder or Anxiety Disorder) but that is sufficiently severe to warrant independent clinical attention.  Presumably, the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the mental disorder also affect sleep-awake regulation. 

            Sleep Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition involves a prominent complaint of sleep disturbance that results from the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition on the sleep-wake system.

            Substance-Induced Sleep Disorder involves prominent complaints of sleep disturbance that result from the concurrent use, or recent discontinuation of use, of a substance (including medications).

            That systematic assessment in individuals who present with prominent complaints of sleep disturbance includes an evaluation of the specific type of sleep complaint and a consideration of concurrent mental disorders, general medical conditions, and substance (including medication) use that may be responsible for the sleep disturbance.

            Five distinct sleep stages can be measured by polysomnography:  rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and four stages of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (stages 1, 2, 3, and 4).  Stage 1 NREM sleep is a transition from wakefulness to sleep and occupies about 5% of time spent asleep in healthy adults.  Stage 2 NREM sleep, which is characterized by specific EEG waveforms (sleep spindles and K complexes), occupies about 50% of time spent asleep.  Stages 3 and 4 NREM sleep (also known collectively as slow-wave sleep) are the deepest levels of sleep and occupy about 10%-20% of sleep time.  REM sleep, during which the majority of typical storylike dreams occur, occupies about 20%-25% of total sleep.

            These sleep stages have a characteristic temporal organization across the night.  NREM stages 3 and 4 tend to occur in the first one-third to one-half of the night and increase in duration in response to sleep deprivation.  REM sleep occurs cyclically throughout the night, alternating with NREM sleep about every 80-100 minutes.  REM sleep periods increase in duration toward the morning.  Human sleep also varies characteristically across the life span.  After relative stability with large amounts of slow-wave sleep in childhood and early adolescence, sleep continuity and depth deteriorate across the adult age range.  This deterioration is reflected by increased wakefulness and stage 1 sleep and decreased stages 3 and 4 sleep.  Because of this, age must be considered in the diagnosis of a Sleep Disorder in any individual.

            Polysomnography is the monitoring of multiple electrophysiological parameters during sleep and generally includes measurement of EEG activity, electroculographic activity, and electromyographic activity.  Additional polysomnographic measures may include oral or nasal airflow, respiratory effort, chest and abdominal wall movement, oxyhemoglobin saturation, or exhaled carbon dioxide concentration; these measures are used to monitor respiration during sleep and to detect the presence and severity of sleep apnea.  Measurement of peripheral electromyographic activity may be used to detect abnormal movements during sleep.  Most polysomnographic studies are conducted during the person’s usual sleeping hours—that is, at night.  However, daytime polysomnographic studies also are used to quantify daytime sleepiness.  The most common daytime procedure is the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), in which the individual is instructed to lie down in a dark room and not resist falling asleep; this protocol is repeated fives times during the day.  Sleep latency (the amount of time required to fall asleep) is measured on each trial and is used as an index of physiological sleepiness.  The converse of the MSLT is also used:  In the Repeated Test of Sustained Wakefulness (RTSW), the individual is placed in a quiet, dimly lit room and instructed to remain awake; this protocol is repeated several times during the day.  Again, sleep latency is measured, but is it used here as an index of the individual’s ability to maintain wakefulness.

            Standard terminology for polysomnographic measures is used throughout the test in this section.  Sleep continuity refers to the overall balance of sleep and wakefulness during a night of sleep.  “Better” sleep continuity indicates consolidated sleep and wakefulness; “worse” sleep continuity indicates disrupted sleep with more wakefulness.  Specific sleep continuity measures include sleep latency—the amount of time required to fall asleep (expressed in minutes); intermittent wakefulness—the amount of awake time after initial sleep onset (expressed in minutes); and sleep efficiency—the ratio of actual time spent asleep to time spent in bed (expressed as a percentage, with higher numbers indicating better sleep continuity).  Sleep architecture refers to the amount and distribution of specific sleep stages.  Sleep architecture measures include absolute amount of REM sleep and each NREM sleep stage (in minutes), relative amount of REM seep and NREM sleep stages (expressed as a percentage of total sleep time), and latency between sleep onset and the first REM period (REM latency).

            The text for each of the Sleep Disorders contains a section describing its relationship to corresponding disorders in The International Classification of Sleep Disorders:  (ICSD) diagnostic and Coding Manual, published in 1990 by the American Sleep Disorders Association.

_________________

 

Substance Dependence

Features

The essential feature of Substance Dependence is a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues use of the substance despite significant substance-related problems.  There is a pattern of repeated self-administration that can result in tolerance, withdrawal, and compulsive drug-taking behavior.  A diagnosis of Substance Dependence can be applied to every class of substances except caffeine.  The symptoms of Dependence are similar across the various categories of substances, but for certain classes some symptoms are less salient, and in a few instances not all symptoms apply (e.g., withdrawal symptoms are not specified for Hallucinogenic Dependence).  Although not specifically listed as a criterion item, “craving” (a strong subjective drive to use the substance) is likely to be experienced by most (if not all) individuals with Substance Dependence.  Dependence is defined as a cluster of three or more of the symptoms listed below occurring at any time in the same 12-month-period.

Tolerance (Criterion 1) is the need for greatly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication (or the desired effect) or a markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of the substance.  The degree to which tolerance develops varies greatly across substances.  Furthermore, for a specific drug, varied degrees of tolerance may develop for its different central nervous system effects.  For example, for opioids, tolerance to respiratory depression and tolerance to analgesia develop at different rates.  Individuals with heavy use of opioids and stimulants can develop substantial (e.g., 10-f0ld) levels of tolerance, often to a dosage that would be lethal to a nonuser.  Alcohol tolerance can also be pronounced, but is usually less extreme than for amphetamine.  Many individuals who smoke cigarettes consume more than 20 cigarettes a day, an amount that would have produced symptoms of toxicity when they first started smoking.  Individuals with heavy use of cannabis or phencyclidine (PCP) are generally not aware of having developed tolerance (although it has been demonstrated in animal studies and in some individuals).  Tolerance may be difficult to determine by history alone when the substance used is illegal and perhaps mixed with various diluents or with other substances.  In such situations, laboratory tests may be helpful (e.g., high blood levels of the substance coupled with little evidence of intoxication suggest that tolerance is likely).  Tolerance must also be distinguished from individual variability in the initial sensitivity to the effects of particular substances.  For example, some first-time drinkers show very little evidence of intoxication with three or four drink, whereas others of similar weight and drinking histories had slurred speech and incoordination.

