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Complex PTSD and Dissociation
Complex PTSD and EMDR
Complex PTSD and Trauma

Psychological

and Physiological

Trauma Research

 

 

Seize Your Journeys

 

_______________________

Traumatic stress is found in many competent, healthy, strong, good people.  No one can completely protect themselves from traumatic experiences.  Many people have long-lasting problems following exposure to trauma.  Up to 8% of persons will have PTSD at some time in their lives. People who react to traumas are not going crazy.  What is happening to them is part of a set of common symptoms and problems that are connected with being in a traumatic situation, and thus, is a normal reaction to abnormal events and experiences.  Having symptoms after a traumatic event is NOT a sign of personal weakness.  Given exposure to a trauma that is bad enough, probably all people would develop PTSD.

By understanding trauma symptoms better, a person can become less fearful of them and better able to manage them. By recognizing the effects of trauma and knowing more about symptoms, a person will be better able to decide about getting treatment.

_______________________

 

DID-PTSD-EMDR

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

"The essential feature of Dissociative identity Disorder is the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states (Criterion A) that recurrently take control of behavior (Criterion B).  There is an inability to recall important personal information, the extent of which is too great to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness (Criterion C).  The disturbance is not due tot eh direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition (Condition D.).  In children, the symptoms cannot be attributed to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play.

Dissociative Identity Disorder reflects a failure to integrate various aspects of identity, memory, and consciousness.  Each personality state may be experienced as if it has a distinct personal history, self-image, and identity, including a separate name.  Usually there is a primary identity that carries the individual's given name and is passive, dependent, guilty, and depressed.  The alternate identities frequently have different names and characteristics that contrast with the primary identity (e.g., are hostile, controlling, and self-destructive).  Particular identities may emerge in specific circumstances and may differ in reported age and gender, vocabulary, general knowledge, or predominant affect.  Alternate identities are experienced as taking control in sequence, ore at the expense of the other, and may deny knowledge of one another, be critical of one another, or appear to be in open conflict.  Occasionally, one or more powerful identities allocate time to the others.  Aggressive or hostile identities may at times interrupt activities or place the others in uncomfortable situations.

Individuals with this disorder experience frequent gaps in memory for personal history, both remote and recent.  The amnesia is frequently asymmetrical.  The more passive identities tend to have more constricted memories, whereas the more hostile, controlling, or "protector" identities have more complete memories.  An identity that is not in control may nonetheless gain access to consciousness by producing auditory or visual hallucinations (e.g., a voice giving instructions).  Evidence of amnesia may be uncovered by reports from others who have witnessed behavior that is disavowed by the individual or by the individual's own discoveries (e.g., finding items of clothing at home that the individual cannot remember having bought).  There may be loss of memory not only for recurrent periods of time, but also an overall loss of biographical memory for some extended period of childhood, adolescence, or even adulthood.  Transitions among identities are often triggered by psychosocial stress.  The time required to switch from one identity to another is usually a matter of seconds, but, less frequently, may b gradual.  Behavior that may be frequently associated with identity switches include rapid blinking, facial changes, changes in voice or demeanor, or disruption in the individual's train of thoughts.  The number of identities reported ranges from 2 to more than 100.  Half of reported cases include the individuals with 10 or fewer identities."

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 2000.  4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

PTSD, DID, and EMDR

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

"The essential feature of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder us the development of characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor involving direct personal experience of an event that involves actual or threatened death or serious injury, or other threat to one's physical integrity; or witnessing an event that involves death, injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of another person; or learning about unexpected or violent death, serious harm, or threat of death or injury experienced by a family member or other close associate (Criteria A1).  The person's response to the event must involve intense fear, helplessness, or horror (or in children, the response must involve disorganized or agitated behavior) (Criterion A2).  The characteristic symptoms resulting from the exposure to the extreme trauma include persistent reexperiencing of the traumatic event (Criterion E), and the disturbance must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criterion F).

Traumatic events that are experienced directly include, but are not limited to, military combat, violent personal assault (sexual assault, physical attack, robbery, mugging), being kidnapped, being taken hostage, terrorist attack, torture, incarceration as a prisoner of war or in a concentration camp, natural or manmade disasters, severe automobile accidents, or being diagnosed with a life-threatening illness.  For children, sexually traumatic events may include developmentally inappropriate sexual experiences without threatened or actual violence or injury.  Witnessed events include, but are not limited to, observing the serious injury or unnatural death of another person due to violent assault, accident, war, or disaster or unexpectedly witnessing a dead body or body parts.  Events experienced by others that are learned about include, but are not limited to, violent personal assault, serious accident, or serious injury experienced y a family member or a close friend; learning about the sudden, unexpected death of a family member or a close friend; or learning that one's child has a life threatening disease.  The disorder may be especially sever or long lasting when the stressor is of human design (e.g., torture, rape). the likelihood of developing this disorder may increase as the intensity of and physical proximity to the stressor increase.

The traumatic event can be reexperienced in various ways.  Commonly the person has recurrent and intrusive recollections of the event (Criterion B1) or recurrent distressing dreams during which the event can be replayed or otherwise represented (Criterion B2). In rare instances, the person experiences dissociative states that last from a few seconds to several hours, or even days, during which components of the event are relived and the person behaves as though experiencing the event at that moment (Criterion B3).  These episodes, often referred to as "flashbacks," are typically brief but can be associated with prolonged distress and heightened arousal.  Intense psychological distress (Criterion B4) or physiological reactivity (Criterion B5) often occurs when the person is exposed to triggering events that resemble or symbolize an aspect of the traumatic event (e.g., anniversaries of the traumatic event; cold, snowy weather or uniformed guards for survivors of death camps in cold climates; hot, humid weather for combat veterans of the South Pacific; entering any elevator for an woman who was reaped in an elevator).

Stimuli associated with the trauma are persistently avoided.  The person commonly makes deliberate efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations about the traumatic event (Criterion C1) and to avoid activities, situations, or people who around recollections of it (Criterion C2).  This avoidance of reminders may include amnesia for an important aspect of the traumatic event (Criterion C3).  Diminished responsiveness to the external work, referred to as "psychic numbing" or "emotional anesthesia," usually begins soon after the traumatic event.  The individual may complain of having markedly diminished interest or participation in previously enjoyed activities (Criterion C4), of feeling detached or estranged from other people (Criterion C5), or of having markedly reduced ability to feel emotions (especially those associated with intimacy, tenderness and sexuality) (Criterion C6).  The individual may have a sense of a foreshortened future (e.g., not expecting to have a career, marriage, children, or a normal life span) (Criterion C7).

The individual has persistent symptoms of anxiety or increased arousal that were not present before the trauma.  these symptoms may include difficulty falling or staying asleep that may be to recurrent nightmares during which the traumatic event is relived (Criterion D1), hypervigilance (Criterion D4), and exaggerated startle response (Criterion D5).  Some individuals report irritability or outburst of anger (Criterion D2) or difficulty concentrating or completing tasks (Criterion D3)."

 

EMDR

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing

"Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)1 integrates elements of many effective psychotherapies in structured protocols that are designed to maximize treatment effects. These include psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, interpersonal, experiential, and body-centered therapies2. EMDR is an information processing therapy and uses an eight phase approach.

During EMDR1 the client attends to past and present experiences in brief sequential doses while simultaneously focusing on an external stimulus. Then the client is instructed to let new material become the focus of the next set of dual attention. This sequence of dual attention and personal association is repeated many times in the session.

Eight Phases of Treatment

The first phase is a history taking session during which the therapist assesses the client's readiness for EMDR and develops a treatment plan. Client and therapist identify possible targets for EMDR processing. These include recent distressing events, current situations that elicit emotional disturbance, related historical incidents, and the development of specific skills and behaviors that will be needed by the client in future situations.

During the second phase of treatment, the therapist ensures that the client has adequate methods of handling emotional distress and good coping skills, and that the client is in a relatively stable state. If further stabilization is required, or if additional skills are needed, therapy focuses on providing these. The client is then able to use stress reducing techniques whenever necessary, during or between sessions. However, one goal is not to need these techniques once therapy is complete.

In phase three through six, a target is identified and processed using EMDR procedures. These involve the client identifying the most vivid visual image related to the memory (if available), a negative belief about self, related emotions and body sensations. The client also identifies a preferred positive belief. The validity of the positive belief is rated, as is the intensity of the negative emotions.

After this, the client is instructed to focus on the image, negative thought, and body sensations while simultaneously moving his/her eyes back and forth following the therapist's fingers as they move across his/her field of vision for 20-30 seconds or more, depending upon the need of the client. Athough eye movements are the most commonly used external stimulus, therapists often use auditory tones, tapping, or other types of tactile stimulation. The kind of dual attention and the length of each set is customized to the need of the client. The client is instructed to just notice whatever happens. After this, the clinician instructs the client to let his/her mind go blank and to notice whatever thought, feeling, image, memory, or sensation comes to mind. Depending upon the client's report the clinician will facilitate the next focus of attention. In most cases a client-directed association process is encouraged. This is repeated numerous times throughout the session. If the client becomes distressed or has difficulty with the process, the therapist follows established procedures to help the client resume processing. When the client reports no distress related to the targeted memory, the clinician asks him/her to think of the preferred positive belief that was identified at the beginning of the session, or a better one if it has emerged, and to focus on the incident, while simultaneously engaging in the eye movements. After several sets, clients generally report increased confidence in this positive belief. The therapist checks with the client regarding body sensations. If there are negative sensations, these are processed as above. If there are positive sensations, they are further enhanced.

In phase seven, closure, the therapist asks the client to keep a journal during the week to document any related material that may arise and reminds the client of the self-calming activities that were mastered in phase two.

The next session begins with phase eight, re-evaluation of the previous work, and of progress since the previous session. EMDR treatment ensures processing of all related historical events, current incidents that elicit distress, and future scenarios that will require different responses. The overall goal is produce the most comprehensive and profound treatment effects in the shortest period of time, while simultaneously maintaining a stable client within a balanced system.

After EMDR processing, clients generally report that the emotional distress related to the memory has been eliminated, or greatly decreased, and that they have gained important cognitive insights. Importantly, these emotional and cognitive changes usually result in spontaneous behavioral and personal change, which are further enhanced with standard EMDR procedures." www.emdr.com

 1Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: Basic Principles, Protocols and Procedures (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

2Shapiro, F. (2002). EMDR as an Integrative Psychotherapy Approach: Experts of Diverse Orientations Explore the Paradigm Prism. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Books.

 

 

 

 

PTSD Dissociation

 

Complex PTSD and Trauma

Record: 1

Title:

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Part III: Health Effects of Interpersonal Violence Among Women.

Author(s):

Hegadoren, K. M., Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, kathy.hegadoren@ualberta.ca
Lasiuk, G. C., Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
Coupland, N. J., Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada

Address:

Hegadoren, K. M., kathy.hegadoren@ualberta.ca

Source:

Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, Vol 42(3), Jul-Sep 2006. pp. 163-173.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

ISSN:

0031-5990 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1111/j.1744-6163.2006.00078.x

Language:

English

Keywords:

posttraumatic stress disorder; health effects; interpersonal violence; women; conceptualization; human trauma

Abstract:

Topic: The aim of this three-part series is to examine the sufficiency of the posttraumatic stress (PTSD) diagnostic construct to capture the full spectrum of human responses to psychological trauma. Part I (Lasiuk & Hegadoren, 2006a) reviewed the conceptual history of PTSD from the nineteenth century to its inclusion in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1980), while Part II (Lasiuk & Hegadoren, 2006b) described subsequent refinements to the original PTSD diagnostic criteria and highlighted subsequent controversies. Purpose: This paper focuses on interpersonal violence (sexual, physical, and emotional abuse/assault) and its sequelae in women. We argue in support of Judith Herman's (1992) conceptualization of the human trauma response as a spectrum, anchored at one end by an acute stress reaction that resolves on its own without treatment, and on the other by "complex" PTSD, with "classic" or "simple" PTSD somewhere between the two. Sources of Information: The existing theoretical, clinical and research literatures related to humans responses to trauma. Conclusion: The paper concludes with a call for the need to increase a gendered perspective in all aspects of trauma research and clinical service delivery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)(from the journal abstract)

Subjects:

*Emotional Trauma; *Human Females; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Violence

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)
Female (40)

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Electronic
Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Document Type:

Original Journal Article

Release Date:

20060814

Accession Number:

2006-10201-003

Number of Citations in Source:

87

 

 

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<A href="http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2006-10201-003&site=ehost-live">Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Part III: Health Effects of Interpersonal Violence Among Women.</A>

 

 

Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 2

Title:

Complex posttraumatic stress disorder and child maltreatment in forensic inpatients.

