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Psychological

and Physiological

Trauma Research

 

 

Seize Your Journeys

 

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Traumatic stress is found in many competent, healthy, strong, good people.  No one can completely protect themselves from traumatic experiences.  Many people have long-lasting problems following exposure to trauma.  Up to 8% of persons will have PTSD at some time in their lives. People who react to traumas are not going crazy.  What is happening to them is part of a set of common symptoms and problems that are connected with being in a traumatic situation, and thus, is a normal reaction to abnormal events and experiences.  Having symptoms after a traumatic event is NOT a sign of personal weakness.  Given exposure to a trauma that is bad enough, probably all people would develop PTSD.

By understanding trauma symptoms better, a person can become less fearful of them and better able to manage them. By recognizing the effects of trauma and knowing more about symptoms, a person will be better able to decide about getting treatment.

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Secure Attachments as a Defense Against Trauma

 “All people mature and thrive in a social context that has profound effects on how they cope with life’s stresses.  Particularly early in life, the social context plays a critical role in fuffering an individual against stressful situations, and in building the psychological and biological capacities to deal with further stresses.  The primary function of parents can be thought of as helping children modulate their arousal by attuned and well-timed provision of playing, feeding, comforting, touching, looking, cleaning, and resting—in short, by teaching them skills that will gradually help them modulate their own arousal.  Secure attachment bonds serve as primary defenses against trauma-induced psychopathology in both children and adults (Finkelhor & Browne, 1984).  In children who have been exposed to severe stressors, the quality of the parental bond is probably the single most important determinant of long-term damage (McFarlane, 1988).”  van der Kolk, Bessel, Alexander C. McFarlane, and Lars Weisaeth, eds.  1996. Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society.  New York and London: Guilford Press. .p. 185

 

Eating Disorders

 “The Eating Disorders are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior.  This section includes two specific diagnoses, Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.  Anorexia Nervosa is characterized by a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight.  Bulimia Nervosa is characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications; fasting; or excessive exercise.  A disturbance in perception of body shape and weight is an essential feature of both Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.  An Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified category is also provided for coding behaviors that do not meet criteria for a specific Eating Disorder.

          Simple obesity is include in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) as a general medical condition but does not appear in DSM-IV because it has not been established that it is consistently associated with a psychological or behavioral syndrome.  However, when there is evidence that psychological factors are of importance in the etiology or course of a particular case of obesity, this can be indicated by noting the presence of Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition.

          Disorders of Feeding and Eating that are usually first diagnosed in infancy or early childhood (i.e., Pica, Rumination Disorder, and Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood) are included in the section “Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood.

 Anorexia Nervosa

 Diagnostic Features

The essential features of Anorexia Nervosa are that the individual refuses to maintain a minimally normal body weight, is intensely afraid of gaining weight, and exhibits a significant disturbance in the perception of the shape or size of his or her body.  In addition, postmenarcheal females with this disorder are amenorrheic.  (The term anorexia is a misnomer because loss of appetite is rare.)

          The individual maintains a body weight that is below a minimally normal level for age and height (Criterion A).  When Anorexia Nervosa develops in an individual during childhood or early adolescence, there may be failure to make expected weight gains (i.e., while growing in height) instead of weight loss.

Criterion A provides a guideline for determining when the individual meets the threshold for being underweight.  It suggests that the individual weigh less than 85% of that weight that is considered normal for that person’s age and height (usually computed using one of several published versions of the Metropolitan Life Insurance tables or pediatric growth charts.).  An alternative and somewhat stricter guideline (used in the ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for research) requires that the individual have a body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms/height in meters2) equal to or below 17.5kg/m2.  These cutoffs are provided only as suggested guidelines for eh clinician, since it is unreasonable to specify a single standard for minimally normal weight that applies to all individuals of a given age and height.  In determining a minimally normal weight, the clinician should consider not only such guidelines but also the individual’s body build and weight history.

Usually weight loss is accomplished primarily through reduction in total food intake.  Although individuals may begin by excluding from their diet what they perceive to be highly caloric foods, most eventually end up with a very restricted diet that is sometimes limited to only a few foods.  Additional methods of weight loss include purging (i.e., self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxative or diuretics) and increased or excessive exercise.)

Individuals with this disorder intensely fear gaining weight or becoming fat (Criterion B).  This intense fear of becoming fat is usually not alleviated by the weight loss.  In fact, concern about weight gain often increases even as actual weight continues to decrease.

The experience and significance of body weight and shape are distorted in these individuals (Criterion C).  Some individuals feel globally overweight.  Others realize that they are thin but are still concerned that certain parts of their bodies, particularly the abdomen, buttocks, and thighs are “to fat.”  They may employ a wide variety of techniques to estimate their body size and weight, including excessive weighing, obsessive measuring of body parts, and persistently using a mirror to check for perceived areas of “fat.”  The self-esteem of individuals with Anorexia Nervosa is highly dependent on their body shape and weight.  Weight loss is viewed as an impressive achievement and a sign of extraordinary self-discipline, whereas weight gain is perceived as an unacceptable failure of self-control.  Though some individuals with this disorder may acknowledge being thin, they typically deny the serious medical implications of their malnourished state.

In postmenarcheal females, amenorrhea (due to abnormally low levels of estrogen secretion that are due in turn to diminished pituitary secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone [PSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) is an indicator of physiological dysfunction in Anorexia Nervosa (Criterion D.)  Amenorrhea is usually a consequence of the weight loss but, in a minority of individuals, may actually precede it.  In prepubertal females, menarche may be delayed by the illness.

The individual is often brought to professional attention by family members after marked weight loss (or failure to make expected weight gains) has occurred.  If individuals seek help on their own, it is usually because of their subjective distress over the somatic and psychological sequelae of starvation.  It is rare for an individual with Anorexia Nervosa to complain of weight loss per se.  Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa frequently lack insight into, or have considerable denial of, the problem and may be unreliable historians.  It is therefore often necessary to obtain information form parents or other outside sources to evaluate the degree of weight loss and other features of the illness.”  p. 583-584.

 Bulimia Nervosa

 “Diagnostic Features

          The essential features of Bulimia Nervosa are binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight gain.  In addition, the self-evaluation of individuals with Bulimia Nervosa is excessively influenced by body shape and weight.  To qualify for the diagnosis, the binge eating and the inappropriate compensatory behaviors must occur, on average, at least twice a week for 3 months (Criterion C.)

          A binge is defined as eating in a discrete period of time an amount of food that is definitely larger than most individuals would eat under similar circumstances (Criterion A1.).  The clinician should consider the context in which the eating occurred—what would be regarded as excessive consumption at a typical meal might be considered normal during a celebration or holiday meal.  A “discrete period of time” refers to a limited period, usually less than 2 hours.  A single episode of binge eating need not be restricted to one setting.  For example, an individual may begin a binge in a restaurant and then continue it on returning home.  Continual snacking on small amounts of food throughout the day would not be considered a binge.

          Although the type of food consumed during the binge varies, it typically includes sweet, high-calorie foods such as ice cream or cake.  However, binge eating appears to be characterized more by an abnormality in the amount of food consumed than by a craving for a specific nutrient, such as carbohydrate.  Although individuals with Bulimia Nervosa consume more calories during an episode of binge eating than persons without Bulimia Nervosa consume during a meal, the fractions of calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate are similar.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa are typically ashamed of their eating problems and attempt to conceal their symptoms.  Binge eating usually occurs in secrecy, or as inconspicuously as possible.  An episode may or may not be planned in advance and is usually (but not always) characterized by rapid consumption.  The binge eating often continues until the individual is uncomfortably, or even painfully, full.  Binge eating is typically triggered by dysphoric mood states, interpersonal stressors intense hunger following dietary restraint, or feelings related to body weight, body shape, and food.  Binge eating may transiently reduce dysphoria, but disparaging self-criticism and depressed mood often follow.

          An episode of binge eating is also accompanied by a sense of lack of control (Criterion A2).  An individual may be in a frenzied state while binge eating, especially early in the course of the disorder.  Some individuals describe a dissociative quality during, or following, the binge episodes.  After Bulimia Nervosa has persisted for some time, individuals may report that their binge-eating episodes are no longer characterized by an acute feeling of loss of control, but rather by behavioral indicators of impaired control, such as difficulty resisting binge eating or difficulty stopping a binge once it has begun.  The impairment in control associated with binge eating in bulimia Nervosa is not absolute; for example, an individual may continue binge eating while the telephone is ringing, but will cease if a roommate or spouse unexpectedly enters the room.

          Another essential feature of Bulimia Nervosa is the recurrent use of inappropriate compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain (Criterion B).  Many individuals with Bulimia Nervosa employ several methods in their attempt to compensate for binge eating.  The most common compensatory technique is the induction of vomiting after an episode of binge eating.  This method of purging is employed by 80%-90% of individuals with Bulimia Nervosa who present for treatment of eating disorders clinics.  The immediate effects of vomiting include relief from physical discomfort and reduction of fear of gaining weight.  In some cases, vomiting becomes a goal in itself, and the person will binge in order to vomit or will vomit after eating a small amount of food.  Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa may use a variety of methods to induce vomiting, including the use of fingers or instruments to stimulate the gag reflex.  Individuals generally become adept at inducing vomiting and are eventually able to vomit at will.  Rarely, individuals consume syrup of ipecac to induce vomiting.  Other purging behaviors include the issue of laxatives and diuretics.  Approximately one-third of those with Bulimia Nervosa misuse laxatives after binge eating.  Rarely, individuals with the disorder will misuse enemas following episodes of binge eating, but this is seldom the sole compensatory method employed.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa may fast for a day or more or exercise excessively in an attempt to compensate for binge eating.  Exercise may be considered to be excessive when it significantly interferes with important activities, when it occurs at inappropriate times or in inappropriate settings, or when the individual continues to exercise despite injury or other medical complications.  Rarely, individuals with this disorder may take thyroid hormone in an attempt to avoid weight gain.  Individuals with diabetes mellitus and Bulimia Nervosa may omit or reduce insulin doses in order to reduce the metabolism of food consumed during eating binges.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa place an excessive emphasis on body shape and weight in their self-evaluation, and these factors are typically the most important ones in determining self-esteem (Criterion D).  Individuals with this disorder may closely resemble those with Anorexia Nervosa in their fear of gaining weight, in their desire to lose weight, and in the level of dissatisfaction with their bodies.  However, a diagnosis of Bulimia Nervosa should not be given when the disturbance occurs only during episodes of Anorexia Nervosa (Criterion E).”  p. 589-591

 

Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 2000. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

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Post traumatic Stress Disorder

"The essential feature of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder us the development of characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor involving direct personal experience of an event that involves actual or threatened death or serious injury, or other threat to one's physical integrity; or witnessing an event that involves death, injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of another person; or learning about unexpected or violent death, serious harm, or threat of death or injury experienced by a family member or other close associate (Criteria A1).  The person's response to the event must involve intense fear, helplessness, or horror (or in children, the response must involve disorganized or agitated behavior) (Criterion A2).  The characteristic symptoms resulting from the exposure to the extreme trauma include persistent reexperiencing of the traumatic event (Criterion E), and the disturbance must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criterion F).

Traumatic events that are experienced directly include, but are not limited to, military combat, violent personal assault (sexual assault, physical attack, robbery, mugging), being kidnapped, being taken hostage, terrorist attack, torture, incarceration as a prisoner of war or in a concentration camp, natural or manmade disasters, severe automobile accidents, or being diagnosed with a life-threatening illness.  For children, sexually traumatic events may include developmentally inappropriate sexual experiences without threatened or actual violence or injury.  Witnessed events include, but are not limited to, observing the serious injury or unnatural death of another person due to violent assault, accident, war, or disaster or unexpectedly witnessing a dead body or body parts.  Events experienced by others that are learned about include, but are not limited to, violent personal assault, serious accident, or serious injury experienced y a family member or a close friend; learning about the sudden, unexpected death of a family member or a close friend; or learning that one's child has a life threatening disease.  The disorder may be especially sever or long lasting when the stressor is of human design (e.g., torture, rape). the likelihood of developing this disorder may increase as the intensity of and physical proximity to the stressor increase.

The traumatic event can be reexperienced in various ways.  Commonly the person has recurrent and intrusive recollections of the event (Criterion B1) or recurrent distressing dreams during which the event can be replayed or otherwise represented (Criterion B2). In rare instances, the person experiences dissociative states that last from a few seconds to several hours, or even days, during which components of the event are relived and the person behaves as though experiencing the event at that moment (Criterion B3).  These episodes, often referred to as "flashbacks," are typically brief but can be associated with prolonged distress and heightened arousal.  Intense psychological distress (Criterion B4) or physiological reactivity (Criterion B5) often occurs when the person is exposed to triggering events that resemble or symbolize an aspect of the traumatic event (e.g., anniversaries of the traumatic event; cold, snowy weather or uniformed guards for survivors of death camps in cold climates; hot, humid weather for combat veterans of the South Pacific; entering any elevator for an woman who was reaped in an elevator).

Stimuli associated with the trauma are persistently avoided.  The person commonly makes deliberate efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations about the traumatic event (Criterion C1) and to avoid activities, situations, or people who around recollections of it (Criterion C2).  This avoidance of reminders may include amnesia for an important aspect of the traumatic event (Criterion C3).  Diminished responsiveness to the external work, referred to as "psychic numbing" or "emotional anesthesia," usually begins soon after the traumatic event.  The individual may complain of having markedly diminished interest or participation in previously enjoyed activities (Criterion C4), of feeling detached or estranged from other people (Criterion C5), or of having markedly reduced ability to feel emotions (especially those associated with intimacy, tenderness and sexuality) (Criterion C6).  The individual may have a sense of a foreshortened future (e.g., not expecting to have a career, marriage, children, or a normal life span) (Criterion C7).

The individual has persistent symptoms of anxiety or increased arousal that were not present before the trauma.  these symptoms may include difficulty falling or staying asleep that may be to recurrent nightmares during which the traumatic event is relived (Criterion D1), hypervigilance (Criterion D4), and exaggerated startle response (Criterion D5).  Some individuals report irritability or outburst of anger (Criterion D2) or difficulty concentrating or completing tasks (Criterion D3)."

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Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

"The essential feature of Dissociative identity Disorder is the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states (Criterion A) that recurrently take control of behavior (Criterion B).  There is an inability to recall important personal information, the extent of which is too great to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness (Criterion C).  The disturbance is not due tot eh direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition (Condition D.).  In children, the symptoms cannot be attributed to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play.

Dissociative Identity Disorder reflects a failure to integrate various aspects of identity, memory, and consciousness.  Each personality state may be experienced as if it has a distinct personal history, self-image, and identity, including a separate name.  Usually there is a primary identity that carries the individual's given name and is passive, dependent, guilty, and depressed.  The alternate identities frequently have different names and characteristics that contrast with the primary identity (e.g., are hostile, controlling, and self-destructive).  Particular identities may emerge in specific circumstances and may differ in reported age and gender, vocabulary, general knowledge, or predominant affect.  Alternate identities are experienced as taking control in sequence, ore at the expense of the other, and may deny knowledge of one another, be critical of one another, or appear to be in open conflict.  Occasionally, one or more powerful identities allocate time to the others.  Aggressive or hostile identities may at times interrupt activities or place the others in uncomfortable situations.

Individuals with this disorder experience frequent gaps in memory for personal history, both remote and recent.  The amnesia is frequently asymmetrical.  The more passive identities tend to have more constricted memories, whereas the more hostile, controlling, or "protector" identities have more complete memories.  An identity that is not in control may nonetheless gain access to consciousness by producing auditory or visual hallucinations (e.g., a voice giving instructions).  Evidence of amnesia may be uncovered by reports from others who have witnessed behavior that is disavowed by the individual or by the individual's own discoveries (e.g., finding items of clothing at home that the individual cannot remember having bought).  There may be loss of memory not only for recurrent periods of time, but also an overall loss of biographical memory for some extended period of childhood, adolescence, or even adulthood.  Transitions among identities are often triggered by psychosocial stress.  The time required to switch from one identity to another is usually a matter of seconds, but, less frequently, may b gradual.  Behavior that may be frequently associated with identity switches include rapid blinking, facial changes, changes in voice or demeanor, or disruption in the individual's train of thoughts.  The number of identities reported ranges from 2 to more than 100.  Half of reported cases include the individuals with 10 or fewer identities."

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 2000.  4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

"The essential feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is the development of characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor involving direct personal experience of an event that involves actual or threatened death or serious injury, or other threat to one's physical integrity; or witnessing an event that involves death, injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of another person; or learning about unexpected or violent death, serious harm, or threat of death or injury experienced by a family member or other close associate (Criteria A1).  The person's response to the event must involve intense fear, helplessness, or horror (or in children, the response must involve disorganized or agitated behavior) (Criterion A2).  The characteristic symptoms resulting from the exposure to the extreme trauma include persistent re-experiencing of the traumatic event (Criterion E), and the disturbance must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criterion F).

Traumatic events that are experienced directly include, but are not limited to, military combat, violent personal assault (sexual assault, physical attack, robbery, mugging), being kidnapped, being taken hostage, terrorist attack, torture, incarceration as a prisoner of war or in a concentration camp, natural or manmade disasters, severe automobile accidents, or being diagnosed with a life-threatening illness.  For children, sexually traumatic events may include developmentally inappropriate sexual experiences without threatened or actual violence or injury.  Witnessed events include, but are not limited to, observing the serious injury or unnatural death of another person due to violent assault, accident, war, or disaster or unexpectedly witnessing a dead body or body parts.  Events experienced by others that are learned about include, but are not limited to, violent personal assault, serious accident, or serious injury experienced y a family member or a close friend; learning about the sudden, unexpected death of a family member or a close friend; or learning that one's child has a life threatening disease.  The disorder may be especially sever or long lasting when the stressor is of human design (e.g., torture, rape). the likelihood of developing this disorder may increase as the intensity of and physical proximity to the stressor increase.

The traumatic event can be re-experienced in various ways.  Commonly the person has recurrent and intrusive recollections of the event (Criterion B1) or recurrent distressing dreams during which the event can be replayed or otherwise represented (Criterion B2). In rare instances, the person experiences dissociative states that last from a few seconds to several hours, or even days, during which components of the event are relived and the person behaves as though experiencing the event at that moment (Criterion B3).  These episodes, often referred to as "flashbacks," are typically brief but can be associated with prolonged distress and heightened arousal.  Intense psychological distress (Criterion B4) or physiological reactivity (Criterion B5) often occurs when the person is exposed to triggering events that resemble or symbolize an aspect of the traumatic event (e.g., anniversaries of the traumatic event; cold, snowy weather or uniformed guards for survivors of death camps in cold climates; hot, humid weather for combat veterans of the South Pacific; entering any elevator for an woman who was reaped in an elevator).