Withdrawal (Criterion 2a) is a maladaptive behavioral change, with physiological and cognitive concomitants, that occurs when blood or tissue concentrations of a substance decline in an individual who had maintained prolonged heavy use of the substance.  After developing unpleasant withdrawal symptoms, the persons is likely to take the substance to relieve or to avoid those symptoms (Criterion 2b), typically using the substance throughout the day beginning soon after awakening.  Withdrawal symptoms, which are generally the opposite of the acute effects of the substance, vary greatly across the calluses of substances, and separate criteria sets for Withdrawal are provided for most of the classes.  Marked and generally easily measured physiological signs of withdrawal are common with alcohol, opioids, and sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics.  Withdrawal signs and symptoms are often present, but may be less apparent, with stimulants such as amphetamines and cocaine, as well as with nicotine and cannabis.  No significant withdrawal is seen even after repeated use of hallucinogens.  Withdrawal from phencyclidine and related substances has not yet been described in humans (although it has been demonstrated in animals).  Neither tolerance nor withdrawal is necessary or sufficient for a diagnosis of Substance Dependence.  However, for most classes of substances, a past history of tolerance or withdrawals is associated with a more severe clinical course (i.e., an earlier onset of Dependence, higher levels of substance intake, and a greater number of substance-related problems).  Some individuals (e.g., those with Cannabis Dependence) show a pattern of compulsive use without obvious signs of tolerance or withdrawal.  Conversely, some general medical and postsurgical patients without Opioid Dependence may develop a tolerance to prescribed opioids and experience withdrawal symptoms without showing any signs of compulsive use.  The specifiers With Physiological Dependence and Without Physiological Dependence are provided to indicate the presence or absence of tolerance or withdrawal.

The following items describe the pattern of compulsive substance use that is characteristic of Dependence.  The individual may take the substance in larger amounts or over a longer period than was originally intended (e.g., continuing to drink until severely intoxicated despite having set a limit of only one drink) (Criterion 3).  The individual may express a persistent desire to cut down or regulate substance use.  Often, there have been many unsuccessful efforts to decrease or discontinue use (Criterion 4).  The individual may spend a great deal of time obtaining the substance, using the substance, or recovering from its effects (Criterion 5).  In some instances of Substance Dependence, virtually all of the person’s daily activities revolve around the substance.  Important social, occupational, ore recreational activities may be given up or reduced because of substance use (Criterion 6).  The individual may withdraw from family activities and hobbies in order to use the substance in private or to spend more time with substance-using friends.  Despite recognizing the contributing role of the substance to a psychological or physical problem (e.g., sever depressive symptoms or damage to organ systems), the person continues to use the substance (Criterion 7).  The key issue in evaluating this criterion is not eh existence of the problem, but rather the individual’s failure to abstain from using the substance despite having evidence of the difficulty it is causing.

 

Specifiers

            Tolerance and withdrawal may be associated with a higher risk for immediate general medical problems and a higher relapse rate.  Specifiers are provided to note their presence or absence:

With Physiological Dependence.  This specifier should be used when Substance Dependence is accompanied by evidence of tolerance (Criterion 1) or withdrawal (Criterion 2).

Without Physiological Dependence.  This specifier should be used when there is no evidence of tolerance (Criterion 1) or withdrawal (Criterion 2).  In these individuals, Substance Dependence is characterized by a pattern of compulsive use (at least three items from Criteria 3-7).”

 

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 2000. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. P. 193-195.

 

 

 

_______________________

 

PTSD, DID, and EMDR

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

"The essential feature of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder us the development of characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor involving direct personal experience of an event that involves actual or threatened death or serious injury, or other threat to one's physical integrity; or witnessing an event that involves death, injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of another person; or learning about unexpected or violent death, serious harm, or threat of death or injury experienced by a family member or other close associate (Criteria A1).  The person's response to the event must involve intense fear, helplessness, or horror (or in children, the response must involve disorganized or agitated behavior) (Criterion A2).  The characteristic symptoms resulting from the exposure to the extreme trauma include persistent reexperiencing of the traumatic event (Criterion E), and the disturbance must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criterion F).

Traumatic events that are experienced directly include, but are not limited to, military combat, violent personal assault (sexual assault, physical attack, robbery, mugging), being kidnapped, being taken hostage, terrorist attack, torture, incarceration as a prisoner of war or in a concentration camp, natural or manmade disasters, severe automobile accidents, or being diagnosed with a life-threatening illness.  For children, sexually traumatic events may include developmentally inappropriate sexual experiences without threatened or actual violence or injury.  Witnessed events include, but are not limited to, observing the serious injury or unnatural death of another person due to violent assault, accident, war, or disaster or unexpectedly witnessing a dead body or body parts.  Events experienced by others that are learned about include, but are not limited to, violent personal assault, serious accident, or serious injury experienced y a family member or a close friend; learning about the sudden, unexpected death of a family member or a close friend; or learning that one's child has a life threatening disease.  The disorder may be especially sever or long lasting when the stressor is of human design (e.g., torture, rape). the likelihood of developing this disorder may increase as the intensity of and physical proximity to the stressor increase.

The traumatic event can be reexperienced in various ways.  Commonly the person has recurrent and intrusive recollections of the event (Criterion B1) or recurrent distressing dreams during which the event can be replayed or otherwise represented (Criterion B2). In rare instances, the person experiences dissociative states that last from a few seconds to several hours, or even days, during which components of the event are relived and the person behaves as though experiencing the event at that moment (Criterion B3).  These episodes, often referred to as "flashbacks," are typically brief but can be associated with prolonged distress and heightened arousal.  Intense psychological distress (Criterion B4) or physiological reactivity (Criterion B5) often occurs when the person is exposed to triggering events that resemble or symbolize an aspect of the traumatic event (e.g., anniversaries of the traumatic event; cold, snowy weather or uniformed guards for survivors of death camps in cold climates; hot, humid weather for combat veterans of the South Pacific; entering any elevator for an woman who was reaped in an elevator).