Author(s):

Spitzer, Carsten, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Greifs-WaldlStrahund, Germany, spitzer@uni-greifswald.de
Chevalier, Cathrin, Department of Forensic Psychiatry, HANSE-Klinikum, Stralsund, Germany
Gillner, Michael, Department of Forensic Psychiatry, HANSE-Klinikum, Stralsund, Germany
Freyberger, Harald J., Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Greifs-WaldlStrahund, Germany
Barnow, Sven, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Greifs-WaldlStrahund, Germany

Address:

Spitzer, Carsten, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ernst-Moritz- Arndt-University Greifswald, Rostocker Chaussee 70, D-18437, Stralsund, Germany, spitzer@uni-greifswald.de

Source:

Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, Vol 17(2), Jun 2006. pp. 204-216.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis

ISSN:

1478-9949 (Print)
1478-9957 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1080/14789940500497743

Language:

English

Keywords:

posttraumatic stress disorder; child maltreatment; forensic inpatients; sexual abuse; physical abuse; emotional abuse; child neglect

Abstract:

There is converging evidence that forensic inpatients represent a severely traumatized population, particularly with respect to child maltreatment including sexual, physical, and emotional abuse as well as emotional and physical neglect. One of their possible aftermaths is captured by the syndrome of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment and complex PTSD in forensic patients. A total of 32 patients (28 men, 4 women) with a mean age of 36.9 years (SD =11.8) were studied with the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (SIDES) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). The majority had experienced emotional abuse (75%), neglect (59%), and physical abuse (52%). The three-month prevalence of complex PTSD was 28% and the lifetime prevalence was 44%. Subjects with complex PTSD had significantly more physical abuse than those without complex PTSD, but did not differ in the other types of trauma. In line with previous research our results indicate that (a) a substantial proportion of forensic patients has been severely victimized in childhood and (b) nearly half meet diagnostic criteria for complex PTSD. These findings have important implications for the treatment process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)(from the journal abstract)

Subjects:

*Child Abuse; *Mentally Ill Offenders; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Child Neglect; Emotional Abuse; Physical Abuse; Sexual Abuse

Classification:

Criminal Behavior & Juvenile Delinquency (3236)

Population:

Human (10)
Male (30)
Female (40)
Inpatient (50)

Location:

Germany

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)
Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)
Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)
Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Tests & Measures:

Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress
Childhood Trauma Questionnaire

Methodology:

Empirical Study; Quantitative Study

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print
Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Document Type:

Original Journal Article

Release Date:

20060717

Accession Number:

2006-08791-003

Number of Citations in Source:

52

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 3

Title:

Posttraumatic personality disorder: A reformulation of complex posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder.

Author(s):

Classen, Catherine C., Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, catherine.classen@sw.ca
Pain, Clare, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Field, Nigel P., Pacific Graduate School of Psychology, Palo Alto, CA, US
Woods, Patricia, Trauma Therapy Program, Department of Psychiatry, Sunnybrook & Women's College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada

Address:

Classen, Catherine C., Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, 76 Grenville Street, Room 956, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 1B2, catherine.classen@sw.ca

Source:

Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol 29(1), Mar 2006. pp. 87-112.
Journal URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623373/description#description

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science
Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN:

0193-953X (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

posttraumatic personality disorder; borderline personality disorder; posttraumatic stress disorder; symptomatology; diagnostic categories

Abstract:

This article draws on the work of leaders in the field of chronic traumatization and attachment and offers an idea for conceptualizing BPD and two new diagnostic categories, called posttraumatic personality disorder- disorganized (PTPD-D) and posttraumatic personality disorder-organized (PTPD-O). These three disorders are categorized according to the presence or absence of disorganized attachment and more or less of a history of chronic child abuse (Fig. 1). This article proposes that PTPD requires a history of extensive chronic traumatization beginning in childhood. When children who have disorganized attachment also experience chronic traumatization, this can lead to PTPD-D. Chronic child abuse of individuals who have organized attachment can lead to PTPD-O. This article proposes that a diagnosis of BPD occurs with individuals who have a disorganized attachment and who have a less severe history of child abuse. This article presents a reformulation of complex PTSD, otherwise known as disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified (DESNOS), and of BPD. Two fictional case examples are presented to support the argument for the creation of two new diagnostic categories, PTPD-O and PTPD-D. This article concludes with discussion of treatment implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Subjects:

*Borderline Personality Disorder; *Diagnosis; *Personality Disorders; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Symptoms

Classification:

Personality Disorders (3217)

Population:

Human (10)

Tests & Measures:

Subjective Units of Distress Scale

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Electronic
Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Document Type:

Original Journal Article

Release Date:

20060403

Accession Number:

2006-03379-006

Number of Citations in Source:

57

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 4

Title:

Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and the Treatment of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Author(s):

Kohlenberg, Barbara S., Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, US
Tsai, Mavis, Private Practice, Seattle, WA, US
Kohlenberg, Robert J., Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, US

Source:

Cognitive-behavioral therapies for trauma. Follette, Victoria M. (Ed); Ruzek, Josef I. (Ed); pp. 173-197.
New York, NY, US: Guilford Press, 2006. xxiv, 472 pp.

ISBN:

1-59385-247-9 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

functional analytic psychotherapy; posttraumatic stress disorder; specific trauma; client therapist relationship; interpersonally complex trauma; clinical supervision; complex PTSD

Abstract:

(from the chapter) Functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991), a therapy derived from radical behaviorism in which a caring and intimate client-therapist relationship is the core of the therapeutic change process, is designed to promote interpersonal therapeutic opportunities that may be especially effective in treating clients with trauma histories. In this chapter the FAP perspective is applied toward understanding the clinical effects of trauma and how treatment may vary depending on whether the trauma was specific versus interpersonally complex. Also discussed are empirical support for FAP, common complications and pitfalls faced by FAP therapists, and how the relationship between the treating clinician and his or her supervisor or consultant may help shape the creation of meaningful, helpful, client-therapist relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Functional Analysis; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychotherapeutic Processes; *Psychotherapy; Clients; Emotional Trauma; Professional Supervision; Psychotherapists

Classification:

Behavior Therapy & Behavior Modification (3312)

Population:

Human (10)

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type:

Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type:

Original Chapter

Release Date:

20060424

Accession Number:

2006-02767-008

Number of Citations in Source:

55

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 5

Title:

The development of a 90-day residential program for the treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s):

Busuttil, Walter, Trauma Service, Priory Ticehurst House Hospital, ESX, United Kingdom, walterbusuttil@prioryhealthcare.com

Address:

Busuttil, Walter, Priory Ticehurst House, Ticehurst, Wadhurst, ESX, United Kingdom, TN5 7HU, walterbusuttil@prioryhealthcare.com

Source:

Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, Vol 12(1-2), 2006. pp. 29-55.
Journal URL: http://www.haworthpressinc.com/store/product.asp?sku=J146

Publisher:

US: Haworth Press
Publisher URL: http://www.haworthpress.com

ISSN:

1092-6771 (Print)
1545-083X (Electronic)

Language:

English

Keywords:

complex posttraumatic stress disorder; residential treatment program; chronically ill patients

Abstract:

Based on the author's previous work with military personnel suffering from PTSD, a 90-day residential treatment program for Complex PTSD was designed and implemented at Priory Ticehurst House Hospital. It comprises an assessment protocol, a highly structured work schedule, and day case follow-up reviews at six weeks, six months, and one year. Results of the present study suggest that the program promoted significant global improvement in terms of PTSD status, depression, and occupational and social function, with hospital admission days also reduced significantly over the follow-up period. These promising results prompt the need for empirical controlled studies in order to assess the full efficacy of this approach in intervening with chronically ill patients suffering from Complex PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Subjects:

*Chronic Illness; *Hospital Programs; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Treatment Effectiveness Evaluation; Client Attitudes; Program Evaluation; Residential Care Institutions

Classification:

Inpatient & Hospital Services (3379)

Population:

Human (10)
Male (30)
Female (40)
Inpatient (50)

Location:

United Kingdom

Age Group:

Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)
Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)
Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)
Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Tests & Measures:

General Health Questionnaire
Beck Depression Inventory
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale
Impact of Event Scale

Methodology:

Clinical Case Study; Empirical Study; Quantitative Study

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print
Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Document Type:

Original Journal Article

Release Date:

20060123

Accession Number:

2005-14204-003

Number of Citations in Source:

81

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 6

Title:

Simple versus complex PTSD: A cluster analytic investigation.

Author(s):

Taylor, Steven, Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, taylor@unixg.ubc.ca
Asmundson, Gordon J. G., Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies, University of Regina, Canada
Carleton, R. Nicholas, Department of Psychology, University of Regina, Canada

Address:

Taylor, Steven, Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, 2255 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6T 2A1, taylor@unixg.ubc.ca

Source:

Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol 20(4), 2006. pp. 459-472.

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science

ISSN:

0887-6185 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1016/j.janxdis.2005.04.003

Language:

English

Keywords:

posttraumatic stress disorder; syndromes; cluster analysis; treatment outcome

Abstract:

A cluster analytic investigation was conducted on measures of PTSD associated features (e.g., personality pathology, dissociative tendencies) to investigate whether empirically-defined clusters correspond to Herman's [1992, Complex PTSD: a syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5, 377-391; 1997, Trauma and recovery (Rev. ed.). New York: Basic Books] distinction between simple and complex PTSD. Results from a sample of 60 PTSD patients were broadly consistent with this distinction, although some inconsistencies were observed. Treatment outcome generally did not differ between the two clusters. Implications for classifying and treating PTSD are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)(from the journal abstract)

Subjects:

*Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Syndromes; Cluster Analysis; Treatment Outcomes

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)
Male (30)
Female (40)

Location:

Canada

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Tests & Measures:

Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire
Dissociative Experiences Scale
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV

Methodology:

Empirical Study; Followup Study; Longitudinal Study; Prospective Study; Quantitative Study

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Electronic
Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Document Type:

Original Journal Article

Release Date:

20060522

Accession Number:

2006-05819-005

Number of Citations in Source:

24

 

 

Persistent link to this record:

http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2006-05819-005&site=ehost-live

 

 

Cut and Paste:

<A href="http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2006-05819-005&site=ehost-live">Simple versus complex PTSD: A cluster analytic investigation.</A>

 

 

Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 7

Title:

Book review: Psychological trauma and the developing brain. Neurologically based interventions for troubled children.

Author(s):

Vardi, Gideon, Zusman Child Development Center, Division of Pediatrics, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel, GideonVa@clalit.org.il
Merrick, Joav, Division for Mental Retardation, Jerusalem, Israel, jmerrick@internet-zahav.net

Address:

Vardi, Gideon, Zusman Child Development Center, Division of Pediatrics, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel, GideonVa@clalit.org.il

Source:

International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, Vol 17(1), Jan-Mar 2005. Special issue: Adolescence And Physical Activity. pp. 93-94.

Publisher:

Israel: Freund Publishing House
Publisher URL: http://www.freundpublishing.com

Reviewed Item:

Stien, P. T. and Kendall, J (2004). Psychological trauma and the developing brain. Neurologically based interventions for troubled children; Binghamton, NY: Haworth Maltreatment and Trauma Press, 2004, 270. Price: 59.95 USD (hard cover), 39.95 USD (soft cover).

ISSN:

0334-0139 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

psychological trauma; brain development; posttraumatic stress disorder; intervention; children

Abstract:

Events early in life shape further human development and make the components of adult character. Early trauma of both the physical and the emotional kind have effects on the developing brain, which is the subject of Psychological Trauma and the Developing Brain: Neurologically Based Interventions for Troubled Children (2004), by P. T. Stien and J. Kendall. This book has seven chapters: brain growth, birth to five, PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), complex PTSD in children, healing the brain, Billy's story and translating scientific advances into policy with several illustrative case-stories and an extensive bibliography. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was formally recognized in 1980 in DSM-III (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders), but as a disorder it is an old problem described by physicians dealing with soldiers having "shell shock" seen in the first World War. In the late 1970s researchers found that survivors of rape and battered women suffered the same symptoms, but only lately has it been accepted that abused and maltreated children also suffer from PTSD with symptoms of reexperiencing the traumatic event, persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the event and a persistent state of heightened arousal. It can either be from a single overwhelming event or after repeated traumas (like abuse and maltreatment over time). In this book you will find the current explanations about the effects of trauma on the developing brain, interventions and case stories to illustrate, but also information describing the lack of societal involvement in spite of the enormous costs of child maltreatment to society. This book is recommended to professionals working with children in general, but also professionals in the fields of pediatrics, child psychiatry and psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Emotional Trauma; *Intervention; *Neural Development; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Childhood Development

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)

Age Group:

Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print
Format(s) Available: Print

Document Type:

Review

Release Date:

20050523

Accession Number:

2005-04813-015

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 8

Title:

Complex Trauma, Complex Reactions: Assessment and Treatment.

Author(s):

Courtois, Christine A., The CENTER: Posttraumatic Disorders Program, Psychiatric Institute of Washington, Washington, DC, US, cacourtoisphd@aol.com

Address:

Courtois, Christine A., 3 Washington Circle, Suite 205, Washington, DC, US, cacourtoisphd@aol.com

Source:

Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, Vol 41(4), Win 2004. Special issue: The Psychological Impact of Trauma: Theory, Research, Assessment, and Intervention. pp. 412-425.

Publisher:

US: Educational Publishing Foundation
Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org

ISSN:

0033-3204 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1037/0033-3204.41.4.412

Language:

English

Keywords:

complex trauma; complex posttraumatic stress disorder; diagnostic criteria; treatment; trauma reactions

Abstract:

Complex trauma occurs repeatedly and escalates over its duration. In families, it is exemplified by domestic violence and child abuse and in other situations by war, prisoner of war or refugee status, and human trafficking. Complex trauma also refers to situations such as acute/chronic illness that requires intensive medical intervention or a single traumatic event that is calamitous. Complex trauma generates complex reactions, in addition to those currently included in the DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article examines the criteria contained in the diagnostic conceptualization of complex PTSD (CPTSD). It reviews newly available assessment tools and outlines a sequenced treatment based on accumulated clinical observation and emerging empirical substantiation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Subjects:

*Emotional Trauma; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychodiagnosis; *Stress Reactions; *Treatment

Classification:

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population:

Human (10)

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print
Format(s) Available: Print

Document Type:

Original Journal Article

Release Date:

20050118

Accession Number:

2005-00001-006

Number of Citations in Source:

112

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO

Full Text Database:

PsycARTICLES


Record: 9

Title:

Simple and Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Strategies for Comprehensive Treatment in Clinical Practice.

Author(s):

Siebler, Philip, Monash University, VIC, Australia

Source:

Journal of Family Studies, Vol 10(2), Oct 2004. pp. 288-289.
Journal URL: http://www.latrobe.edu.au/publichealth/family_studies/jfs_home.htm

Publisher:

Australia: Journal of Family Studies
Publisher URL: http://www.latrobe.edu.au/publichealth/

Reviewed Item:

Mary Williams; John Somner Eds (2002). Simple and Complex Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder: Strategies for Comprehensive Treatment in Clinical Practice; Haworth Maltreatment and Trauma Press, New York, 2002,xxiii+408pp., $95.95 (paperback).

