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Circadian Rhythm and PTSD
Circadian Rhythm and Trauma
Circadian Rhythm DSMIV-R
Circadian Rhythm and REM Behavior and PTSD
Circadian Rhythm and REM Behavior Disorder
Circadian Rhythm and Sleepwalking

Psychological

and Physiological

Trauma Research

 

 

Seize Your Journeys

 

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Traumatic stress is found in many competent, healthy, strong, good people.  No one can completely protect themselves from traumatic experiences.  Many people have long-lasting problems following exposure to trauma.  Up to 8% of persons will have PTSD at some time in their lives. People who react to traumas are not going crazy.  What is happening to them is part of a set of common symptoms and problems that are connected with being in a traumatic situation, and thus, is a normal reaction to abnormal events and experiences.  Having symptoms after a traumatic event is NOT a sign of personal weakness.  Given exposure to a trauma that is bad enough, probably all people would develop PTSD.

By understanding trauma symptoms better, a person can become less fearful of them and better able to manage them. By recognizing the effects of trauma and knowing more about symptoms, a person will be better able to decide about getting treatment.

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FUNCTIONAL NEUROANATOMY

In order to best understand this atlas it is important to have a sense of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain. Over the next several pages there is a brief summary of the 5 major brain systems that relate to behavior, along with the general location seen on SPECT of these areas.


 

The Deep Limbic System


side active view


underside surface view


underside active view

Functions

  • sets the emotional tone of the mind

  • filters external events through internal states (emotional coloring)

  • tags events as internally important

  • stores highly charged emotional memories

  • modulates motivation

  • controls appetite and sleep cycles

  • promotes bonding

  • directly processes the sense of smell

  • modulates libido

Problems

  • moodiness, irritability, clinical depression

  • increased negative thinking

  • perceive events in a negative way

  • decreased motivation

  • flood of negative emotions

  • appetite and sleep problems

  • decreased or increased sexual responsiveness

  • social isolation

The Basal Ganglia System


left side active view


underside active view

Functions

  • integrates feeling and movement

  • shifts and smoothes fine motor behavior

  • suppression of unwanted motor behaviors

  • sets the body's idle or anxiety level

  • enhances motivation

  • pleasure/ecstasy

Problems

  • anxiety, nervousness

  • panic attacks

  • physical sensations of anxiety

  • tendency to predict the worst

  • conflict avoidance

  • Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome/tics

  • muscle tension, soreness

  • tremors

  • fine motor problems

  • headaches

  • low or excessive motivation

The Prefrontal Cortex


dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex
outside view


inferior orbital prefrontal cortex
outside view


side surface view
dorsal lateral prefrontal area


inferior orbital prefrontal area
inside view


underside surface view
inferior orbital prefrontal area


top-down surface view
dorsal lateral prefrontal area

Functions

  • attention span

  • perseverance

  • judgment

  • impulse control

  • organization

  • self-monitoring and supervision

  • problem solving

  • critical thinking

  • forward thinking

  • learning from experience

  • ability to feel and express emotions

  • influences the limbic system

  • empathy

Problems

  • short attention span

  • distractibility

  • lack of perseverance

  • impulse control problems

  • hyperactivity

  • chronic lateness, poor time management

  • disorganization

  • procrastination

  • unavailability of emotions

  • misperceptions

  • poor judgement

  • trouble learning from experience

  • short term memory problems

  • social and test anxiety

The Cingulate Gyrus


inside side view


side active view


active top-down view


active front-on view

  • allows shifting of attention

  • cognitive flexibility

  • adaptability

  • helps the mind move from idea to idea

  • gives the ability to see options

  • helps you go with the flow

  • cooperation

Problems

  • worrying

  • holds onto hurts from the past

  • stuck on thoughts (obsessions)

  • stuck on behaviors (compulsions)

  • oppositional behavior, argumentative

  • uncooperative, tendency to say no

  • addictive behaviors (alcohol or drug abuse, eating disorders, chronic pain)

  • cognitive inflexibility

  • obsessive compulsive disorder

  • OCD spectrum disorders

  • eating disorders, road rage

The Temporal Lobes


side view


side surface view


underside surface view


active side view

Functions

Dominant Side (usually the left)

  • understanding and processing language

  • intermediate term memory

  • long term memory

  • auditory learning

  • retrieval of words

  • complex memories

  • visual and auditory processing

  • emotional stability

Problems

Dominant Temporal Lobe

  • aggression, internally or externally driven

  • dark or violent thoughts

  • sensitivity to slights, mild paranoia

  • word finding problems

  • auditory processing problems

  • reading difficulties

  • emotional instability

Non-dominant Side (usually the right)

  • recognizing facial expression

  • decoding vocal intonation

  • rhythm

  • music

  • visual learning

  • difficulty recognizing facial expression

  • difficulty decoding vocal intonation

  • implicated in social skill struggles


Either/Both Temporal Lobe Problems

  • memory problems, amnesia

  • headaches or abdominal pain without a clear explanation

  • anxiety or fear for no particular reason

  • abnormal sensory perceptions, visual or auditory distortions

  • feelings of déjà vu or jamais vu

  • periods of spaciness or confusion

  • religious or moral preoccupation

  • hypergraphia, excessive writing

  • seizures

 

 

Secure Attachments as a Defense Against Trauma

 “All people mature and thrive in a social context that has profound effects on how they cope with life’s stresses.  Particularly early in life, the social context plays a critical role in fuffering an individual against stressful situations, and in building the psychological and biological capacities to deal with further stresses.  The primary function of parents can be thought of as helping children modulate their arousal by attuned and well-timed provision of playing, feeding, comforting, touching, looking, cleaning, and resting—in short, by teaching them skills that will gradually help them modulate their own arousal.  Secure attachment bonds serve as primary defenses against trauma-induced psychopathology in both children and adults (Finkelhor & Browne, 1984).  In children who have been exposed to severe stressors, the quality of the parental bond is probably the single most important determinant of long-term damage (McFarlane, 1988).”  van der Kolk, Bessel, Alexander C. McFarlane, and Lars Weisaeth, eds.  1996. Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society.  New York and London: Guilford Press. .p. 185

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Sleep Disorders

 

            “The sleep disorders are organized into four major sections according to presumed etiology.  Primary Sleep Disorders are those in which none of the etiologies listed below (i.e., another mental disorder, a general medical condition, or a substance) is responsible.  Primary Sleep Disorders are presumed to arise from endogenous abnormalities in sleep-wake generating or timing mechanisms, often complicated by conditioning factors.  Primary Sleep Disorders in turn are divided into Dyssomnias (characterized by abnormalities in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep) and Parasomnias (characterized by abnormal behavioral or physiological events occurring in association with sleep, specific sleep stages, or sleep-awake transitions).