Stimuli associated with the trauma are persistently avoided.  The person commonly makes deliberate efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations about the traumatic event (Criterion C1) and to avoid activities, situations, or people who around recollections of it (Criterion C2).  This avoidance of reminders may include amnesia for an important aspect of the traumatic event (Criterion C3).  Diminished responsiveness to the external work, referred to as "psychic numbing" or "emotional anesthesia," usually begins soon after the traumatic event.  The individual may complain of having markedly diminished interest or participation in previously enjoyed activities (Criterion C4), of feeling detached or estranged from other people (Criterion C5), or of having markedly reduced ability to feel emotions (especially those associated with intimacy, tenderness and sexuality) (Criterion C6).  The individual may have a sense of a foreshortened future (e.g., not expecting to have a career, marriage, children, or a normal life span) (Criterion C7).

The individual has persistent symptoms of anxiety or increased arousal that were not present before the trauma.  these symptoms may include difficulty falling or staying asleep that may be to recurrent nightmares during which the traumatic event is relived (Criterion D1), hypervigilance (Criterion D4), and exaggerated startle response (Criterion D5).  Some individuals report irritability or outburst of anger (Criterion D2) or difficulty concentrating or completing tasks (Criterion D3)."

 

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

"The essential feature of Dissociative identity Disorder is the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states (Criterion A) that recurrently take control of behavior (Criterion B).  There is an inability to recall important personal information, the extent of which is too great to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness (Criterion C).  The disturbance is not due tot eh direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition (Condition D.).  In children, the symptoms cannot be attributed to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play.

Dissociative Identity Disorder reflects a failure to integrate various aspects of identity, memory, and consciousness.  Each personality state may be experienced as if it has a distinct personal history, self-image, and identity, including a separate name.  Usually there is a primary identity that carries the individual's given name and is passive, dependent, guilty, and depressed.  The alternate identities frequently have different names and characteristics that contrast with the primary identity (e.g., are hostile, controlling, and self-destructive).  Particular identities may emerge in specific circumstances and may differ in reported age and gender, vocabulary, general knowledge, or predominant affect.  Alternate identities are experienced as taking control in sequence, ore at the expense of the other, and may deny knowledge of one another, be critical of one another, or appear to be in open conflict.  Occasionally, one or more powerful identities allocate time to the others.  Aggressive or hostile identities may at times interrupt activities or place the others in uncomfortable situations.

Individuals with this disorder experience frequent gaps in memory for personal history, both remote and recent.  The amnesia is frequently asymmetrical.  The more passive identities tend to have more constricted memories, whereas the more hostile, controlling, or "protector" identities have more complete memories.  An identity that is not in control may nonetheless gain access to consciousness by producing auditory or visual hallucinations (e.g., a voice giving instructions).  Evidence of amnesia may be uncovered by reports from others who have witnessed behavior that is disavowed by the individual or by the individual's own discoveries (e.g., finding items of clothing at home that the individual cannot remember having bought).  There may be loss of memory not only for recurrent periods of time, but also an overall loss of biographical memory for some extended period of childhood, adolescence, or even adulthood.  Transitions among identities are often triggered by psychosocial stress.  The time required to switch from one identity to another is usually a matter of seconds, but, less frequently, may b gradual.  Behavior that may be frequently associated with identity switches include rapid blinking, facial changes, changes in voice or demeanor, or disruption in the individual's train of thoughts.  The number of identities reported ranges from 2 to more than 100.  Half of reported cases include the individuals with 10 or fewer identities."

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 2000.  4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

EMDR

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing

"Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)1 integrates elements of many effective psychotherapies in structured protocols that are designed to maximize treatment effects. These include psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, interpersonal, experiential, and body-centered therapies2. EMDR is an information processing therapy and uses an eight phase approach.

During EMDR1 the client attends to past and present experiences in brief sequential doses while simultaneously focusing on an external stimulus. Then the client is instructed to let new material become the focus of the next set of dual attention. This sequence of dual attention and personal association is repeated many times in the session.

Eight Phases of Treatment

The first phase is a history taking session during which the therapist assesses the client's readiness for EMDR and develops a treatment plan. Client and therapist identify possible targets for EMDR processing. These include recent distressing events, current situations that elicit emotional disturbance, related historical incidents, and the development of specific skills and behaviors that will be needed by the client in future situations.

During the second phase of treatment, the therapist ensures that the client has adequate methods of handling emotional distress and good coping skills, and that the client is in a relatively stable state. If further stabilization is required, or if additional skills are needed, therapy focuses on providing these. The client is then able to use stress reducing techniques whenever necessary, during or between sessions. However, one goal is not to need these techniques once therapy is complete.

In phase three through six, a target is identified and processed using EMDR procedures. These involve the client identifying the most vivid visual image related to the memory (if available), a negative belief about self, related emotions and body sensations. The client also identifies a preferred positive belief. The validity of the positive belief is rated, as is the intensity of the negative emotions.

After this, the client is instructed to focus on the image, negative thought, and body sensations while simultaneously moving his/her eyes back and forth following the therapist's fingers as they move across his/her field of vision for 20-30 seconds or more, depending upon the need of the client. Athough eye movements are the most commonly used external stimulus, therapists often use auditory tones, tapping, or other types of tactile stimulation. The kind of dual attention and the length of each set is customized to the need of the client. The client is instructed to just notice whatever happens. After this, the clinician instructs the client to let his/her mind go blank and to notice whatever thought, feeling, image, memory, or sensation comes to mind. Depending upon the client's report the clinician will facilitate the next focus of attention. In most cases a client-directed association process is encouraged. This is repeated numerous times throughout the session. If the client becomes distressed or has difficulty with the process, the therapist follows established procedures to help the client resume processing. When the client reports no distress related to the targeted memory, the clinician asks him/her to think of the preferred positive belief that was identified at the beginning of the session, or a better one if it has emerged, and to focus on the incident, while simultaneously engaging in the eye movements. After several sets, clients generally report increased confidence in this positive belief. The therapist checks with the client regarding body sensations. If there are negative sensations, these are processed as above. If there are positive sensations, they are further enhanced.

In phase seven, closure, the therapist asks the client to keep a journal during the week to document any related material that may arise and reminds the client of the self-calming activities that were mastered in phase two.

The next session begins with phase eight, re-evaluation of the previous work, and of progress since the previous session. EMDR treatment ensures processing of all related historical events, current incidents that elicit distress, and future scenarios that will require different responses. The overall goal is produce the most comprehensive and profound treatment effects in the shortest period of time, while simultaneously maintaining a stable client within a balanced system.