ISSN:

1322-9400 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

post-traumatic stress disorder; treatment; diagnosis; trauma intervention; schools; family therapy; law enforcement; media

Abstract:

Reviews the book, "Simple and Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Strategies for Comprehensive Treatment in Clinical Practice," edited by Mary Williams and John Somner (see record 2003-00405-000). A major focus of the book is the distinction between simple PTSD (where trauma consists of one or more isolated episodes) and complex PTSD (where childhood abuse is usually found). The book's strengths include its international contributions and its "how to" approach across a range of settings and clients. One of its limitations is that the controversy around the effectiveness of critical incident stress management and debriefing is not clearly addressed. Despite this, the book is a useful addition to the field and will have a broad readership which includes social workers, psychologists, family therapists, and psychotherapists who work with people who have experienced trauma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychotherapeutic Techniques; *Treatment; Emotional Trauma; Family Therapy; Law Enforcement Personnel; Mass Media; Psychodiagnosis; Schools

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print
Format(s) Available: Print

Document Type:

Review

Release Date:

20041220

Accession Number:

2004-21148-018

Number of Citations in Source:

1

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 10

Title:

PTSD and Complex PTSD: Symptoms, Syndromes, and Diagnoses.

Author(s):

Wilson, John P., Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, US

Source:

Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD (2nd ed.). Wilson, John P. (Ed); Keane, Terence M. (Ed); pp. 7-44.
New York, NY, US: Guilford Press, 2004. xvii, 668 pp.

ISBN:

1-59385-035-2 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

posttraumatic stress; complex PTSD; PTSD symptoms; PTSD syndromes; PTSD diagnoses; stress response; trauma; psychobiology; brain; nervous system; hormonal system; psychological systems; clusters

Abstract:

(from the chapter) The purpose of this chapter is to describe PTSD and complex forms of PTSD in terms of stress response syndromes, symptoms, and diagnoses. I focus on explaining PTSD in its interrelated organismic aspects and how the consequences of trauma affect the mind, body, and spirit. I discuss PTSD as a syndrome of dynamically related psychobiological processes that include the brain, the nervous and hormonal systems, psychological systems of memory, cognition, emotion, motivation, perception, and behavioral expressions of the organismic changes caused by trauma. I discuss PTSD within a holistic framework of five synergistically related symptom clusters that were not present before the traumatic event. Finally, I present a set of recommendations regarding diagnoses of PTSD and other disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Diagnosis; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Stress Reactions; *Symptoms; *Syndromes; Brain; Emotional Trauma; Hormones; Nervous System; Psychobiology

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)
Male (30)
Female (40)

Tests & Measures:

Peritraumatic Disassociative Experiences Questionnaire
Impact of Event Scale-Revised

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type:

Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type:

Original Chapter

Release Date:

20050613

Accession Number:

2004-21033-001

Number of Citations in Source:

70

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 11

Title:

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Illness: Results from Clinical and Epidemiologic Studies.

Series Title:

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences; Vol. 1032

Author(s):

Boscarino, Joseph A., Division of Health and Science Policy, New York Academy of Medicine, New York, NY, US

Address:

Boscarino, Joseph A., Division of Health and Science Policy, New York Academy of Medicine, Room 552, 1216 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, US

Source:

Biobehavioral stress response: Protective and damaging effects. Yehuda, Rachel (Ed); McEwen, Bruce (Ed); pp. 141-153.
New York, NY, US: New York Academy of Sciences, 2004. xvi, 331 pp.

ISBN:

1-57331-518-4 (hardcover)
1-57331-519-2 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

chronic posttraumatic stress disorder; trauma; physical illness; epidemiology; Vietnam veterans; autoimmune diseases; insulin dependent diabetes; psoriasis; rheumatoid arthritis; thyroid disease

Abstract:

(from the chapter) Research indicates that exposure to traumatic stressors and psychological trauma is widespread. The association of such exposures with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health conditions is well known. However, epidemiologic research increasingly suggests that exposure to these events is related to increased health care utilization, adverse health outcomes, the onset of specific diseases, and premature death. To date, studies have linked traumatic stress exposures and PTSD to such conditions as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, gastrointestinal disease, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, musculoskeletal disorders, and other diseases. Evidence linking cardiovascular disease and exposure to psychological trauma is particularly strong and has been found consistently across different populations and stressor events. In addition, clinical studies have suggested the biological pathways through which stressor-induced diseases may be pathologically expressed. In particular, recent studies have implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) stress axes as key in this pathogenic process, although genetic and behavioral/psychological risk factors cannot be ruled out. Recent findings, indicating that victims of PTSD have higher circulating T-cell lymphocytes and lower cortisol levels, are intriguing and suggest that chronic sufferers of PTSD may be at risk for autoimmune diseases. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the association between chronic PTSD in a national sample of 2,490 Vietnam veterans and the prevalence of common autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, insulin-dependent diabetes, and thyroid disease. Our analyses suggest that chronic PTSD, particularly comorbid PTSD or complex PTSD, is associated with all of these conditions. In addition, veterans with comorbid PTSD were more likely to have clinically higher T-cell counts, hyperreactive immune responses on standardized delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity tests, clinically higher immunogolobulin-M levels, and clinically lower dehydroepiandrosterone levels. The latter clinical evidence confirms the presence of biological markers consistent with a broad range of inflammatory disorders, including both cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Emotional Trauma; *Immunologic Disorders; *Military Veterans; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Diabetes; Epidemiology; Physical Disorders; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Skin Disorders; Thyroid Disorders

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)
Military Psychology (3800)

Population:

Human (10)
Male (30)

Location:

US

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)
Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Tests & Measures:

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Conference:

Annual ISPNE Conference: Protective and Damaging Effects of the Biobehavioral Stress Response, 34th, Sep, 2003, Rockefeller University, New York City, NY, US

Conference Notes:

This book summarizes the proceedings of the aforementioned conference.

Methodology:

Empirical Study; Quantitative Study

Publication Type:

Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type:

Original Chapter

Release Date:

20050328

Correction Date:

20050907

Accession Number:

2005-01907-011

Number of Citations in Source:

80

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 12

Title:

Civilian war-zone traumas, complex PTSD, and psychopathology: The case of Kuwaiti women.

Author(s):

Al-Rasheed, Malak, U Denver, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 65(5-A), 2004. pp. 1962.

Publisher:

US: Univ Microfilms International
Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:

0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3134423

Language:

English

Keywords:

civil war; psychopathology; posttraumatic stress disorder; war-zone traumas; Kuwaiti women

Abstract:

Little is known about the long-term effects of civilian war-zone traumas on psychopathology and psychosocial functioning for Kuwaiti women, and none about the application of Herman's theory of complex PTSD cross culturally and across different traumatic scenarios. This dissertation examines exposure and severity of reactions to different war-traumas in relation to the development of complex PTSD and other psychopathological symptoms, and levels of psychosocial functioning among a random sample of Kuwaiti women (N = 683). Participants completed a survey instrument designed to gather demographic data, and measure variables of trauma exposure, complex PTSD, PTSD, different psychopathological symptoms, self-concept, and psychosocial functioning. The results showed higher prevalence rates of complex PTSD (85.6%) vs. PTSD (30%), and high overall psychological distress (75.4%). In addition, a significant relationship between exposure to war-zone traumas and the development of complex PTSD was found. Finally, women with greater reactions to trauma had greater psychopathological symptoms, and lower psychosocial functioning levels. Severity of reactions to trauma, psychopathology, self-concept, and complex PTSD were significant predictors of psychosocial functioning levels. The findings imply that expansion of Herman's complex PTSD theory to include war-zone traumas as another case of prolonged trauma is feasible. In addition, complex PTSD could be a better diagnostic category to capture the greater range of reactions to prolonged trauma than PTSD. Other methodological and cultural validity issues were discussed as well. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychopathology; *War

Classification:

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population:

Human (10)
Female (40)

Location:

Kuwait

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Dissertation Abstract; Print
Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date:

20050328

Accession Number:

2004-99021-103

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 13

Title:

PTSD and associated features as predictors of revictimization and perpetration with samples of adults abused during childhood.

Author(s):

Dietrich, Anne Marie, U British Columbia, Canada

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 64(12-B), 2004. pp. 6325.

Publisher:

US: Univ Microfilms International
Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAINQ86033

Language:

English

Keywords:

posttraumatic stress disorder; victimization; child abuse

Abstract:

Two-hundred and twenty-four participants who reported a history of child abuse trauma were recruited from the internet, clinical (community outpatient) and prison settings and completed a battery of assessment measures, including Briere's Child Maltreatment Interview Schedule (CMIS) (slightly modified), Detailed Assessment of Traumatic Stress (DAPS), Cognitive Distortion Scale (CDS), and Inventory of Altered Self Capacities (IASC); van der Kolk's Self Inventory of Disorders of Extreme Stress (SIDES-SR); Nijenhuis's Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20); and a modification of the CMIS to assess for adult victimization experiences (Adult Victimization Survey or AVS; Dietrich, unpublished instrument). It was hypothesized that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Affect Dysregulation, and Problems with Interpersonal Relatedness would be associated with later revictimization experiences during adulthood with this sample, and that disturbances in ability to regulate self capacities and other complex posttraumatic sequelae would be associated with perpetration of physical or sexual violence during adulthood. Data were analyzed for 207 individuals who reported childhood maltreatment per the CMIS. Results provide partial support for the hypotheses. Women were significantly more likely to report revictimization, and male inmates were significantly more likely to perpetrate against others. Whereas PTSD and Somatoform Dissociation are the strongest dynamic predictors of any sexual or physical revictimization, Impaired Self Capacities are more often associated with revictimization by intimate partners in particular. Trauma-specific dissociation was associated with a decreased risk of revictimization, whereas peritraumatic and trait dissociation did not enter predictive models. Posttraumatic sequelae were not associated with increased risk of physical perpetration with these samples; however, IASC scores were associated with an increased risk of sexual perpetration and victim-based cognitive distortions were associated with decreased odds of sexual violence. These findings provide partial support for the Complex PTSD (Herman, 1992a) construct. Results are discussed in terms of implications for treatment, further study, and classification. Limitations are noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Child Abuse; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Victimization

Classification:

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population:

Human (10)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Dissertation Abstract; Print
Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date:

20041115

Accession Number:

2004-99012-214

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 14

Title:

Diagnostische und klinische Aspekte der komplexen posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung.

Translated Title:

Diagnostic and clinical aspects of complex post-traumatic stress disorder.

Author(s):

Sack, M., Abteilung Psychosomatik und Psychotherapie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, Germany, sack.martin@mh-hannover.de

Address:

Sack, M., Abteilung Psychosomatik und Psychotherapie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany, sack.martin@mh-hannover.de

Source:

Nervenarzt, Vol 75(5), 2004. pp. 451-459.
Journal URL: http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,4-40109-70-1003595-0,00.html

Publisher:

Germany: Springer
Publisher URL: http://www.springeronline.com

ISSN:

0028-2804 (Print)
1433-0407 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1007/s00115-003-1612-4

Language:

German

Keywords:

post-traumatic stress disorder; traumatization; affective dysregulation; somatization; self-perception

Abstract:

The symptomatology of patients suffering in the aftermath of severe and prolonged traumatization is not entirety covered by the diagnostic criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Consequently, the concept of complex PTSD was proposed, including symptoms of affective dysregulation, dissociation and somatization, alterations in self-perception, altered relationships with others, and altered systems of meaning. Thereby, a variety of symptoms usually classified as comorbid disorders are combined in a single etiological model. The whole symptomatology is considered as more or less effective adaptation strategies and not primarily as deficits. This understanding of the underlying etiology in subjects with complex traumatizations opens perspectives for new psychotherapeutic treatment strategies which have already shown effectiveness fn daily practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Subjects:

*Emotional Trauma; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Syndromes; *Somatization; Diagnosis; Etiology; Self Perception; Stress; Suffering

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Electronic
Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Document Type:

Original Journal Article

Release Date:

20041122

Accession Number:

2004-15654-004

Number of Citations in Source:

66

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 15

Title:

Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD (2nd ed.).

Author(s):

Wilson, John P., (Ed), Cleveland State University, Department of Psychology, Cleveland, OH, US
Keane, Terence M., (Ed), Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Boston, MA, US

Source:

New York, NY, US: Guilford Press, 2004. xvii, 668 pp.

ISBN:

1-59385-035-2 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

psychological trauma; posttraumatic stress disorder; traumatic stress studies; human behavior; brain functions; cross cultural differences; trauma response

Abstract:

(from the create) This book was designed to advance our collective knowledge about the methods and procedures by which we gain insight and information about psychological trauma and its effects on human behavior. Since the publication of the first edition in 1997, the field of traumatic stress studies has seen rapid advances in all domains of scientific inquiry about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the understanding of acute and chronic forms of traumatic stress. This volume reflects many of these advances, which range from neuroscience studies of brain functions to cross-cultural differences in trauma response. Part I focuses on conceptual and diagnostic approaches to understanding trauma and PTSD. Part II focuses attention on standardized psychometric measures, clinical protocols, epidemiological methods, and projective techniques of assessing trauma and PTSD. Part III is devoted to the assessment of the psychobiology of PSTD. Part IV focuses on assessing trauma, loss, and PTSD in medical settings. Part V assesses trauma and PTSD in gender, cultural, and psychosocial development. Part VI is concerned solely with the forensic/clinical assessment of psychological trauma and PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Coping Behavior; *Emotional Trauma; *Measurement; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Stress Reactions; Brain Damage; Cross Cultural Differences; Diagnosis; Psychobiology

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)
Male (30)
Female (40)

Age Group:

Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)
Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Tests & Measures:

Peritraumatic Disassociative Experiences Questionnaire
Impact of Event Scale-Revised
Rorschach Test

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type:

Book, Edited Book; Print

Release Date:

20050613

Accession Number:

2004-21033-000

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 16

Title:

How well does cognitive-behavioral therapy treat symptoms of complex PTSD? An examination of child sexual abuse survivors within a clinical trial.