            Sleep Disorder Related to Another Mental Disorder involves a prominent complaint of sleep disturbance that results from a diagnosable mental disorder (often a Mood Disorder or Anxiety Disorder) but that is sufficiently severe to warrant independent clinical attention.  Presumably, the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the mental disorder also affect sleep-awake regulation. 

            Sleep Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition involves a prominent complaint of sleep disturbance that results from the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition on the sleep-wake system.

            Substance-Induced Sleep Disorder involves prominent complaints of sleep disturbance that result from the concurrent use, or recent discontinuation of use, of a substance (including medications).

            That systematic assessment in individuals who present with prominent complaints of sleep disturbance includes an evaluation of the specific type of sleep complaint and a consideration of concurrent mental disorders, general medical conditions, and substance (including medication) use that may be responsible for the sleep disturbance.

            Five distinct sleep stages can be measured by polysomnography:  rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and four stages of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (stages 1, 2, 3, and 4).  Stage 1 NREM sleep is a transition from wakefulness to sleep and occupies about 5% of time spent asleep in healthy adults.  Stage 2 NREM sleep, which is characterized by specific EEG waveforms (sleep spindles and K complexes), occupies about 50% of time spent asleep.  Stages 3 and 4 NREM sleep (also known collectively as slow-wave sleep) are the deepest levels of sleep and occupy about 10%-20% of sleep time.  REM sleep, during which the majority of typical storylike dreams occur, occupies about 20%-25% of total sleep.

            These sleep stages have a characteristic temporal organization across the night.  NREM stages 3 and 4 tend to occur in the first one-third to one-half of the night and increase in duration in response to sleep deprivation.  REM sleep occurs cyclically throughout the night, alternating with NREM sleep about every 80-100 minutes.  REM sleep periods increase in duration toward the morning.  Human sleep also varies characteristically across the life span.  After relative stability with large amounts of slow-wave sleep in childhood and early adolescence, sleep continuity and depth deteriorate across the adult age range.  This deterioration is reflected by increased wakefulness and stage 1 sleep and decreased stages 3 and 4 sleep.  Because of this, age must be considered in the diagnosis of a Sleep Disorder in any individual.

            Polysomnography is the monitoring of multiple electrophysiological parameters during sleep and generally includes measurement of EEG activity, electroculographic activity, and electromyographic activity.  Additional polysomnographic measures may include oral or nasal airflow, respiratory effort, chest and abdominal wall movement, oxyhemoglobin saturation, or exhaled carbon dioxide concentration; these measures are used to monitor respiration during sleep and to detect the presence and severity of sleep apnea.  Measurement of peripheral electromyographic activity may be used to detect abnormal movements during sleep.  Most polysomnographic studies are conducted during the person’s usual sleeping hours—that is, at night.  However, daytime polysomnographic studies also are used to quantify daytime sleepiness.  The most common daytime procedure is the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), in which the individual is instructed to lie down in a dark room and not resist falling asleep; this protocol is repeated fives times during the day.  Sleep latency (the amount of time required to fall asleep) is measured on each trial and is used as an index of physiological sleepiness.  The converse of the MSLT is also used:  In the Repeated Test of Sustained Wakefulness (RTSW), the individual is placed in a quiet, dimly lit room and instructed to remain awake; this protocol is repeated several times during the day.  Again, sleep latency is measured, but is it used here as an index of the individual’s ability to maintain wakefulness.

            Standard terminology for polysomnographic measures is used throughout the test in this section.  Sleep continuity refers to the overall balance of sleep and wakefulness during a night of sleep.  “Better” sleep continuity indicates consolidated sleep and wakefulness; “worse” sleep continuity indicates disrupted sleep with more wakefulness.  Specific sleep continuity measures include sleep latency—the amount of time required to fall asleep (expressed in minutes); intermittent wakefulness—the amount of awake time after initial sleep onset (expressed in minutes); and sleep efficiency—the ratio of actual time spent asleep to time spent in bed (expressed as a percentage, with higher numbers indicating better sleep continuity).  Sleep architecture refers to the amount and distribution of specific sleep stages.  Sleep architecture measures include absolute amount of REM sleep and each NREM sleep stage (in minutes), relative amount of REM seep and NREM sleep stages (expressed as a percentage of total sleep time), and latency between sleep onset and the first REM period (REM latency).

            The text for each of the Sleep Disorders contains a section describing its relationship to corresponding disorders in The International Classification of Sleep Disorders:  (ICSD) diagnostic and Coding Manual, published in 1990 by the American Sleep Disorders Association.

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Substance Dependence

Features

The essential feature of Substance Dependence is a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues use of the substance despite significant substance-related problems.  There is a pattern of repeated self-administration that can result in tolerance, withdrawal, and compulsive drug-taking behavior.  A diagnosis of Substance Dependence can be applied to every class of substances except caffeine.  The symptoms of Dependence are similar across the various categories of substances, but for certain classes some symptoms are less salient, and in a few instances not all symptoms apply (e.g., withdrawal symptoms are not specified for Hallucinogenic Dependence).  Although not specifically listed as a criterion item, “craving” (a strong subjective drive to use the substance) is likely to be experienced by most (if not all) individuals with Substance Dependence.  Dependence is defined as a cluster of three or more of the symptoms listed below occurring at any time in the same 12-month-period.

Tolerance (Criterion 1) is the need for greatly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication (or the desired effect) or a markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of the substance.  The degree to which tolerance develops varies greatly across substances.  Furthermore, for a specific drug, varied degrees of tolerance may develop for its different central nervous system effects.  For example, for opioids, tolerance to respiratory depression and tolerance to analgesia develop at different rates.  Individuals with heavy use of opioids and stimulants can develop substantial (e.g., 10-f0ld) levels of tolerance, often to a dosage that would be lethal to a nonuser.  Alcohol tolerance can also be pronounced, but is usually less extreme than for amphetamine.  Many individuals who smoke cigarettes consume more than 20 cigarettes a day, an amount that would have produced symptoms of toxicity when they first started smoking.  Individuals with heavy use of cannabis or phencyclidine (PCP) are generally not aware of having developed tolerance (although it has been demonstrated in animal studies and in some individuals).  Tolerance may be difficult to determine by history alone when the substance used is illegal and perhaps mixed with various diluents or with other substances.  In such situations, laboratory tests may be helpful (e.g., high blood levels of the substance coupled with little evidence of intoxication suggest that tolerance is likely).  Tolerance must also be distinguished from individual variability in the initial sensitivity to the effects of particular substances.  For example, some first-time drinkers show very little evidence of intoxication with three or four drink, whereas others of similar weight and drinking histories had slurred speech and incoordination.