After EMDR processing, clients generally report that the emotional distress related to the memory has been eliminated, or greatly decreased, and that they have gained important cognitive insights. Importantly, these emotional and cognitive changes usually result in spontaneous behavioral and personal change, which are further enhanced with standard EMDR procedures." www.emdr.com

__________________

Major Depressive Disorder

Diagnostic Features

The essential feature of Major Depressive Disorder is a clinical course that is characterized by one or more Major Depressive Episodes without a history of Manic, Mixed, or Hypomanic Episodes (Criteria A and C).  Episodes of Substance-Induced Mood Disorder (due to the direct physiological effects of a drug of abuse, a medication, or toxin exposure) or of Mood Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition do not count toward a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder.  In addition, the episodes must not be better accounted for by Schizoaffective Disorder and are not superimposed on Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform Disorder, Delusional Disorder, or Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (Criterion B).

            The fourth digit in the diagnostic code for Major Depressive Disorder indicates whether it is a Single Episode (used only for first episodes) or Recurrent.  It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between a single episode with waxing and waning symptoms and two separate episodes.  For purposes of this manual, an episode is considered to have ended when the full criteria for eh Major Depressive Episode have not been met for at least 2 consecutive months.  During this 2-month period, there is either complete resolution of symptoms or the presence of depressive symptoms that no longer meet the full criteria for a Major Depressive Episode (In Partial Remission).

            The fifth digit in the diagnostic code for Major Depressive Disorder indicates the current state of the disturbance.  If the criteria for a Major Depressive Disorder are met, the severity of the episode is notes as Mild, Moderate, Severe Without Psychotic Features, or Severe With Psychotic Features.  If the criteria for a Major Depressive Episode are not currently met, the fifth digit is used to indicate whether the disorder is In Partial Remission or In Full Remission.

            If Manic, Mixed, or Hypomanic Episodes develop in the course of Major Depressive Disorder, the diagnosis is changed to a Bipolar Disorder.  However, if manic or hypomanic symptoms occur as a direct effect of antidepressant treatment, use of other medications, substance use, or toxin exposure, the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder remains appropriate and an addition diagnosis of Substance-induced Mood Disorder, With Manic features (or With Mixed Features), should be noted.  Similarly, if manic or hypomanic symptoms occur as a direct effect of a general medical condition, the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder remains appropriate and an additional diagnosis of Mood Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition, With Manic Features (or With Mixed Features), should be noted.” p. 369

Course

Major Depressive Disorder may begin at any age, with an average age at onset in the mid-20s.  Epidemiological data suggest that the age at onset is decreasing for those born more recently.  The course of Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, is variable.  Some people have isolated episodes that are separated by many years without any depressive symptoms, whereas others have clusters of episodes, and still others have increasingly frequent episodes as they grow older.  Some evidence suggests that the periods of remission generally last longer early in the course of the disorder.  The number of prior episodes predicts the likelihood of developing a subsequent Major Depressive Episode.  At least 60% of individuals with Major Depresssive Disorder, Single Episode, can be expected to have a second episode.  Individuals who have had tow episodes have a 70% chance of having a third, and individuals who have had three episodes have a 90% chance  of having a fourth.  About 5%-10% of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder, single Episode, subsequently develop a Manic Episode (i.e., develop Bipolar I Disorder).

            Major Depressive Episodes may end completely (in about two-thirds of cases), or only partially or not at all (in about one-third of cases).  For individuals who have only partial remission, there is a greater likelihood of developing additional episodes and of continuing the pattern of partial interepisode recovery.  The longitudinal course specifiers With Full Interepisode Recovery and Without Full Interepisode Recovery may therefore have prognostic value.  A number of individuals have pre-existing Dysthymic Disorder prior to the onset of Major Depressive Disorder, single Episode.  Some evidence suggests that these individuals are more likely to have additional Major Depressive Episodes, have poorer interepisode recovery, and may require additional acute-phase treatment and a longer period of continuing treatment to attain and maintain a more thorough and longer-lasting euthymic state.

            Follow-up naturalistic studies suggested that 1 year after the diagnosis of a major Depressive Episode, 40% of individuals still have symptoms that are sufficiently severe to meet criteria for a full Major Depressive Episode, roughly 20% continue to have some symptoms that no longer meet full criteria for a Major Depressive Episode (i.e., major Depressive Disorder, In Partial Remission), and 40% have no Mood Disorder.  The severity of the initial Major Depressive Episode appears to predict persistence.  Chronic general medical conditions are also a risk factor for more persistent episodes.

            Episodes of Major Depressive Disorder often follow a severe psychosocial stressor, such as the death of a loved one or divorce.  Studies suggest that psychosocial events 9stressors) may play a more significant role in the precipitation of the first or second episodes of Major Depressive Disorder and may play less of a role in the onset of subsequent episodes.  Chronic general medical conditions and Substance Dependence (particularly Alcohol or Cocaine Dependence) may contribute to the onset or exacerbation of Major Depressive Disorder.

            It is difficult to predict whether the first episode of a Major Depressive Disorder in a young person will ultimately evolve into a Bipolar Disorder.  Some data suggest that the acute onset of severe depression, especially with psychotic features and psychomotor retardation, in a young person without prepubertal psychopathology is more likely to predict a bipolar disorder.  A family history of Bipolar Disorder may also be suggestive of subsequent development of Bipolar Disorder.” p. 372-373

 

Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 2000. 4th ed.  Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

 

________________

Major Depressive Disorder

 “Diagnostic Features

The essential feature of Major Depressive Disorder is a clinical course that is characterized by one or more Major Depressive Episodes without a history of Manic, Mixed, or Hypomanic Episodes (Criteria A and C).  Episodes of Substance-Induced Mood Disorder (due to the direct physiological effects of a drug of abuse, a medication, or toxin exposure) or of Mood Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition do not count toward a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder.  In addition, the episodes must not be better accounted for by Schizoaffective Disorder and are not superimposed on Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform Disorder, Delusional Disorder, or Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (Criterion B).

            The fourth digit in the diagnostic code for Major Depressive Disorder indicates whether it is a Single Episode (used only for first episodes) or Recurrent.  It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between a single episode with waxing and waning symptoms and two separate episodes.  For purposes of this manual, an episode is considered to have ended when the full criteria for eh Major Depressive Episode have not been met for at least 2 consecutive months.  During this 2-month period, there is either complete resolution of symptoms or the presence of depressive symptoms that no longer meet the full criteria for a Major Depressive Episode (In Partial Remission).