Author(s):

Resick, Patricia A., Center for Trauma Recovery, Department of Psychology, Univeristy of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, US, resick@umsl.edu
Nishith, Pallavi, Center for Trauma Recovery, Department of Psychology, Univeristy of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, US
Griffin, Michael G., Center for Trauma Recovery, Department of Psychology, Univeristy of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, US

Address:

Resick, Patricia A., Center for Trauma Recovery, University of Missouri, Weinman Building, 8001 Natural Bridge Rd., St. Louis, MO, US, resick@umsl.edu

Source:

CNS Spectrums, Vol 8(5), May 2003. pp. 351-355.
Journal URL: http://www.cnsspectrums.com/index.php3

Publisher:

US: MBL Communications, Inc
Publisher URL: http://mblcommunications.com

ISSN:

1092-8529 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

cognitive behavioral therapy; child sexual abuse survivors; posttraumatic stress disorder; treatment effectiveness; rape victims

Abstract:

Are brief cognitive-behavioral treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also effective for the wider range of symptoms conceptualized as complex PTSD? Female rape victims, most of whom had extensive histories of trauma, were randomly assigned to cognitive-processing therapy, prolonged exposure, or a delayed-treatment waiting- list condition. After determining that both types of treatment were equally effective for treating complex PTSD symptoms, we divided the sample of 121 participants into two groups depending upon whether they had a history of child sexual abuse. Both groups improved significantly over the course of treatment with regard to PTSD, depression, and the symptoms of complex PTSD as measured by the Trauma Symptom Inventory. Improvements were maintained for at least 9 months. Although there were group main effects on the Self and Trauma factors, there were no differences between the two groups at posttreatment once pretreatment scores were covaried. These findings indicate that cognitive-behavioral therapies are effective for patients with complex trauma histories and symptoms patterns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Subjects:

*Child Abuse; *Cognitive Behavior Therapy; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Sexual Abuse; *Treatment Effectiveness Evaluation; Survivors

Classification:

Cognitive Therapy (3311)

Population:

Human (10)
Female (40)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Tests & Measures:

Standardized Trauma Interview
Trauma Symptom Inventory
Beck Depression Inventory
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale

Methodology:

Empirical Study; Quantitative Study; Treatment Outcome/Clinical Trial

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print
Format(s) Available: Print

Document Type:

Original Journal Article

Release Date:

20040830

Accession Number:

2004-12634-003

Number of Citations in Source:

46

 

 

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<A href="http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2004-12634-003&site=ehost-live">How well does cognitive-behavioral therapy treat symptoms of complex PTSD? An examination of child sexual abuse survivors within a clinical trial.</A>

 

 

Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 17

Title:

Implications of childhood sexual abuse for adult borderline personality disorder and complex posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s):

McLean, Linda M.
Gallop, Ruth

Source:

American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 160(2), Feb 2003. pp. 369-371.
Journal URL: http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/

Publisher:

US: American Psychiatric Assn
Publisher URL: http://www.appi.org

ISSN:

0002-953X (Print)
1535-7228 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1176/appi.ajp.160.2.369

Language:

English

Keywords:

early vs late onset sexual abuse; borderline personality disorder; complex posttraumatic stress disorder; human females

Abstract:

Examined whether women with a history of early-onset sexual abuse or those with late-onset sexual abuse were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for both borderline personality disorder and complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and the Trauma Assessment Package were administered to 65 women from three outpatient clinics in a metropolitan area. Thirty-eight subjects met criteria for early-onset abuse, while 27 subjects met criteria for late-onset abuse. The diagnoses of both borderline personality disorder and complex PTSD were significantly higher in women reporting early-onset abuse than in those with late-onset abuse. The trauma variables sexual abuse and paternal incest were significant predictors of both diagnoses. In contrast to those with comorbid diagnoses, some women with a history of childhood sexual abuse may be extricated from the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and subsumed under that of complex PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Borderline Personality Disorder; *Child Abuse; *Dual Diagnosis; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Sexual Abuse; Human Females; Stress; Victimization

Classification:

Criminal Behavior & Juvenile Delinquency (3236)

Population:

Human (10)
Female (40)

Location:

Canada

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print
Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date:

20030407

Accession Number:

2003-01457-021

Number of Citations in Source:

8

 

 

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<A href="http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2003-01457-021&site=ehost-live">Implications of childhood sexual abuse for adult borderline personality disorder and complex posttraumatic stress disorder.</A>

 

 

Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 18

Title:

Tjunguwiyanytja , attacks on linking: Forced separation and its psychiatric sequelae in Australia' 'Stolen Generations'.

Author(s):

Petchkovsky, Leon, U Queensland, Dept of Psychiatry, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, Leon_Petchkovsky@health.qld.gov.au
San Roque, Craig, U Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Address:

Petchkovsky, Leon, Gold Coast Hosp, Dept of Psychiatry, Southport, QLD, Australia, 4215, Leon_Petchkovsky@health.qld.gov.au

Source:

Transcultural Psychiatry, Vol 39(3), Sep 2002. pp. 345-366.

Publisher:

US: Sage Publications
Publisher URL: http://www.sagepublications.com/

ISSN:

1363-4615 (Print)
1461-7471 (Electronic)

Language:

English

Keywords:

Australian Aboriginal Stolen Generations; foster care; long-term mental health consequences; forced separation; symptomatology; posttraumatic stress disorder

Abstract:

From 1914 to the late 1960s, large numbers of Australian Aboriginal children were forcibly removed from their families and communities and placed in institutional foster care. Recently, attention has focused on the long-term mental health consequence of these forced separations. We describe the symptomatology of a group of nine adult members of the Australian Aboriginal "Stolen Generations' selected for psychiatric examination for legal purposes. Interviews were conducted to Present Mental State Examination standard, using a culturally sensitive reflective listening mode. Interviewees also completed the Goldberg Shorter Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (GSADQ). The clinical picture shared by all interviewees was consistent with contemporary understanding of the harmful impact of chronic trauma on the developing self. All reported high levels of distress on the GSADQ. The symptomatology fit diagnostic constructs of "complex PTSD, depressive type,' with disorders of self-organization, and marked somatizing features. Specific issues of cultural identity conflict were also salient. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Acculturation; *Emotional Trauma; *Foster Care; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychosocial Development; Indigenous Populations; Symptoms

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)

Location:

Australia

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print
Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date:

20021106

Accession Number:

2002-06280-004

Number of Citations in Source:

34

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 19

Title:

Posttraumatic stress disorder: The perspectives of object relations and self psychology in individual and group psychodynamic psychotherapy with Vietnam militar combat veterans.

Author(s):

Kost, Linda S., Rutgers The State U New Jersey, Graduate School Of Applied And Professional Psychology, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 62(7-B), Feb 2002. pp. 3381.

Publisher:

US: Univ Microfilms International
Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3018848

Language:

English

Keywords:

object relations; PTSD; self psychology; psychodynamic psychotherapy; Vietnam combat veterans

Abstract:

This dissertation comprises an exploration and integration of the psychodynamic literature about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Vietnam combat veterans, illustrated with case material from two individual psychotherapy cases and two PTSD groups conducted at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Object relations and self psychology theories were used to explore questions about how to formulate the nature of PTSD symptoms and the effects of symptoms on an individual's life, to elucidate the individual and societal meaning of Vietnam-related trauma, and to treat combat-related PTSD. The dissertation reviews selected works of psychodynamic clinicians since Freud that relate to war veterans, including authors who address the complex PTSD that affects Vietnam veterans. The theories of Klein, Fairbairn, Winnicott, Balint, Bion, Kernberg, Kohut, and Wolf are reviewed, as are authors who apply these theories to individual and group treatment of Vietnam-related PTSD. Object relations and self psychology theories applied to the case material include Fairbairn's notions of internal splitting and repression of bad objects, the moral defense, and the tripartite ego, and Winnicott's concepts of a good-enough holding environment, transitional phenomena, false self, and true self. The self psychology concepts of self-cohesion, selfobject transferences, and central organizing narcissistic fantasies are also applied. Unique aspects of the Vietnam War that contributed to developmental disturbances are presented. The wartime disruption of Erikson's chief adolescent developmental tasks, establishment of identity and capacity for intimacy, resulted in PTSD symptoms-loss of basic trust, alienation, lack of values and goals, identity diffusion, a sense of being "split" into an omnipotent killer and an ashamed victim, chronic unmet needs for mirroring and idealizing, and vulnerability to self-fragmentation experiences-that are especially aptly addressed by object relations and self psychology. The purpose of this integrative and qualitative study was to explore the phenomenology of PTSD and recurrent clinical themes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Combat Experience; *Military Veterans; *Object Relations; *Psychotherapy; *Self Psychology

Classification:

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population:

Human (10)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Dissertation Abstract; Print
Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date:

20020515

Accession Number:

2002-95002-177

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 20

Title:

Differential diagnosis of PTSD in women.

Author(s):

Cloitre, Marylene, Payne Whitney Clinic, Anxiety & Traumatic Stress Program, New York, NY, US
Koenen, Karestan C., Columbia U, School of Public Health, Psychiatric Epidemiology Program, New York, NY, US
Gratz, Kim L., U Massachusetts, Dept of Psychology, Boston, MA, US
Jakupcak, Matthew, U Massachusetts, Dept of Psychology, Boston, MA, US

Source:

Gender and PTSD. Kimerling, Rachel (Ed); Ouimette, Paige (Ed); Wolfe, Jessica (Ed); pp. 117-149.
New York, NY, US: Guilford Press, 2002. xx, 460 pp.

ISBN:

1-57230-783-8 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

posttraumatic stress disorder; differential diagnosis; human females; Axis I disorders; Avis II disorders; traumatic stress; comorbidities; complex PTSD; personality disorders

Abstract:

(from the chapter) The specific aims of this chapter are to review data that advance our understanding of the influence of gender on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) differential diagnosis among women, to provide practical guidelines for clinicians involved in assessing female trauma clients, and to identify fruitful directions for future research. We specifically address the issue of gender and differential diagnosis between PTSD and other Axis I disorders by considering (1) the presence and character of a traumatic stressor, (2) the ability of clinicians to discriminate between PTSD and other Axis I disorders, (3) evidence for the conceptual independence of PTSD and frequent comorbidities, and (4) the impact of PTSD compared to other disorders on functional impairment. The differential diagnosis of PTSD and the Axis II disorders also receive significant attention, including gender differences in Axis II patterns, treatment implications related to gender and Axis II diagnoses, and the relationship of complex PTSD to both PTSD and Axis II disorders. This chapter underscores the relationship between PTSD, other Axis I disorders, and the characterological or personality disorders related to reactions to stress or trauma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Comorbidity; *Differential Diagnosis; *Human Females; *Mental Disorders; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Emotional Trauma; Personality Disorders; Stress Reactions

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)
Female (40)

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type:

Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type:

Original Chapter

Release Date:

20030224

Accession Number:

2003-04410-005

Number of Citations in Source:

79

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 21

Title:

Short-term treatment of simple and complex PTSD.

Author(s):

Tinnin, Louis, Trauma Recovery Inst, Morgantown, WV, US
Bills, Lyndra, The Sanctuary, Quakertown, PA, US
Gantt, Linda, Trauma Recovery Inst, Morgantown, WV, US

Source:

Simple and complex post-traumatic stress disorder: Strategies for comprehensive treatment in clinical practice. Williams, Mary Beth (Ed); Sommer, John F. Jr. (Ed); pp. 99-118.
Binghamton, NY, US: Haworth Maltreatment and Trauma Press/The Haworth Press, Inc, 2002. xxiii, 408 pp.

ISBN:

0-7890-0297-3 (hardcover)
0-7890-0298-1 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

brief treatment method; traumatic memories; posttraumatic stress disorder; video assisted therapy

Abstract:

(from the chapter) This chapter presents a brief treatment method that uses video technology as a therapeutic tool in in-session treatment procedures and as homework. This approach permits controlled, nonabreactive processing of traumatic memories. It protects the patient from retraumatization and allows the trauma work to commence without undue delay. Video-assisted therapy uses recursive reviews of the treatment sessions. Every session is videotaped--including those sessions reviewing previous tapes--and the patient owns the tapes. The patient conducts much of the therapy independently by studying the tapes at home. This treatment also uses video recording and replay in video dialogue, a specific to procedure to diminish dissociation, and permits externalization of an individual's inner dialogue. The principles of video-assisted trauma therapy can be applied without video recording, but using the video camera, if the treatment is to be brief, is recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Brief Psychotherapy; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychotherapeutic Techniques; *Videotapes; Emotional Trauma

Classification:

Psychotherapy & Psychotherapeutic Counseling (3310)

Population:

Human (10)

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type:

Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type:

Original Chapter

Release Date:

20031020

Accession Number:

2003-00405-006

Number of Citations in Source:

12

 

 

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<A href="http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2003-00405-006&site=ehost-live">Short-term treatment of simple and complex PTSD.</A>

 

 

Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 22

Title:

Überlebende von folter. Eine studie zu komplexen postraumatischen belastungsstörungen.

Translated Title:

Survivors of torture: A study of complex posttraumatic stress disorders.

Author(s):

Teegen, Frauke, U Hamburg, Psychologisches Inst III, Hamburg, Germany
Vogt, Silke, U Hamburg, Psychologisches Inst III, Hamburg, Germany

Source:

Verhaltenstherapie & Verhaltensmedizin, Vol 23(1), 2002. pp. 91-106.