Stimuli associated with the trauma are persistently avoided.  The person commonly makes deliberate efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations about the traumatic event (Criterion C1) and to avoid activities, situations, or people who around recollections of it (Criterion C2).  This avoidance of reminders may include amnesia for an important aspect of the traumatic event (Criterion C3).  Diminished responsiveness to the external work, referred to as "psychic numbing" or "emotional anesthesia," usually begins soon after the traumatic event.  The individual may complain of having markedly diminished interest or participation in previously enjoyed activities (Criterion C4), of feeling detached or estranged from other people (Criterion C5), or of having markedly reduced ability to feel emotions (especially those associated with intimacy, tenderness and sexuality) (Criterion C6).  The individual may have a sense of a foreshortened future (e.g., not expecting to have a career, marriage, children, or a normal life span) (Criterion C7).

The individual has persistent symptoms of anxiety or increased arousal that were not present before the trauma.  these symptoms may include difficulty falling or staying asleep that may be to recurrent nightmares during which the traumatic event is relived (Criterion D1), hypervigilance (Criterion D4), and exaggerated startle response (Criterion D5).  Some individuals report irritability or outburst of anger (Criterion D2) or difficulty concentrating or completing tasks (Criterion D3)."

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PTSD, DID, and EMDR

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

"The essential feature of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder us the development of characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor involving direct personal experience of an event that involves actual or threatened death or serious injury, or other threat to one's physical integrity; or witnessing an event that involves death, injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of another person; or learning about unexpected or violent death, serious harm, or threat of death or injury experienced by a family member or other close associate (Criteria A1).  The person's response to the event must involve intense fear, helplessness, or horror (or in children, the response must involve disorganized or agitated behavior) (Criterion A2).  The characteristic symptoms resulting from the exposure to the extreme trauma include persistent reexperiencing of the traumatic event (Criterion E), and the disturbance must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criterion F).

Traumatic events that are experienced directly include, but are not limited to, military combat, violent personal assault (sexual assault, physical attack, robbery, mugging), being kidnapped, being taken hostage, terrorist attack, torture, incarceration as a prisoner of war or in a concentration camp, natural or manmade disasters, severe automobile accidents, or being diagnosed with a life-threatening illness.  For children, sexually traumatic events may include developmentally inappropriate sexual experiences without threatened or actual violence or injury.  Witnessed events include, but are not limited to, observing the serious injury or unnatural death of another person due to violent assault, accident, war, or disaster or unexpectedly witnessing a dead body or body parts.  Events experienced by others that are learned about include, but are not limited to, violent personal assault, serious accident, or serious injury experienced y a family member or a close friend; learning about the sudden, unexpected death of a family member or a close friend; or learning that one's child has a life threatening disease.  The disorder may be especially sever or long lasting when the stressor is of human design (e.g., torture, rape). the likelihood of developing this disorder may increase as the intensity of and physical proximity to the stressor increase.

The traumatic event can be reexperienced in various ways.  Commonly the person has recurrent and intrusive recollections of the event (Criterion B1) or recurrent distressing dreams during which the event can be replayed or otherwise represented (Criterion B2). In rare instances, the person experiences dissociative states that last from a few seconds to several hours, or even days, during which components of the event are relived and the person behaves as though experiencing the event at that moment (Criterion B3).  These episodes, often referred to as "flashbacks," are typically brief but can be associated with prolonged distress and heightened arousal.  Intense psychological distress (Criterion B4) or physiological reactivity (Criterion B5) often occurs when the person is exposed to triggering events that resemble or symbolize an aspect of the traumatic event (e.g., anniversaries of the traumatic event; cold, snowy weather or uniformed guards for survivors of death camps in cold climates; hot, humid weather for combat veterans of the South Pacific; entering any elevator for an woman who was reaped in an elevator).

Stimuli associated with the trauma are persistently avoided.  The person commonly makes deliberate efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations about the traumatic event (Criterion C1) and to avoid activities, situations, or people who around recollections of it (Criterion C2).  This avoidance of reminders may include amnesia for an important aspect of the traumatic event (Criterion C3).  Diminished responsiveness to the external work, referred to as "psychic numbing" or "emotional anesthesia," usually begins soon after the traumatic event.  The individual may complain of having markedly diminished interest or participation in previously enjoyed activities (Criterion C4), of feeling detached or estranged from other people (Criterion C5), or of having markedly reduced ability to feel emotions (especially those associated with intimacy, tenderness and sexuality) (Criterion C6).  The individual may have a sense of a foreshortened future (e.g., not expecting to have a career, marriage, children, or a normal life span) (Criterion C7).

The individual has persistent symptoms of anxiety or increased arousal that were not present before the trauma.  these symptoms may include difficulty falling or staying asleep that may be to recurrent nightmares during which the traumatic event is relived (Criterion D1), hypervigilance (Criterion D4), and exaggerated startle response (Criterion D5).  Some individuals report irritability or outburst of anger (Criterion D2) or difficulty concentrating or completing tasks (Criterion D3)."

 

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

"The essential feature of Dissociative identity Disorder is the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states (Criterion A) that recurrently take control of behavior (Criterion B).  There is an inability to recall important personal information, the extent of which is too great to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness (Criterion C).  The disturbance is not due tot eh direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition (Condition D.).  In children, the symptoms cannot be attributed to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play.

Dissociative Identity Disorder reflects a failure to integrate various aspects of identity, memory, and consciousness.  Each personality state may be experienced as if it has a distinct personal history, self-image, and identity, including a separate name.  Usually there is a primary identity that carries the individual's given name and is passive, dependent, guilty, and depressed.  The alternate identities frequently have different names and characteristics that contrast with the primary identity (e.g., are hostile, controlling, and self-destructive).  Particular identities may emerge in specific circumstances and may differ in reported age and gender, vocabulary, general knowledge, or predominant affect.  Alternate identities are experienced as taking control in sequence, ore at the expense of the other, and may deny knowledge of one another, be critical of one another, or appear to be in open conflict.  Occasionally, one or more powerful identities allocate time to the others.  Aggressive or hostile identities may at times interrupt activities or place the others in uncomfortable situations.

Individuals with this disorder experience frequent gaps in memory for personal history, both remote and recent.  The amnesia is frequently asymmetrical.  The more passive identities tend to have more constricted memories, whereas the more hostile, controlling, or "protector" identities have more complete memories.  An identity that is not in control may nonetheless gain access to consciousness by producing auditory or visual hallucinations (e.g., a voice giving instructions).  Evidence of amnesia may be uncovered by reports from others who have witnessed behavior that is disavowed by the individual or by the individual's own discoveries (e.g., finding items of clothing at home that the individual cannot remember having bought).  There may be loss of memory not only for recurrent periods of time, but also an overall loss of biographical memory for some extended period of childhood, adolescence, or even adulthood.  Transitions among identities are often triggered by psychosocial stress.  The time required to switch from one identity to another is usually a matter of seconds, but, less frequently, may b gradual.  Behavior that may be frequently associated with identity switches include rapid blinking, facial changes, changes in voice or demeanor, or disruption in the individual's train of thoughts.  The number of identities reported ranges from 2 to more than 100.  Half of reported cases include the individuals with 10 or fewer identities."

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 2000.  4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

EMDR

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing

"Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)1 integrates elements of many effective psychotherapies in structured protocols that are designed to maximize treatment effects. These include psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, interpersonal, experiential, and body-centered therapies2. EMDR is an information processing therapy and uses an eight phase approach.

During EMDR1 the client attends to past and present experiences in brief sequential doses while simultaneously focusing on an external stimulus. Then the client is instructed to let new material become the focus of the next set of dual attention. This sequence of dual attention and personal association is repeated many times in the session.

Eight Phases of Treatment

The first phase is a history taking session during which the therapist assesses the client's readiness for EMDR and develops a treatment plan. Client and therapist identify possible targets for EMDR processing. These include recent distressing events, current situations that elicit emotional disturbance, related historical incidents, and the development of specific skills and behaviors that will be needed by the client in future situations.

During the second phase of treatment, the therapist ensures that the client has adequate methods of handling emotional distress and good coping skills, and that the client is in a relatively stable state. If further stabilization is required, or if additional skills are needed, therapy focuses on providing these. The client is then able to use stress reducing techniques whenever necessary, during or between sessions. However, one goal is not to need these techniques once therapy is complete.

In phase three through six, a target is identified and processed using EMDR procedures. These involve the client identifying the most vivid visual image related to the memory (if available), a negative belief about self, related emotions and body sensations. The client also identifies a preferred positive belief. The validity of the positive belief is rated, as is the intensity of the negative emotions.

After this, the client is instructed to focus on the image, negative thought, and body sensations while simultaneously moving his/her eyes back and forth following the therapist's fingers as they move across his/her field of vision for 20-30 seconds or more, depending upon the need of the client. Athough eye movements are the most commonly used external stimulus, therapists often use auditory tones, tapping, or other types of tactile stimulation. The kind of dual attention and the length of each set is customized to the need of the client. The client is instructed to just notice whatever happens. After this, the clinician instructs the client to let his/her mind go blank and to notice whatever thought, feeling, image, memory, or sensation comes to mind. Depending upon the client's report the clinician will facilitate the next focus of attention. In most cases a client-directed association process is encouraged. This is repeated numerous times throughout the session. If the client becomes distressed or has difficulty with the process, the therapist follows established procedures to help the client resume processing. When the client reports no distress related to the targeted memory, the clinician asks him/her to think of the preferred positive belief that was identified at the beginning of the session, or a better one if it has emerged, and to focus on the incident, while simultaneously engaging in the eye movements. After several sets, clients generally report increased confidence in this positive belief. The therapist checks with the client regarding body sensations. If there are negative sensations, these are processed as above. If there are positive sensations, they are further enhanced.

In phase seven, closure, the therapist asks the client to keep a journal during the week to document any related material that may arise and reminds the client of the self-calming activities that were mastered in phase two.

The next session begins with phase eight, re-evaluation of the previous work, and of progress since the previous session. EMDR treatment ensures processing of all related historical events, current incidents that elicit distress, and future scenarios that will require different responses. The overall goal is produce the most comprehensive and profound treatment effects in the shortest period of time, while simultaneously maintaining a stable client within a balanced system.

After EMDR processing, clients generally report that the emotional distress related to the memory has been eliminated, or greatly decreased, and that they have gained important cognitive insights. Importantly, these emotional and cognitive changes usually result in spontaneous behavioral and personal change, which are further enhanced with standard EMDR procedures." www.emdr.com

 

 

 

LifeSpan Developmental Trauma

 

Resilience and Adaptation  

Title:   Resilience in Parentally Bereaved Children and Adolescents

Seeking Preventive Services.         

Author(s):     Lin, Kirk K., Department of Psychology, Arizona State

University, Tempe, AZ, US

 

Sandler, Irwin N., Department of Psychology, Arizona State University,

Tempe, AZ, US, irwin.sandler@asu.edu

 

Ayers, Tim S., Department of Psychology, Arizona State University,

Tempe, AZ, US

 

Wolchik, Sharlene A., Department of Psychology, Arizona State

University, Tempe, AZ, US

 

Luecken, Linda J., Department of Psychology, Arizona State University,

Tempe, AZ, US

Address:        Sandler, Irwin N., Department of Psychology, Arizona

State University, P.O. Box 871104, Tempe, AZ, US, irwin.sandler@asu.edu      

Source:         Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Vol 33(4),

Dec 2004. pp. 673-683.

 

Journal URL:

https://www.erlbaum.com/shop/tek9.asp?pg=products&specific=1537-4416

Publisher:      US: Lawrence Erlbaum

 

Abstract:       This study examined environmental stress, family, and

child variables that differentiate resilient children and adolescents

from those with mental health problems following the death of a primary

caregiver. The community-based sample included 179 bereaved children

ages 8 to 16 years and their surviving caregivers who completed a test

battery of measures before participating in a prevention program.

Forty-four percent of bereaved children were classified as resilient and

56% as affected based on the absence of clinically significant mental

health problems on at least 1 measure as reported by either the child,

surviving caregiver, or teacher on standardized measures of mental

health problems. Results of multivariate analyses indicated that

bereaved resilient versus affected status was a function of both family

and child variables. Higher levels of caregiver warmth and discipline

and lower levels of caregiver mental health problems were family-level

variables that significantly differentiated resilient children from

affected children. Bereaved children's perceptions of less threat in

response to negative events and greater personal efficacy in coping with

stress were child-level variables that differentiated resilient from

affected status. Family and child variables were entered into a

discriminant function analysis that correctly classified 72% of the

sample. The findings are consistent with a model of resilience in which

multilevel variables account for children's positive adaptation

following exposure to adversity.

  _____ 

 

Record: 2

         

Title:   Surviving Breast Cancer and Living with Lymphedema: Resiliency

among Women in the Context of their Families.    

Author(s):     Radina, M. Elise, Department of Design, Family, and

Consumer Sciences, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA, US

 

Armer, Jane M., Sinclair School of Nursing, Columbia, MO, US

Source:         Journal of Family Nursing, Vol 10(4), Nov 2004. pp. 485-505.

Publisher:      US: Sage Publications

 

Publisher URL: http://www.sagepublications.com/

ISSN:  1074-8407 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1177/1074840704269847

Language:     English

Keywords:     breast cancer; lymphedema; women; family stress;

adaptation; resiliency         

Abstract:       This study involves secondary analysis of an existing

qualitative dataset (in-depth interviews with survivors [n = 6] and

health professionals [n = 2], observations of a support group [n = 3],

and field notes). Based on previous findings from this dataset, new

questions arose regarding why only some of post-breast cancer lymphedema

women who were interviewed appeared resilient within the context of

their families. In the present study, we reinvestigate this dataset

using the resiliency model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation

to guide our investigation via the construction of an a priori template

used in analyses. Three stressors are identified that contribute to the

vulnerability of these women. Resiliency in the women is characterized

as adjustment, adaptation, or crisis. The present findings provide a

foundation for assisting women with lymphedema and their families and

underscore practitioners' need to serve the patient and the family.

Conference:   International National Lymphedema Network Conference,

5th, Chicago, IL, US 

Conference Notes:    An earlier version of this article was presented

at the aforementioned conference.       

  _____ 

 

Record: 3

         

Title:   Socioeconomic Adversity, Educational Resilience, and Subsequent

Levels of Adult Adaptation. 

Author(s):     Schoon, Ingrid, City University, London, United Kingdom

 

Parsons, Samantha, Institute of Education, London, United Kingdom

 

Sacker, Amanda, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University

College London, London, United Kingdom

Source:         Journal of Adolescent Research, Vol 19(4), Jul 2004. pp.

383-404.

Publisher:      US: Sage Publications

 

Publisher URL: http://www.sagepublications.com/

ISSN:  0743-5584 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1177/0743558403258856

Language:     English

Keywords:     socioeconomic adversity; school adjustment; adolescence;

social-psychological factors; school to work transition; adult

adaptation    

Abstract:       The aim of this article is to determine the extent to

which individual, family, and contextual resources influence the school

adjustment of 16-year-old teenagers and to investigate their consequent

adult attainments at age 33. Adopting a longitudinal perspective, the

experiences of more than 9,000 socially advantaged and disadvantaged

young people are compared. The study shows that socioeconomic adversity

is a significant risk factor for educational failure and that it

influences consequent adjustment in work and health-related outcomes.

Various social-psychological factors can counterbalance such adversity.

In particular, parental educational aspirations for their child are

significantly associated with educational resilience among less

privileged individuals. The study confirms the long-term stability of

secondary school adjustment. It is concluded that the factors and

processes that modify the impact of adversity are context specific and

that their influences have to be studied in the context in which they

operate.   

  _____ 

 

Record: 4

         

Title:   Attachment and loss: A test of three competing models on the

association between attachment-related avoidance and adaptation to

bereavement.

Author(s):     Fraley, R. Chris, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL,

US

 

Bonanno, George A., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY,

US

Address:        Fraley, R. Chris, Department of Psychology, University

of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 603 E. Daniel Street, Champaign, IL, US

 

Source:         Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol 30(7), Jul 2004.

pp. 878-890.

Publisher:      US: Sage Publications

 

Publisher URL: http://www.sagepublications.com/

ISSN:  0146-1672 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1177/0146167204264289

Language:     English

Keywords:     loss; attachment-related avoidance; bereavement

adaptation    

Abstract:       It is widely assumed that emotionally avoidant or

defensive individuals will have a difficult time adjusting to the loss

of a loved one. However, recent research suggests that defensive

individuals tend to adapt quite well to loss. Such findings pose a

number of challenges to attachment theory--a theory that has

traditionally held that emotional avoidance is indicative of poor

psychological adjustment. In this article, the authors argue that

contemporary models of individual differences in adult attachment allow

the derivation of at least three competing hypotheses regarding the

relationship between avoidant attachment and adaptation to loss. These

hypotheses are tested using two-wave data on 59 bereaved adults. Results

indicate that whereas some avoidant individuals (i.e., those who are

fearfully avoidant) have a difficult time adapting to the loss of a

loved one, other avoidant adults (i.e., those who are dismissingly

avoidant) show a pattern of resilience to loss.

  _____ 

 

Record: 5

         

Title:   Adaptation and Resilience in Early Life: Implications of the New

Developmental Neurobiology for Clinical Practice.  

Author(s):     Trout, Michael, Infant-Parent Institute, Champaign, IL,

US, mtrout@infant-parent.com

Address:        Trout, Michael, Infant-Parent Institute, 328 North Neil,

Champaign, IL, US, mtrout@infant-parent.com     

Source:         Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, Vol 18(4),

Sum 2004. pp. 287-300.