            The fifth digit in the diagnostic code for Major Depressive Disorder indicates the current state of the disturbance.  If the criteria for a Major Depressive Disorder are met, the severity of the episode is notes as Mild, Moderate, Severe Without Psychotic Features, or Severe With Psychotic Features.  If the criteria for a Major Depressive Episode are not currently met, the fifth digit is used to indicate whether the disorder is In Partial Remission or In Full Remission.

            If Manic, Mixed, or Hypomanic Episodes develop in the course of Major Depressive Disorder, the diagnosis is changed to a Bipolar Disorder.  However, if manic or hypomanic symptoms occur as a direct effect of antidepressant treatment, use of other medications, substance use, or toxin exposure, the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder remains appropriate and an addition diagnosis of Substance-induced Mood Disorder, With Manic features (or With Mixed Features), should be noted.  Similarly, if manic or hypomanic symptoms occur as a direct effect of a general medical condition, the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder remains appropriate and an additional diagnosis of Mood Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition, With Manic Features (or With Mixed Features), should be noted.” p. 369

 “Course

Major Depressive Disorder may begin at any age, with an average age at onset in the mid-20s.  Epidemiological data suggest that the age at onset is decreasing for those born more recently.  The course of Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, is variable.  Some people have isolated episodes that are separated by many years without any depressive symptoms, whereas others have clusters of episodes, and still others have increasingly frequent episodes as they grow older.  Some evidence suggests that the periods of remission generally last longer early in the course of the disorder.  The number of prior episodes predicts the likelihood of developing a subsequent Major Depressive Episode.  At least 60% of individuals with Major Depresssive Disorder, Single Episode, can be expected to have a second episode.  Individuals who have had tow episodes have a 70% chance of having a third, and individuals who have had three episodes have a 90% chance  of having a fourth.  About 5%-10% of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder, single Episode, subsequently develop a Manic Episode (i.e., develop Bipolar I Disorder).

            Major Depressive Episodes may end completely (in about two-thirds of cases), or only partially or not at all (in about one-third of cases).  For individuals who have only partial remission, there is a greater likelihood of developing additional episodes and of continuing the pattern of partial interepisode recovery.  The longitudinal course specifiers With Full Interepisode Recovery and Without Full Interepisode Recovery may therefore have prognostic value.  A number of individuals have pre-existing Dysthymic Disorder prior to the onset of Major Depressive Disorder, single Episode.  Some evidence suggests that these individuals are more likely to have additional Major Depressive Episodes, have poorer interepisode recovery, and may require additional acute-phase treatment and a longer period of continuing treatment to attain and maintain a more thorough and longer-lasting euthymic state.

            Follow-up naturalistic studies suggested that 1 year after the diagnosis of a major Depressive Episode, 40% of individuals still have symptoms that are sufficiently severe to meet criteria for a full Major Depressive Episode, roughly 20% continue to have some symptoms that no longer meet full criteria for a Major Depressive Episode (i.e., major Depressive Disorder, In Partial Remission), and 40% have no Mood Disorder.  The severity of the initial Major Depressive Episode appears to predict persistence.  Chronic general medical conditions are also a risk factor for more persistent episodes.

            Episodes of Major Depressive Disorder often follow a severe psychosocial stressor, such as the death of a loved one or divorce.  Studies suggest that psychosocial events 9stressors) may play a more significant role in the precipitation of the first or second episodes of Major Depressive Disorder and may play less of a role in the onset of subsequent episodes.  Chronic general medical conditions and Substance Dependence (particularly Alcohol or Cocaine Dependence) may contribute to the onset or exacerbation of Major Depressive Disorder.

            It is difficult to predict whether the first episode of a Major Depressive Disorder in a young person will ultimately evolve into a Bipolar Disorder.  Some data suggest that the acute onset of severe depression, especially with psychotic features and psychomotor retardation, in a young person without prepubertal psychopathology is more likely to predict a bipolar disorder.  A family history of Bipolar Disorder may also be suggestive of subsequent development of Bipolar Disorder.” p. 372-373

 Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 2000. 4th ed.  Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

________________

DID-PTSD-EMDR

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

"The essential feature of Dissociative identity Disorder is the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states (Criterion A) that recurrently take control of behavior (Criterion B).  There is an inability to recall important personal information, the extent of which is too great to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness (Criterion C).  The disturbance is not due tot eh direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition (Condition D.).  In children, the symptoms cannot be attributed to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play.

Dissociative Identity Disorder reflects a failure to integrate various aspects of identity, memory, and consciousness.  Each personality state may be experienced as if it has a distinct personal history, self-image, and identity, including a separate name.  Usually there is a primary identity that carries the individual's given name and is passive, dependent, guilty, and depressed.  The alternate identities frequently have different names and characteristics that contrast with the primary identity (e.g., are hostile, controlling, and self-destructive).  Particular identities may emerge in specific circumstances and may differ in reported age and gender, vocabulary, general knowledge, or predominant affect.  Alternate identities are experienced as taking control in sequence, ore at the expense of the other, and may deny knowledge of one another, be critical of one another, or appear to be in open conflict.  Occasionally, one or more powerful identities allocate time to the others.  Aggressive or hostile identities may at times interrupt activities or place the others in uncomfortable situations.

Individuals with this disorder experience frequent gaps in memory for personal history, both remote and recent.  The amnesia is frequently asymmetrical.  The more passive identities tend to have more constricted memories, whereas the more hostile, controlling, or "protector" identities have more complete memories.  An identity that is not in control may nonetheless gain access to consciousness by producing auditory or visual hallucinations (e.g., a voice giving instructions).  Evidence of amnesia may be uncovered by reports from others who have witnessed behavior that is disavowed by the individual or by the individual's own discoveries (e.g., finding items of clothing at home that the individual cannot remember having bought).  There may be loss of memory not only for recurrent periods of time, but also an overall loss of biographical memory for some extended period of childhood, adolescence, or even adulthood.  Transitions among identities are often triggered by psychosocial stress.  The time required to switch from one identity to another is usually a matter of seconds, but, less frequently, may b gradual.  Behavior that may be frequently associated with identity switches include rapid blinking, facial changes, changes in voice or demeanor, or disruption in the individual's train of thoughts.  The number of identities reported ranges from 2 to more than 100.  Half of reported cases include the individuals with 10 or fewer identities."