Publisher:

Germany: Pabst Science Publishers
Publisher URL: http://www.pabst-publishers.com/

ISSN:

1013-1973 (Print)

Language:

German

Keywords:

torture; PTSD; survivors; screening instrument; symptoms

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to question survivors of torture about the context and kind of the sustained torture and to administer a screening of lasting physical sequelae and symptoms of PTSD. Assuming that the experience of torture leads to very comprehensive trauma related syndromes, the construct of complex PTSD was additionally included. As item version was constructed on the basis of the Structured Interview of Disorders for Extreme Stress, which captures changes in affect regulation, self-perception, relationship capability, systems of meaning as well as somatic disorders. 33 survivors participated (male and female; mean age 41 yrs old). When experiencing torture for the first time, 21% were younger than 16 yrs old. 83% sustained lasting physical damage. PTSD was diagnosed in 94%. In addition to the syndrome of PTSD, two thirds exhibited the entire syndrome of a complex PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Health Screening; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Survivors; *Torture

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)
Male (30)
Female (40)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print
Format(s) Available: Electronic; Print

Release Date:

20020807

Accession Number:

2002-01636-005

Number of Citations in Source:

23

 

 

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<A href="http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2002-01636-005&site=ehost-live">Überlebende von folter. Eine studie zu komplexen postraumatischen belastungsstörungen.</A>

 

 

Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 23

Title:

Simple and complex post-traumatic stress disorder: Strategies for comprehensive treatment in clinical practice.

Author(s):

Williams, Mary Beth, (Ed), private practice, Warrenton, VA, US
Sommer, John F. Jr., (Ed), American Legion, Washington, DC, US

Source:

Binghamton, NY, US: Haworth Maltreatment and Trauma Press/The Haworth Press, Inc, 2002. xxiii, 408 pp.

ISBN:

0-7890-0297-3 (hardcover)
0-7890-0298-1 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

post-traumatic stress disorder; treatment; diagnosis; trauma intervention; schools; family therapy; law enforcement; media

Abstract:

(from the jacket) This book, by the authors of the Handbook of Post-Traumatic Therapy, provides the "how to" of clinical practice techniques in a variety of settings with a variety of clients. It addresses concerns about the efficacy of critical incident stress debriefing, examines the value of a variety of innovative treatment methods, and explores the differences between treating complex PTSD and the aftermath of a one-time traumatic event.
(from the publicity materials) The book is a valuable resource for both newcomers and experts in the field of trauma practice. >From core topics such as diagnosis and standard forms of treatment to areas that have until now been relatively neglected, such as trauma-oriented family therapy, trauma intervention in the schools, trauma among law enforcement officials, and trauma and the media, this book compiles many of the diverse manifestations of trauma, its impact, and its resolution into a single source. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Emotional Trauma; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychodiagnosis; *Psychotherapeutic Techniques; *Treatment; Family Therapy; Law Enforcement Personnel; Mass Media; Schools

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)

Age Group:

Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)
Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type:

Book, Edited Book; Print

Release Date:

20031020

Accession Number:

2003-00405-000

 

 

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<A href="http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2003-00405-000&site=ehost-live">Simple and complex post-traumatic stress disorder: Strategies for comprehensive treatment in clinical practice.</A>

 

 

Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 24

Title:

The PTSD workbook: Simple, effective techniques for overcoming traumatic stress symptoms.

Author(s):

Williams, Mary Beth, Trauma Recovery Education & Counseling Ctr, Warrenton, VA, US
Poijula, Soili, Oy Synolon Ltd., Ctr for Trauma Psychology, Finland

Source:

Oakland, CA, US: New Harbinger Publications, Inc., 2002. viii, 237 pp.
Publisher URL: http://www.newharbinger.com

ISBN:

1-57224-282-5 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

posttraumatic stress disorder; techniques; interventions; traumatic stress symptoms; trauma survivors

Abstract:

(from the cover) Two psychologists and trauma experts gather together techniques and interventions used by posttraumatic stress disorder experts from around the world to offer trauma survivors tools to conquer their most distressing trauma-related symptoms. The workbook provides information on learning to determine the type of trauma experienced, identifying symptoms, and learning the most effective strategies to overcome them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Emotional Trauma; *Injuries; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Self Help Techniques; *Symptoms; Survivors

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type:

Book, Authored Book; Print

Book Type:

Textbook/Study Guide

Release Date:

20020522

Accession Number:

2002-02781-000

Number of Citations in Source:

111

 

 

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<A href="http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2002-02781-000&site=ehost-live">The PTSD workbook: Simple, effective techniques for overcoming traumatic stress symptoms.</A>

 

 

Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 25

Title:

The relationship between early childhood sexual abuse and the adult diagnoses of borderline personality disorder and complex posttraumatic stress disorder: Diagnostic implications.

Author(s):

Mclean, Linda Margaret, The Fielding Inst., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 62(4-B), Oct 2001. pp. 2069.

Publisher:

US: Univ Microfilms International
Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3012728

Language:

English

Keywords:

childhood sexual abuse; borderline personality disorder; complex PTSD; adults; abuse onset

Abstract:

Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in the etiologic primacy of childhood sexual abuse to adult psychopathology and diagnoses. A body of empirical literature points to the association of severe childhood trauma with both Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Complex PTSD (CP). The goal of this study was to determine if borderline psychopathology can be seen primarily as resulting from early onset (i.e., le;12 years of age) sexual abuse vs. late onset (i.e., ge;13 years of age) sexual abuse in a subset of women who met diagnostic criteria for both BPD and CP. The consideration of the diagnosis of CP for a subset of borderline patients informs treatment. Sixty-five women (ge;18 years) comprised a convenience sample from three mental health outpatient clinics in a large metropolitan city: Thirty-eight were selected because they presented with a history of early onset sexual abuse, while 27 were selected because they presented with a history of late onset. Each participant was administered the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines, the Traumatic Antecedent Questionnaire, the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale, and the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress. Furthermore, five qualitative questions generated additional information regarding sexual revictimization, attachment, dissociation, and the impact of trauma. Trauma variables including chronic duration of abuse, incest, bi-parental neglect, and sexual revictimization were significantly higher in women reporting early onset of sexual abuse than women reporting late onset of sexual abuse. Moreover, the diagnoses of BPD, lifetime and current CP, and both BPD and CP were significantly higher in women reporting early onset of sexual abuse as opposed to late onset abuse. The predictor variables sexual abuse and intrafamilial (paternal incest) were found to be significant in the prediction of BPD and both BPD and CP. Discriminant analysis showed the strongest relationship with sexual abuse in the prediction of current and lifetime CP. Two other predictor variables were found to be similarly strong, namely, bi-parental neglect and emotional abuse. The results suggest that a subset of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse who meet diagnostic criteria for BPD may be subsumed under the diagnostic category of CP. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Borderline Personality Disorder; *Child Abuse; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Sexual Abuse

Classification:

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population:

Human (10)
Female (40)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Dissertation Abstract; Print
Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date:

20020220

Accession Number:

2001-95020-266

 

 

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<A href="http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2001-95020-266&site=ehost-live">The relationship between early childhood sexual abuse and the adult diagnoses of borderline personality disorder and complex posttraumatic stress disorder: Diagnostic implications.</A>

 

 

Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 26

Title:

Combat veterans and complex posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s):

Shemain, Rebecca Maiya Brenda, California School Of Professional Psychology - Berkeley/Alameda, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 62(3-B), Sep 2001. pp. 1598.

Publisher:

US: Univ Microfilms International
Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3009245

Language:

English

Keywords:

combat exposure; veterans; complex PTSD

Abstract:

This study was designed to gain preliminary insight into the relationship between combat exposure in combat veterans and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The researcher's hypothesis was that there is a positive correlation between the two, where the risk of developing Complex PTSD increases as the severity of combat increases. This hypothesis contrasts Herman's (1992) model, which categorizes combat as a circumscribed traumatic event that does not typically lead to Complex PTSD. Herman believes that prolonged, repeated trauma, which occurs when a victim is held as a captive and/or under the control of a perpetrator, such as in concentration camps and sexual abuse, are more likely to lead to Complex PTSD. The researcher argues that combat should be included as an example of prolonged trauma, because veterans often experience extreme stress as they witness and endure horrifying physical and psychological trauma, while unable to make important decisions about their service. In this study, five US combat veterans, diagnosed with PTSD, were recruited from the Department of Veterans Affairs Clinic in Oakland (VA). The participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Combat Exposure Scale (CES) (Keane, 1989), the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) (Selzer, 1971), the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale (van der Kolk, unpublished manuscript), and the Self-report Inventory of Disorders of Extreme Stress (SIDES) (van der Kolk, unpublished manuscript). Findings of the study must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size and the nature of statistical tests utilized. There was no statistically significant evidence that increased exposure to combat led to increased Complex PTSD symptomatology. Nor were there significant positive correlations between CES and any of the SIDES' scales as predicted. Rather, the most significant relationship found was a negative correlation between CES and SIDES scale three, alterations in self-perception. Therefore, as the exposure to combat increased, participants' changes in self-perception decreased, in terms of: (a) ineffectiveness; (b) permanent damage; (c) guilt and responsibility; (d) shame; (e) a sense that nobody can understand; and (f) minimizing. Possible reasons for this finding and implications of the study are discussed, as are directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Combat Experience; *Military Veterans; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Classification:

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population:

Human (10)

Location:

US

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Dissertation Abstract; Print
Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date:

20020109

Accession Number:

2001-95018-295

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 27

Title:

Psychotherapy for massively traumatized refugees: The therapist variable.

Author(s):

Kinzie, J. David, Oregon Health & Sciences U, Dept of Psychiatry, Portland, OR, US

Source:

American Journal of Psychotherapy, Vol 55(4), 2001. pp. 475-490.
Journal URL: http://www.ajp.org

Publisher:

US: Assn for the Advancement of Psychotherapy
Publisher URL: http://www.ajp.org

ISSN:

0002-9564 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

psychotherapy; refugees; posttraumatic stress disorder; PTSD; therapist variable; therapist ability

Abstract:

In the treatment of severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), much emphasis is put on techniques, especially behavioral therapies. Such techniques negate the importance of the therapist as an individual in the treatment of complex PTSD as presented in severely traumatized refugees. The specific difficulties encountered by this population and the therapist responses are discussed: the need to tell the trauma story and the therapist's ability to listen; the patient's need for constancy and therapist's ability to stay; the patient's need to give and the therapist's ability to receive; the patient's problem with evil and the therapist's ability to believe. Case examples illustrate the approach and then discuss how generalizable this experience is to other populations. Research implications are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Subjects:

*Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychotherapeutic Processes; *Refugees; *Therapist Characteristics

Classification:

Psychotherapy & Psychotherapeutic Counseling (3310)

Population:

Human (10)
Male (30)
Female (40)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)
Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)
Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal; Print
Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date:

20020227

Accession Number:

2002-00423-003

Number of Citations in Source:

30

 

 

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<A href="http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2002-00423-003&site=ehost-live">Psychotherapy for massively traumatized refugees: The therapist variable.</A>

 

 

Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 28

Title:

Treatment of persons with complex PTSD and other trauma-related disruptions of the self.

Author(s):

Pearlman, Laurie Anne, Ctr for Adult & Adolescent Psychotherapy, Traumatic Stress Inst, South Windsor, CT, US

Source:

Treating psychological trauma and PTSD. Wilson, John P. (Ed); Friedman, Matthew J. (Ed); Lindy, Jacob D. (Ed); pp. 205-236.
New York, NY, US: Guilford Press, 2001. xii, 467 pp.

ISBN:

1-57230-687-4 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

complex PTSD; early childhood abuse & neglect; early trauma; identity disruptions; constructivist self development theory; treatment

Abstract:

(from the chapter) Discusses complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the sequelae of early childhood abuse and neglect. Complex PTSD includes dissociation, relationship difficulties, revictimization, somatization, affect dysregulation, and disruptions of identity. The author provides a theoretical framework for understanding the clinical observations that are collectively termed complex PTSD. An approach to treatment has grown out of constructivist self development theory, which the author describes as it applies to the adaptations. She then applies that approach to case examples of 3 survivors of childhood trauma. In the process, she delineates some hypothetical mechanisms of change in psychotherapies with survivors of severe and early trauma. The author's intent is that the chapter will provide a clinical and theoretical basis for future research into these mechanisms and treatment approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Constructivism; *Early Experience; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Self Concept; *Treatment; Child Abuse; Child Neglect; Theories

Classification:

Psychotherapy & Psychotherapeutic Counseling (3310)

Population:

Human (10)
Female (40)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)
Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360)

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type:

Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type:

Original Chapter

Release Date:

20011107

Accession Number:

2001-05097-009

Number of Citations in Source:

85

 

 

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<A href="http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2001-05097-009&site=ehost-live">Treatment of persons with complex PTSD and other trauma-related disruptions of the self.</A>

 

 

Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 29

Title:

Practical considerations in the treatment of PTSD: Guidelines for practitioners.

Author(s):

Wilson, John P., Cleveland State U, Dept of Psychology, Cleveland, OH, US
Friedman, Matthew J.
Lindy, Jacob D.

Source:

Treating psychological trauma and PTSD. Wilson, John P. (Ed); Friedman, Matthew J. (Ed); Lindy, Jacob D. (Ed); pp. 409-431.
New York, NY, US: Guilford Press, 2001. xii, 467 pp.