 

Journal URL: http://www.birthpsychology.com

Publisher:      US: Association for Pre-and Perinatal Psychology and

Health (APPPAH)

 

Publisher URL: http://www.birthpsychology.com

ISSN:  1097-8003 (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     early experience; developmental outcome; mental process;

developmental neurobiology; clinical practice; behavior   

Abstract:       Growing research interest in the connections between

early experience and developmental outcome--in combination with

technological innovations that have made possible measurement of mental

process in a way never before possible--have wiped out the last vestiges

of dichotomous (mind-body) thinking, and have opened the way to new

understandings about how we become the people we become. This paper

summarizes some aspects of the new research in developmental

neurobiology, and suggests implications for understanding the behavior

of both children and adults. In particular, it is suggested that most

behavior--including behavior that typically warrants a diagnosis--often

turns out to be strikingly adaptive, often evidences resilience, and is,

therefore worthy of respect.  

  _____ 

 

Record: 6

         

Title:   Cognitive Transformation as a Marker of Resilience.        

Author(s):     Tebes, Jacob Kraemer, Division of Prevention and

Community Research, Consultation Center, Department of Psychiatry, Yale

University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, US, tebes@yale.edu

 

Irish, Julie T., Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy

Studies, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Department of Medicine,

Boston, MA, US

 

Vasquez, Mary Jo Puglisi, Good Shepard Rehabilitation Hospital,

Allentown, PA, US

 

Perkins, David V., Department of Psychological Science, Ball State

University, Muncie, IN, US

Address:        Tebes, Jacob Kraemer, Division of Prevention and

Community Research, Consultation Center, Department of Psychiatry, Yale

University School of Medicine, 389 Whitney Ave., New Haven, CT, US,

tebes@yale.edu       

Source:         Substance Use & Misuse, Vol 39(5), Apr 2004. pp. 769-788.

 

Journal URL: http://www.dekker.com/servlet/product/productid/JA

Publisher:      US: Marcell Dekker

 

Publisher URL: http://www.dekker.com

ISSN:  1082-6084 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1081/JA-120034015       

Language:     English

Keywords:     cognitive transformation; resilience; coping behavior;

adverse events; life experiences; bereavement    

Abstract:       Individuals often report positive, transformative

changes in response to adversity. Cognitive transformation involves a

turning point in a person's life characterized by: (1) the recognition

that coping with adversity resulted in new opportunities; and, (2) the

reevaluation of the experience from one that was primarily traumatic or

threatening to one that is growth-promoting. Cognitive transformation

often signifies enhanced adaptation to adverse circumstances, and thus,

is a marker of resilience. The present study examined the relationship

of cognitive transformation to indicators of resilience among 35 acutely

bereaved young adults and a nonbereaved comparison group. Findings

strongly supported the hypothesis that transformation predicts

resilience, and may reduce one's risk trajectory to enhance adaptation.

Results are discussed in terms of their implications for research on

resilience, and on recovery from acute or chronic adverse circumstances,

including addiction.   

  _____ 

 

Record: 7

         

Title:   Adjustment to College Among Trauma Survivors: An Exploratory

Study of Resilience.  

Author(s):     Banyard, Victoria L., University of New Hampshire,

Durham, NH, US, vlb@cisunix.unh.edu

 

Cantor, Elise N., University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, US

Address:        Banyard, Victoria L., Department of Psychology,

University of New Hampshire, 10 Library Way, Durham, NH, US,

vlb@cisunix.unh.edu 

Source:         Journal of College Student Development, Vol 45(2), Mar-Apr 2004.

pp. 207-221.

 

Journal URL: http://www.myacpa.org/pub/pub_jocsd.cfm

Publisher:      US: ACPA Executive Office

 

Publisher URL: http://www.myacpa.org/

ISSN:  0897-5264 (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     college adjustment; school transition; traumatic stress;

coping strategies; social support    

Abstract:       Researchers have examined students' adjustment to

college-why some students make the transition successfully, whereas

others struggle or leave school after only a short time. Efforts to

support students through this transition must draw upon a more complete

understanding of variables that place students at risk for a stressful

transition and protective factors that promote positive adaptation. The

current study is an examination of a group of students potentially at

risk for a stressful transition to college: students who are survivors

of traumatic stress. For the purposes of this research, trauma is

defined broadly as a range of events that overwhelm an individual's

coping capacities and involves threats of serious injury or death to

self or someone close to the individual. This examination was of

variation in the transition to college among a sample of trauma

survivors, of the roles of social relationships and supports, coping,

and making meaning of the trauma in explaining variance in resilience in

adjusting to college.   

  _____ 

 

Record: 8

         

Title:   Psychobiological Mechanisms of Resilience and Vulnerability:

Implications for Successful Adaptation to Extreme Stress.         

Author(s):     Charney, Dennis S., National Inst of Mental Health, Mood

and Anxiety Disorders Program, Bethesda, MD, US, charneyd@nih.gov

Address:        Charney, Dennis S., Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program,

NIMH, 15K North Dr., Rm. 101, Bethesda, MD, US, charneyd@nih.gov    

Source:         American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 161(2), Feb 2004. pp.

195-216.

 

Journal URL: http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/

Publisher:      US: American Psychiatric Assn

 

Publisher URL: http://www.appi.org

ISSN:  0002-953X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1176/appi.ajp.161.2.195 

Language:     English

Keywords:     extreme stress; psychobiology; adaptation; reward; fear

conditioning & extinction; social behavior; models; resilience;

vulnerability; stress-related psychopathology; neurochemistry; neural

mechanisms  

Abstract:       Most research on the effects of severe psychological

stress has focused on stress-related psychopathology. Here, the author

develops psychobiological models of resilience to extreme stress. An

integrative model of resilience and vulnerability that encompasses the

neurochemical response patterns to acute stress and the neural

mechanisms mediating reward, fear conditioning and extinction, and

social behavior is proposed. Eleven possible neurochemical,

neuropeptide, and hormonal mediators of the psychobiological response to

extreme stress were identified and related to resilience or

vulnerability. The neural mechanisms of reward and motivation (hedonia,

optimism, and learned helpfulness), fear responsiveness (effective

behaviors despite fear), and adaptive social behavior (altruism,

bonding, and teamwork) were found to be relevant to the character traits

associated with resilience. The opportunity now exists to bring to bear

the full power of advances in our understanding of the neurobiological

basis of behavior to facilitate the discoveries needed to predict,

prevent, and treat stress-related psychopathology.

  _____ 

 

Record: 9

         

Title:   Les survivants de l'Holocauste et leurs enfants: Les enfants

survivants - mais pas leurs enfants -souffrent d'expériences

traumatiques liées à I'Holocauste.  

Translated Title:       Holocaust child survivors and their offspring:

Child survivors - but not their children - suffer from traumatic

holocaust experiences.       

Author(s):     Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham, Center for the Study of Child

Development, Université de Haifa, Haifa, Israel

 

Van I. Jzendoorn, Marinus, Université de Leiden, Hollande, Netherlands

 

Grossmann, Klaus E., Institut de psychologie, Regensbourg, Germany

 

Joels, Tirtsa, Center for the Study of Child Development, Université de

Haifa, Haifa, Israel

 

Grossmann, Karin, Université de Regensbourg, Allemagne, France

 

Scharf, Miri, Center for the Study of Child Development, Université de

Haifa, Haifa, Israel

 

Koren-Karie, Nina, Center for the Study of Child Development, Université

de Haifa, Haifa, Israel

 

Alkalay, Sarit, Center for the Study of Child Development, Université de

Haifa, Haifa, Israel

Source:         Devenir, Vol 16(2), 2004. pp. 77-107.

 

Journal URL: http://mhsrvweb.medhyg.ch/revues/r_premiere.php4?revue=5

Publisher:      Switzerland: Georg-Eshel Editions Medecine et Hygiene

 

Publisher URL: http://www.medhyg.ch

ISSN:  10158154 (Print)

Language:     French

Keywords:     holocaust survivors; offspring; child survivors;

traumatic holocaust experiences; resilience         

Abstract:       During the Holocaust, extreme trauma was inflicted on

child survivors. Two questions are central to the current investigation:

First, do Holocaust child survivors still show marks of their traumatic

experiences, even after more than 50 years? Second, has the trauma been

passed on

  _____ 

 

Record: 1

         

Title:   Young children with mentally ill parents: Resilient

developmental systems.      

Author(s):     Seifer, Ronald, E. P. Bradley Hosp, Brown U, Providence,

RI, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 29-49. New York, NY,

US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.       

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     parental mental illness; resilience; resilience model;

infants; young children       

Abstract:       (from the chapter) In this chapter, the author describes

the current state of knowledge regarding resilience in infants and young

children who have a parent with mental illness. He begins by addressing

some basic issues regarding how general models of resilience may be

adapted to the particular circumstances of infants and toddlers.

Following this, he summarizes relevant research that may be interpreted

in a resilience framework. The author concludes with a summary model of

processes identified to date in this population, along with some

commentary on how well the resilience model will ultimately serve to aid

understanding in this field.

  _____ 

 

Record: 2

         

Title:   Risk and protective factors for children of depressed parents.    

Author(s):     Hammen, Constance, Dept of Psychology, U California, Los

Angeles, CA, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 50-75. New York, NY,

US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.       

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     depressed parents; mood disorders; risk factors;

protective factors; resilience; intervention; children       

Abstract:       (from the chapter) It is now well established that

depression runs in families and that maternal depression may be

associated with a variety of maladaptive outcomes in children. Because

of the high frequency of depression worldwide--especially among women of

child-bearing age, this is a high-risk problem of considerable

magnitude, and one with the potential for transmission through multiple

generations. The topic of resilience, however, has been relatively

neglected despite the fact that many, if not most, offspring of

depressed parents do not apparently suffer major negative

consequences--and despite the potential yield of preventive

interventions for children at risk. This chapter explores the

contribution of the mood disorders field to resilience research,

following a brief analysis of the depression high-risk research and a

discussion of risk and protective factors and mechanisms. Finally,

implications and directions for future research and intervention are

presented.

  _____ 

 

Record: 3

         

Title:   Resilience and vulnerability among sons of alcoholics:

Relationship to development outcomes between early childhood and

adolescence. 

Author(s):     Zucker, Robert A., Dept of Psychiatry, U Michigan, Ann

Arbor, MI, US

 

Wong, Maria M., Dept of Psychiatry, U Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, US

 

Puttler, Leon I., Dept of Psychiatry, U Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, US

 

Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Dept of Psychology, Michigan State U, East

Lansing, MI, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 76-103. New York, NY,

US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.       

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     childhood characteristics; early adaptation; behavioral

correlates; resilience; vulnerability; later outcomes; preschool-age

sons; alcoholics       

Abstract:       (from the chapter) In this chapter, the authors examine

the behavioral correlates of resilience and vulnerability among

initially preschool-age children of alcoholics, as a way of identifying

those differentiating factors that relate to later positive outcomes.

They use a person-centered rather than a variable-centered approach in

defining who are and who are not "resilient children." They then track

whether these early childhood characteristics remain in place over time,

and examine their developmental correlates during middle childhood and

adolescence. In contrast to the earlier work in this area, which has

looked primarily at relational factors, they have focused heavily on

characterization of the early quality of the child's adaptation

intellectually, temperamentally, and symptomatically. They then ask: To

what extent are the early adaptation differences still detectable at

later points in childhood? To the extent that they are detectable, do

they present differently at later ages? To the extent that they are not,

is there evidence that the initial resilient adaptation makes a

difference, even in interaction with an adverse environment? And last,

what factors, both early on as well as later in development, mediate the

later outcomes?

  _____ 

 

Record: 4

         

Title:   Maternal drug abuse versus other psychological disturbances:

Risks and resilience among children.

Author(s):     Luthar, Suniya S., Dept of Human Development, Teachers

Coll, Columbia U, New York, NY, US

 

D'Avanzo, Karen, School of Medicine, Yale U, New Haven, CT, US

 

Hites, Sarah, Dept of Psychology, U Vermont, Burlington, VT, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 104-129. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     maternal drug abuse; risk; resilience; child

social-emotional well-being; adjustment patterns; community factors;

family factors; child factors 

Abstract:       (from the chapter) The primary thesis of this chapter is

one that flies in the face of rampant stereotypes: that maternal drug

abuse is not necessarily more damaging to children's social-emotional

well-being than are other maternal psychiatric disorders. It is widely

believed that women who abuse illicit drugs are not just dissolute as

individuals but also deplorable as parents, with children who, more so

than offspring of parents with other mental illnesses, are disruptive,

disturbed, or dysphoric. Empirical evidence supporting such beliefs,

however, is tenuous at best. In this chapter, the authors present data

from their own ongoing research to elucidate adjustment patterns among

children whose mothers have histories of drug abuse. Their primary

objective is to disentangle the degree to which risks to children accrue

from maternal histories of drug abuse per se, rather than from various

other adversities with which this disorder typically coexists. A second

objective is to determine the degree to which different forces, at the

levels of the community, family, and child, might mitigate or exacerbate

the risks faced by children of drug abusers--an exercise or pragmatic

value in light of the magnitude of the risks.

  _____ 

 

Record: 5

         

Title:   Resilience to childhood adversity: Results of a 12-year study.    

Author(s):     Fergusson, David M., Dept of Psychological Medicine,

Christchurch School of Medicine, Christchurch, New Zealand

 

Horwood, L. John, Dept of Psychological Medicine, Christchurch School of

Medicine, Christchurch, New Zealand

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 130-155. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     childhood adversity; long-term resilience; young adults   

Abstract:       (from the chapter) Data from a 21-yr longitudinal study,

in a birth cohort of 1,265 children, were used to examine the

relationships between childhood adversity (CA) and subsequent

externalizing and internalizing responses. The key issues addressed

include the following: (1) To what extent is cumulative exposure to

family adversity during childhood (0-16 yrs) associated with the

development of psychopathology in adolescence and young adulthood (16-21

yrs)? (2) How many young people with high exposure to family adversity

avoid developing later psychopathology? (3) What mechanisms underlie

this escape from adversity? There was clear evidence to suggest that,

with increasing exposure to CAs, there were marked increases in rates of

both internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence and young

adulthood. However, not all of those exposed to high levels of CA

developed later externalizing or internalizing, suggest the presence of

resilience processes. The effects of exposure to CA on later outcomes

were modified by factors that mitigated or exacerbated these risks. In

all cases the data fit main effects models, suggesting that the factors

that contributed to resilience among those exposed to high levels of CA

were equally beneficial for those not exposed to these adversities.

  _____ 

 

Record: 6

         

Title:   Sequelae of child maltreatment: Vulnerability and resilience.      

Author(s):     Bolger, Kerry E., Dept of Human Development & Family

Studies, U Wisconsin, Madison, WI, US

 

Patterson, Charlotte J., Dept of Psychology, U Virginia,

Charlottesville, VA, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 156-181. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     vulnerability; resilience; maltreated children        

Abstract:       (from the chapter) In this chapter, the authors review

issues of vulnerability and resilience among maltreated children based

on evidence form their program of research in this area. They begin by

providing an overview of the research from which this evidence is drawn.

They then present their major findings on the prevalence and stability

of resilience among maltreated children; risks associated with different

dimensions of maltreatment; pathways implicated in their effects; and

protective factors that moderate the influence of maltreatment. They

conclude with discussions of the implications of their research findings

for theory and research on resilience as well as for intervention and

policy.

  _____ 

 

Record: 7

         

Title:   Risk and resilience in children coping with their parents'

divorce and remarriage.      

Author(s):     Hetherington, E. Mavis, Dept of Psychology, U Virginia,

Charlottesville, VA, US

 

Elmore, Anne Mitchell, Westat Inc, Rockville, MD, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 182-212. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     parental divorce; remarriage; risk; resilience;

vulnerability; coping; adverse outcomes; protective factors; children   

Abstract:       (from the chapter) In the past 50 yrs in the US,

marriage has become a more optional, less permanent institution.

Marriage is being delayed, rates of marital formation are decreasing,

and divorce, births to single mothers, and cohabitation have increased.

As the divorce rate increased in the 1970s, the remarriage rate for

women began to decline. About 65% of women and 75% of men now remarry.

What is striking following divorce and remarriage is not the

inevitability but the diversity in the experiences and outcomes for

parents and children. In the chapter, the authors describe vulnerability

factors that increase the likelihood of adverse outcomes and protective

factors that buffer children or foster resilience in coping with their

parents' marital transitions. Some of the vulnerability or protective

processes that are catalyzed by stresses associated with parental

divorce or remarriage lie in individual characteristics of the child,

some in family relationships, and some in experiences and relationships

external to the family.

  _____ 

 

Record: 8

         

Title:   Correlational and experimental study of resilience in children

of divorce and parentally bereaved children.        

Author(s):     Sandler, Irwin, Prevention Research Ctr, Arizona State

U, Phoenix, AZ, US

 

Wolchik, Sharlene, Prevention Research Ctr, Arizona State U, Phoenix,

AZ, US

 

Davis, Caroline, Prevention Research Ctr, Arizona State U, Phoenix, AZ,

US

 

Haine, Rachel, Prevention Research Ctr, Arizona State U, Phoenix, AZ, US

 

Ayers, Tim, Prevention Research Ctr, Arizona State U, Phoenix, AZ, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 213-240. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     parental divorce; parental death; bereavement;

resilience; vulnerability; protective factors; children; adolescents;

correlational research; experimental research      

Abstract:       (from the chapter) This chapter presents research on

resilience of children and adolescents who have experienced 2 major

disruptions of the nuclear family, parental divorce and parental

bereavement. The 2 research programs share a common research paradigm in

which there is an iterative relationship between correlational and

experimental studies. The chapter first presents a theoretical framework

that specifies alternative models of the influence of vulnerability and

protective factors on the resilience of children experiencing

significant adversities. The authors then discuss correlational research

on key constructs in the theoretical framework: adversity, and child and

family protective and vulnerability factors. Finally, experimental

studies of resilience are presented, which test the effects of changing

these protective and vulnerability factors to reduce negative mental

health outcomes. Although the research programs on bereavement and

divorce were not specifically designed as comparative, findings that

indicate common pathways to resilience, as well as pathways that are

unique to each adversity, are discussed.

  _____ 

 

Record: 9

         

Title:   Rethinking resilience: A developmental process perspective.      