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 2000.  4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

PTSD, DID, and EMDR

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

"The essential feature of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder us the development of characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor involving direct personal experience of an event that involves actual or threatened death or serious injury, or other threat to one's physical integrity; or witnessing an event that involves death, injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of another person; or learning about unexpected or violent death, serious harm, or threat of death or injury experienced by a family member or other close associate (Criteria A1).  The person's response to the event must involve intense fear, helplessness, or horror (or in children, the response must involve disorganized or agitated behavior) (Criterion A2).  The characteristic symptoms resulting from the exposure to the extreme trauma include persistent reexperiencing of the traumatic event (Criterion E), and the disturbance must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criterion F).

Traumatic events that are experienced directly include, but are not limited to, military combat, violent personal assault (sexual assault, physical attack, robbery, mugging), being kidnapped, being taken hostage, terrorist attack, torture, incarceration as a prisoner of war or in a concentration camp, natural or manmade disasters, severe automobile accidents, or being diagnosed with a life-threatening illness.  For children, sexually traumatic events may include developmentally inappropriate sexual experiences without threatened or actual violence or injury.  Witnessed events include, but are not limited to, observing the serious injury or unnatural death of another person due to violent assault, accident, war, or disaster or unexpectedly witnessing a dead body or body parts.  Events experienced by others that are learned about include, but are not limited to, violent personal assault, serious accident, or serious injury experienced y a family member or a close friend; learning about the sudden, unexpected death of a family member or a close friend; or learning that one's child has a life threatening disease.  The disorder may be especially sever or long lasting when the stressor is of human design (e.g., torture, rape). the likelihood of developing this disorder may increase as the intensity of and physical proximity to the stressor increase.

The traumatic event can be reexperienced in various ways.  Commonly the person has recurrent and intrusive recollections of the event (Criterion B1) or recurrent distressing dreams during which the event can be replayed or otherwise represented (Criterion B2). In rare instances, the person experiences dissociative states that last from a few seconds to several hours, or even days, during which components of the event are relived and the person behaves as though experiencing the event at that moment (Criterion B3).  These episodes, often referred to as "flashbacks," are typically brief but can be associated with prolonged distress and heightened arousal.  Intense psychological distress (Criterion B4) or physiological reactivity (Criterion B5) often occurs when the person is exposed to triggering events that resemble or symbolize an aspect of the traumatic event (e.g., anniversaries of the traumatic event; cold, snowy weather or uniformed guards for survivors of death camps in cold climates; hot, humid weather for combat veterans of the South Pacific; entering any elevator for an woman who was reaped in an elevator).

Stimuli associated with the trauma are persistently avoided.  The person commonly makes deliberate efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations about the traumatic event (Criterion C1) and to avoid activities, situations, or people who around recollections of it (Criterion C2).  This avoidance of reminders may include amnesia for an important aspect of the traumatic event (Criterion C3).  Diminished responsiveness to the external work, referred to as "psychic numbing" or "emotional anesthesia," usually begins soon after the traumatic event.  The individual may complain of having markedly diminished interest or participation in previously enjoyed activities (Criterion C4), of feeling detached or estranged from other people (Criterion C5), or of having markedly reduced ability to feel emotions (especially those associated with intimacy, tenderness and sexuality) (Criterion C6).  The individual may have a sense of a foreshortened future (e.g., not expecting to have a career, marriage, children, or a normal life span) (Criterion C7).

The individual has persistent symptoms of anxiety or increased arousal that were not present before the trauma.  these symptoms may include difficulty falling or staying asleep that may be to recurrent nightmares during which the traumatic event is relived (Criterion D1), hypervigilance (Criterion D4), and exaggerated startle response (Criterion D5).  Some individuals report irritability or outburst of anger (Criterion D2) or difficulty concentrating or completing tasks (Criterion D3)."

 

EMDR

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing

"Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)1 integrates elements of many effective psychotherapies in structured protocols that are designed to maximize treatment effects. These include psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, interpersonal, experiential, and body-centered therapies2. EMDR is an information processing therapy and uses an eight phase approach.

During EMDR1 the client attends to past and present experiences in brief sequential doses while simultaneously focusing on an external stimulus. Then the client is instructed to let new material become the focus of the next set of dual attention. This sequence of dual attention and personal association is repeated many times in the session.

Eight Phases of Treatment

The first phase is a history taking session during which the therapist assesses the client's readiness for EMDR and develops a treatment plan. Client and therapist identify possible targets for EMDR processing. These include recent distressing events, current situations that elicit emotional disturbance, related historical incidents, and the development of specific skills and behaviors that will be needed by the client in future situations.

During the second phase of treatment, the therapist ensures that the client has adequate methods of handling emotional distress and good coping skills, and that the client is in a relatively stable state. If further stabilization is required, or if additional skills are needed, therapy focuses on providing these. The client is then able to use stress reducing techniques whenever necessary, during or between sessions. However, one goal is not to need these techniques once therapy is complete.

In phase three through six, a target is identified and processed using EMDR procedures. These involve the client identifying the most vivid visual image related to the memory (if available), a negative belief about self, related emotions and body sensations. The client also identifies a preferred positive belief. The validity of the positive belief is rated, as is the intensity of the negative emotions.

After this, the client is instructed to focus on the image, negative thought, and body sensations while simultaneously moving his/her eyes back and forth following the therapist's fingers as they move across his/her field of vision for 20-30 seconds or more, depending upon the need of the client. Athough eye movements are the most commonly used external stimulus, therapists often use auditory tones, tapping, or other types of tactile stimulation. The kind of dual attention and the length of each set is customized to the need of the client. The client is instructed to just notice whatever happens. After this, the clinician instructs the client to let his/her mind go blank and to notice whatever thought, feeling, image, memory, or sensation comes to mind. Depending upon the client's report the clinician will facilitate the next focus of attention. In most cases a client-directed association process is encouraged. This is repeated numerous times throughout the session. If the client becomes distressed or has difficulty with the process, the therapist follows established procedures to help the client resume processing. When the client reports no distress related to the targeted memory, the clinician asks him/her to think of the preferred positive belief that was identified at the beginning of the session, or a better one if it has emerged, and to focus on the incident, while simultaneously engaging in the eye movements. After several sets, clients generally report increased confidence in this positive belief. The therapist checks with the client regarding body sensations. If there are negative sensations, these are processed as above. If there are positive sensations, they are further enhanced.