ISBN:

1-57230-687-4 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

PTSD; treatment; key features; practitioner guidelines

Abstract:

(from the chapter) This chapter summarizes key features of treatment approaches for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a synopsis guideline for use by practitioners. The goal is to present the essential features of each of 11 treatment approaches for PTSD and highlight how they may be used by the clinical practitioner who faces choice points regarding strategies and methods for treating PTSD. The authors' intent is to provide a framework for clinical understanding, case assessment, and empowerment of the client's recovery. The 11 approaches considered include (1) psychopharmacotherapy, (2) psychodynamic approaches, (3) acute interventions, (4) cognitive-behavioral treatment, (5) treatment of complex PTSD, (6) treatment in dual diagnosis cases, (7) cross-cultural treatments, (8) treatment of PTSD in children, (9) treatment approaches for families and couples, (10) group psychotherapy, and (11) treatment for severe mental illness and PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Treatment Guidelines; Clinicians

Classification:

Psychotherapy & Psychotherapeutic Counseling (3310)

Population:

Human (10)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type:

Book, Edited Book; Print

Document Type:

Original Chapter

Release Date:

20011107

Accession Number:

2001-05097-016

Number of Citations in Source:

39

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 30

Title:

Treating psychological trauma and PTSD.

Author(s):

Wilson, John P., (Ed), Cleveland State U, Dept of Psychology, Cleveland, OH, US
Friedman, Matthew J., (Ed)
Lindy, Jacob D., (Ed)

Source:

New York, NY, US: Guilford Press, 2001. xii, 467 pp.

ISBN:

1-57230-687-4 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

PTSD; psychological trauma; psychobiological framework; treatment approaches

Abstract:

(from the jacket) Much has been learned about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the past 2 decades, yet many questions remain about the complex pathways by which trauma disrupts people's lives. This book presents an innovative psychobiological framework to help clinicians and researchers better understand the myriad difficulties facing patients and navigate the array of available intervention approaches. Incorporating the latest theory and clinical research, the book provides a crucial reformulation of diagnostic criteria and treatment goals. It then brings together leading treatment experts to describe and illustrate their respective approaches, facilitating the selection and implementation of the most effective interventions for individual patients. Combining up-to-date theoretical exposition with clear-cut recommendations for practice, this is an ideal resource for professionals from a range of backgrounds. It will also serve as a graduate-level text in courses on stress and trauma, abuse and victimization, and abnormal psychology as well as clinical psychology practica. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Emotional Trauma; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychobiology; *Treatment

Classification:

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population:

Human (10)

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type:

Book, Edited Book; Print

Release Date:

20011107

Accession Number:

2001-05097-000

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 31

Title:

Complex PTSD: A review of current issues.

Author(s):

Ide, Natalie, Loyola Coll, Baltimore, MD, US
Paez, Andrew

Source:

International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, Vol 2(1), Win 2000. pp. 43-51.

Publisher:

US: Chevron Publishing
Publisher URL: http://www.chevronpublishing.com

ISSN:

1522-4821 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

diagnosis of complex PTSD

Abstract:

The diagnostic formulation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has made a great advance since its inception in the early 1980s. Yet it may be argued that PTSD as now formulated does not go far enough in capturing the psychological response to traumatic events. The notion of "complex PTSD" is reviewed as an extension of the current formulations of PTSD. Complex PTSD transcends current formulations of PTSD in 3 main areas of disturbance: 1) complex symptom presentations, 2) characterological issues, and 3) vulnerability to repeated trauma. These issues are reviewed and support is provided for a formal recognition of complex PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychodiagnosis; *Severity (Disorders)

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date:

20001213

Accession Number:

2000-12445-005

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 32

Title:

The prediction of suicidal behaviors in adults who were sexually abused as children.

Author(s):

Hughes, Brenda Morris, U Kentucky, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 60(11-B), Jun 2000. pp. 5775.

Publisher:

US: Univ Microfilms International
Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI9948871

Language:

English

Keywords:

predictors of suicidal behaviors, psychiatric inpatients & Ss in 12-step programs & university students who were sexually abused as children

Abstract:

Persons who have experienced sexual abuse as a child have been found to have a higher incidence of suicidal behaviors in adulthood than persons who have not been sexually abused. However, little empirical data exist that describe the variables accounting for an association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult suicidal behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify those variables that could predict suicidal behaviors in CSA survivors. The following seven factors were extrapolated from the CSA literature as likely predictors of suicidal behaviors in adulthood: (a) a high degree of exposure to CSA, (b) overall severity of childhood maltreatment, (c) the lack of childhood social support, (d) adult revictimization, (e) symptoms of a dysfunctional self, (f) dysphoric symptoms, and (g) traumatic symptoms. The significance of the seven factors was tested through a survey method in which questionnaires were distributed to three populations: (a) psychiatric inpatients, (b) persons participating in 12-step programs, and (c) university students. A total of 176 surveys were returned anonymously and produced a sample of 89 persons (female n = 60, male n = 29) who indicated they had been sexually abused as children. The data from these 89 surveys were analyzed using t-tests, Pearson correlations, Hotelling's T2, and multiple regressions. Based on early analyses, the three variables representing symptoms of a dysfunctional self, dysphoria and trauma were combined into one variable, Complex PTSD (CP) symptomatology. The results of the regression analysis showed that CP predicted suicidal behaviors to the exclusion of the other factors (R 2 =.762, F = 278.210). The 37 survivors who reported a history of suicide attempts were significantly different in every measure from those survivors who had never attempted. They demonstrated a life long history of abuse with high CP symptomatology. The results of this study support the need to assess CSA survivors for Complex PTSD symptomatology in determining suicidal risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Child Abuse; *Sexual Abuse; *Social Support; *Suicidal Ideation; *Survivors; Major Depression; Reactive Psychosis; Symptoms; Victimization

Classification:

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population:

Human (10)
Male (30)
Female (40)
Inpatient (50)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)
Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Dissertation Abstract; Print
Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date:

20010228

Accession Number:

2000-95010-061

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 33

Title:

Traumatic sequalae in Vietnam veterans: A concept map. (survivors, combat, posttraumatic stress disorder).

Author(s):

Brown, Jamye Buelke, Auburn U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 60(7-B), Feb 2000. pp. 3557.

Publisher:

US: Univ Microfilms International
Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AEH9939610

Language:

English

Keywords:

sequalae of combat trauma, Vietnam veterans

Abstract:

Many individuals suffer from the sequelae of traumatic experiences. One population of trauma survivors that have been widely studied is veterans. It has long been recognized that combat veterans are changed by their experiences in the wars in which they have served. These men and women may experience chronic and severe pathologies as a result of their traumatic exposure. Forty-two Vietnam veterans participated in this study which examined the sequelae of combat trauma. An alternative research methodology, concept mapping was used. This method enlisted the veterans as informants of the symptoms that they experience which they believe to be the result of their military service in Vietnam. The concept mapping methodology involves four steps: (1) Researcher's seek participants' perspectives on a phenomena; (2) Researchers qualitatively reduce these perspectives as needed; (3) Participants sort (for similarity) and rate (for salience) the reduced elements; and (4) Statistical analysis (multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis) clarify the latent organization of the participants' perspectives. Results reveal a complex symptom structure in which veterans experience self-destructive behaviors, somatic complaints, alteration in meaning systems and functioning, unmodulated hostility, social withdrawal, alienation from feelings, anxiety, and despair. These findings are consistent with the more contemporary conceptualization of Complex PTSD, and suggest that both anxiety and dissociative elements are significant in post-traumatic pathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Combat Experience; *Emotional Trauma; *Military Veterans; *Psychodynamics

Classification:

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population:

Human (10)

Location:

Vietnam

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Dissertation Abstract

Release Date:

20000906

Accession Number:

2000-95002-296

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 34

Title:

Exposure to chronic community violence: Formal kinship, informal kinship, and spirituality as stress moderators for African American children.

Author(s):

Saunders, Janine Michelle, U Texas At Austin, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 60(12-A), 2000. pp. 4333.

Publisher:

US: Univ Microfilms International
Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:

0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI9956917

Language:

English

Keywords:

exposure to chronic community violence & formal & informal kinship & spirituality, development of PTSD, 9-11 yr old African Americans

Abstract:

In many African American communities, violence and poverty are often part of daily living. Due to exposure to chronically violent conditions, children are at risk for difficulties in all aspect of their lives, particularly their emotional well being. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between exposure to Chronic Community Violence (CCV) and the development of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (C-PTSD), a constellation of symptoms that occur as a result of repeated exposure to traumas. This issue was explored in the context of specific African American cultural beliefs and values that have the potential to moderate the development of maladaptive psychological functioning. Support through formal kinship support, informal kinship support, and spirituality are among a few of the coping mechanisms that are utilized by African Americans. It was anticipated that the coping mechanisms would act as stress moderators, or buffers, to the development of symptoms of C-PTSD. Participants in the study included 71 African American children between the ages of 9 and 11. They were selected from "neighborhood schools" in the midst of a high-crime, high-poverty community in Houston, Texas. Self-report questionnaires were orally administered to the children in the study. The self-report questionnaires provided indices of the following: (a) exposure to chronic community violence, (b) Complex PTSD, and (c) the coping mechanisms (formal kinship, informal kinship, and spirituality) used by African American children. Through multiple regression analyses, the coping mechanisms were investigated in the context of exposure to chronic community violence and the development of Complex PTSD. The results indicated that each of the coping mechanisms alone were not enough to moderate the symptoms of Complex PTSD. However, the combination of the three supports demonstrated buffering effects on exposure to violence. Secondary analyses using the caregivers perceptions of their child's supports revealed that utilizing formal kinship and spirituality were each strong enough to buffer the effects of violence such that fewer symptoms of C-PTSD were exhibited. The combination of the three supports also demonstrated moderating effects. Thus, the coping mechanisms, based in African American values, moderated the relationship between exposure to violence and C-PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Communities; *Kinship; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Spirituality; *Violence; Blacks

Classification:

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population:

Human (10)

Location:

US

Age Group:

Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)
School Age (6-12 yrs) (180)
Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Dissertation Abstract; Print
Format(s) Available: Print

Release Date:

20010228

Accession Number:

2000-95011-032

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 35

Title:

Complexities in complex posttraumatic stress disorder in inpatient women: Evidence from cluster analysis of MCMI-III personality disorder scales.

Author(s):

Allen, Jon G., Menninger Clinic, Topeka, KS, US
Huntoon, Janis
Evans, Richard B.

Source:

Journal of Personality Assessment, Vol 73(3), Dec 1999. pp. 449-471.
Journal URL: http://www.leaonline.com/loi/jpa

Publisher:

US: Lawrence Erlbaum
Publisher URL: http://www.erlbaum.com/

ISSN:

0022-3891 (Print)
1532-7752 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1207/S15327752JPA7303_10

Language:

English

Keywords:

cluster analysis of Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III personality disorder scales, assessment of complex PTSD & subgroup heterogeneity, inpatient women with trauma related disorders

Abstract:

This study employed cluster analysis of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) personality disorder scales to determine whether there is meaningful heterogeneity within a group of 227 severely traumatized women (mean age 37.6 yrs) who were treated in a specialized inpatient program. The analysis distinguishes 5 clinically meaningful clusters, which the authors labeled alienated, withdrawn, aggressive, suffering, and adaptive. The study examined differences among these 5 personality disorder clusters on the MCMI-III clinical syndrome scales, as well as on the Brief Symptom Inventory, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Adult Attachment Scale, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The authors present a classification-tree method for determining the cluster membership of new cases and discuss the implications of the findings for diagnostic assessment, treatment, and research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Cluster Analysis; *Homogeneity of Variance; *Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory; *Personality Disorders; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Emotional Trauma; Psychological Assessment; Subtests

Classification:

Clinical Psychological Testing (2224)
Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)
Female (40)
Inpatient (50)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)
Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date:

20000301

Accession Number:

2000-13384-010

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 36

Title:

Critical incident intervention with missionaries: A comprehensive approach.

Author(s):

Jensma, Jeanne L., Tuscarora Resource Ctr, Mt Bethel, PA, US

Source:

Journal of Psychology & Theology, Vol 27(2), Sum 1999. Special issue: Psychology and Missions. pp. 130-138.
Journal URL: https://wisdom.biola.edu/jpt/?CFID=363854&CFTOKEN=15045039

Publisher:

US: University of Biola
Publisher URL: http://www.biola.edu/

ISSN:

0091-6471 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

comprehensive approach to intervention for critical incidents & possible aftereffects, missionaries

Abstract:

When people are exposed to, or involved in, traumatic occurrences, they are at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to follow in the wake. This involves more than psychological discomfort; it involves a host of physiological, mental, emotional, and spiritual sequelae. The results of trauma can be so debilitating that a missionary might be unable to continue to minister. The effects can last a lifetime. Given the relatively high level of risk for missionaries to experience critical incidents and the possible aftereffects, it is important for churches and mission boards to have an adequate and comprehensive approach to member care in ministering to missionaries when they encounter critical incidents. A comprehensive plan would include critical incident stress debriefing as soon as possible after an incident, one-to-one counseling--preferably with a therapist trained in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)--for those individuals experiencing complex PTSD, debriefing for the debriefers, and a post-critical incident seminar at least 3 mo after the incident. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Crisis Intervention Services; *Missionaries; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Classification:

Health & Mental Health Services (3370)
Religion (2920)

Population:

Human (10)

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer-Reviewed Status-Unknown

Release Date:

19990901

Correction Date:

20050907

Accession Number:

1999-03248-006

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 37

Title:

'Complex' posttraumatic stress disorder/disorders of extreme stress (CP/DES) in sexually abused children: An exploratory study.