Withdrawal (Criterion 2a) is a maladaptive behavioral change, with physiological and cognitive concomitants, that occurs when blood or tissue concentrations of a substance decline in an individual who had maintained prolonged heavy use of the substance.  After developing unpleasant withdrawal symptoms, the persons is likely to take the substance to relieve or to avoid those symptoms (Criterion 2b), typically using the substance throughout the day beginning soon after awakening.  Withdrawal symptoms, which are generally the opposite of the acute effects of the substance, vary greatly across the calluses of substances, and separate criteria sets for Withdrawal are provided for most of the classes.  Marked and generally easily measured physiological signs of withdrawal are common with alcohol, opioids, and sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics.  Withdrawal signs and symptoms are often present, but may be less apparent, with stimulants such as amphetamines and cocaine, as well as with nicotine and cannabis.  No significant withdrawal is seen even after repeated use of hallucinogens.  Withdrawal from phencyclidine and related substances has not yet been described in humans (although it has been demonstrated in animals).  Neither tolerance nor withdrawal is necessary or sufficient for a diagnosis of Substance Dependence.  However, for most classes of substances, a past history of tolerance or withdrawals is associated with a more severe clinical course (i.e., an earlier onset of Dependence, higher levels of substance intake, and a greater number of substance-related problems).  Some individuals (e.g., those with Cannabis Dependence) show a pattern of compulsive use without obvious signs of tolerance or withdrawal.  Conversely, some general medical and postsurgical patients without Opioid Dependence may develop a tolerance to prescribed opioids and experience withdrawal symptoms without showing any signs of compulsive use.  The specifiers With Physiological Dependence and Without Physiological Dependence are provided to indicate the presence or absence of tolerance or withdrawal.

The following items describe the pattern of compulsive substance use that is characteristic of Dependence.  The individual may take the substance in larger amounts or over a longer period than was originally intended (e.g., continuing to drink until severely intoxicated despite having set a limit of only one drink) (Criterion 3).  The individual may express a persistent desire to cut down or regulate substance use.  Often, there have been many unsuccessful efforts to decrease or discontinue use (Criterion 4).  The individual may spend a great deal of time obtaining the substance, using the substance, or recovering from its effects (Criterion 5).  In some instances of Substance Dependence, virtually all of the person’s daily activities revolve around the substance.  Important social, occupational, ore recreational activities may be given up or reduced because of substance use (Criterion 6).  The individual may withdraw from family activities and hobbies in order to use the substance in private or to spend more time with substance-using friends.  Despite recognizing the contributing role of the substance to a psychological or physical problem (e.g., sever depressive symptoms or damage to organ systems), the person continues to use the substance (Criterion 7).  The key issue in evaluating this criterion is not eh existence of the problem, but rather the individual’s failure to abstain from using the substance despite having evidence of the difficulty it is causing.

 

Specifiers

            Tolerance and withdrawal may be associated with a higher risk for immediate general medical problems and a higher relapse rate.  Specifiers are provided to note their presence or absence:

With Physiological Dependence.  This specifier should be used when Substance Dependence is accompanied by evidence of tolerance (Criterion 1) or withdrawal (Criterion 2).

Without Physiological Dependence.  This specifier should be used when there is no evidence of tolerance (Criterion 1) or withdrawal (Criterion 2).  In these individuals, Substance Dependence is characterized by a pattern of compulsive use (at least three items from Criteria 3-7).”

 

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 2000. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. P. 193-195.

 

 

 

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PTSD, DID, and EMDR

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

"The essential feature of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder us the development of characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor involving direct personal experience of an event that involves actual or threatened death or serious injury, or other threat to one's physical integrity; or witnessing an event that involves death, injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of another person; or learning about unexpected or violent death, serious harm, or threat of death or injury experienced by a family member or other close associate (Criteria A1).  The person's response to the event must involve intense fear, helplessness, or horror (or in children, the response must involve disorganized or agitated behavior) (Criterion A2).  The characteristic symptoms resulting from the exposure to the extreme trauma include persistent reexperiencing of the traumatic event (Criterion E), and the disturbance must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criterion F).

Traumatic events that are experienced directly include, but are not limited to, military combat, violent personal assault (sexual assault, physical attack, robbery, mugging), being kidnapped, being taken hostage, terrorist attack, torture, incarceration as a prisoner of war or in a concentration camp, natural or manmade disasters, severe automobile accidents, or being diagnosed with a life-threatening illness.  For children, sexually traumatic events may include developmentally inappropriate sexual experiences without threatened or actual violence or injury.  Witnessed events include, but are not limited to, observing the serious injury or unnatural death of another person due to violent assault, accident, war, or disaster or unexpectedly witnessing a dead body or body parts.  Events experienced by others that are learned about include, but are not limited to, violent personal assault, serious accident, or serious injury experienced y a family member or a close friend; learning about the sudden, unexpected death of a family member or a close friend; or learning that one's child has a life threatening disease.  The disorder may be especially sever or long lasting when the stressor is of human design (e.g., torture, rape). the likelihood of developing this disorder may increase as the intensity of and physical proximity to the stressor increase.

The traumatic event can be reexperienced in various ways.  Commonly the person has recurrent and intrusive recollections of the event (Criterion B1) or recurrent distressing dreams during which the event can be replayed or otherwise represented (Criterion B2). In rare instances, the person experiences dissociative states that last from a few seconds to several hours, or even days, during which components of the event are relived and the person behaves as though experiencing the event at that moment (Criterion B3).  These episodes, often referred to as "flashbacks," are typically brief but can be associated with prolonged distress and heightened arousal.  Intense psychological distress (Criterion B4) or physiological reactivity (Criterion B5) often occurs when the person is exposed to triggering events that resemble or symbolize an aspect of the traumatic event (e.g., anniversaries of the traumatic event; cold, snowy weather or uniformed guards for survivors of death camps in cold climates; hot, humid weather for combat veterans of the South Pacific; entering any elevator for an woman who was reaped in an elevator).

Stimuli associated with the trauma are persistently avoided.  The person commonly makes deliberate efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations about the traumatic event (Criterion C1) and to avoid activities, situations, or people who around recollections of it (Criterion C2).  This avoidance of reminders may include amnesia for an important aspect of the traumatic event (Criterion C3).  Diminished responsiveness to the external work, referred to as "psychic numbing" or "emotional anesthesia," usually begins soon after the traumatic event.  The individual may complain of having markedly diminished interest or participation in previously enjoyed activities (Criterion C4), of feeling detached or estranged from other people (Criterion C5), or of having markedly reduced ability to feel emotions (especially those associated with intimacy, tenderness and sexuality) (Criterion C6).  The individual may have a sense of a foreshortened future (e.g., not expecting to have a career, marriage, children, or a normal life span) (Criterion C7).