Author(s):     Yates, Tuppett M., Inst of Child Development, U

Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, US

 

Egeland, Byron, Inst of Child Development, U Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN,

US

 

Sroufe, L. Alan, Inst of Child Development, U Minnesota, Minneapolis,

MN, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 243-266. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     resilience; developmental process; consistent &

supportive care; poverty; adaptation; competence; children     

Abstract:       (from the chapter) Emphasizes the importance of a

theoretically grounded approach to the study of resilience, using the

literature on children reared in poverty to illustrate their central

arguments. Adopting an organizational perspective on development, the

authors argue that a developmental history of consistent and supportive

care engenders early competence, which, in turn, plays a critical role

in later adaptation, one that has been heretofore underappreciated in

the prevailing literature on resilience. The authors begin with a review

of the literature on the deleterious effects of poverty on children's

development. They then outline the organizational model of development

and its theoretical application to the study of risk and resilience. The

third section presents the current state of knowledge regarding salient

protective factors for children reared in poverty. Next, they suggest

that, because of the transactional nature of development, an early

history of positive adaptation is a powerful source of enduring

influence on children's adaptation. Current empirical support for the

salience of an early history of competence as a protective resource, its

operational definition within an organizational framework, and the

theoretical basis for its construction in early childhood are also

discussed.    

  _____ 

 

Record: 10

         

Title:   Poverty and early childhood adjustment.   

Author(s):     Owens, Elizabeth B., Inst of Human Development, U

California, Berkeley, CA, US

 

Shaw, Daniel S., U Pittsburgh, Dept of Psychology, Pittsburgh, PA, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 267-292. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     poverty; vulnerability; adjustment; resilience;

childhood development; male children       

Abstract:       (from the chapter) Childhood poverty appears to be an

enduring and entrenched problem, resistant to most social and economic

policies intended to lift families above the poverty line. How is it

that some children are vulnerable to the effects of poverty, whereas

others demonstrate positive adjustment (i.e., resilience)? Attempts to

answer this question are at the core of this chapter. The authors'

primary objective is twofold: to summarize findings from relevant

literatures regarding factors associated with better or worse adjustment

among young impoverished children, and to showcase one effort toward the

identification of such factors using data from the Pitt Mother and Child

Project, a longitudinal study of adjustment and psychopathology among

young boys from low-income families. In addition to identifying

predictive factors, the authors consider whether they are associated

with outcomes among all children in the sample or just those at highest

risk. They also test the limits of resilient adjustment across time, and

discuss implications their findings have for both basic developmental

science and early intervention programs.

  _____ 

 

Record: 11

         

Title:   Emerging perspectives on context specificity of children's

adaptation and resilience: Evidence from a decade of research with urban

children in adversity.

Author(s):     Wyman, Peter A., Dept of Psychiatry, U Rochester,

Rochester, NY, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 293-317. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     context specificity; adaptation; resilience; at-risk

urban children

Abstract:       (from the chapter) This chapter reviews highlights from

a decade of research with urban children to contrast the explanatory

power of studies guided by 2 perspectives on context-specific

adaptation. Specifically, the chapter examines whether several

child-based attributes (e.g., affective responsiveness and efficacy

beliefs) that were identified as beneficial to adaptation for aggregated

samples of at-risk children have differential effects on adaptation for

children in varying contexts. This chapter is selective and considers

only a few context differences in an effort to provide some insights on

how future studies of risk and resilience may benefit from more

attention to context specificity. The present focus is on several

context differences in social settings (e.g., level of family

functioning, peer group influences) and in individuals (e.g., degree of

children's conduct disturbance) that are salient for urban children.

  _____ 

 

Record: 12

         

Title:   Holistic contextual perspectives in risk, protection, and

competence among low-income urban adolescents.        

Author(s):     Seidman, Edward, Psychology Dept, New York U, New York,

NY, US

 

Pedersen, Sara, Psychology Dept, New York U, New York, NY, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 318-342. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     risk; vulnerability; protection; competence; adolescent

development; well-being; developmental outcomes; low income; urban

environments 

Abstract:       (from the chapter) What are the characteristic ways in

which risk, vulnerability, protection, and competence have been studied?

What are the implicit assumptions underlying this body of research and

scholarship? This chapter addresses these questions in the domain of

adolescent development, with an emphasis on how a set of alternative

assumptions and related research and data analytic strategies can both

enrich our understanding of youth well-being and increase our ability to

promote positive developmental outcomes.

  _____ 

 

Record: 13

         

Title:   Overcoming the odds? Adolescent development in the context of

urban poverty.        

Author(s):     Cauce, Ana Mari, Dept of Psychology, U Washington,

Seattle, WA, US

 

Stewart, Angela, Dept of Psychology, U Washington, Seattle, WA, US

 

Rodriguez, Melanie Domenech, Dept of Psychology, U Washington, Seattle,

WA, US

 

Cochran, Bryan, Dept of Psychology, U Washington, Seattle, WA, US

 

Ginzler, Joshua, Dept of Psychology, U Washington, Seattle, WA, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 343-363. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     inner-city youth; adolescent development; urban poverty;

risk; resilience; school achievement; dropout; behavior problems

Abstract:       (from the chapter) Adolescence, a time of rapid

biological, emotional, and social changes, brings with it a heightened

developmental risk. This risk may be highest for adolescents growing up

in poverty within our country's inner cities. In addition to the

normative stress of adolescence, poor inner-city youth face multiple

stressors and adversities. These factors, in turn, have been linked to a

host of negative outcomes. Nonetheless, some inner-city youth survive

these circumstances, overcoming adversity to become productive members

of society. This chapter highlights research that helps in understanding

the dynamic process of risk and resilience during this difficult

transition in an even more difficult context. The chapter begins with a

definition of adolescence and urban poverty and then lays out a

rationale for focusing on 2 outcomes, school achievement and dropout and

behavior problems of an internalizing or externalizing nature. Next it

identifies salient factors that increase vulnerability or protective

processes for youth growing up in urban poverty. The chapter ends with a

discussion of resilience, emphasizing the limits of resilient adaptation

and implications of this for theory and research on resilience, as well

as for interventions that may better the lives of these vulnerable

youth. 

  _____ 

 

Record: 14

         

Title:   Adaptation among youth facing multiple risks: Prospective

research findings.    

Author(s):     Sameroff, Arnold, Ctr for Human Growth & Development, U

Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, US

 

Gutman, Leslie Morrison, Ctr for Human Growth & Development, U Michigan,

Ann Arbor, MI, US

 

Peck, Stephen C., Inst for Research on Women & Gender, U Michigan, Ann

Arbor, MI, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 364-391. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     developmental competence; problem behaviors; multiple

risks; ecological analysis; social surroundings; environmental risk;

predictive model; children   

Abstract:       (from the chapter) This chapter examines a model for

predicting developmental competence based on an ecological analysis of

the child's social surroundings as well as the child's capacities.

Although it is important to understand the specific processes that lead

to specific maladjustments, from an epidemiological standpoint the best

predictors of problem behaviors seem to be a cumulative risk score that

reflects statuses in the full range of ecological subsystems of the

child. Moreover, the kind of risk appears to be secondary to the number

of negative factors. When the strengths of the individual youth are

added to the predictive model, they do not overcome the effects of high

environmental risk. 

  _____ 

 

Record: 15

         

Title:   Positive adaptation among youth exposed to community violence.        

Author(s):     Gorman-Smith, Deborah, Inst for Juvenile Research, Dept

of Psychiatry, U Illinois, Chicago, IL, US

 

Tolan, Patrick H., Inst for Juvenile Research, Dept of Psychiatry, U

Illinois, Chicago, IL, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 392-413. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     community violence; exposure; risks; adaptation; youth  

Abstract:       (from the chapter) In this chapter, the authors review

the current literature on exposure to community violence, with specific

attention to implications for positive adaptation among exposed youth.

First, they review the extent of the problem (i.e., the number of

children exposed) and the associated risks. They then address factors

related to differences in outcome, including the mechanisms through

which more positive adaptation might occur. With the goal of informing

intervention and prevention efforts, the authors distinguish between

those factors through which violence exposure appears to relate to

differences in risk outcomes (i.e., mediators or mechanisms through

which exposure exerts impact) and those factors associated with the

differences found (i.e., moderators, which include characteristics of

the child, family, community, or the incident itself). Suggestions for

future research are outlined, and implications for intervention and

prevention are discussed.   

  _____ 

 

Record: 16

         

Title:   Perceived discrimination and resilience.     

Author(s):     Szalacha, Laura A., Ctr for the Study of Human

Development, Brown U, Providence, RI, US

 

Erkut, Sumru, Ctr for Research on Women, Wellesley Coll, Wellesley, MA,

US

 

García Coll, Cynthia, Ctr for the Study of Human Development, Brown U,

Providence, RI, US

 

Fields, Jacqueline P., Ctr for Research on Women, Wellesley Coll,

Wellesley, MA, US

 

Alarcón, Odette, Ctr for Research on Women, Wellesley Coll, Wellesley,

MA, US

 

Ceder, Ineke, Ctr for Research on Women, Wellesley Coll, Wellesley, MA,

US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 414-435. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     racism; perceived discrimination; prejudice;

vulnerability; protective factors; resilience; adjustment; minority

youth; mainland Puerto Ricans       

Abstract:       (from the chapter) This chapter focuses on vulnerability

and protective factors implicated in the psychosocial adjustment of

minority youth. The authors concentrate on the external manifestations

of the social mechanisms of racism, discrimination, and prejudice. In

considering discrimination as a risk factor, their concern in this

chapter is with phenomenological experiences of discrimination and not

with the more invisible, but potentially more powerful, impact of

institutional racism on minority mental health. Mainland Puerto Ricans

serve as the authors' referent group, as their own research has

concentrated on the developmental trajectories of Puerto Rican children

and adolescents. After providing a brief overview on adjustment patterns

among Puerto Rican youth, they review, in turn, research evidence on the

negative effects of perceived discrimination, on processes that might

underlie (or mediate) its effects, and on vulnerability and protective

factors that may moderate its effects. They conclude with suggested

directions for future research on the effects of discrimination on

ethnic minority youth.

  _____ 

 

Record: 17

         

Title:   Promoting resilience through early childhood intervention.

Author(s):     Reynolds, Arthur J., School of Social Work, U Wisconsin,

Madison, WI, US

 

Ou, Suh-Ruu, School of Social Work, U Wisconsin, Madison, WI, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 436-459. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     early childhood interventions; resilience promotion;

social-environmental risk exposure; economic disadvantage; protective

factors; developmental outcomes; children

Abstract:       (from the chapter) In this chapter, the authors review

evidence about the effects of early childhood interventions in promoting

resilience for children who have experienced high levels of

social-environmental risk due to economic disadvantage. They address

several contemporary issues including the measurement of resilience,

interventions as protective factors, and the pathways through which the

effects of interventions lead to positive developmental outcomes.   

  _____ 

 

Record: 18

         

Title:   Toward building a better brain: Neurobehavioral outcomes,

mechanisms, and processes of environmental enrichment.

Author(s):     Curtis, W. John, Mt Hope Family Ctr, U Rochester,

Rochester, MN, US

 

Nelson, Charles A., Inst of Child Development, U Minnesota, Minneapolis,

MN, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 463-488. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     developmental cognitive neuroscience; environmental

enrichment; preschool programs; human brain development; cognitive

abilities; behavior     

Abstract:       (from the chapter) This chapter attempts to derive a

model of an effective human analogue to environmental enrichment. Given

the relative lack of success of enrichment interventions with humans,

considered together with the overwhelming effects seen in animal

enrichment studies, it would appear that a reevaluation of human

enrichment interventions from a developmental cognitive neuroscience

perspective would elucidate the reasons underlying the successes and

failures of human enrichment programs thus far. In addition, such a

framework might provide theoretical guidance in the development of more

effective human enrichment interventions. The model of human enrichment

set forth attempts to extrapolate from the extensive animal literature

on enrichment the mechanisms and type of impact that enriched preschool

programs may have on human brain development, cognitive abilities, and

behavior.  

  _____ 

 

Record: 19

         

Title:   Genetic Influences on risk and protection: Implications for

understanding resilience.     

Author(s):     Rutter, Michael, Social, Genetic & Developmental

Psychiatry Research Ctr, Inst of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 489-509. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     genetic factors; resilience; gene-environment

interactions; gene-environment correlations; psychological functioning 

Abstract:       (from the chapter) In this chapter, evidence on genetic

factors is presented to highlight the importance of considering the

extensive array of possible mediating and moderating mechanisms in

resilience. Central to this chapter are 2 notions: gene-environment

interaction, which refers to genetically influenced differences in

individuals' sensitivity to particular environmental factors, and

gene-environment correlations, which refer to genetically influenced

differences in individuals' liability of exposure to particular

environmental factors. The chapter begins with a presentation of some

relevant examples from biology, followed by a consideration of

gene-environment interactions and gene-environment correlations in

relation to individuals' psychological functioning. Discussions in the

next section illustrate how particular risk indices can have diverse

roots and can operate through various mediating processes, using

examples of passive, active, and evocative person-environment

correlations as well as evidence of sex and developmental differences.

The chapter concludes with an appraisal of critical directions for

future work, both for scientific inquiry and for interventions.

  _____ 

 

Record: 20

         

Title:   Research on resilience: An integrative review.     

Author(s):     Luthar, Suniya S., Dept of Human Development, Teachers

Coll, Columbia U, New York, NY, US

 

Zelazo, Laurel Bidwell, Dept of Human Development, Teachers Coll,

Columbia U, New York, NY, US

Source:         Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities. Luthar, Suniya S. (Ed); pp. 510-549. New York,

NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574 pp.  

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     resilience; research; risk conditions; risk modifiers;

prevention; intervention     

Abstract:       (from the chapter) The contributors to this volume have

provided a wealth of information on children facing different life

adversities, and in this concluding chapter the authors provide a

distillation of 2 sets of themes. The first encompasses conceptual and

methodological issues in studies of resilience, which is a process or

phenomenon reflecting positive child adjustment despite conditions of

risk. Contrasting with the focus on empirical research in the 1st half

of the chapter, the 2nd half is focused on applied issues. At the heart

of much resilience research is the desire to uncover salient protective

and vulnerability processes that, if targeted in interventions, would

substantially improve at-risk children's odds of doing well in life.

Accordingly, the authors integrate findings on risk modifiers from all

chapters in the book, discussing them in order of relative salience

across different risk conditions and deriving associated directions for

interventions. This is followed, in turn, by consideration of prevention

efforts that are focused on mental health as well as behavioral

resilience, directions for future applied research, and guidelines for

future interventions designed within the resilience framework.

  _____ 

 

Record: 21

         

Title:   Rising from the ashes: Stories of recovery, adaptation and

resiliency in burn survivors. 

Author(s):     Williams, Nancy R., School of Social Work, University of

Georgia, Athens, GA, US, nwilliam@arches.uga.edu

 

Davey, Maureen, Department of Child and Family Development, University

of Georgia, Athens, GA, US

 

Klock-Powell, Kathryn, Department of Child and Family Development,

University of Georgia, Athens, GA, US

Address:        Williams, Nancy R., School of Social Work, University of

Georgia, 419 Tucker Hall, Athens, GA, US, nwilliam@arches.uga.edu     

Source:         Social Work in Health Care, Vol 36(4), 2003. pp. 53-77.

 

Journal URL: http://www.haworthpressinc.com/store/product.asp?sku=J010

Publisher:      US: Haworth Press

 

Publisher URL: http://www.haworthpress.com

ISSN:  0098-1389 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1300/J010v36n04_04     

Language:     English

Keywords:     burn injured people; burn survivors; burn experience;

physical recovery; emotional recovery; spiritual recovery; recovery

process        

Abstract:       Burn-injured people are confronted with enormous

challenges in their recovery process on a physical, emotional, and

spiritual level. Despite the magnitude of trauma, there has been a

dearth of research exploring adult burn survivors' perception of their

experiences. In this qualitative study, eight burn survivors (aged 31-51

yrs; ethnicity is noted) were interviewed. Influences that impacted

their experiences such as perceived memories, time, and age when burned

were distinguished from the multiple themes of losses to identity, life

style, relationships and physical functioning as well as themes of

adaptation, coping and resiliency. Drawing from the burn survivors'

stories of recovery can provide insights for social workers and other

health care professionals in serving this compelling population more

effectively.

  _____ 

 

Record: 22

         

Title:   Entwicklungsorientierte Betrachtung chronischer Krankheiten im

Kindes- und Jugendalter.     

Translated Title:       Developmental view of chronic illnesses in

childhood and youth.

Author(s):     Noeker, Meinolf, Zentrum für Kinderheilkunde,

Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany

 

Petermann, Franz, Zentrum für Klinische Psychologie und Rehabilitation,

Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany

Address:        Noeker, Meinolf, Zentrum fur Kinderheilkunde,

Universitat Bonn, Adenauer Allee 119, 53113, Bonn, Germany     

Source:         Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie, Psychiatrie und

Psychotherapie, Vol 51(3), 2003. pp. 191-229.

Publisher:      Germany: Verlag Ferdinand Schoningh

 

Publisher URL: http://www.schoeningh.de

ISSN:  1431-8172 (Print)

Language:     German        

Keywords:     chronic condition; developmental processes;

developmental psychopathology; multifinality; equifinality

Abstract:       The paper aims at the foundation of a developmental

approach to chronic conditions. Chronicity of disorder necessarily

implies developmental processes. Development emerges within the

interaction between course of disease and treatment, on the one side,

and specific adaptation processes, on the other side. Epidemiological

trends are outlined illustrating that the frequently cited statement of

a general increase in prevalence of chronic conditions, in fact results

from differential, disease-specific effects of medical progress on

prevalence rates on particular disease entities. The issue of

disease-specificity of adaptation to a chronic condition has yielded

contradictory findings which have promoted a controversy on their proper

interpretation (categorical versus non-categorial approach). We argue

that inconsistency of reported findings results from methodological

pitfalls, on the one side, and true heterogeneity of developmental and

adaptational pathways in the individual, on the other side. The concepts

of multifinality and equifinality are taken from developmental

psychopathology to clarify the relation between the risks of a specific

disease and the quality of outcome. Multifinality means that the very

same underlying condition may lead to very heterogeneous outcomes via

interindividually varying developmental and adaptational pathways. The

outcome may vary largely among patients suffering from the very same

disease ranging from secondary psychopathology to favourable stimulation

of resilience. The complementary concept of equifinality means that

patients with divergent risk constellations, i.e. different chronic

conditions, may finally develop towards very similar outcomes. As a

result, prediction of individual outcome only by knowledge of the

particular chronic condition is very limited but encompasses multiple

risk factors and resources moderating the adaptation process. Our

developmental approach to chronic condition is exemplified by recent

research on etiology, course and outcome in childhood asthma.