Author(s):

Hall, Darlene Kordich, York U, Atkinson Coll, School of Nursing, North York, ON, Canada

Source:

Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, Vol 8(4), 1999. pp. 51-71.
Journal URL: http://www.haworthpressinc.com/store/product.asp?sku=J070

Publisher:

US: Haworth Press
Publisher URL: http://www.haworthpress.com

ISSN:

1053-8712 (Print)
1547-0679 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1300/J070v08n04_04

Language:

English

Keywords:

cumulative trauma & presence & severity of symptoms associated with Complex PTSD/Disorders of Extreme Stress, sexually abused 3-7 yr olds with full vs partial vs no PTSD

Abstract:

The syndrome of "Complex" Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP/DES) has been proposed to describe symptoms, inadequately characterized by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reported by adult survivors of repeated interpersonal trauma. This study explores whether CP/DES characterizes the responses of sexually abused children, some of whom have sustained multiple interpersonal trauma. Three groups of young sexually abused children (i.e., Full-PTSD, Partial-PTSD, Non-PTSD; 99 Ss, aged 3-7 yrs) were compared on 7 child CP/DES indices. Children with PTSD exhibited more CP/DES symptoms within a greater number of CP/DES categories than Partial- or Non-PTSD groups . The relationship between cumulative trauma and total number of CP/DES symptoms revealed that as the cumulative number of types of trauma increased the number of CP/DES symptoms rose. These results suggest that CP/DES also characterizes sexually abused children, especially those who have been multiply maltreated, and offers a more developmentally appropriate framework for assessment and treatment than PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Emotional Trauma; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychiatric Symptoms; *Psychological Stress; *Sexual Abuse; Child Abuse; Severity (Disorders); Victimization

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)
Male (30)
Female (40)

Location:

Canada

Age Group:

Childhood (birth-12 yrs) (100)
Preschool Age (2-5 yrs) (160)
School Age (6-12 yrs) (180)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date:

20000906

Accession Number:

2000-08343-003

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 38

Title:

Group and milieu therapy for veterans with complex posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s):

Shay, Jonathan, Dept of Veterans Affairs, Boston, MA, US
Munroe, James

Source:

Posttraumatic stress disorder: A comprehensive text. Saigh, Philip A. (Ed); Bremner, J. Douglas (Ed); pp. 391-413.
Needham Heights, MA, US: Allyn & Bacon, 1999. xiv, 434 pp.

ISBN:

0-205-26734-3 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

Veterans Improvement Program team treatment model & group & milieu therapy, American male Vietnam war veterans with complex PTSD

Abstract:

This chapter discusses the use of group and milieu therapy for American male Vietnam war veterans with complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
(from the chapter) Topics include: introduction (the core treatment issue is social trust, destruction of normal narcissism, "combat ages you," destruction of the combatant's community, how lack of social trust becomes a problem for mental health professionals, the paradox of therapy for trauma); Veterans Improvement Program (VIP) team treatment model (our posture toward new members; stage I: safety, sobriety, self care; stage II: constructing a cohesive narrative and grieving; stage III: reconnection); defining concepts and practices of the VIP team treatment model (restoration of community, tests of trust, team as community and team plus community, the rhetoric of treatment for combat PTSD, summary of VIP team practices); and divergences in the team model from the value pattern of the professional. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Group Psychotherapy; *Milieu Therapy; *Military Veterans; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Models

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)
Military Psychology (3800)

Population:

Human (10)
Male (30)

Location:

US; Vietnam

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type:

Book, Edited Book

Document Type:

Original Chapter

Book Type:

Handbook/Manual

Release Date:

19990201

Accession Number:

1998-06874-019

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 39

Title:

Essential papers on posttraumatic stress disorder.

Series Title:

Essential papers in psychoanalysis

Author(s):

Horowitz, Mardi J., (Ed)

Source:

New York, NY, US: New York University Press, 1999. vii, 548 pp.
Publisher URL: http://www.nyupress.nyu.edu

ISBN:

0-8147-3558-4 (hardcover)
0-8147-3559-2 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

diagnosis & explanation & treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder

Abstract:

(from the introduction) This book, divided into 3 parts (diagnosis, explanation, and treatment), provides the reader with an overview of agreements and controversies concerning posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The individual papers provide detailed elaborations about these issues. The contemporary era finds a high degree of agreement on diagnosis. There is also an encouraging level of agreement on explanation. Even in the area of treatment, where one may expect controversy, there is growing agreement on integrating biological, psychological, and social approaches.
Unselected chapters are journal and chapter reprints that were covered by PsycINFO at the time of their original publication and can be found in the PsycLIT database. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Emotional Trauma; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychodiagnosis; *Treatment

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type:

Book, Edited Book

Release Date:

19990601

Correction Date:

20050907

Accession Number:

1999-02470-000

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 40

Title:

Complex posttraumatic stress disorder in women from a psychometric perspective.

Author(s):

Allen, Jon G., Menninger Clinic, Trauma Recovery Program, Topeka, KS, US
Coyne, Lolafaye
Huntoon, Janis

Source:

Journal of Personality Assessment, Vol 70(2), Apr 1998. pp. 277-298.
Journal URL: http://www.leaonline.com/loi/jpa

Publisher:

US: Lawrence Erlbaum
Publisher URL: http://www.erlbaum.com/

ISSN:

0022-3891 (Print)
1532-7752 (Electronic)

Language:

English

Keywords:

psychometric profile of complex PTSD & relation of childhood abuse & neglect severity & attachment security to psychopathology, female psychiatric inpatients with history of childhood trauma

Abstract:

J. L. Herman's (1992) formulation of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was not incorporated into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV), but finds ample confirmation in personality assessment of women in inpatient treatment for trauma-related disorders. The authors related MCMI-II and Adult Attachment Scale scores to a self-report measure of childhood abuse and neglect, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, in 166 female inpatients with PTSD, anxiety disorders, dissociative disorders, mood disorders, depression or dysthymia, substance abuse, eating disorders, and personality disorders. Consistent with Herman's formulation, results reveal a wide array of symptoms coupled with 2 facets of relationship disturbance: (1) enmeshment in ambivalence (depressive, dependent, and self-defeating personality and ambivalent attachment) and (2) more profound isolation (avoidant and schizoid personality and profoundly insecure attachment). The authors present a model for using such psychometric findings in patient education and diagnostic evaluations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Attachment Behavior; *Child Abuse; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychometrics; *Psychopathology; Child Neglect; Hospitalized Patients; Human Females; Psychiatric Patients

Classification:

Psychological Disorders (3210)

Population:

Human (10)
Female (40)
Inpatient (50)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)
Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date:

19980901

Accession Number:

1998-10100-007

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 41

Title:

Discussion: Treatment of prolonged posttraumatic stress disorder--learning from experience.

Author(s):

Shalev, Arieh Y., Hadassah U Hosp, Dept of Psychiatry, Ctr for Traumatic Stress, Jerusalem, Israel

Source:

Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol 10(3), Jul 1997. pp. 415-423.
Journal URL: http://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/0894-9867

Publisher:

US: John Wiley & Sons
Publisher URL: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/

ISSN:

0894-9867 (Print)
1573-6598 (Electronic)

Language:

English

Keywords:

inpatient treatment of prolonged PTSD, Vietnam War veterans, commentary

Abstract:

Discusses reports by D. R. Johnson et al (1997), Johnson et al (1997), and Johnson and H. Lubin (1997), in addition to previous reports, of limited inpatient treatment effect in Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Survivors of multiple traumas who suffer from complex PTSD and who live in poverty and distress may not properly represent the general case of PTSD, but the lessons learned suggest that attempts to treat prolonged PTSD by redressing causation are ineffective. The appropriateness of targeting symptoms is also challenged. The author supports careful assessment of residual disability in a social context. Recognizing treatment resistance in PTSD could lead to favorably investigating interventions of modest effect, to shifting from exploration to rehabilitation, and to redefining outcome measures such that changes in a variety of domains are appreciated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychiatric Units; *Treatment; Military Veterans

Classification:

Military Psychology (3800)
Inpatient & Hospital Services (3379)

Population:

Human (10)
Inpatient (50)

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Document Type:

Comment/Reply

Release Date:

19980201

Accession Number:

1997-04988-005

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 42

Title:

A study of clinicians' attitudes and sex bias in the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s):

Giacalone, Rita Carla, The Wright Inst, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 57(12-B), Jun 1997. pp. 7725.

Publisher:

US: Univ Microfilms International
Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAM9717378

Language:

English

Keywords:

A study of clinicians' attitudes and sex bias in the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder

Abstract:

This study examines the extent to which the diagnoses borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) evoke negative attitudes and sex bias in clinicians. Approximately 800 psychologists were asked in a mail survey to assess the applicability of a variety of diagnoses to one of four case histories differing only in gender and diagnostic label (BPD and PTSD), and containing mixed criteria for the BPD and PTSD diagnoses. Subjects then responded to an "attitudes questionnaire" regarding the condition, treatment, and prognosis of the hypothetical client. The 135 returned questionnaires revealed that clinicians who preferred the BPD diagnosis over the PTSD diagnosis expressed significantly more negative attitudes towards the client than clinicians who preferred PTSD to BPD. In addition, clinicians who preferred the BPD diagnosis also tended to disagree with a statement that the client's current difficulties are directly related to the history of sexual abuse present in the case histories. In contrast, clinicians who preferred the PTSD diagnosis tended to agree that the client's symptoms are directly related to her/his sexual abuse history. Results also revealed the existence of sex bias in the diagnosis of BPD, with women receiving more BPD diagnoses than their male counterparts. In addition, clinicians expressed significantly more negative attitudes towards female than male case histories. Finally, female clinicians diagnosed the case with PTSD significantly more than male clinicians, suggesting sex bias with regard to sex of practitioner. In discussing these findings, this study suggests that the use of BPD as a diagnostic classification should be seriously reconsidered. The pejorative and sex biased meaning attached to BPD sets up a therapeutic situation wrought with the potential for further victimization and retraumatization of those who already suffer from the complex effects of childhood abuse. The findings of tbe current study support the view that BPD should be abandoned and replaced with the PTSD diagnosis or Judith Herman's proposed Complex PTSD diagnosis because these diagnoses provide recognition that a person's difficulties came from an abusive past and encourage a treatment approach that actually focuses on recovery from trauma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Borderline States; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychodiagnosis; *Psychologist Attitudes; *Sex Discrimination

Classification:

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)

Population:

Human (10)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Dissertation Abstract

Release Date:

19970101

Accession Number:

1997-95012-262

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 43

Title:

Thematic resolution, PTSD, and complex PTSD: The relationship between meaning and trauma-related diagnoses.

Author(s):

Newman, Elana, Veterans Affairs Medical Ctr, Boston, MA, US
Riggs, David S.
Roth, Susan

Source:

Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol 10(2), Apr 1997. pp. 197-213.
Journal URL: http://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/0894-9867

Publisher:

US: John Wiley & Sons
Publisher URL: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/

ISSN:

0894-9867 (Print)
1573-6598 (Electronic)

Language:

English

Keywords:

traumatic life events & trauma related thematic processing, adults with complex PTSD

Abstract:

Compared measures of thematic disruption among 20 individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) alone, 23 with PTSD with concurrent complex PTSD, and 39 with no PTSD. Ss were interviewed to assess PTSD status, complex PTSD status, traumatic life events, and trauma-related thematic processing. Results indicated that variables quantifying thematic disruption and thematic resolution significantly distinguished those individuals with concurrent PTSD plus complex PTSD from the other 2 groups Exploratory analyses indicated that PTSD symptom severity and the interpersonal nature of the trauma were related to thematic disruption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Emotional Responses; *Emotional Trauma; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)
Male (30)
Female (40)

Location:

US

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date:

19970101

Accession Number:

1997-03983-003

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 44

Title:

Post-traumatic stress disorder and complex post-traumatic stress disorder in an urban, seriously mentally ill population.

Author(s):

Powell, Marilyn J., U Kansas, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 57(7-B), Jan 1997. pp. 4721.

Publisher:

US: Univ Microfilms International
Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAM9637339

Language:

English

Keywords:

diagnosis of PTSD & complex PTSD, depression & dissociation & anxiety & somatization & psychiatric severity & type of trauma experienced, mentally ill

Abstract:

This research involved an investigation of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as currently defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition) (American Psychiatric Press, 1994) and Complex PTSD (Herman, 1992) a newly proposed diagnostic concept, in a seriously mentally ill population residing in an urban setting. The purposes of this study were to determine prevalence rates of both types of PTSD (DSM IV PTSD and Complex PTSD) for this population; to examine levels of depression, dissociation, anxiety, somatization in persons meeting criteria for these diagnoses of PTSD; to explore levels of psychiatric severity of individuals with PTSD diagnoses; and to examine a potential link between different types of trauma experienced and type of PTSD exhibited. Subjects were 47 randomly selected individuals, diagnosed with a severe and persistent mental illness, receiving case management services from Central Kansas City Mental Health Services in Kansas City, Missouri. These individuals participated in a multi-method, multi-trait research battery that included diagnostic instruments for both DSM IV PTSD and Complex PTSD; measures of depression, dissociation, anxiety, and somatization; and a questionnaire about type of trauma the individual may have experienced. Other information was gathered with a demographics questionnaire and by chart review. Results from data analysis indicated that the overall incidence of PTSD is greater in this population than in the general population and that it is under-diagnosed in this population (only 2 out of 25 subjects meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD carried the diagnosis formally in agency records). Further, subjects with any type of PTSD had higher levels of anxiety, depression, and dissociation, but not of somatization, than those without PTSD. In fact, individuals diagnosed with Complex PTSD and DSM IV PTSD had the highest symptom levels of these syndromes compared with subjects who did not meet crite (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Dissociative Disorders; *Major Depression; *Mental Disorders; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychodiagnosis; Anxiety; Emotional Trauma; Severity (Disorders); Somatoform Disorders

Classification:

Developmental Psychology (2800)
Health Psychology & Medicine (3360)

Population:

Human (10)

Location:

US

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Dissertation Abstract

Release Date:

19970101

Accession Number:

1997-95002-180

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 45

Title:

Psychological assessment of adult posttraumatic states.