The individual has persistent symptoms of anxiety or increased arousal that were not present before the trauma.  these symptoms may include difficulty falling or staying asleep that may be to recurrent nightmares during which the traumatic event is relived (Criterion D1), hypervigilance (Criterion D4), and exaggerated startle response (Criterion D5).  Some individuals report irritability or outburst of anger (Criterion D2) or difficulty concentrating or completing tasks (Criterion D3)."

 

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

"The essential feature of Dissociative identity Disorder is the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states (Criterion A) that recurrently take control of behavior (Criterion B).  There is an inability to recall important personal information, the extent of which is too great to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness (Criterion C).  The disturbance is not due tot eh direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition (Condition D.).  In children, the symptoms cannot be attributed to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play.

Dissociative Identity Disorder reflects a failure to integrate various aspects of identity, memory, and consciousness.  Each personality state may be experienced as if it has a distinct personal history, self-image, and identity, including a separate name.  Usually there is a primary identity that carries the individual's given name and is passive, dependent, guilty, and depressed.  The alternate identities frequently have different names and characteristics that contrast with the primary identity (e.g., are hostile, controlling, and self-destructive).  Particular identities may emerge in specific circumstances and may differ in reported age and gender, vocabulary, general knowledge, or predominant affect.  Alternate identities are experienced as taking control in sequence, ore at the expense of the other, and may deny knowledge of one another, be critical of one another, or appear to be in open conflict.  Occasionally, one or more powerful identities allocate time to the others.  Aggressive or hostile identities may at times interrupt activities or place the others in uncomfortable situations.

Individuals with this disorder experience frequent gaps in memory for personal history, both remote and recent.  The amnesia is frequently asymmetrical.  The more passive identities tend to have more constricted memories, whereas the more hostile, controlling, or "protector" identities have more complete memories.  An identity that is not in control may nonetheless gain access to consciousness by producing auditory or visual hallucinations (e.g., a voice giving instructions).  Evidence of amnesia may be uncovered by reports from others who have witnessed behavior that is disavowed by the individual or by the individual's own discoveries (e.g., finding items of clothing at home that the individual cannot remember having bought).  There may be loss of memory not only for recurrent periods of time, but also an overall loss of biographical memory for some extended period of childhood, adolescence, or even adulthood.  Transitions among identities are often triggered by psychosocial stress.  The time required to switch from one identity to another is usually a matter of seconds, but, less frequently, may b gradual.  Behavior that may be frequently associated with identity switches include rapid blinking, facial changes, changes in voice or demeanor, or disruption in the individual's train of thoughts.  The number of identities reported ranges from 2 to more than 100.  Half of reported cases include the individuals with 10 or fewer identities."

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 2000.  4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

EMDR

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing

"Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)1 integrates elements of many effective psychotherapies in structured protocols that are designed to maximize treatment effects. These include psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, interpersonal, experiential, and body-centered therapies2. EMDR is an information processing therapy and uses an eight phase approach.

During EMDR1 the client attends to past and present experiences in brief sequential doses while simultaneously focusing on an external stimulus. Then the client is instructed to let new material become the focus of the next set of dual attention. This sequence of dual attention and personal association is repeated many times in the session.

Eight Phases of Treatment

The first phase is a history taking session during which the therapist assesses the client's readiness for EMDR and develops a treatment plan. Client and therapist identify possible targets for EMDR processing. These include recent distressing events, current situations that elicit emotional disturbance, related historical incidents, and the development of specific skills and behaviors that will be needed by the client in future situations.

During the second phase of treatment, the therapist ensures that the client has adequate methods of handling emotional distress and good coping skills, and that the client is in a relatively stable state. If further stabilization is required, or if additional skills are needed, therapy focuses on providing these. The client is then able to use stress reducing techniques whenever necessary, during or between sessions. However, one goal is not to need these techniques once therapy is complete.

In phase three through six, a target is identified and processed using EMDR procedures. These involve the client identifying the most vivid visual image related to the memory (if available), a negative belief about self, related emotions and body sensations. The client also identifies a preferred positive belief. The validity of the positive belief is rated, as is the intensity of the negative emotions.

After this, the client is instructed to focus on the image, negative thought, and body sensations while simultaneously moving his/her eyes back and forth following the therapist's fingers as they move across his/her field of vision for 20-30 seconds or more, depending upon the need of the client. Athough eye movements are the most commonly used external stimulus, therapists often use auditory tones, tapping, or other types of tactile stimulation. The kind of dual attention and the length of each set is customized to the need of the client. The client is instructed to just notice whatever happens. After this, the clinician instructs the client to let his/her mind go blank and to notice whatever thought, feeling, image, memory, or sensation comes to mind. Depending upon the client's report the clinician will facilitate the next focus of attention. In most cases a client-directed association process is encouraged. This is repeated numerous times throughout the session. If the client becomes distressed or has difficulty with the process, the therapist follows established procedures to help the client resume processing. When the client reports no distress related to the targeted memory, the clinician asks him/her to think of the preferred positive belief that was identified at the beginning of the session, or a better one if it has emerged, and to focus on the incident, while simultaneously engaging in the eye movements. After several sets, clients generally report increased confidence in this positive belief. The therapist checks with the client regarding body sensations. If there are negative sensations, these are processed as above. If there are positive sensations, they are further enhanced.

In phase seven, closure, the therapist asks the client to keep a journal during the week to document any related material that may arise and reminds the client of the self-calming activities that were mastered in phase two.

The next session begins with phase eight, re-evaluation of the previous work, and of progress since the previous session. EMDR treatment ensures processing of all related historical events, current incidents that elicit distress, and future scenarios that will require different responses. The overall goal is produce the most comprehensive and profound treatment effects in the shortest period of time, while simultaneously maintaining a stable client within a balanced system.

After EMDR processing, clients generally report that the emotional distress related to the memory has been eliminated, or greatly decreased, and that they have gained important cognitive insights. Importantly, these emotional and cognitive changes usually result in spontaneous behavioral and personal change, which are further enhanced with standard EMDR procedures." www.emdr.com

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Major Depressive Disorder

Diagnostic Features

The essential feature of Major Depressive Disorder is a clinical course that is characterized by one or more Major Depressive Episodes without a history of Manic, Mixed, or Hypomanic Episodes (Criteria A and C).  Episodes of Substance-Induced Mood Disorder (due to the direct physiological effects of a drug of abuse, a medication, or toxin exposure) or of Mood Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition do not count toward a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder.  In addition, the episodes must not be better accounted for by Schizoaffective Disorder and are not superimposed on Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform Disorder, Delusional Disorder, or Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (Criterion B).