In phase seven, closure, the therapist asks the client to keep a journal during the week to document any related material that may arise and reminds the client of the self-calming activities that were mastered in phase two.

The next session begins with phase eight, re-evaluation of the previous work, and of progress since the previous session. EMDR treatment ensures processing of all related historical events, current incidents that elicit distress, and future scenarios that will require different responses. The overall goal is produce the most comprehensive and profound treatment effects in the shortest period of time, while simultaneously maintaining a stable client within a balanced system.

After EMDR processing, clients generally report that the emotional distress related to the memory has been eliminated, or greatly decreased, and that they have gained important cognitive insights. Importantly, these emotional and cognitive changes usually result in spontaneous behavioral and personal change, which are further enhanced with standard EMDR procedures." www.emdr.com

 1Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: Basic Principles, Protocols and Procedures (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

2Shapiro, F. (2002). EMDR as an Integrative Psychotherapy Approach: Experts of Diverse Orientations Explore the Paradigm Prism. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Books.

 

 

 

 

NeuroBiology of Trauma

 

Attachment and Relational Trauma

Record: 1

Title:

Book Reviews: Healing Trauma: Attachment, Mind, Body and Brain.

Author(s):

Chefetz, Richard

Source:

American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis,

Vol 47(4), Apr 2005. pp. 265-267.

Publisher:

US: American Society of Clinical Hypnosis

Reviewed Item:

Marion Solomon & Daniel J. Siegel (Eds.) (2003). Healing Trauma: Attachment, Mind, Body and Brain; New York: W.W. Norton

Abstract:

Review of the book, "Healing Trauma: Attachment, Mind, Body and Brain (2003) edited by Marion Solomon and Daniel J. Siegel. Healing Trauma offers pertinent contributions from some of the leading thinkers of our time: Daniel Siegel, Erik Hesse, Mary Main, Allan Schore, Bessel van der Kolk, Francine Shapiro, Diana Fosha, Robert Neborsky, Marion Solomon, and additional colleagues. The authors focus on topics related to interpersonal neurobiology, disorganized attachment, and early relational trauma as a predisposition to violence; PTSD, EMDR, dyadic therapeutic relationships and comprehensive treatment that focuses on intense affects; and the lasting effects of infant attachment styles on adult intimate relationships. Each chapter is carefully written. Healing Trauma is a must read as both an introduction to the field of traumatology for new clinicians and an in depth review for established ones. If you want a book that brings you a series of first class thinkers, without having to buy several other books, this is a good one. If you teach, and need papers to focus your students, this is also a good place to pull chapters.


 

Title:

Affect Dysregulation and Disorder of the Self.

Author(s):

Neal, A. Rebecca, Infant Development Center, Brown Medical School, Providence, RI, US

Source:

Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, Vol 25(4), Aug 2004. pp. 295-296.

Publisher:

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Reviewed Item:

Allan N. Schore (2003). Affect Dysregulation and Disorder of the Self; New York, NY, W.W. Norton and Company, 2003, 306 pp., $45.00.

Abstract:

Reviews the book "Affect Dysregulation and Disorder of the Self" by Allan N. Schore (200300021-000). Self-regulation has been identified as a critical domain of development in infancy and early childhood. Even so, self-regulation has been broadly and multiply defined across disciplines. The author acknowledges this diversity and then focuses his exploration of self-regulation on the examination of the "convergence of psychology and neuroscience." The book is divided into two sections. The first section clearly defines the author's experience-expectant model of brain development, as it relates to self-regulation. In this section, the author emphasizes understanding these mechanisms in the context of typical development. In the second section, the author changes his focus to understanding these mechanisms in the context of atypical development. This section begins with an examination of the interaction between attachment relationships and relational trauma on (1) the development of neurobiological systems, (2) affect regulation, and (3) infant mental health. In sum, the author presents a wealth of information on theory and empirical findings associated with the development of self-regulation in infancy and early childhood, with an emphasis on the role of attachment.


 

Title:

Commentary.

Author(s):

Schore, Allan N., University of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, US, anshore@aol.com

Address:

Schore, Allan N., University of California School of Medicine, 9817 Sylvia Avenue, Northridge, Los Angeles, CA, US, anshore@aol.com

Source:

South African Psychiatry Review, Vol 7(3), Aug 2004. pp. 16-17.

Publisher:

South Africa: In House Publications

Abstract:

Comments on an article by Annie Panger and Margaretha Viljoen (see record 2004-18832-004). This article offers a cogent overview of recent models of the etiology of pathological dissociation. This interdisciplinary information is drawn from the fields of developmental psychology, developmental neuroscience, and infant psychiatry. In this integration, recent data on the mechanisms that underlie the attachment bond of emotional communications between the mother and infant have been integrated with current studies on the developmental neurobiology of attachment. In a number of contributions I have offered interdisciplinary evidence which suggests that severe relational trauma, especially neglect and/or abuse, alters the development of specifically the right brain, the biological substrate of the human unconscious. In my work I suggest that attachment trauma embedded in a growth-inhibiting interpersonal environment induces a developmental failure of the experience-dependent maturation of the right-lateralized emotional brain. The authors appropriately conclude their incisive article with thoughts about the application of this developmental psychoneurobiological knowledge to the psychotherapy of severe psychopathologies. Their contribution has direct implications for not only intervention but also for models of early prevention.


 

Title:

Disorders of Attachment in Adopted and Fostered Children: Recognition and Treatment.

Author(s):

Howe, David, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom, d.howe@uea.ac.uk
Fearnley, Sheila, Keys Attachment Centre, Rossendale, United Kingdom

Address:

Howe, David, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies, University of East Anglia, Elizabeth Fry Building, Norwich, United Kingdom, NR4 7TJ, d.howe@uea.ac.uk

Source:

Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol 8(3), Jul 2003. Special issue: ADOPTION AND FOSTERING. pp. 369-387.