Series Title:

Psychotherapy practitioner resource book series

Author(s):

Briere, John, U Southern California, School of Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry, CA, US

Source:

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 1997. xv, 251 pp.
Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org/books

ISBN:

1-55798-403-4 (paperback)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1037/10267-000

Language:

English

Keywords:

etiology & phenomenology & psychological assessment issues, patients with PTSD & other posttraumatic states, guide

Abstract:

(from the introduction) [This] book was written in response to [the] burgeoning of new information and the growing need for integrative analyses of posttraumatic disturbance and its measurement. It is intended as a practical, empirically grounded guide to the assessment of traumatic events and associated posttraumatic states. It addresses phenomena such as acute stress disorder (ASD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), stress-related psychotic states, various dissociative reactions and symptoms, and what has been referred to as complex PTSD.
This volume is divided into 3 sections: etiology and phenomenology, general assessment issues, and specific assessment approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Etiology; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychological Assessment; *Symptoms; Psychodiagnosis

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type:

Book, Authored Book

Book Type:

Handbook/Manual

Release Date:

19970901

Accession Number:

1997-97437-000

Number of Citations in Source:

580

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 46

Title:

Histories of childhood trauma and complex post-traumatic sequelae in women with eating disorders.

Author(s):

Rorty, Marcia, Claremont McKenna Coll, Dept of Psychology, Claremont, CA, US
Yager, Joel

Source:

Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol 19(4), Dec 1996. pp. 773-791.
Journal URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623373/description#description

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science
Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN:

0193-953X (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

role of eating disorders based on conceptualization of complex PTSD, women with history of childhood sexual abuse or other trauma

Abstract:

Uses the conceptualization of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to inform the understanding of the role of eating disorders in the lives of women who have a history of childhood trauma, including, but not limited to, childhood sexual abuse. This analysis may help make sense of numerous, sometimes paradoxical, facets of disturbed eating behaviors in the traumatized patient. The profound self-destructiveness and tenacity of eating disorders found among women abused and neglected in childhood become comprehensible when understood within a complex posttraumatic conceptualization as desperate attempts to regulate overwhelming affective states and construct a coherent sense of self and system of meaning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Child Abuse; *Eating Disorders; *Emotional Trauma; *Human Females; *Sexual Abuse; Early Experience; Victimization

Classification:

Eating Disorders (3260)

Population:

Human (10)
Female (40)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date:

19960101

Accession Number:

1996-06789-009

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 47

Title:

Complex post-traumatic stress disorder associated with childhood sexual and physical abuse in male veterans with histories of substance abuse disorders.

Author(s):

Vielhauer, Melanie Jean, State U New York at Buffalo, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 57(1-B), Jul 1996. pp. 0750.

Publisher:

US: Univ Microfilms International
Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAM9617923

Language:

English

Keywords:

descriptive psychopathology of Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder associated with childhood sexual & physical abuse, male veterans with histories of substance abuse disorders

Abstract:

Complex Post-traumatic Stress Disorder is a proposed trauma-related diagnosis intended to reflect more adequately the clinical phenomenology associated with chronic interpersonal trauma. Victims of such trauma are thought to exhibit psychological disturbance in several areas distinct from classic Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), including problems with affect/impulse modulation, alterations in attention/consciousness, negative self-perception, alterations in perception of the perpetrator, interpersonal difficulties, somatization, and alterations in sustaining beliefs. This descriptive psychopathology study examined the applicability of this proposed syndrome to the long-term sequelae of adult men with histories of childhood abuse. Sixty male veterans with histories of substance abuse disorders completed biographical questionnaires, and were interviewed with the Evaluation of Lifetime Stressors, Complicated PTSD Inventory, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, and Addiction Severity Index. Findings revealed a high prevalence rate of childhood abuse (80%). History of childhood abuse was found to be significantly associated with the presence of Complex PTSD. No significant differences were noted across abuse type (i.e., no abuse, physical abuse only, combined physical/sexual abuse), however, with regard to Complex PTSD diagnostic status. Results suggest that problems with affect/impulse modulation, negative self-perception, and interpersonal difficulties may be hallmark features of the syndrome within this population. Surprisingly, no significant relationships were found between Complex PTSD and age of abuse onset or duration. With regard to abuse severity, perceived life threat and invasiveness of sexual abuse, but not physical injury, were found to mediate the manifestation of Complex PTSD symptomatology. Complex PTSD and PTSD were also found to be comorbid in the present study, yet contrary to previous findings, a substantial proportion of subjects with Complex P (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Child Abuse; *Drug Abuse; *Physical Abuse; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Sexual Abuse; Military Veterans; Psychopathology

Classification:

Personality Psychology (3100)
Developmental Psychology (2800)

Population:

Human (10)
Male (30)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Dissertation Abstract

Release Date:

19960101

Accession Number:

1996-95013-399

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 48

Title:

PTSD diagnosis and treatment for mental health clinicians.

Author(s):

Friedman, Matthew J., Veterans Affairs Medical Ctr, White River Junction, VT, US

Source:

Community Mental Health Journal, Vol 32(2), Apr 1996. pp. 173-189.
Journal URL: http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,4-40123-70-35593282-0,00.html?changeHeader=true

Publisher:

Germany: Springer
Publisher URL: http://www.springeronline.com

ISSN:

0010-3853 (Print)
1573-2789 (Electronic)

Language:

English

Keywords:

PTSD diagnosis & treatment approaches & therapist issues & current controversies

Abstract:

Addresses 4 issues: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment, treatment approaches, therapist issues, and current controversies. Important assessment issues include the trauma history, comorbid disorders, and chronicity of PTSD. Effective intervention for acute trauma usually requires a variant of critical incident stress debriefing. Available treatments for chronic PTSD include group, cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, and pharmacological therapy. Therapist self-care is essential when working with PTSD patients since this work may be functionally disruptive and psychologically destabilizing. Current controversies include advocacy vs therapeutic neutrality, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, the false memory syndrome, and the legitimacy of complex PTSD as a unique diagnostic entity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Professional Standards; *Therapist Role; *Treatment

Classification:

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)
Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date:

19960101

Accession Number:

1996-03529-007

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 49

Title:

Casualties of fatherhood: Traumatic stress responses in divorced fathers segregated from their children. clinical, professional, and ethical implications.

Author(s):

Honeycutt, Jonathan Maurice, The Union Inst, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 56(8-B), Feb 1996. pp. 4583.

Publisher:

US: Univ Microfilms International
Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAM9542651

Language:

English

Keywords:

traumatic stress responses to divorce & partial/total loss of relationships with children, divorced fathers, clinical & professional & ethical implications

Abstract:

A nonprobability sample of 49 divorced American fathers completed a three-part survey questionnaire designed to determine (a) an appropriate psychosocial stress rating based on their experiences of divorce and the partial and/or total loss of relationships with their children via involuntary segregation; and to assess psychological sequelae of these experiences in the context of (b) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1987), and (c) the clinical schema of "Complex PTSD" delineated by Judith Herman (1992). Results of this study reiterate the highly stressful, often deleterious impact of divorce and confirm the hypothesis that, for many fathers, the sheer number and magnitude of stressors attending the disruption and termination of primary attachment bonds, as so often happens to divorced fathers and their children, readily produce catastrophic levels of stress that result in severe reactions, significant psychosocial deterioration and deep, prolonged human suffering. Fathers' reactions to the judicially-imposed, and in some cases, psychiatrically-assisted, trauma of divorce, segregation and child loss were so severe that 81.6 percent (40) of the fathers in the sample reported psychological symptomatology sufficient to satisfy the DSM III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) diagnostic criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A similar number of fathers (73.5%, 36) reported psychological symptomatology sufficient to meet the diagnostic criteria of "Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder" on a second measure based on Herman's (1992) conceptual schema of this syndrome. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed in terms of the diagnosis and treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptomatology among this population and the obstacles to effective treatment and clinical intervention. The iatrogenic nature of many fathers' PTSD symptomatology is discussed in terms of causative factors adhering in the judicial t (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Divorced Persons; *Father Child Relations; *Fathers; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Stress Reactions; Emotional Trauma

Classification:

Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention (3300)
Social Psychology (3000)

Population:

Human (10)
Male (30)

Age Group:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300)

Methodology:

Empirical Study

Publication Type:

Dissertation Abstract

Release Date:

19960101

Accession Number:

1996-95003-286

 

 

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<A href="http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=1996-95003-286&site=ehost-live">Casualties of fatherhood: Traumatic stress responses in divorced fathers segregated from their children. clinical, professional, and ethical implications.</A>

 

 

Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 50

Title:

The clinical boundaries of posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author(s):

McGorry, Patrick D., U Melbourne, Royal Park Hosp, Dept of Psychiatry, Parkville, VIC, Australia

Source:

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 29(3), Sep 1995. pp. 385-393.
Journal URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0004-8674&site=1

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing
Publisher URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

ISSN:

0004-8674 (Print)
1440-1614 (Electronic)

Language:

English

Keywords:

clinical boundary issues in PTSD & normal psychology & psychopathology & psychotherapy

Abstract:

Discusses the common clinical boundaries between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and normal psychology, psychopathology and psychotherapy, and within its own subtypes. Acute, non-persistent PTSD is a normative response to extreme stress. The psychological processes in PTSD and normal stress responses are structurally and dynamically similar. There is a complex bi-directional relationship between PTSD and psychotic symptoms. Essential features of PTSD diffuse across several broad categories of psychopathology. Secondary PTSD accounts for most of the post-psychotic morbidity in recovering patients. Boundary issues within PTSD include existence of PTSD, dimensional vs categorical nature of psychopathological diagnosis, and identification of complex PTSD as a clinically important variant. The need to place oneself unambiguously on the side of the trauma survivor in the struggle to resolve the traumatic experiences is a major issue for the therapists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Psychology; *Psychopathology; *Psychotherapy

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date:

19960101

Accession Number:

1996-02235-002

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO

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Record: 1

Title:

Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma.

Series Title:

Plenum series on stress and coping

Author(s):

Herman, Judith Lewis

Source:

Psychotraumatology: Key papers and core concepts in post-traumatic stress. Everly, George S. Jr. (Ed); Lating, Jeffrey M. (Ed); pp. 87-100.
New York, NY, US: Plenum Press, 1995. xxii, 418 pp.

ISBN:

0-306-44782-7 (hardcover)
0-306-44783-5 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

PTSD, survivors of prolonged & repeated trauma, reprint

Abstract:

(from the book) examines posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that is engendered via prolonged or repeated traumatization / represents an important extension of the psychological trauma concept
(from the chapter) reviews the evidence for the existence of a complex form of post-traumatic disorder in survivors of prolonged, repeated trauma / the evidence reviewed . . . offers strong support for expanding the concept of PTSD to include a spectrum of disorders . . . ranging from the brief, self-limited stress reaction to a single acute trauma, through simple PTSD, to the complex disorder of extreme stress (DESNOS) that follows upon prolonged exposure to repeated trauma (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Emotional Trauma; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Survivors

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Notes:

Reprinted from "Journal of Traumatic Stress," 5(3), 1992.

Publication Type:

Book, Edited Book

Document Type:

Reprinted Chapter

Release Date:

19950601

Correction Date:

20050907

Accession Number:

1994-98905-005

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 2

Title:

Psychotraumatology: Key papers and core concepts in post-traumatic stress.

Series Title:

Plenum series on stress and coping

Author(s):

Everly, George S. Jr., (Ed), International Critical Incident Stress Foundation, Ellicott City, MD, US
Lating, Jeffrey M., (Ed)

Source:

New York, NY, US: Plenum Press, 1995. xxii, 418 pp.

ISBN:

0-306-44782-7 (hardcover)
0-306-44783-5 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

nature & assessment & treatment & prevention of PTSD

Abstract:

(from the cover) [This book] provides concise coverage of key topics, employing a novel 2-factor model of post-traumatic stress to evaluate and unify critical aspects of the field.
A unique compilation of original articles, scholarly reviews, and previously published papers important to the psychotraumatology literature, this volume discusses the nature, assessment, treatment, and prevention of post-traumatic stress, as well as special issues attendant to this condition.
The contributions to "Psychotraumatology" challenge readers to reflect on the phenomenology of post-traumatic stress. With the aim of improving the therapeutic process, these explorations of major phenomenological issues will prove valuable to practicing clinicians, researchers, and graduate-level students in psychology, psychiatry, nursing, and counseling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Diagnosis; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; *Treatment; Prevention

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)

Intended Audience:

Psychology: Professional & Research (PS)

Publication Type:

Book, Edited Book

Release Date:

19950601

Correction Date:

20050907

Accession Number:

1994-98905-000

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO


Record: 3

Title:

Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma.

Author(s):

Herman, Judith L.

Source:

Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol 5(3), Jul 1992. pp. 377-391.
Journal URL: http://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/0894-9867

Publisher:

US: John Wiley & Sons
Publisher URL: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/

ISSN:

0894-9867 (Print)
1573-6598 (Electronic)

Language:

English

Keywords:

evidence for complex of PTSD, survivors of prolonged & repeated trauma

Abstract:

Reviews the evidence for the existence of a complex form of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of prolonged, repeated trauma. This syndrome is under consideration for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) under the name of Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified. The current diagnostic formulation of PTSD derives from observations of survivors of relatively circumscribed traumatic events. This formulation fails to capture the protean sequelae of prolonged, repeated trauma. In contrast to a single traumatic event, prolonged, repeated trauma can occur only when the victim is in a state of captivity, under the control of the perpetrator such as in concentration and labor camps, some religious cults, and in some families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

Subjects:

*Emotional Trauma; *Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Classification:

Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders (3215)

Population:

Human (10)

Publication Type:

Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal

Release Date:

19930201

Accession Number:

1993-05936-001

 

 

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Database:

PsycINFO

 

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