            The fourth digit in the diagnostic code for Major Depressive Disorder indicates whether it is a Single Episode (used only for first episodes) or Recurrent.  It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between a single episode with waxing and waning symptoms and two separate episodes.  For purposes of this manual, an episode is considered to have ended when the full criteria for eh Major Depressive Episode have not been met for at least 2 consecutive months.  During this 2-month period, there is either complete resolution of symptoms or the presence of depressive symptoms that no longer meet the full criteria for a Major Depressive Episode (In Partial Remission).

            The fifth digit in the diagnostic code for Major Depressive Disorder indicates the current state of the disturbance.  If the criteria for a Major Depressive Disorder are met, the severity of the episode is notes as Mild, Moderate, Severe Without Psychotic Features, or Severe With Psychotic Features.  If the criteria for a Major Depressive Episode are not currently met, the fifth digit is used to indicate whether the disorder is In Partial Remission or In Full Remission.

            If Manic, Mixed, or Hypomanic Episodes develop in the course of Major Depressive Disorder, the diagnosis is changed to a Bipolar Disorder.  However, if manic or hypomanic symptoms occur as a direct effect of antidepressant treatment, use of other medications, substance use, or toxin exposure, the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder remains appropriate and an addition diagnosis of Substance-induced Mood Disorder, With Manic features (or With Mixed Features), should be noted.  Similarly, if manic or hypomanic symptoms occur as a direct effect of a general medical condition, the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder remains appropriate and an additional diagnosis of Mood Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition, With Manic Features (or With Mixed Features), should be noted.” p. 369

Course

Major Depressive Disorder may begin at any age, with an average age at onset in the mid-20s.  Epidemiological data suggest that the age at onset is decreasing for those born more recently.  The course of Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, is variable.  Some people have isolated episodes that are separated by many years without any depressive symptoms, whereas others have clusters of episodes, and still others have increasingly frequent episodes as they grow older.  Some evidence suggests that the periods of remission generally last longer early in the course of the disorder.  The number of prior episodes predicts the likelihood of developing a subsequent Major Depressive Episode.  At least 60% of individuals with Major Depresssive Disorder, Single Episode, can be expected to have a second episode.  Individuals who have had tow episodes have a 70% chance of having a third, and individuals who have had three episodes have a 90% chance  of having a fourth.  About 5%-10% of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder, single Episode, subsequently develop a Manic Episode (i.e., develop Bipolar I Disorder).

            Major Depressive Episodes may end completely (in about two-thirds of cases), or only partially or not at all (in about one-third of cases).  For individuals who have only partial remission, there is a greater likelihood of developing additional episodes and of continuing the pattern of partial interepisode recovery.  The longitudinal course specifiers With Full Interepisode Recovery and Without Full Interepisode Recovery may therefore have prognostic value.  A number of individuals have pre-existing Dysthymic Disorder prior to the onset of Major Depressive Disorder, single Episode.  Some evidence suggests that these individuals are more likely to have additional Major Depressive Episodes, have poorer interepisode recovery, and may require additional acute-phase treatment and a longer period of continuing treatment to attain and maintain a more thorough and longer-lasting euthymic state.

            Follow-up naturalistic studies suggested that 1 year after the diagnosis of a major Depressive Episode, 40% of individuals still have symptoms that are sufficiently severe to meet criteria for a full Major Depressive Episode, roughly 20% continue to have some symptoms that no longer meet full criteria for a Major Depressive Episode (i.e., major Depressive Disorder, In Partial Remission), and 40% have no Mood Disorder.  The severity of the initial Major Depressive Episode appears to predict persistence.  Chronic general medical conditions are also a risk factor for more persistent episodes.

            Episodes of Major Depressive Disorder often follow a severe psychosocial stressor, such as the death of a loved one or divorce.  Studies suggest that psychosocial events 9stressors) may play a more significant role in the precipitation of the first or second episodes of Major Depressive Disorder and may play less of a role in the onset of subsequent episodes.  Chronic general medical conditions and Substance Dependence (particularly Alcohol or Cocaine Dependence) may contribute to the onset or exacerbation of Major Depressive Disorder.

            It is difficult to predict whether the first episode of a Major Depressive Disorder in a young person will ultimately evolve into a Bipolar Disorder.  Some data suggest that the acute onset of severe depression, especially with psychotic features and psychomotor retardation, in a young person without prepubertal psychopathology is more likely to predict a bipolar disorder.  A family history of Bipolar Disorder may also be suggestive of subsequent development of Bipolar Disorder.” p. 372-373

 

Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 2000. 4th ed.  Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

 

________________

Major Depressive Disorder

 “Diagnostic Features

The essential feature of Major Depressive Disorder is a clinical course that is characterized by one or more Major Depressive Episodes without a history of Manic, Mixed, or Hypomanic Episodes (Criteria A and C).  Episodes of Substance-Induced Mood Disorder (due to the direct physiological effects of a drug of abuse, a medication, or toxin exposure) or of Mood Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition do not count toward a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder.  In addition, the episodes must not be better accounted for by Schizoaffective Disorder and are not superimposed on Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform Disorder, Delusional Disorder, or Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (Criterion B).

            The fourth digit in the diagnostic code for Major Depressive Disorder indicates whether it is a Single Episode (used only for first episodes) or Recurrent.  It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between a single episode with waxing and waning symptoms and two separate episodes.  For purposes of this manual, an episode is considered to have ended when the full criteria for eh Major Depressive Episode have not been met for at least 2 consecutive months.  During this 2-month period, there is either complete resolution of symptoms or the presence of depressive symptoms that no longer meet the full criteria for a Major Depressive Episode (In Partial Remission).

            The fifth digit in the diagnostic code for Major Depressive Disorder indicates the current state of the disturbance.  If the criteria for a Major Depressive Disorder are met, the severity of the episode is notes as Mild, Moderate, Severe Without Psychotic Features, or Severe With Psychotic Features.  If the criteria for a Major Depressive Episode are not currently met, the fifth digit is used to indicate whether the disorder is In Partial Remission or In Full Remission.

            If Manic, Mixed, or Hypomanic Episodes develop in the course of Major Depressive Disorder, the diagnosis is changed to a Bipolar Disorder.  However, if manic or hypomanic symptoms occur as a direct effect of antidepressant treatment, use of other medications, substance use, or toxin exposure, the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder remains appropriate and an addition diagnosis of Substance-induced Mood Disorder, With Manic features (or With Mixed Features), should be noted.  Similarly, if manic or hypomanic symptoms occur as a direct effect of a general medical condition, the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder remains appropriate and an additional diagnosis of Mood Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition, With Manic Features (or With Mixed Features), should be noted.” p. 369

 “Course

Major Depressive Disorder may begin at any age, with an average age at onset in the mid-20s.  Epidemiological data suggest that the age at onset is decreasing for those born more recently.  The course of Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, is variable.  Some people have isolated episodes that are separated by many years without any depressive symptoms, whereas others have clusters of episodes, and still others have increasingly frequent episodes as they grow older.  Some evidence suggests that the periods of remission generally last longer early in the course of the disorder.  The number of prior episodes predicts the likelihood of developing a subsequent Major Depressive Episode.  At least 60% of individuals with Major Depresssive Disorder, Single Episode, can be expected to have a second episode.  Individuals who have had tow episodes have a 70% chance of having a third, and individuals who have had three episodes have a 90% chance  of having a fourth.  About 5%-10% of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder, single Episode, subsequently develop a Manic Episode (i.e., develop Bipolar I Disorder).