  _____ 

 

Record: 23

         

Title:   Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of

childhood adversities.         

Author(s):     Luthar, Suniya S., (Ed), Dept of Human Development,

Teachers Coll, Columbia U, New York, NY, US

Source:         New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xxxi, 574

pp.    

ISBN:  0-521-80701-8 (hardcover)

 

0-521-00161-7 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     resilience; vulnerability; adversity; adaptation;

adjustment; family risks; community risks; children         

Abstract:       (from the cover) Childhood resilience is the phenomenon

of positive adaptation despite significant life adversities. While

interest in resilience has burgeoned in recent years, there remains

considerable uncertainty about what exactly research has taught us about

this phenomenon. Integrated in this book are contributions from leading

scientists who have each studied children's adjustment across risks

common in contemporary society. Chapters in the first half of the book

focus on risks emanating from the family; chapters in the second half

focus on risks stemming from the wider community. All contributors have

explicitly addressed a common set of core themes, including the criteria

they used to judge resilience within particular risk settings, the major

factors that predict resilience in these settings, the limits to

resilience (vulnerabilities coexisting with manifest success), and

directions for interventions. In the concluding chapter, the editor

integrates evidence presented throughout all preceding chapters to

distill (a) substantive considerations for future research and (b)

salient directions for interventions and social policies based on

accumulated research knowledge.

  _____ 

 

Record: 24

         

Title:   Resilience: Learning from people with disabilities and the

turning points in their lives. 

Series Title:   Praeger series in health psychology

Author(s):     King, Gillian A., (Ed), Thames Valley Children's Centre,

London, ON, Canada

 

Brown, Elizabeth G., (Ed), Thames Valley Children's Centre, London, ON,

Canada

 

Smith, Linda K., (Ed), Thames Valley Children's Centre, London, ON,

Canada

Source:         Westport, CT, US: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group,

Inc, 2003. xiv, 204 pp.       

ISBN:  0-275-97943-1 (hardcover)

Language:     English

Keywords:     resilience; people with disabilities; cerebral palsy;

spina bifida; attention deficit disorders; adaptation        

Abstract:       (from the book) This volume brings to life the nature of

resilience and adaptation to change by describing turning points, or

critical experiences, in the lives of people with disabilities. People

with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, or attention deficit disorder are

interviewed. They describe events and experiences that changed their

lives and pinpoint which factors helped or hindered their adaptation.

Interweaving these compelling stories with popular thought and research

evidence, the authors show how understanding the resilience of people

with disabilities may help all readers create meaning in life and become

resilient. Rich in personal detail, yet strong in its presentation of

academic literature and other nonfiction works related to resilience,

this volume will appeal to a wide variety of readers, from people who

wonder about the meaning of life, to the parents of children with

disabilities and organizations that deliver services to them, to

students and professors in the fields of psychology, education, social

work and occupational therapy.

  _____ 

 

Record: 25

         

Title:   Mediated generalized problem solving to enhance resiliency in

children with a chronic illness.       

Author(s):     Fuller, Mary M., U South Florida, US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities &

Social Sciences, Vol 63(5-A), Dec 2002. pp. 1707.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI3052644  

Language:     English

Keywords:     mediated problem solving; resiliency; chronic illness;

children        

Abstract:       Resiliency, for the purpose of this study, was defined

as the process or capacity of parents and children for successful

adaptation despite challenging circumstances. The dimensions of

resiliency are social competency, risk factors, protective factors,

stress, and coping. The interaction of these dimensions performs a major

role in facilitating the ability to overcome adversity and achieve

positive outcomes. Problem solving is a specific coping method that will

increase the probability of selecting the most effective behavioral

outcome. As behavioral outcomes improve, social competencies increase,

which in turn increases successful adaptation. This research project

used a multiple baseline designed across participants to determine the

influence of a specific mediated problem solving method with families

raising a chronically ill child. Five children identified with a chronic

illness, along with their parents, participated in this study. This

investigation demonstrated that as parents improved their interaction

patterns, their child's behavioral outcomes showed improvement and there

was an increase in their social competencies. These results were

determined by direct observation of parent and child's behaviors and

review of secondary psychometric data collection. The mediated problem

solving method included learning mediated generalization procedures to

prevent relapse the development of maladaptive behaviors following the

discontinuance of treatment and any potential future maladaptive

behaviors. Further investigation will need to be conducted to evaluate

the relapse of maladaptive behaviors; however, results of this

investigation demonstrated the effectiveness of the treatment condition.

  _____ 

 

Record: 26

         

Title:   Chronic illness as a family process: A social-developmental

approach to promoting resilience.   

Author(s):     Shapiro, Ester R., U Massachusetts, Psychology Dept,

Gaston Inst for Latino Research, Boston, MA, US, ester.shapiro@umb.edu

Address:        Shapiro, Ester R., U Massachusetts, Psychology Dept,

Gaston Inst for Latino Research, 100 Morrissey Blvd, Boston, MA, US,

ester.shapiro@umb.edu      

Source:         Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 58(11), Nov 2002. Special

issue: Chronic illness. pp. 1375-1384.

 

Journal URL: http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0021-9762/

Publisher:      US: John Wiley & Sons

 

Publisher URL: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/

ISSN:  0021-9762 (Print)

 

1097-4679 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1002/jclp.10085  

Language:     English

Keywords:     chronic illness; social-developmental approach;

resilience; family process; clinical interventions; daughters        

Abstract:       Describes a social-developmental approach to

interventions in chronic illness using naturally occurring processes of

change during family life-cycle transitions to promote more positive

developmental outcomes. A case example of a 13-yr-old daughter with

complex, chronic health problems and developmental disabilities

illustrates clinical interventions designed to promote family resilience

during the entry into adolescence and a transition in schooling. This

approach involves focusing on the family's own definition of the current

problem and relevant history, constructing a multidimensional, coherent

story of the illness and its impact that recognizes stressors yet

highlights strengths, and normalizing their strategies for stability

under circumstances of developmental stress. These interventions with

mother, daughter, and family helped improve health efficacy,

communication toward mutual understanding and shared problem solving,

and better use of existing and new resources to enhance current and

future developmental adaptation.

  _____ 

 

Record: 27

         

Title:   The impact of political violence: Adaptation and identity

development in Bosnian adolescent refugees.      

Author(s):     Gibson, Eliza C.

Source:         Smith College Studies in Social Work, Vol 73(1), Nov 2002. pp.

29-50.

Publisher:      US: Smith College School for Social Work

ISSN:  0037-7317 (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     political violence; war; exile; adaptation; identity

development; Bosnian adolescent refugees; resilience; trauma responses;

temperament; cultural & family pride; loyalty; cultural meaning  

Abstract:       This qualitative study explored the impact of the war in

the former Yugoslavia and the experiences of forced exile on the

processes of adaptation and identity development for 5 Bosnian

adolescent refugees (aged 14-18 yrs) who have lived the US for at least

2 years. Sources of resilience were found in individual temperament,

adaptive responses to trauma, and cultural and family pride and loyalty.

Because current research on political violence tends to focus on

psychopathological outcomes and PTSD sequelae, particular attention was

given to examining cultural meanings of trauma and development, as well

as the health-promoting forces that can occur in response to extreme

trauma. Findings suggest several implications for future research as

well as implications for mental health professionals working with

refugees.    

  _____ 

 

Record: 28

         

Title:   Healthy adaptation in parents of children with autism:

Implications of personality and resilience.  

Author(s):     Chehrazi, Avazeh, Alliant International U., US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences &

Engineering, Vol 63(2-B), Aug 2002. pp. 1017.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI3043463  

Language:     English

Keywords:     healthy adaptation; parents; autistic children;

personality; resilience         

Abstract:       Healthy adaptation in parents of children diagnosed with

autism or Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) was investigated. Due

to the behavioral difficulties exhibited by some children with autism,

the level of cognitive impairment, the lack of communication abilities,

and the lack of social skills, parents of children with autism and PDD

are continually confronted with ongoing stressors to which adaptation is

required. Research indicates that healthy adaptation can be achieved in

parents of children with autism or PDD if social relations for the

parents and appropriate levels of involvement in the life of the child

are maintained (Waltz, 1999). The current study was designed to

investigate the role of personality domains, using the Five Factor Model

of personality (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and resilience levels in parents

raising children with autism. Seventy-eight primary caregivers of young

children diagnosed with autism or PDD who were enrolled in an intensive

behavioral home program were assessed on personality domains, resiliency

and measures of healthy adaptation. It was found that parental

resilience was associated with healthy adaptation, with the maintenance

of social relationships being of particular importance. The personality

structure defined as Neurotic was associated with unhealthy levels of

social isolation, and the personality structure defined as Agreeable was

associated with overall healthy adaptation patterns. Parental

involvement was not found to be directly associated with any predictor

variable. Individuals with specific personality domains and those

characterized as resilient are more prone to adapt successfully to the

stressors associated with raising a child with autism. Such indicators

of healthy adaptation should be identified more specifically, with the

hopes that such traits can be incorporated into parent training programs

to foster healthy adaptation for all parents.

  _____ 

 

Record: 29

         

Title:   The Family Adaptation Model: Examination of dimensions and

relations.      

Author(s):     Drummond, Jane, U Alberta, Faculty of Nursing, Child &

Family Resiliene Research Program, Edmonton, AB, Canada

 

Kysela, Gerald M., U Alberta, AB, Canada

 

McDonald, Linda, U Alberta, Faculty of Education, AB, Canada

 

Query, Brenda, U Alberta, Faculty of Nursing, Edmonton, AB, Canada

Source:         Canadian Journal of Nursing Research/Revue canadienne de

recherche en sciences infirmieres, Vol 34(1), Jun 2002. pp. 29-46.

Publisher:      Canada: McGill Univ/School of Nursing

ISSN:  0844-5621 (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     family adaptation model; theories; resilience;

protective processes; families       

Abstract:       The purpose of this paper is to summarize the

theoretical underpinnings and present the model analyses used in the

development and evaluation of the Family Adaptation Model. Resilience

theory, with its components of protective processes and vulnerability

processes, underlies the assumptions of the model. Data analyses are

presented from 2 samples in which survey methodology, post-test only

experimental designs were implemented. Causal relations hypothesized by

the model were examined using the larger of the 2 data sets. Mothers'

(aged 16-53 yrs) data only were used in these structural equation

modelling analyses. Moderate support for the linear dimensions of the

model was found. When the paths predicted by the theory were tested,

insignificant results were produced. Recent expert reviews of adaptation

concepts and research approaches were used to explore the meaning of the

null findings when testing the paths of the model in contrast to the

success of the model when used to develop practice approaches with

families.

  _____ 

 

Record: 30

         

Title:   Challenges facing child protection. 

Author(s):     Lachman, Peter, North West London Hosps NHS Trust,

Northwick Park Hosp, Middlesex, United Kingdom

 

Poblete, Ximena, North West London Hosps NHS Trust, Northwick Park Hosp,

Middlesex, United Kingdom

 

Ebigbo, Peter O., U Nigeria, Coll of Medicine, Dept of Psychological

Medicine, Enugu, Nigeria

 

Nyandiya-Bundy, Sally, U Zimbabwe, Dept of Psychology, Harare, Zimbabwe

 

Bundy, Robert P., U Zimbabwe, Dept of Psychology, Harare, Zimbabwe

 

Killian, Bev, U Natal, Dept of Psychology, Pietermaritzberg, South

Africa

 

Doek, Jaap, Vrije U, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Address:        Lachman, Peter, Northwick Park Hosp, North West London

Hosps NHS Trust, Watford Road Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom      

Source:         Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol 26(6-7), Jun 2002. pp. 587-617.

 

Journal URL: http://www.elsevier.com/inca/publications/store/5/8/6/

Publisher:      Netherlands: Elsevier Science

 

Publisher URL: http://elsevier.com

ISSN:  0145-2134 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1016/S0145-2134(02)00336-8   

Language:     English

Keywords:     child abuse; child protection; specific constraints;

poverty; HIV/AIDS infection; war; child protection programs; outcomes;

children's rights       

Abstract:       The challenges facing children in the 21st century are

immense and will need to be faced if we are to achieve the goal of child

protection for all. Three specific constraints on child protection are

examined in this article: poverty, HIV/AIDS infection, and war. The

authors use their experience in Africa to raise issues of resilience and

adaptation, dangers to child protection programs, and possible

solutions. Poverty can be both financial and psychological, and this

affects the effect of prevention programs. In many African and Asian

countries, the AIDS pandemic has changed the social structure of society

with AIDS orphans and children infected and affected by HIV/AIDS

becoming more common. The impact has devastating effects on the way we

view child protection and in particular child sexual abuse. The

consequences of posttraumatic stress resulting from war needs to be

addressed, and the development of programs that place children in the

center of relief programs to foster a culture of child protection is

essential. Finally, the article notes that the picture is not overly

pessimistic and examines the achievements in the field of children's

rights that underpin all programs aimed at protecting children and the

future need to consolidate successes achieved.

  _____ 

 

Record: 31

         

Title:   Dimensions of the construct of resilience and adaptation among

inner-city youth.     

Author(s):     Tiêt, Quyên Q., Columbia U/New York State Psychiatric

Inst, Dept of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, New York, NY, US,

quyen.tiet@med.va.gov

 

Huizinga, David, U Colorado, Inst of Behavioral Science, Denver, CO, US

Address:        Tiêt, Quyên Q., VAPA/Stanford U, VAPA HCS (152), 795

Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA, US, quyen.tiet@med.va.gov         

Source:         Journal of Adolescent Research, Vol 17(3), May 2002. pp.

260-276.

Publisher:      US: Sage Publications

 

Publisher URL: http://www.sagepublications.com/

ISSN:  0743-5584 (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     resilience; adaptation; inner-city youth; youth

development; high-risk neighborhoods; psychosocial functioning;

self-esteem; academic performance; drug use; gangs; delinquency      

Abstract:       This article reviews the conceptualization of resilience

and empirically examines the dimensionality of a construct of resilience

and adaptation by using structural equation modeling techniques. As part

of a longitudinal study of youth development, youth ages 11, 13, and 15

and their parents who lived in high-risk neighborhoods in the Denver

metropolitan area were interviewed. The construct of resilience and

adaptation was measured by six indicators: psychosocial functioning,

self-esteem, academic performance, absence or low level of drug use,

gang involvement, and delinquent activities. Factor analyses using

LISREL suggest the existence of at least two latent constructs of

resilience and adaptation: adjustment and low level of antisocial

behavior. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  _____ 

 

Record: 32

         

Title:   Psychological resiliency and coping with domestic violence.       

Author(s):     Hopper, Elizabeth Kay, Saint Louis U., US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences &

Engineering, Vol 62(9-B), Apr 2002. pp. 4220.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI3027677  

Language:     English

Keywords:     psychological resiliency; coping; battered women;

domestic violence    

Abstract:       Within the past several decades, relationship violence

has been illuminated as a major societal problem. Researchers have

identified psychological sequelae of partner abuse and have begun to

examine factors that are associated with psychological adjustment in

battered women. Despite the documentation of a range of sequelae of

domestic violence, little attention has been paid to differences in the

adjustment levels of battered women. There is a wide variability in the

individual adaptation levels of victims of domestic violence. The

current project seeks to explain some of the variation in the

psychological functioning of battered women through an examination of

the women's abuse characteristics, personal and environmental resources,

and coping strategies used to deal with their abuse. There are three

major objectives to this study: (a) an examination of variations in

battered women's adjustment; (b) the identification of resiliency

factors which lead to better adjustment in battered women; and (c) an

examination of the mechanisms by which these resiliency factors operate.

Theory suggests a number of resiliency factors (including personal and

environmental resources) that may influence battered women's adjustment;

however, it does not clearly specify the pathways by which these factors

affect adjustment. Personal and environmental resources may act directly

on adjustment. They may operate indirectly through an influence on

coping. Finally, these resiliency factors may buffer the effects of

domestic violence on adjustment. The current study identified a number

of resiliency factors for battered women. It examined potential direct

and indirect relationships between resiliency factors and adjustment in

battered women, and examined the potential moderating role of resiliency

variables. Unique resiliency models were developed for generalized

distress and PTSD symptoms. Implications and future research are

discussed.   

  _____ 

 

Record: 33

         

Title:   Journey of resilience and adaptation: Counselling Vietnamese

people.         

Author(s):     Hart, Justin, Research & Training Ctr for Community

Development, justinhart@hotmail.com

Address:        Hart, Justin, justinhart@hotmail.com        

Source:         Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, Vol 23(1),

Mar 2002. pp. 20-28.

 

Journal URL:

http://www.blackwellpublishers.co.uk/asp/journal.asp?ref=0814-723X

Publisher:      Australia: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family

Therapy

 

Publisher URL: http://www.anzjft.com

ISSN:  0814-723X (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     Vietnamese Australians; cultural knowledge & attitudes;

resilience; adaptation; history; cultural variables; counselling;

Vietnam War; refugees; helping professionals      

Abstract:       Despite the substantial number of Vietnamese residing in

Australia, many Australians' knowledge and attitudes are still shaped by

the Vietnam War and the resulting exodus of refugees. This superficial

impression contributes little to a meaningful understanding of the rich

heritage of the Vietnamese people. The purpose of this article is to

broaden the understanding of helping professionals who come into contact

with Vietnamese Australians, so as to evoke responses that are more

sensitive, appropriate and useful. A brief history of Vietnam is

followed by an exploration of historical insights and cultural variables

that aid our understanding of the people, and by an examination of the

applicability of these factors for counselling.

  _____ 

 

Record: 34

         

Title:   Language, spirituality and cultural empathy: A response to

Justin Hart.   

Author(s):     Hoang, Le (Hoang thi Tuyet Le)

Address:        Hoang, Le (Hoang thi Tuyet Le), 61 Portland Street,

Enfield, NSW, Australia, 2136        

Source:         Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, Vol 23(1),

Mar 2002. pp. 29-31.

 

Journal URL:

http://www.blackwellpublishers.co.uk/asp/journal.asp?ref=0814-723X

Publisher:      Australia: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family

Therapy

 

Publisher URL: http://www.anzjft.com

ISSN:  0814-723X (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     Vietnamese Australians; cultural knowledge & attitudes;

resilience; adaptation; history; cultural variables; counselling;

Vietnam War; refugees; helping professionals      

Abstract:       Responds to the original article by J. Hart (see record

2002-13856-004) which attempted to broaden the understanding of helping

professionals who come into contact with Vietnamese Australians. The

current author shares his own experiences in this area, some of which

support Hart's argument, others of which bring out different aspects of

therapeutic relevance. 