Publisher:

Germany: Springer

Abstract:

This article briefly reviews a small number of outcome studies for adopted and fostered children, concentrating particularly on the progress of older-placed children. A transactional model of children's development is introduced to explain the different pathways taken by children post placement. In this model transactions occur between children and their social environment which co-determine their developmental progress. The model is applied to children placed for adoption and foster care who have had a pre-placement history of abuse, neglect or rejection. Many of these children are also diagnosed as suffering a disorder of attachment. These disorders are the result of early relational trauma experienced in the context of an attachment relationship. The disturbed behaviours of many of these children place great demands on the parenting capacities of adoptive parents and foster carers. The therapeutic work of the Keys Attachment Centre, which specializes in treating children with disorders of attachment, is outlined. A case example is given illustrating the types of behaviour associated with attachment-disordered children and the kinds of intervention developed by therapists specializing in this field.


 

Title:

Malattachment and the self-struggle: Separation, survival and healing.

Author(s):

Axness, Marcy Wineman, Union Inst And U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 64(4-B), 2003. pp. 1932.

Publisher:

US: Univ Microfilms International

Abstract:

Through a novel and coordinated contextual essays I develop the concepts of the relational trauma of malattachment; the resultant self-struggle that manifests in defensive personality styles (such as narcissistic and borderline); and trace their dual connection to depression. Together these three processes comprise a suite of adaptive survival strategies, the continuum of which can begin far earlier than conventionally acknowledged, the cost of which is an authentic, vital life. Research on the neurobiology of attachment confirms that even subtle derangements in interactive attachment processes, when chronic, thwart socio-emotional development. Such malattachment can begin in the womb. The special nature of prenatal trauma is that it occurs prior to the development of normal ego defense processes, and thus the premature ego differentiation seen to result from malattachment carries particularly deep existential and developmental implications when experienced prenatally. Whether in the womb or the nursery, malattachment results in a fundamental orientation of fear and protection, pervading the entire arc of neuro-emotional-physiological development, and onward into adult relational patterns such as defensive marital constellations. This adaptive framework brings a measure of clarity and simplification to the ambiguities inherent in the descriptive/diagnostic literature on personality "disorders." Applying an adaptive lens may be more illuminating than focusing solely upon the manifestations (and the label) of a particular defensive personality style; additionally, it more elegantly allows for the virtually infinite number of possible permutations of personality styles, corresponding to the myriad ways in which parents can chronically thwart the interpersonal needs of their children-malattachment particularities that determine the unique constellation of "missing relational experience" that becomes woven into the personality style. Indeed, woven firmly. While defensive personality and physiology reflects a deep, organismic drive to adapt, both processes are subject to maladaptive entrenchment (i.e., pathology) when optimal-or even passable-early conditions of developmental support are missing. Finally, highlighted is the organismic drive toward wholeness; once developmental supports are present, and if one is willing to brave the process of mourning for what one has missed, it is possible, through myriad healing approaches, to discover a newly-liberated sense of a vital, authentic self.


 

Title:

Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self.

Author(s):

Schore, Allan N., U California at Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, US

Source:

New York, NY, US: W. W. Norton & Co, Inc, 2003. xvii, 403 pp.

Abstract:

(from the jacket) This is the first volume in Schore's comprehensive treatment of affect, regulation, and human development. In Part I, Schore updates attachment theory by defining it as a regulation theory. He details the positive impact of early affective communications on the organization of a control system in the infant's development right brain. Because the right hemisphere is dominant for the processing of social, emotional, and bodily information, the relationally-influenced development and organization of this hemisphere has profound effects on a person's capacity for empathy, attention, and coping with stress. Schore presents a compelling biopsychosocial model of the relations between dynamic organizations of the right brain and essential adaptive human functions. The second part of this volume focuses on abnormal development and describes the negative impact of relational trauma on right brain development. Schore models both the origins of affect dysregulation that characterize various psychopathologies and the intergenerational transmission of a predisposition to personality disorders. Schore suggests that the nonverbal right hemisphere is dominant in basic human adaptive functions, and that impaired right brain functions lie at the core of all psychopathologies.


 

Title:

Dysregulation of the right brain: a fundamental mechanism of traumatic attachment and the psychopathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s):

Schore, Allan N., U California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, Northridge, CA, US, anschore@aol.com

Address:

Schore, Allan N., U California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, 9817 Sylvia Ave, Northridge, CA, US, anschore@aol.com

Source:

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 36(1), Feb 2002. pp. 9-30.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

Abstract:

This review integrates recent advances in attachment theory, affective neuroscience, developmental stress research, and infant psychiatry in order to delineate the developmental precursors of posttraumatic stress disorder. Existing attachment, stress physiology, trauma, and neuroscience literatures were collected using Index Medicus/Medline and Psychological Abstracts. This converging interdisciplinary data was used as a theoretical base for modeling the effects of early relational trauma on the developing central and autonomic nervous system activities that drive attachment functions. It was found that current trends that integrate neuropsychiatry, infant psychiatry, and clinical psychiatry are generating more powerful models of the early genesis of a predisposition to psychiatric disorders, including PTSD. Data are presented which suggest that traumatic attachments, expressed in episodes of hyperarousal and dissociation, are imprinted into the developing limbic and autonomic nervous systems of the early maturing right brain. These enduring structural changes lead to the inefficient stress coping mechanisms that lie at the core of infant, child, and adult posttraumatic stress disorders.


 

Title:

The effects of early relational trauma on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health.

Author(s):

Schore, Allan N., U California-Los Angeles School of Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, Northridge, CA, US

Source:

Infant Mental Health Journal, Vol 22(1-2), Jan-Apr 2001. Special issue: Contributions from the decade of the brain to infant mental health. pp. 201-269.

Publisher:

US: John Wiley & Sons

Abstract:

A primary interest of the field of infant mental health is in the early conditions that place infants at risk for less than optimal development. The fundamental problem of what constitutes normal and abnormal development is now a focus of developmental psychology, infant psychiatry, and developmental neuroscience. In the 2nd part of this sequential work (see record 2001-16734-001 for the 1st part), the author presents interdisciplinary data to more deeply forge the theoretical links between severe attachment failures, impairments of the early development of the right brain's stress coping systems, and maladaptive infant mental health. He comments on topics such as the negative impact of traumatic attachments on brain development and infant mental health, the neurobiology of infant trauma, the neuropsychology of a disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern associated with abuse and neglect, the etiology of dissociation and body-mind psychopathology, the effects of early relational trauma on enduring right hemispheric function, and some implications for models of early intervention. These findings suggest direct connections between traumatic attachment, inefficient right brain regulatory functions, and both maladaptive infant and adult mental health.

 

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