            Major Depressive Episodes may end completely (in about two-thirds of cases), or only partially or not at all (in about one-third of cases).  For individuals who have only partial remission, there is a greater likelihood of developing additional episodes and of continuing the pattern of partial interepisode recovery.  The longitudinal course specifiers With Full Interepisode Recovery and Without Full Interepisode Recovery may therefore have prognostic value.  A number of individuals have pre-existing Dysthymic Disorder prior to the onset of Major Depressive Disorder, single Episode.  Some evidence suggests that these individuals are more likely to have additional Major Depressive Episodes, have poorer interepisode recovery, and may require additional acute-phase treatment and a longer period of continuing treatment to attain and maintain a more thorough and longer-lasting euthymic state.

            Follow-up naturalistic studies suggested that 1 year after the diagnosis of a major Depressive Episode, 40% of individuals still have symptoms that are sufficiently severe to meet criteria for a full Major Depressive Episode, roughly 20% continue to have some symptoms that no longer meet full criteria for a Major Depressive Episode (i.e., major Depressive Disorder, In Partial Remission), and 40% have no Mood Disorder.  The severity of the initial Major Depressive Episode appears to predict persistence.  Chronic general medical conditions are also a risk factor for more persistent episodes.

            Episodes of Major Depressive Disorder often follow a severe psychosocial stressor, such as the death of a loved one or divorce.  Studies suggest that psychosocial events 9stressors) may play a more significant role in the precipitation of the first or second episodes of Major Depressive Disorder and may play less of a role in the onset of subsequent episodes.  Chronic general medical conditions and Substance Dependence (particularly Alcohol or Cocaine Dependence) may contribute to the onset or exacerbation of Major Depressive Disorder.

            It is difficult to predict whether the first episode of a Major Depressive Disorder in a young person will ultimately evolve into a Bipolar Disorder.  Some data suggest that the acute onset of severe depression, especially with psychotic features and psychomotor retardation, in a young person without prepubertal psychopathology is more likely to predict a bipolar disorder.  A family history of Bipolar Disorder may also be suggestive of subsequent development of Bipolar Disorder.” p. 372-373

 Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 2000. 4th ed.  Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

________________

DID-PTSD-EMDR

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

"The essential feature of Dissociative identity Disorder is the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states (Criterion A) that recurrently take control of behavior (Criterion B).  There is an inability to recall important personal information, the extent of which is too great to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness (Criterion C).  The disturbance is not due tot eh direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition (Condition D.).  In children, the symptoms cannot be attributed to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play.

Dissociative Identity Disorder reflects a failure to integrate various aspects of identity, memory, and consciousness.  Each personality state may be experienced as if it has a distinct personal history, self-image, and identity, including a separate name.  Usually there is a primary identity that carries the individual's given name and is passive, dependent, guilty, and depressed.  The alternate identities frequently have different names and characteristics that contrast with the primary identity (e.g., are hostile, controlling, and self-destructive).  Particular identities may emerge in specific circumstances and may differ in reported age and gender, vocabulary, general knowledge, or predominant affect.  Alternate identities are experienced as taking control in sequence, ore at the expense of the other, and may deny knowledge of one another, be critical of one another, or appear to be in open conflict.  Occasionally, one or more powerful identities allocate time to the others.  Aggressive or hostile identities may at times interrupt activities or place the others in uncomfortable situations.

Individuals with this disorder experience frequent gaps in memory for personal history, both remote and recent.  The amnesia is frequently asymmetrical.  The more passive identities tend to have more constricted memories, whereas the more hostile, controlling, or "protector" identities have more complete memories.  An identity that is not in control may nonetheless gain access to consciousness by producing auditory or visual hallucinations (e.g., a voice giving instructions).  Evidence of amnesia may be uncovered by reports from others who have witnessed behavior that is disavowed by the individual or by the individual's own discoveries (e.g., finding items of clothing at home that the individual cannot remember having bought).  There may be loss of memory not only for recurrent periods of time, but also an overall loss of biographical memory for some extended period of childhood, adolescence, or even adulthood.  Transitions among identities are often triggered by psychosocial stress.  The time required to switch from one identity to another is usually a matter of seconds, but, less frequently, may b gradual.  Behavior that may be frequently associated with identity switches include rapid blinking, facial changes, changes in voice or demeanor, or disruption in the individual's train of thoughts.  The number of identities reported ranges from 2 to more than 100.  Half of reported cases include the individuals with 10 or fewer identities."

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 2000.  4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

PTSD, DID, and EMDR

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

"The essential feature of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder us the development of characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor involving direct personal experience of an event that involves actual or threatened death or serious injury, or other threat to one's physical integrity; or witnessing an event that involves death, injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of another person; or learning about unexpected or violent death, serious harm, or threat of death or injury experienced by a family member or other close associate (Criteria A1).  The person's response to the event must involve intense fear, helplessness, or horror (or in children, the response must involve disorganized or agitated behavior) (Criterion A2).  The characteristic symptoms resulting from the exposure to the extreme trauma include persistent reexperiencing of the traumatic event (Criterion E), and the disturbance must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criterion F).

Traumatic events that are experienced directly include, but are not limited to, military combat, violent personal assault (sexual assault, physical attack, robbery, mugging), being kidnapped, being taken hostage, terrorist attack, torture, incarceration as a prisoner of war or in a concentration camp, natural or manmade disasters, severe automobile accidents, or being diagnosed with a life-threatening illness.  For children, sexually traumatic events may include developmentally inappropriate sexual experiences without threatened or actual violence or injury.  Witnessed events include, but are not limited to, observing the serious injury or unnatural death of another person due to violent assault, accident, war, or disaster or unexpectedly witnessing a dead body or body parts.  Events experienced by others that are learned about include, but are not limited to, violent personal assault, serious accident, or serious injury experienced y a family member or a close friend; learning about the sudden, unexpected death of a family member or a close friend; or learning that one's child has a life threatening disease.  The disorder may be especially sever or long lasting when the stressor is of human design (e.g., torture, rape). the likelihood of developing this disorder may increase as the intensity of and physical proximity to the stressor increase.