  _____ 

 

Record: 35

         

Title:   Hardiness and social support as predictors of stress in mothers

of typical children, children with autism, and children with mental

retardation.   

Author(s):     Weiss, Mary Jane, Rutgers,The State U of New Jersey, New

Brunswick, NJ, US, mjweiss@home.com

Address:        Weiss, Mary Jane, Rutgers, The State U of New Jersey,

Douglass Developmental Disabilities Ctr, 25 Gibbons Circle, New

Brunswick, NJ, US, mjweiss@home.com     

Source:         Autism, Vol 6(1), Mar 2002. pp. 115-130.

Publisher:      US: Sage Publications

 

Publisher URL: http://www.sagepublications.com/

ISSN:  1362-3613 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1177/1362361302006001009     

Language:     English

Keywords:     social support; hardiness; stress symptoms; mothers;

autism; mental retardation  

Abstract:       Assessed the effects of social support and hardiness on

the level of stress in 24-48 yr old mothers of typical children and

children with developmental disabilities. Ss included 40 mothers of

children with autism, 40 mothers of children with mental retardation,

and 40 mothers of typically developing children. Children were aged 2-7

yrs. Results of questionnaires indicate there were significant group

differences in ratings of the stress effects depression, anxiety,

somatic complaints and burnout. Both hardiness and social support were

predictive of successful adaptation. The relationships among hardiness,

support and coping are discussed.

  _____ 

 

Record: 36

         

Title:   Understanding family resilience.     

Author(s):     Patterson, Joän M., U Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, US

Address:        Patterson, Joän M., U Minnesota School of Public Health,

1300 South 2nd St, Suite 300, Minneapolis, MN, US        

Source:         Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 58(3), Mar 2002. Special

issue: A second generation of resilience research. pp. 233-246.

 

Journal URL: http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0021-9762/

Publisher:      US: John Wiley & Sons

 

Publisher URL: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/

ISSN:  0021-9762 (Print)

 

1097-4679 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1002/jclp.10026  

Language:     English

Keywords:     family resilience; family protective processes; family

risk processes; stress & coping theory; family adaptation

Abstract:       Families, as social systems, can be considered

"resilient" in ways that parallel descriptions of individual resilience.

In this article, the conceptualization of family-level outcomes as a

prerequisite for assessing family competence, and hence their

resilience, is presented relative to the unique functions that families

perform for their members and for society. The risk and protective

processes that give rise to resilience in families are discussed in

terms of family stress and coping theory, with a particular emphasis on

the family's subjective appraisal of their sources of stress and their

ability to manage them. An effort is made to distinguish two

perspectives on resilience: exposure to significant risk as a

prerequisite for being considered resilient versus promotion of

strengths for all families in which life in general is viewed as risky.

Implications for practitioners and policy makers in working with

families to promote their resilience are discussed.

  _____ 

 

Record: 37

         

Title:   Heroes in the nursery: Three case studies in resilience.   

Author(s):     Rak, Carl F., Cleveland State U, Doctoral Studies Dept,

Cleveland, OH, US

Address:        Rak, Carl F., Cleveland State U, Doctoral Studies Dept,

Cleveland, OH, US    

Source:         Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 58(3), Mar 2002. Special

issue: A second generation of resilience research. pp. 247-260.

 

Journal URL: http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0021-9762/

Publisher:      US: John Wiley & Sons

 

Publisher URL: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/

ISSN:  0021-9762 (Print)

 

1097-4679 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1002/jclp.10027  

Language:     English

Keywords:     supportive & nurturing parent in early life; defense;

adaptation; development of resilience in later life 

Abstract:       This article examines the therapeutic work in three

cases ( an 11 yr old boy, a 17 yr old girl, and an adult male) to study

the impact of a supportive and nurturing parent early in life upon the

development of resilience. The close analysis of the clinical material

of each client's personal narrative is the primary source. The metaphor

of "heroes in the nursery" is posited as a vehicle for enhancing

understandings of the development of resilience and a continuum from

defense through adaptation to resilience. Each case provides additive

meaning to recent studies that elevate the importance of the memories of

parents to the development of resilient responses of children later in

life. Each case reveals specific dimensions of the impact of heroes in

the nursery which extend our understandings of resiliency in children

and adolescents as a proactive response to stress, trauma, and loss.    

  _____ 

 

Record: 38

         

Title:   How do successful female African-American high school graduating

seniors speak about their experiences that helped them to graduate from

high school?  

Author(s):     Douglas, Valencia Francesca, Harvard U., US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities &

Social Sciences, Vol 63(6-A), Jan 2002. pp. 2189.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI3055846  

Language:     English

Keywords:     graduating seniors; high school students; women; Blacks

Abstract:       This paper is a phenomenological narrative case study of

seven female African-American high school graduating seniors. Two

theories were utilized. First, resiliency theory, defined as "the

capacity for or outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging or

threatening circumstances" (Masten et al, 1990, p. 425). It is theorized

that resilient individuals have certain protective mechanisms operating

in their lives when confronted with adverse conditions such as poverty,

dysfunctional schools and/or families. Second, the theory of "resistance

for survival and resistance for liberation:" strategies African American

females use to resist negative sociopolitical realities associated with

being female and black in a male dominated society, which often silence,

oppress and/or deny their realities and voices (Robinson and Ward,

1991). In this study, I used the voices of the female students to

analyze experiences. I sought to understand how the experiences of the

participants led to their graduation. My analytic domains were the

environments of the family experiences, social experiences, and the

personal attitudes and disposition of the individual participants. I

feel it is important to understand minority students, not as victims of

marginal education but rather, as individuals who, on a daily basis

navigate their educational lives within diverse learning environments. I

conducted my research in a large, urban school district in the

southwest. The school is in one of the poorest communities in the city

and the student population is one hundred percent minority. A large

number of students receive free or reduced lunch prices, and the

attendance rate is only eighty-eight percent. I used a random sample

process to recruit seven female, African American students for the

study. The study findings confirmed that protective mechanisms were part

of the participants' experiences. These mechanisms helped the

participants to develop resilience which enabled them to overcome

environments that posed significant risk factors. Further analysis

identified participants' use of resistance strategies in their

experiences. Their close relationships with their mothers helped them to

develop resistance strategies. Their strategic use of resistance

strategies is exemplified by their ability to ignore negative societal

perceptions, based upon their poverty, race and gender, and graduate

from high school.

  _____ 

 

Record: 39

         

Title:   Family resilience and parental competence: Contributors to

variation on child depression scores in divorced and intact families.      

Author(s):     Wolfe, Lesa, U Calgary, Canada

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities &

Social Sciences, Vol 62(12-A), 2002. pp. 4337.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:          AAINQ64847  

Language:     English

Keywords:     family resilience; parental competence; child

depression; divorce  

Abstract:       Many children whose parents divorce experience

considerable distress before, during and after the divorce. Children

experience both internal and external distress which may appear as

depression and all of the features that are synonymous with this

difficulty. Although numerous studies have been conducted in the area of

divorce, past research on children of divorce focused primarily on the

views of parents and teachers in relationship to child adjustment

following divorce. This study focuses on children, parents and families

who present for clinical treatment following divorce and offers a rare

perspective of child functioning in relationship to divorce by examining

the child's point of view. In addition, this study provides a systemic

focus by investigating child, parent and family factors among divorced

and intact families. This non-experimental survey research study

included 79 parents and 79 children who experienced divorce and 71

parents and 71 children who had not experienced divorce. Children ranged

in age from 6 to 12 and parents had been separated between less than 1

year to 13 years. Data were collected with the Parent Child Relationship

Index, the Parenting Stress Index, The Family Index of Regenerativity

and Adaptation-General, and the Children's Depression Rating Scale.

Significant differences were found between divorced and non-divorced

families on child depression scores, parenting stress, parent-child

relationship, and family resilience. The findings raise questions for

policy, clinical practice, and future research.

  _____ 

 

Record: 40

         

Title:   Risk and resistance factors and adjustment in maternal

caregivers of children with serious mental disorders.       

Author(s):     Wilson, Lesley, Fielding Graduate Inst., US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences &

Engineering, Vol 62(12-B), 2002. pp. 5983.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI3036370  

Language:     English

Keywords:     risk factors; resistance; maternal adjustment; maternal

caregivers; seriously mentally ill children   

Abstract:       Maternal caregivers of children who suffer from a

serious mental disorder experience extraordinary stress and exhibit a

variety of ways of coping and adjustment that ranges from successful

adaptation to severe emotional distress. This study tested a

theoretically based model of maternal adjustment that outlines multiple

risk and resistance factors associated with caring for a seriously ill

or disabled child (Wallander et al., 1989), including the

intraindividual variable self-appraised problem-solving (Noojin, 1997).

The interrelationship of demographic and illness-related parameters,

self-appraised problem-solving ability, child behavior, perceived

disability-related stress, coping style, and maternal adjustment were

investigated. Findings support the robustness of the expanded

theoretical model of risk and resistance factors and further

understanding of the maternal caregiver's experience in raising a child

with a serious mental disorder. Specifically, mothers reported

adjustment difficulties that were significantly related to income, child

behavior, self-appraised problem-solving ability, perceived

disability-related stress, and coping style.

  _____ 

 

Record: 41

         

Title:   Ethnic and minority parenting.       

Author(s):     Coll, Cynthia García, Brown U, Education Dept, Ctr for

the Study of Human Development, Providence, RI, US

 

Pachter, Lee M., U Connecticut, School of Medine, Div of General

Pediatrics, Storrs, CT, US

Source:         Handbook of parenting: Vol. 4: Social conditions and applied

parenting (2nd ed.). Bornstein, Marc H. (Ed); pp. 1-20. Mahwah, NJ, US:

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2002. xxx, 410 pp.     

ISBN:  0-8058-3781-7 (hardcover)

Language:     English

Keywords:     ethnic background; minority parents; group derived

processes; individual derived processes; contextually derived processes;

deficit models; adaptations 

Abstract:       (from the chapter) It is clear that the central issues

for ethnic and minority parents reflect a complex combination of group,

individual and contextually derived processes. Group processes are

embodied in the traditional childbearing formulations on which parents

draw according to their own ethnic background. Historically the

literature on ethnic and minority parenting in the U.S. displays

prevalence of deficit models, whereby parenting practices of ethnic and

minority families have been conceptualized as those of "the other"

group, which then are compared to the "standard" (defined as those

displayed by Caucasian, middle-income, Northern European, American

parents). In contrast, several approaches to the study of ethnic and

minority parenting represent a deviation from the deficit model that has

dominated most of the field until now, shifting away from a social

pathological perspective to one emphasizing the resilience and

adaptiveness of families under a variety of social and economic

conditions. Within these frameworks, most goals of parenting may be seen

as universal, but how these goals are accomplished may vary based on

context. Research on ethnic and minority families needs to be integrated

into normative views of parenting in general.

  _____ 

 

Record: 42

         

Title:   Aging and sexual orientation.         

Series Title:   Review of psychiatry; vol. 21, no. 4

Author(s):     Kimmel, Douglas C., City U New York, City Coll, Dept of

Psychology, New York, NY, US

Source:         Mental health issues in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender

communities. Jones, Billy E. (Ed); Hill, Marjorie J. (Ed); pp. 17-36.

Washington, DC, US: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 2002. xx, 118

pp.    

ISBN:  1-58562-069-6 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     theoretical models; social support networks; ageism &

heterosexism; sexual orientation; gay; lesbian; transsexual; bisexual    

Abstract:       (from the chapter) Considers the dimensions of age and

sexual orientation using three theoretical models: (1) survival of the

fittest; (2) minority stress: resilience or pathological adaptation; and

(3) multiple minority status. The author also examines the social

network options open to the older person of sexual minority status, and

the similarities and differences between ageism and heterosexism. 

  _____ 

 

Record: 43

         

Title:   Positive youth development: Thriving as the basis of personhood

and civil society.     

Series Title:   New directions for youth development: Theory practice

research

Author(s):     Lerner, Richard M., Tufts U, Eliot-Pearson Dept of Child

Development, MA, US

 

Brentano, Cornelia, Tufts U, Eliot-Pearson Dept of Child Development,

MA, US

 

Dowling, Elizabeth M., Tufts U, Eliot-Pearson Dept of Child Development,

MA, US

 

Anderson, Pamela M., Tufts U, Eliot-Pearson Dept of Child Development,

MA, US

Source:         Pathways to positive development among diverse youth. Lerner,

Richard M. (Ed); Taylor, Carl S. (Ed); et al; pp. 11-33. San Francisco,

CA, US: Jossey-Bass, 2002. 169 pp.         

ISBN:  0-7879-6338-0 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     positive youth development; thriving; personhood; civil

society; adolescent development; cultural components; prosocial

behaviors; moral identity; civic identity     

Abstract:       (from the book) This chapter describes the foundations

for thriving during adolescence. According to developmental systems

theories, thriving is conceptualized as adaptive regulation that

involves mutually beneficial and sustaining exchange between individuals

and contexts (e.g, family, peer group, or community). This process

includes both universal structural components and culturally specific

functional components. Thriving youth become productive adults through

progressive enhancement of behaviors that reflect the structural value

of contributing to civil society. An integrated moral and civic identity

and a commitment to society beyond one's own existence enable youth to

be agents of their own healthy development and of positive change in

people and society.

  _____ 

 

Record: 44

         

Title:   Deuil. Appropriation de compétences. Transformation. L'apport du

PRIFAM au soutien de la résilience des familles.    

Translated Title:       Grief: Adaptation of skills: Transformation: The

way in which the Family Intervention Program PRIFAM supports the

families of disabled children.

Author(s):     Pelchat, Diane, U Montréal, Faculté des Sciences

Infirmières, Montreal, PQ, Canada

 

Lefebvre, Hélène, U Montréal, Faculté des Sciences Infirmières,

Montreal, PQ, Canada

 

Damiani, Carole

Source:         Pratiques Psychologiques, Vol 1, 2002. Special issue: La

résilience. pp. 41-52.

 

Journal URL: http://espritemps.free.fr/pratpsy/Pratpsy.htm

Publisher:      France: L'Esprit du Temps

 

Publisher URL: http://espritemps.free.fr/Acceuil.htm

ISSN:  1269-1763 (Print)

Language:     French

Keywords:     grief; PRIFAM; family intervention services; disabled

children; coping; social support; family therapy    

Abstract:       Discusses the approach used by the Family Intervention

Program PRIFAM to support the families of disabled children. PRIFAM uses

a relationship-based model to help parents and families summon up their

strengths and adapt to differences. Commonly held theories, values, and

beliefs in the field of disability have been questioned, and a renewed

emphasis has been placed on adaptation. The birth of a child with a

disability is viewed in part as a learning experience that can empower

the family and transform the grieving process.

  _____ 

 

Record: 45

         

Title:   Estratégias de Coping de Crianças Vítimas e Não Vítimas de

Violência Doméstica. 

Translated Title:       Coping Strategies of Domestic Violence

Victimized and Non Victimized Children.     

Author(s):     Lisboa, Carolina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do

Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil, cep_rua@ufrgs.br

 

Koller, Sílvia Helena, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto

Alegre, Brazil

 

Ribas, Fernanda Freitas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,

Porto Alegre, Brazil

 

Bitencourt, Kelly, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto

Alegre, Brazil

 

Oliveira, Letícia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto

Alegre, Brazil

 

Porciuncula, Lízia Pacheco, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,

Porto Alegre, Brazil

 

De Marchi, Renata Busnello, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,

Porto Alegre, Brazil

Address:        Lisboa, Carolina, CEP-RUA/UFRGS, Instituto de

Psicologia, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600/104, RS, 90035-003, Porto Alegre,

Brazil, cep_rua@ufrgs.br     

Source:         Psicologia: Reflexao e Critica, Vol 15(2), 2002. pp. 345-362.

Publisher:      Brazil: Univ Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

 

Publisher URL: http://www.ufrgs.br/

ISSN:  0102-7972 (Print)

Language:     Portuguese   

Keywords:     coping strategies; domestic violence; victimized

children; non victimized children; school conflict; verbal aggression      

Abstract:       The present study aimed to investigate coping strategies

of domestic violence victimized and non-victimized children in school's

microsystem. Eighty-seven children, divided in two groups participated

in this study: 49 victimized and 38 non-victimized children. They

answered a structured interview to identify the most frequent conflicts

faced with teachers and classmates and the coping strategies to deal

with those issues. The victimized children reported higher frequency of

verbal aggression from teachers, and physical aggressions as coping

strategies to deal with peers. The non-victimized children seemed to

look for others' support as coping strategies to deal with problems they

have with their classmates. Girls did not seem to act when they faced

problems with their teachers, and they felt more upset with teacher's

verbal aggression. Results are discussed based on the ecological context

and hierarchical relations, and give subsidies out to support

intervention programs, to promote resilience and children's healthy

adaptation to school.

  _____ 

 

Record: 46

         

Title:   The developmental epidemiology of psychiatric disorders.

Author(s):     Cannon, Mary, Inst of Psychiatry, Div of Psychological

Medicine, London, United Kingdom

 

Huttunen, Matti, National Public Health Inst, Dept of Mental Health &

Psychological Research, Helsinki, Finland

 

Murray, Robin, Inst of Psychiatry, Div of Psychological Medicine,

London, United Kingdom

Source:         Textbook in psychiatric epidemiology (2nd ed.). Tsuang, Ming T.

(Ed); Tohen, Mauricio (Ed); pp. 239-255. New York, NY, US: Wiley-Liss,

2002. xi, 722 pp.     

ISBN:  0-471-40974-X (hardcover)

Language:     English

Keywords:     developmental epidemiology; life span; psychiatric

disorders; developmental psychopathology; risk factors; design

strategies; early life experiences; analytic methods        

Abstract:       (from the chapter) Developmental or life-course

epidemiology is concerned with early life risk factors for adult

diseases and the accumulation of risks for disease over the life span.

The life-course model incorporates such elements as cumulative insults

over the life span, critical periods of susceptibility throughout life,

and the interaction between early and late risk factors. Biological and

social risk factors at each life stage may be linked to form pathways

between early life experiences and adult disease. This chapter discusses

study design strategies and analytic methods in developmental

epidemiology, and then describes the application of developmental

epidemiology to the understanding of psychiatric disorders including

schizophrenia, affective disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder,

violence and antisocial behavior, and temperament, adaptation and

resilience. 