The traumatic event can be reexperienced in various ways.  Commonly the person has recurrent and intrusive recollections of the event (Criterion B1) or recurrent distressing dreams during which the event can be replayed or otherwise represented (Criterion B2). In rare instances, the person experiences dissociative states that last from a few seconds to several hours, or even days, during which components of the event are relived and the person behaves as though experiencing the event at that moment (Criterion B3).  These episodes, often referred to as "flashbacks," are typically brief but can be associated with prolonged distress and heightened arousal.  Intense psychological distress (Criterion B4) or physiological reactivity (Criterion B5) often occurs when the person is exposed to triggering events that resemble or symbolize an aspect of the traumatic event (e.g., anniversaries of the traumatic event; cold, snowy weather or uniformed guards for survivors of death camps in cold climates; hot, humid weather for combat veterans of the South Pacific; entering any elevator for an woman who was reaped in an elevator).

Stimuli associated with the trauma are persistently avoided.  The person commonly makes deliberate efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations about the traumatic event (Criterion C1) and to avoid activities, situations, or people who around recollections of it (Criterion C2).  This avoidance of reminders may include amnesia for an important aspect of the traumatic event (Criterion C3).  Diminished responsiveness to the external work, referred to as "psychic numbing" or "emotional anesthesia," usually begins soon after the traumatic event.  The individual may complain of having markedly diminished interest or participation in previously enjoyed activities (Criterion C4), of feeling detached or estranged from other people (Criterion C5), or of having markedly reduced ability to feel emotions (especially those associated with intimacy, tenderness and sexuality) (Criterion C6).  The individual may have a sense of a foreshortened future (e.g., not expecting to have a career, marriage, children, or a normal life span) (Criterion C7).

The individual has persistent symptoms of anxiety or increased arousal that were not present before the trauma.  these symptoms may include difficulty falling or staying asleep that may be to recurrent nightmares during which the traumatic event is relived (Criterion D1), hypervigilance (Criterion D4), and exaggerated startle response (Criterion D5).  Some individuals report irritability or outburst of anger (Criterion D2) or difficulty concentrating or completing tasks (Criterion D3)."

 

EMDR

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing

"Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)1 integrates elements of many effective psychotherapies in structured protocols that are designed to maximize treatment effects. These include psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, interpersonal, experiential, and body-centered therapies2. EMDR is an information processing therapy and uses an eight phase approach.

During EMDR1 the client attends to past and present experiences in brief sequential doses while simultaneously focusing on an external stimulus. Then the client is instructed to let new material become the focus of the next set of dual attention. This sequence of dual attention and personal association is repeated many times in the session.

Eight Phases of Treatment

The first phase is a history taking session during which the therapist assesses the client's readiness for EMDR and develops a treatment plan. Client and therapist identify possible targets for EMDR processing. These include recent distressing events, current situations that elicit emotional disturbance, related historical incidents, and the development of specific skills and behaviors that will be needed by the client in future situations.

During the second phase of treatment, the therapist ensures that the client has adequate methods of handling emotional distress and good coping skills, and that the client is in a relatively stable state. If further stabilization is required, or if additional skills are needed, therapy focuses on providing these. The client is then able to use stress reducing techniques whenever necessary, during or between sessions. However, one goal is not to need these techniques once therapy is complete.

In phase three through six, a target is identified and processed using EMDR procedures. These involve the client identifying the most vivid visual image related to the memory (if available), a negative belief about self, related emotions and body sensations. The client also identifies a preferred positive belief. The validity of the positive belief is rated, as is the intensity of the negative emotions.

After this, the client is instructed to focus on the image, negative thought, and body sensations while simultaneously moving his/her eyes back and forth following the therapist's fingers as they move across his/her field of vision for 20-30 seconds or more, depending upon the need of the client. Athough eye movements are the most commonly used external stimulus, therapists often use auditory tones, tapping, or other types of tactile stimulation. The kind of dual attention and the length of each set is customized to the need of the client. The client is instructed to just notice whatever happens. After this, the clinician instructs the client to let his/her mind go blank and to notice whatever thought, feeling, image, memory, or sensation comes to mind. Depending upon the client's report the clinician will facilitate the next focus of attention. In most cases a client-directed association process is encouraged. This is repeated numerous times throughout the session. If the client becomes distressed or has difficulty with the process, the therapist follows established procedures to help the client resume processing. When the client reports no distress related to the targeted memory, the clinician asks him/her to think of the preferred positive belief that was identified at the beginning of the session, or a better one if it has emerged, and to focus on the incident, while simultaneously engaging in the eye movements. After several sets, clients generally report increased confidence in this positive belief. The therapist checks with the client regarding body sensations. If there are negative sensations, these are processed as above. If there are positive sensations, they are further enhanced.

In phase seven, closure, the therapist asks the client to keep a journal during the week to document any related material that may arise and reminds the client of the self-calming activities that were mastered in phase two.

The next session begins with phase eight, re-evaluation of the previous work, and of progress since the previous session. EMDR treatment ensures processing of all related historical events, current incidents that elicit distress, and future scenarios that will require different responses. The overall goal is produce the most comprehensive and profound treatment effects in the shortest period of time, while simultaneously maintaining a stable client within a balanced system.

After EMDR processing, clients generally report that the emotional distress related to the memory has been eliminated, or greatly decreased, and that they have gained important cognitive insights. Importantly, these emotional and cognitive changes usually result in spontaneous behavioral and personal change, which are further enhanced with standard EMDR procedures." www.emdr.com

 1Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: Basic Principles, Protocols and Procedures (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

2Shapiro, F. (2002). EMDR as an Integrative Psychotherapy Approach: Experts of Diverse Orientations Explore the Paradigm Prism. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Books.

 

 

 

 

NeuroBiology of Trauma

 

Circadian Rhythm and PTSD


Title: Research on activity levels and rhythms in childhood psychiatric
disorders.
Author(s): Glod, Carol A. , Northeastern U, Coll of Nursing,
Boston, MA, US
Source: Psychiatric Services , Vol 48(1), Jan 1997. pp. 43-44.