  _____ 

 

Record: 47

         

Title:   Psychosocial adaptation to age-related vision loss: A six-year

perspective.  

Author(s):     Heyl, Vera, U Heidelberg, German Ctr for Research on

Ageing, Dept of Social & Environmental Gerontology, Heidelberg, Germany,

heyl@dzfa.uni-heidelberg.de

 

Wahl, Hans-Werner

Address:        Heyl, Vera, U Heidelberg, German Ctr for Research on

Ageing, Dept of Social & Environmental Gerontology, Bergheimer Strasse

20, D-69115, Heidelberg, Germany, heyl@dzfa.uni-heidelberg.de 

Source:         Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Vol 95(12), Dec 2001.

pp. 739-748.

Publisher:      US: American Foundation for the Blind

 

Publisher URL: http://www.afb.org

ISSN:  0145-482X (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     long-term psychosocial adaptation; age-related visual

impairment; elderly; blindness; severe visual impairment; behavioral

adaptation; emotional adaptation; vision loss      

Abstract:       Examined long-term psychosocial adaptation to severe

age-related visual impairment (blindness or low vision) among 2 groups

of elderly Ss: 42 Ss with visual acuities between 20/200 and 20/600 and

no severe visual field defects (severely visually impaired) and 42 Ss

with visual acuities of 20/600 or less and/or severe visual field

defects (blind). Behavioral and emotional adaptation was assessed over a

6-yr period at 4 intervals by trained interviewers. Behavioral

competence was assessed with activities of daily living measures,

leisure-activity scales and assessment of independent use of outdoor

resources. Emotional adaptation was assessed with measures of morale,

life satisfaction and future orientation. The results are discussed from

the perspective of environmental gerontology and psychological

resilience, and are interpreted as underscoring the need for early

intervention and rehabilitation to prevent psychosocial harm to the

elderly who experience severe vision loss after a lifetime of seeing.

  _____ 

 

Record: 48

         

Title:   Adolescent lives in transition: Social class influences on the

adjustment to middle school.         

Author(s):     San Antonio, Donna Marie, Harvard U., US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities &

Social Sciences, Vol 62(4-A), Oct 2001. pp. 1326.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI3012933  

Language:     English

Keywords:     social class; adjustment; school transition; middle

school; elementary school   

Abstract:       In this research, the author explored the experiences of

thirty students from economically diverse backgrounds over an

eighteen-month period as students transitioned from two sixth-grade

elementary schools to a regional middle school in a rural, northeastern

school district. The social and emotional implications of this

transition are investigated in the context of community and school

cultures. The conditions that led to success or struggle in self-esteem,

participatory belonging, academic achievement, and connecting with peers

are discussed. Observations, interviews, and questionnaires, are used to

explore how community culture, peer relationships, family values,

teacher practices, and school policies influence the adjustment to

middle school. Students from the economically struggling community had

lower extracurricular participation rates than students from the more

affluent community due, in part, to the challenges of distance in a

rural, regional school district. In addition, students from this

community were under-represented in accelerated classes in seventh grade

and in eighth grade Algebra. However, findings did not confirm the

author's expectation that students from social class backgrounds would

face more difficult adjustment to middle school. Girls from the

wealthier community and boys from the low-income community experienced

lower self-esteem after the transition to middle school. A pathway to

high self-esteem in boys in this study was economic and family

stability, good grades, and moderate home responsibility. A pathway for

high self-esteem in girls was entering adolescence with strong community

and family messages that allow them to "just be themselves," and

opportunities to contribute in meaningful ways at home and at school.

Students and their families demonstrated all sorts of means and manners

of adaptation that pushed against the barriers they faced, resulting in

successful transition for most students. In the end, Lakeview children

may have more opportunity but less range of motion in making academic,

career, and social choices; Hillside-Two Rivers students may have more

"degrees of freedom" in definitions of success and fewer opportunities.

Community values, parental guidance, quality of teaching, peer

relationships, and student resilience all played an important role in

the transition to middle school.

  _____ 

 

Record: 49

         

Title:   The pivotal moment: A qualitative investigation into resilience.

 

Author(s):     Assimakopoulos, Patricia Anne, The Union Inst., US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences &

Engineering, Vol 62(4-B), Oct 2001. pp. 2043.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI3012741  

Language:     English

Keywords:     resilience; childhood trauma; adults

Abstract:       This qualitative study poses the question, How do adults

who were traumatized as children experience resilience? A review of the

literature exploring the history of trauma is presented, followed by the

psychological aftereffects, developmental perspectives, and the personal

and practical impact on individuals and communities. A rationale for the

design of the study is developed. Using the method of horizontalization

revealed certain themes and traits. These innate traits are

intelligence, optimism, creativity, a belief in a higher power, and a

sense of perseverance. Eight themes emerged from the data. The themes

are: (1) reframing adversities as an opportunity for growth, (2)

internalizing a sense of competence leading to improved self-esteem, (3)

exhibiting a pattern of successful adaptation, (4) finding a sense of

purpose or meaning in life, (5) rejecting the victim role, (6)

possessing a clear perception of what constitutes resilience, (7)

describing a pivotal moment when they moved from a defensive adaptation

to a healthier mode of coping, and (8) contextualizing their traumatic

experience and any subsequent reactions to it. This study proposes a

hypothesis that the concept of a pivotal moment is an addition to the

literature on resilience and is a significant determinant of the

movement from victim to resilient individual. Before the pivotal moment

occurs, people tend to cope with traumatic experiences through

maladaptive strategies and behaviors. From the moment this shift takes

place, there is a heightened perception that one is no longer at the

mercy of events, environment, or biology. The individual experiences a

transformative energy that alters the intrapsychic map, moving from

maladaptive coping to a healthier adaptation. A major finding of the

study is that from the point of the pivotal moment onward the individual

may no longer be described as a trauma survivor, but rather a resilient

individual. The study ends with implications and recommendations for

further investigation of the means by which resilience can be enhanced.

Finally, a discussion of the challenge to implement programs designed to

enhance resilience for individuals is provided.

  _____ 

 

Record: 50

         

Title:   Trauma and resilience among Bosnian refugee families: A critical

review of the literature.      

Author(s):     Witmer, Therese A. Phibbs, Healthy Families Program,

Harrisonburg, VA, US

 

Culver, Steven M., Radford U, Radford, VA, US

Address:        Witmer, Therese A. Phibbs, Radford U, School of Social

Work, Box 6958, Radford, VA, US   

Source:         Journal of Social Work Research & Evaluation, Vol 2(2), Fal-Win

2001. pp. 173-187.

Publisher:      US: Springer Publishing

 

Publisher URL: http://www.springerpub.com/

ISSN:  1521-3668 (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     trauma; resilience; Bosnian Muslim refugee families;

ethnic cleansing; cross-cultural psychology         

Abstract:       This critical review examines the literature related to

trauma and resilience among Bosnian Muslim refugee families following

the experience of "ethnic cleansing" in Bosnia. Special attention is

given to the implications of cross-cultural psychology for research,

assessment, and intervention. Prevalent in the literature is a focus on

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychopathology, and

individual-based assessment and intervention, with few studies

addressing concepts of adaptation, functioning or resiliency, and even

fewer focusing on the family as a unit. Recommendations for future

studies with Bosnian refugees include incorporating Bosnian Muslims in

each stage of the research process; utilizing both qualitative and

quantitative methods when possible, reviewing sources of resiliency

among trauma survivors; and increasing efforts to be culturally

appropriate by studying refugees in context rather than as isolated

individuals.

  _____ 

  _____ 

 

Record: 1

         

Title:   Baby boot camp: Facilitating maternal role adaptation in

military wives.

Author(s):     Schachman, Kathleen Anne, U Missouri - Saint Louis, US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences &

Engineering, Vol 62(2-B), Aug 2001. pp. 786.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI3004930  

Language:     English

Keywords:     maternal role adaptation; military wives; childbirth

preparation program 

Abstract:       Current research suggests that women married to military

servicemembers may experience difficulty during the transition to

motherhood due to the additive stressors of military life and an

inability to access traditional support systems. This randomized

clinical trial tests the effects of a nursing intervention on maternal

role adaptation in military wives. Primigravid military wives were

randomly assigned to either a traditional childbirth education program

(n = 47) or to "Baby Boot Camp" (BBC) (n = 44). BBC is a 4-week

childbirth/parenting preparation program based on a resilience paradigm;

strategies of BBC include identification of non-traditional external

resources and development of internal resources to facilitate maternal

role adaptation. The Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire; Personal

Resource Questionnaire; Resilience Scale; and Postpartum Self-Evaluation

Questionnaire were administered at baseline, immediately following the

intervention, and at six weeks postpartum. Outcomes suggest that BBC

strategies to enhance external and internal resources may have been

successful in facilitating maternal role adaptation. An independent

t-test showed that BBC participants had greater prenatal and postpartum

adaptation. As demonstrated by repeated measure ANOVA, BBC participants

experienced an increase in external and internal resources immediately

following the intervention. However, these differences in resources were

not sustained at 6-weeks postpartum. Findings may lead to wider

development and utilization of childbirth and parenting programs

designed to meet the unique strengths and needs of the military wife as

she experiences the transition to motherhood.

  _____ 

 

Record: 2

         

Title:   The impact of religious intensification on family relations: A

South African example.       

Author(s):     Roer-Strier, Dorit, Hebrew U of Jerusalem, Paul Baerwald

School of Social Work, Jerusalem, Israel

 

Sands, Roberta G., rgsands@ssw.upenn.edu

Source:         Journal of Marriage & the Family, Vol 63(3), Aug 2001. pp.

868-880.

 

Journal URL:

http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0222-2445&site=1

Publisher:      United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

 

Publisher URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

ISSN:  0022-2445 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00868.x

Language:     English

Keywords:     Ultra-Orthodox Judaism; South African Jews; mothers;

daughters; conversion; mother's reactions

Abstract:       Using the example of South African Jewish families in

which the daughters became Ultra-Orthodox, this article examines the

reactions and adaptations of mothers to their daughters' religious

intensification. A qualitative study in which 15 mothers and 15

daughters were interviewed found that the mothers' initial reactions

were primarily positive and ambivalent, with some negative reactions,

but over time the mothers became increasingly ambivalent. Overall,

mothers and newly observant adult daughters made serious efforts to

maintain family cohesion and relationships of mutual respect. The

results are explained by the South African context, stress theory, the

concept of family resilience, and intergenerational theory.

  _____ 

 

Record: 3

         

Title:   Adaptation of preventive interventions for a low-income,

culturally diverse community.        

Author(s):     Podorefsky, Donna L., Judge Baker Children's Ctr,

Boston, MA, US, podorefsky@al.tch.harvard.edu

 

McDonald-Dowdell, Marjorie

 

Beardslee, William R.

Source:         Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent

Psychiatry, Vol 40(8), Aug 2001. pp. 879-886.

 

Journal URL: http://www.jaacap.com/

Publisher:      US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

 

Publisher URL: http://www.lww.com/

ISSN:  0890-8567 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1097/00004583-200108000-00008       

Language:     English

Keywords:     high-risk urban people; preventive interventions;

cultural diversity; community partnerships; depression; at risk

populations; lower income level; parental characteristics 

Abstract:       Describes essential elements in the adaption of a

prevention approach with a high-risk urban sample, chosen to contrast

sharply with the primarily middle-class sample in which it had been

originally tested. Key elements of a preventive intervention for

families with parental depression were adapted for use in the new

context. A sequence of alliance-building events was implemented,

involving engagement at 3 levels: community, caregivers, and family. The

prevention approach was modified to include an expanded approach to

defining depression and resilience; greater flexibility on the part of

the clinician; more intensive engagement between clinician and family,

with a focus on immediate daily concerns; as well as awareness of

cultural issues and responsiveness to the Ss experience of violence.

Core principles of helping family members to discuss the effects of

depression and adversity on family life were affirmed.

  _____ 

 

Record: 4

         

Title:   ReSallying Qids: Resilience of queer youth in school.       

Author(s):     Klipp, Glenn Michael, U Michigan, US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities &

Social Sciences, Vol 62(1-A), Jul 2001. pp. 40.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI3000912  

Language:     English

Keywords:     resilience; sexual orientation; schools; life stress;

pain; lesbians; gays; bisexuals; transexuals         

Abstract:       ReSallying Qids' probed homophobia and heterosexism in

school to reveal how Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer-gendered

and Queer-sex youth-Qids-were hurt in and by schools and what schools

could do to change that. This qualitative study examined; (1)

Queer-identity (Q-ID) stressors in the full context of life stress, (2)

how Qids dealt with stress, (3) K-12 sites of Q-ID stress, and (4) what

schools could do to reflect and celebrate diversity. The study probed

new questions yielding interesting responses. "Do you remember a time

before the closet?" and "Do you remember entering the closet?" Most

participants were students still in school. While this created a

scarcity of participants, it elicited a credible, contemporary voice

concerning Q-gender and Q-sex school experience. Two Lesbians, four

Gays, one Fluid, two Bisexuals and one Transsexual took part in a

sequence of three narrative-type interviews regarding pain in their

lives, things that hurt. While most participants were 13 to 18 years

old, one (Transsexual) was 32 and one (Gay male) was eight. Q-ID

stressors were more numerous and more intense than other life stressors.

Qids applied Q-ID relevant values and strategies in coping with stress.

However, of the three protective factor categories of personal

characteristics, positive family relations, and external support

systems, the later two, if they were present, were unknown and

inaccessible to Qids before they left the closet. This absence of

supportive people problematized not only Qids' lives but also their

being in and coming out of the closet. Adaptations of resilience theory

were discussed. Qids saw a need to "Feminize," "Color," "Queer," and

diversify schools out of their role of reproducing centers of power.

Qids testified that heterodysfunction started early in elementary school

where peers policed gender adeptly, even ruthlessly. Qids were often

Q-identified and ostracized in or before second or third grade.

ReSallying Qids discussed first steps for elementary, middle, and high

school communities toward a curriculum and life of diversity liberating

for all its members.

  _____ 

 

Record: 5

         

Title:   Perceived coping ability and adaptation to life events in

adolescence. 

Author(s):     Bobbitt, Signe Andenas, U Minnesota, US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences &

Engineering, Vol 61(11-B), Jun 2001. pp. 6162.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI9994496  

Language:     English

Keywords:     perceived coping ability; adaptation; life events;

adolescents  

Abstract:       The role of perceived coping ability in stress processes

was investigated in a community sample of 162 adolescents participating

in a longitudinal study of competence and resilience. The current study

focussed on the three-year time period from middle to late adolescence.

Findings supported the construct validity of a new perceived coping

ability scale. Excellent internal consistency was achieved and

significant interinformant agreement was obtained among adolescents,

their mothers, familiar peers, and interviewers. Measures of IQ,

negative emotionality, and self-worth each predicted unique variance in

perceived coping ability. Perceived coping ability and life events were

examined in relation to concurrent stress appraisal, psychological

distress, and global adaptation. Perceived coping ability and life

events independently predicted psychological distress, even after

controlling for prior distress. However, these effects could be

completely accounted for by negative emotionality if the latter was

added to the regression predictor set. Only perceived coping ability

predicted global adaptation after controlling for prior adaptation, but

its predictive contribution could be completely accounted for by IQ.

Perceived coping ability and life events each contributed uniquely to

the prediction of concurrent stress appraisal. Stress appraisal

predicted psychological distress but not global adaptation. In the

former case, stress appraisal appeared to mediate the association of

life events, but not perceived coping ability, to distress. When

negative emotionality was considered, neither perceived coping ability

nor stress appraisal contributed to the prediction of psychological

distress. Thus, although life events and subjective indices of coping

ability and stress were related to adjustment, these relationships were

substantially confounded with negative emotionality (in particular

stress reaction and alienation traits) in predicting psychological

distress, and with IQ in predicting global adaptation. These findings

clearly demonstrate the importance of including personality and IQ in

studies of stress, especially those examining subjective components of

stress processes. 

  _____ 

 

Record: 6

         

Title:   A qualitative inquiry exploring resiliency in six women in the

process of transformation in their lives.     

Author(s):     Plaskett, Victoria E., U Toronto, Canada

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences &

Engineering, Vol 61(11-B), Jun 2001. pp. 6166.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:          AAINQ53751  

Language:     English

Keywords:     resiliency; women; life transition    

Abstract:       The present research is a qualitative analysis of the

life histories of six women undergoing life transition. Research

questions explored participants' inner characteristics and supports

around them contributing to resiliency, through reflection and

articulating personal narratives. Questions also asked participants to

reflect on the process of talking about resiliency and whether that

changed their perceptions, and to reflect on what they believe

constituted their own personal resiliency. Results revealed that there

are a wide range of inner characteristics and supports in place for

women who are resilient. The findings of this research are the influence

of one key person, the ability to self-reflect, articulate experiences

and as a result move to another level of development. Other

commonalities are an independent spirit, and previously overcoming

stress or conflict in an earlier age. The women in this study described

resilience as "bouncing back." The literature reviewed for this research

focussed on life change as well as adaptation to major life crises such

as war, as well as other risk factors associated with trauma, mental

illness or major socio-economic changes. It is questionable whether

resilience literature dealing with severe trauma reflect the experience

of women in this study.

  _____ 

 

Record: 7

         

Title:   The relationship between perceived mother-daughter mutuality and

coping in African American female adolescents.    