Journal URL: http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/
Publisher: US: American Psychiatric Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.psych.org
ISSN: 1075-2730 (Print)
Language: English
Key Concepts: quantitative research on activity levels & circadian
rhythms, abused with vs without PTSD vs seasonally vs nonseasonally
depressed children & adolescents
Abstract: A summary of quantitative assessments of activity levels
and circadian rhythms (CRMs) in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders shows significant differences between samples of abused, normal, and depressed children and adolescents. Depressed children demonstrate dysregulation in their CRM as evidenced by a weakening of the circadian pacemaker and an emergence of hemi-CRMs. In contrast, abused children display a marked phase-delay in timing of the CRM and increased levels of diurnal and nocturnal activity. Abused children who meet criteria for PTSD have well-preserved CRMs and activity profiles that resemble those of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Abused children without PTSD have dysregulated CRMs and activity profiles similar to those of depressed children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)
Subjects: *Activity Level; *Affective Disorders; *Child Abuse;
*Human Biological Rhythms; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder;
Experimentation; Major Depression; Seasonal Affective Disorder
Classification: Psychological & Physical Disorders (3200)
Population: Human (10)
Age Group: Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal (270); Print
Release Date: 19960101
Accession Number: 1996-07111-004

Persistent link to this record:
http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=1996-07111-004&db=psyh

Cut and Paste: <A
href="http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=1996-07111-004&db=psyh">Rese
arch on activity levels and rhythms in childhood psychiatric
disorders.</A>

Database: PsycINFO
_____

Record: 2

Title: Cortisol regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder and major
depression: A chronobiological analysis.
Author(s): Yehuda, Rachel , Mount Sinai School of Medicine,
Psychiatry Dept, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Program, New York, NY, US

Teicher, Martin H.

Trestman, Robert L.

Levengood, Robert A.

Siever, Larry J.
Source: Biological Psychiatry , Vol 40(2), Jul 1996. pp. 79-88.

Journal URL:
http://www.elsevier.com/inca/publications/store/5/0/5/7/5/0/
Publisher: United Kingdom: Elsevier Science

Publisher URL: http://www.elsevier.com
ISSN: 0006-3223 (Print)
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/0006-3223(95)00451-3
Language: English
Key Concepts: 24-hr pattern of cortisol regulation, male combat
veterans with PTSD vs major depression, implications for dysregulation
of hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis
Abstract: Evaluated the pattern of basal cortisol release in
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression using a chronobiological analysis. Plasma was obtained from 15 combat veterans with PTSD, 14 Ss with major depression, and 15 normal men every 30 min during 24 hrs of bed rest. PTSD Ss had substantially lower cortisol levels and displayed a pattern of cortisol release that was better modeled by circadian rhythm. They also showed a greater circadian signal-to-noise ratio than the other groups. In contrast, depressed patients displayed a less rhythmic, more chaotic pattern of cortisol release. The pattern of cortisol secretion and regulation observed in the PTSD group under baseline conditions may reflect an exaggerated sensitization, whereas the chronobiological alterations in depression may reflect dysregulation, of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis.
(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)
Subjects: *Human Biological Rhythms; *Hydrocortisone; *Hypothalamo
Pituitary Adrenal System; *Major Depression; *Posttraumatic Stress
Disorder; Military Veterans
Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210)
Population: Human (10)
Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)
Form/Content Type: Empirical Study (0800)
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal (270); Print
Release Date: 19960101
Accession Number: 1996-04957-001

Persistent link to this record:
http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=1996-04957-001&db=psyh

Cut and Paste: <A
href="http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=1996-04957-001&db=psyh">Cort
isol regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression: A
chronobiological analysis.</A>

Database: PsycINFO
_____

Record: 3

Title: Sleep patterns in trauma victims with disturbed dreaming.
Author(s): Kramer, Milton , Bethesda Oak Hosp, Sleep Disorders Ctr
of Greater Cincinnati, OH, US

Kinney, Lois
Source: Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa , Vol
13(1), Mar 1988. pp. 12-16.

Journal URL:
http://www.cma.ca/cma/common/displayPage.do?pageId=/staticContent/HTML/N
0/l2/jpn/index.htm
Publisher: Canada: Canadian Medical Assn

Publisher URL: http://www.cma.ca
ISSN: 1180-4882 (Print)
Language: English
Key Concepts: sleep patterns, dream disturbed Vietnam combat veterans
vs veterans with PTSD, conference presentation
Abstract: Investigated the sleep pattern of 8 dream-disturbed
Vietnam combat veterans in the sleep laboratory and compared it with that of 8 combat veterans with alternate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sleep in both groups was lighter and more disrupted than normal. The dream-disturbed group was distinguished by a longer REM latency and more spontaneous awakenings during non-REM during the 1st half of the night. PTSD was diagnosed in full-blown form in each dream-disturbed S and in none of the comparison group. The possibility of PTSD in a latent form in this latter group was suggested by the sleep disturbances. A circadian rhythm disturbance is hypothesized to underlie the altered sleep and a vulnerability to a recurring PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)
Subjects: *Dreaming; *Military Veterans; *Posttraumatic Stress
Disorder; *Sleep Disorders
Classification: Psychological & Physical Disorders (3200)
Population: Human (10)
Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)
Form/Content Type: Conference Proceedings/Symposia (0600)

Empirical Study (0800)
Conference Notes: 28th Annual Meeting Group-Without-A-Name
International Psychiatric Research Society (1987, Sarasota, Florida).
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal (270); Print
Release Date: 19890201
Accession Number: 1989-05114-001

Persistent link to this record:
http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=1989-05114-001&db=psyh

Cut and Paste: <A
href="http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=1989-05114-001&db=psyh">Slee
p patterns in trauma victims with disturbed dreaming.</A>

Database: PsycINFO
_____

Record: 4

Title: Ambulante slaapwaakpolygrafie bij een patient met PTSS.
Translated Title: Ambulatory sleep^wake polygraphy in a patient
suffering from PTSD.
Author(s): de Groen, J. H. , Academisch Ziekenhuis Maastricht,
Afdeling Klinische Neurofysiologie, Netherlands

Bergs, P. P.

van Ammers, V. C.
Source: Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie , Vol 30(5), 1988. pp.
327-337.
Publisher: Netherlands: Uitgeverij Boom

ISSN: 0303-7339 (Print)
Language: Dutch
Key Concepts: sleep wake polygraphy & disturbances, 73 yr old war
victim with PTSD, case report
Abstract: Describes outpatient sleep-wake polygraphy in the case
of a 73-yr-old World War II posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) victim.
It is maintained that the findings revealed a sleep-apnea syndrome and internal dissociation of the circadian rhythms of several physiologic variables. The possible relationship with REM and nonrapid eye movement
(NREM) night terrors is discussed. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)
Subjects: *Human Biological Rhythms; *Posttraumatic Stress
Disorder; *Sleep Disorders; Case Report; War
Classification: Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)
Population: Human (10)
Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Aged (65 yrs & older) (380)
Form/Content Type: Empirical Study (0800)

Clinical Case Report (0820)
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal (270); Print
Release Date: 19900401
Accession Number: 1990-72774-001

Persistent link to this record:
http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=1990-72774-001&db=psyh

Cut and Paste: <A
href="http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=1990-72774-001&db=psyh">Ambu
lante slaapwaakpolygrafie bij een patient met PTSS.</A>

Database: PsycINFO
 

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