Author(s):     Adams, Va Lecia Lenore, Stanford U., US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences &

Engineering, Vol 61(11-B), Jun 2001. pp. 6183.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI9995167  

Language:     English

Keywords:     perceived mother daughter mutuality; coping; Blacks;

adolescents  

Abstract:       Empirical research on African American female

adolescents is sparse. Much of the literature on this population focuses

on their psychological and psychosocial difficulties rather than on

their resilience. Scholars who celebrate the resiliency of African

American females identify the supportive nature of the African American

family and the mother-daughter bond as important sources of strength for

African American girls. Yet, few investigators have explored the role

strong mother-daughter relationships play in mediating the effects of

stress in African American female adolescents. Thus, a relational

framework was used to explore the relationship between perceived

mother-daughter mutuality, adaptive- and relationship-focused coping

strategies in a sample of one hundred and twenty-nine (129) African

American female adolescents from middle- and low-income families (ages

12-18). Instruments included the Ways of Coping Questionnaire Revised,

the Relationship-Focused Coping Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic

Studies Depression Scale and the Mutual Psychological Development

Questionnaire. Mother-daughter mutuality was positively correlated with

relationship-focused coping (r = .48, p < .01), and negatively related

to depression (r = -.45, p < .01). Multiple regression analyses revealed

that perceived mother-daughter mutuality was most predictive of

relationship-focused coping and least predictive of emotion- and

problem-focused coping strategies. Interviews were conducted with 8

participants who fell into one of four quadrants (high mother-daughter

mutuality/high coping, low mother-daughter mutuality/low coping, low

mother-daughter mutuality/high coping, and high mother-daughter

mutuality/low coping) based on their scores on the mutuality and coping

measures. The results suggest that the elements of mutuality may be

relevant to African American girls' experiences. Moreover, the quality

of the mother-daughter relationship appears to have some influence on

African American girls' coping and adaptation to stress. The qualitative

analyses provided insight into African American girls' relational

development and the possible protective effects of the African American

mother-daughter relationship.

  _____ 

 

Record: 8

         

Title:   The experience of thriving as a teenage mother: A

phenomenological investigation.     

Author(s):     Morrow, Kathy Ann, The Union Inst., US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences &

Engineering, Vol 61(10-B), May 2001. pp. 5574.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI9989879  

Language:     English

Keywords:     teenage mothers; resiliency; coping; adaptation; well

being  

Abstract:       The purpose of this study is to contribute to the very

limited body of knowledge about thriving and resilient adolescent

mothers by way of a phenomenological investigation. Comparable terms

such as resiliency, coping, adaptation and well-being were explored in

relation to the research topic of The Experience of Thriving as a

Teenage Mother. This investigation has been undertaken not with the

intent to prove or disprove a preexisting hypothesis; not with any

intent to ascertain correlations between or among variables' or to

manipulate the research setting or subjects. My endeavor is to emphasize

understanding and insight. The young women who participated as

co-researchers (subjects) in this study were graduating high school

seniors who (according to their guidance counselors) possessed a

post-graduation, academic/career plan. Each are African American, age

eighteen, and reside in the city of Detroit. The interview questions

were open-ended and each interview ranged from 45 minutes to an hour.

Transcriptions of the interviews were preceded by brief sketches of the

interviewee and the interview environment. The data were analyzed in

terms of the common characteristics and themes which emerged from the

co-researcher's responses to the focused area of this study. These

themes were analyzed using a model described by Clark Moustakas, Ph.D.

Findings suggested that the adolescents interviewed possessed an array

of common feelings and perceptions, such as fear, strength,

perseverance, perceived lack of support, and determination. Implications

and limitations of study were explored.

  _____ 

 

Record: 9

         

Title:   Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development.     

Author(s):     Masten, Ann S., U Minnesota, Inst of Child Development,

Minneapolis, MN, US

Source:         American Psychologist, Vol 56(3), Mar 2001. pp. 227-238.

 

Journal URL: http://www.apa.org/journals/amp.html

Publisher:      US: American Psychological Assn

 

Publisher URL: http://www.apa.org

ISSN:  0003-066X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1037//0003-066X.56.3.227       

Language:     English

Keywords:     resilience processes in development, at-risk children       

Abstract:       The study of resilience in development has overturned

many negative assumptions and deficit-focused models about children

growing up under the threat of disadvantage and adversity. The most

surprising conclusion emerging from studies of these children is the

ordinariness of resilience. An examination of converging findings from

variable-focused and person-focused investigations of these phenomena

suggests that resilience is common and that it usually arises from the

normative functions of human adaptational systems, with the greatest

threats to human development being those that compromise these

protective systems. The conclusion that resilience is made of ordinary

rather than extraordinary processes offers a more positive outlook on

human development and adaptation, as well as direction for policy and

practice aimed at enhancing the development of children at risk for

problems and psychopathology. The study of resilience in development has

overturned many negative assumptions and deficit-focused models about

children growing up under the threat of disadvantage and adversity.

  _____ 

 

Record: 10

         

Title:   The mechanism of resiliency in children at-risk for school

failure: Types of protective factors and profiles of youths.        

Author(s):     Robertson, Laurel Marie, U California, Santa Barbara, US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities &

Social Sciences, Vol 61(8-A), Mar 2001. pp. 3062.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI9982166  

Language:     English

Keywords:     resiliency; school failure; protective factors; at risk

children; school success     

Abstract:       Until recently, risk and resilience constructs have not

been applied to the school context in relation to academic success.

Children growing up in low income environments have brought risks with

them to school that typically lead to school failure. Not all of these

children fail at school, however. Little research has been done to

examine characteristics of children that allow them to succeed in school

despite the possibility for failure. The purpose of this study was to

(1) examine the types of resilience associated with academic success and

(2) to group and describe children who show similar patterns of scores

on risk and resilience measures and determine the relationship of

profile groups to school success among students who are at-risk for

school failure due to low income and ethnic minority status. Data were

collected from four local elementary schools serving children living in

impoverished neighborhoods, with 194 youths in the fifth and sixth

grades participating in the study. Findings indicate that teacher

measures of school behavioral adaptation and intrapersonal strengths

were predictive of academic achievement. Among student measures,

aggressive problem-solving, academic self-concept, cooperation and

perceived parental supervision were predictive of academic achievement.

Cluster analysis revealed six youth clusters defined by different

patterns of levels of academic self-concept, school bonding, aggressive

problem-solving, assertive problem-solving, perceived parental

supervision, cooperation, school functioning and intrapersonal

functioning. These groups included youth profiles termed Extreme Risk

Academic Risk, Aggressive Resilient, Internally Resilient, Socially

Resilient, and Academic Resilient, which showed unique patterns of risk

and resiliency constructs that coincided with different levels of

academic success. Youth profiles are described and implications for

future research are discussed.

  _____ 

 

Record: 11

         

Title:   Experience of Thai families of a person with schizophrenia:

Family stress and adaptation.        

Author(s):     Rungreangkulkij, Somporn, U California, San Francisco,

US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences &

Engineering, Vol 61(8-B), Mar 2001. pp. 4080.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI9984021  

Language:     English

Keywords:     schizophrenia; family stress; adaptation; resiliency;

Thailand       

Abstract:       Taking care of a person with schizophrenia at home is a

hardship for the family. There is a paucity of theoretical approaches

and empirical research that have been applied to the particular

caregiving experiences of Thai families. The Resiliency Model of Family

Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation served as the conceptual framework.

This study aimed to describe the major variables of the Resiliency Model

and to identify predictors of the psychological morbidity of individual

Thai family members. 125 families of a person with schizophrenia were

identified through medical records from a psychiatric hospital in

Thailand. A face to face standardized interview was conducted with the

mother and separately with another family member of the patient.

Multiple regression analysis showed that the major variables of the

Resiliency Model accounted approximately 23% of the variance in the

psychological morbidity of the mothers and accounted approximately 30%

of the variance in the psychological morbidity of the relatives after

controlling for demographic variables of the patients and other family

members. The need to support household single mothers is critical to

enhance their psychological well-being. This study demonstrates the

applicability of the Resiliency Model for Thai families. Implication for

clinical nurse and researchers are presented.

  _____ 

 

Record: 12

         

Title:   Resilience and family psychosocial processes among children of

parents with serious mental disorders.      

Author(s):     Tebes, Jacob Kraemer, Yale U, School of Medicine, Div of

Prevention & Community Research, New Haven, CT, US, jacob.tebes@yale.edu

 

Kaufman, Joy S.

 

Adnopoz, Jean

 

Racusin, Gary

Source:         Journal of Child & Family Studies, Vol 10(1), Mar 2001. pp.

115-136.

 

Journal URL: http://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/1062-1024

Publisher:      Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers

 

Publisher URL: http://www.wkap.nl

ISSN:  1062-1024 (Print)

Document Link URL:   http://www.wkap.nl/oasis.htm/301678     

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1023/A:1016685618455  

Language:     English

Keywords:     family psychosocial processes; resilience; child

adaptation; parents with serious mental disorders

Abstract:       Resilience involves successful adaptation despite

adverse circumstances, and is operationalized in this study as a

multidimensional construct which consists of both positive and negative

indicators of adaptation. We hypothesized 5 family psychosocial

processes as common sequelae to serious parental mental disorder that

are central to child adaptation beyond that predicted by parental

psychiatric status. These are diminished family financial resources,

social network constriction, impaired performance of parenting tasks,

increased familial stress, and disruption of the parent-child bond. We

examined the relationship of these processes to child adaptation

independently through hierarchical regression analyses after taking into

account parental psychiatric symptoms and functioning as well as the

child's age and gender. 177 children of mothers with serious mental

disorder, ages 2-17 yrs old, were assessed on measures of adaptation.

Results indicate that family psychosocial processes are a more

consistent and powerful predictor of child adaptation than parental

psychopathology. Results also indicate that, for these children,

adaptation is predicted most consistently by parenting performance, and

to lesser extents, by the parent-child bond and familial stress.

  _____ 

 

Record: 13

         

Title:   Persönlichkeit und Persönlichkeitsstörungen im Alter.      

Translated Title:       Personality and personality disorders in old

age.   

Author(s):     Heuft, Gereon

Address:        Heuft, Gereon, Klinik und Poliklinik fur Psychosomatik

und Psychotherapie, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Domagkstr 22, 48129,

Munster, Germany    

Source:         PTT: Persönlichkeitsstörungen Theorie und Therapie, Vol 5(1),

Mar 2001. pp. 49-55.

 

Journal URL: http://www.schattauer.de/zs/startz.asp

Publisher:      Germany: Schattauer

 

Publisher URL: https://www.schattauer.de

ISSN:  1433-6308 (Print)

Language:     German        

Keywords:     personality; personality disorders; old age; diagnosis;

psychotherapy        

Abstract:       Personality in old age a very elaborate system of

traits, characteristics and experiences. Characteristics described

usually as dysfunctional may be adaptive in the elderly. These findings

could be interpreted as references for the resilience and plasticity of

personality. Personality disorders in old age are less diagnosed

compared to younger adults. Reliable prevalence data of personality

disorders of over 60 year old persons are not available. That's why the

ICD-10-diagnostic criteria don't fit very well to life situations of the

elderly. One could also discuss a better adaptation of the aged. In

addition functional somatic symptoms in old age could conceal a

personality disorder. Finally in the paper the implications for

psychotherapy with elderly patients are discussed: knowledge of the

personal development history, the differential psychotherapy-indications

and needed modifications of psychotherapy-techniques.

  _____ 

 

Record: 14

         

Title:   Adaptation and resilience in midlife.

Series Title:   Wiley series on adulthood and aging

Author(s):     Heckhausen, Jutta, U California Dept of Psychology &

Social Behavior, Irvine, CA, US

Source:         Handbook of midlife development. Lachman, Margie E. (Ed); pp.

345-391. New York, NY, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2001. xxviii, 643 pp.

 

ISBN:  0-471-33331-X (hardcover)

Language:     English

Keywords:     midlife; human development; adaptation; resilience        

Abstract:       (from the chapter) Discusses the developmental

regulation in midlife, particularly the way adults in midlife adapt to

the challenges of developmental growth and are resilient to

developmental losses. The chapter starts by identifying on conceptual

and empirical grounds the specific developmental challenges of midlife

adults. Subsequently, the major external and internal resources

available to adults in midlife are discussed in terms of their

effectiveness to attain adaptive developmental outcomes, and to be

resilient with regard to the impact of major losses on psychological

functioning. In this context, the author pinpoints a set of key

phenomena that are selectively characteristic of midlife and then

investigates the available empirical evidence about midlife adaptation

and resilience with regard to these phenomena.

  _____ 

 

Record: 15

         

Title:   Long-term development of motivation and cognition in family and

school contexts.      

Series Title:   Advances in learning and instruction series

Author(s):     Vauras, Marja, U Turku, Dept of Teacher Education,

Turku, Finland

 

Salonen, Pekka, U Turku, Dept of Teacher Education, Turku, Finland

 

Lehtinen, Erno, Ctr for Learning Research, Rauma, Finland

 

Lepola, Janne, U Turku, Dept of Teacher Education, Turku, Finland

Source:         Motivation in learning contexts: Theoretical advances and

methodological implications. Volet, Simone (Ed); Järvelä, Sanna (Ed);

pp. 295-315. Elmsford, NY, US: Pergamon Press, Inc, 2001. xi, 342 pp.

ISBN:  0-08-043990-X (hardcover)

Language:     English

Keywords:     motivational notions of achievement differences; origins

of children's resilience & vulnerability in family context; long-term

development of cognition & motivation in conventional classroom contexts

 

Abstract:       (from the book) The authors discuss different

motivational notions of achievement differences and present an

integrative, theoretical model of situational and developmental dynamics

of cognitive-motivational interpretations and social interactions. They

argue that their model can be used for analyzing the situational

dynamics of student-task-teacher interaction as they relate to students'

long-term development and to the institutional-cultural structures of

the school. Their aim is to construct conceptual links between students'

and teachers' situational adaptations, students' progressive and

regressive learning careers, institutional-cultural frame factors, and

social regulation mechanisms. As their empirical work reveals, the

origins of individual cognition and motivation can be traced to early

social interactions within the the home and family contexts. The authors

review current research which helps us understand how early family

interactions contribute to later enhanced or retarded cognitive and

motivational development. Cognitive and motivational development in

conventional school contexts is related to research on reading and

motivation. Finally, the motivational constraints which can be found in

conventional and emerging learning contexts are compared and discussed.

  _____ 

 

Record: 16

         

Title:   Stratégies d'adaptation des victimes d'abus sexuels résilientes

et toxicomanes.       

Translated Title:       Adaptation strategies for resilient and

drug-addicted victims of sexual abuse.     

Author(s):     Dufour, Magali H., U Montréal, Faculté de l'Éducation

Permanente, Montreal, PQ, Canada

 

Corbiere, Marc

 

Nadeau, Louise

Source:         Revue Quebecoise de Psychologie, Vol 22(1), 2001. pp. 149-162.

Publisher:      Canada: Revue Quebecoise de Psychologie

 

Publisher URL: http://www.rqpsy.qc.ca/

ISSN:  0225-9885 (Print)

Language:     French

Keywords:     coping strategies; drug addiction; resiliency; victims

of sexual abuse       

Abstract:       Studied coping strategies used by 20 female adult

victims of sexual abuse (aged 22-48 yrs) with a history of drug abuse

and 20 female adult victims of sexual abuse (aged 22-48 yrs) with no

history of drug addiction (resilient). Data on sociodemographic

variables, clinical and psychological symptoms, and drug consumption

history were obtained by semistructured interview. The Quebec Health

Index of Psychological Distress (M. Préville, 1992), The Trauma Symptom

checklist (J. Briere et M. Runtz, 1989), the Self-Esteem Scale (E. F.

Vallières et R. J. Vallerand, 1990), the Childhood Experience of Care

and Abuse Interview (A. Bifulco et al, 1994) and the Ways of Coping

Questionnaire (S. Folkman and R. S. Lazarus, 1988) were administered.

Cluster analysis and other statistical tests were used to analyze data.

The results indicate that both drug-addicted and resilient Ss used

social support and positive reappraisal and planning problem-solving

techniques but that 70 percent of drug-addicted Ss used distancing and

avoidance strategies while 70 percent of resilient Ss used low avoidance

strategies. Implications for developing intervention programs are

discussed.

  _____ 

 

Record: 17

         

Translated Title:       Sustaining "well-treating" in families in exile.

Encounter of a destiny, destiny of an encounter. 

Author(s):     Barudy, J., Centre Exil, Brussels, Belgium

 

Crappe, J.-Y.

 

Marquebreucq, A.-P.

Source:         Therapie Familiale, Vol 22(2), 2001. pp. 169-186.

Publisher:      Switzerland: Medecine et Hygiene

 

Publisher URL: http://www.medhyg.ch/mh/

ISSN:  0250-4952 (Print)

Language:     French

Keywords:     well treatment; Belgium; refugee families; family

resources; adaptation; exile center program; medical services;

psychological services; social services; trauma    

Abstract:       Describes the services of the Exil Centre, which

provides medical, psychological and social services for treatment of

families in exile in Belgium. The staff of this program for children and

their families aims at supporting the family's existing resources. The

authors describe "well-treatment" as the result of the mobilization of

community and parental resources to meet the child's needs, taking into

consideration the resilience resources of all persons in the process.

The work involves treating the individual consequences of trauma on

medical, psychological and social levels; reconstructing bonds at

family, social and community levels; and sustaining the families in

their adaptation process in Belgium. This work takes place in various

spaces and includes consultations, talking and self-help groups,

creative workshops and residential activities.

  _____ 

 

Record: 18

         

Title:   Against terrible odds: Lessons in resilience from our children.     

Author(s):     Levine, Saul, Children's Hosp, Dept of Psychiatry, San

Diego, CA, US

 

Ion, Heather Wood

Source:         Boulder, CO, US: Bull Publishing Co., 2001. xxii, 301 pp.   

ISBN:  0-923521-48-8 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     resilience; adaptation; coping behavior; traumatized

children        

Abstract:       (from the cover) This book tells the life stories of

children who, after experiencing the worst trauma that cruelty,

indifference, and inhumanity could inflict, nevertheless grew into

adults capable of leading productive lives. Along the way, the great

capacity of human beings for overcoming and displacing life's scar

tissue becomes evident. Through reading these stories, one achieves a

more balanced understanding of the resilience of the human spirit and

one's own potential for thriving in spite of adversity. The authors

propose that 4 components are crucial in equipping an individual to be

resilient. As described in the context of 10 lives (each fictitious

person is a composite of several of S. Levine's clients) those elements

are (1) an overriding belief in oneself, (2) a sense of community, (3) a

faith in a value system outside of the self, and (4) a desire to do some

good for others.  

  _____ 

 

Record: 19

         

Title:   The relationship of constructive aggression to resilience in

adults who were abused as children.        

Author(s):     Cirillo, Irene, Smith Coll School For Social Work, US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities &

Social Sciences, Vol 61(5-A), Dec 2000. pp. 2036.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI9974842  

Language:     English

Keywords:     constructive aggression; resilience; child abuse;

adults; physical abuse; life adaptation; psychological maturity; self

esteem; self integrity; intrapsychic structure; adjustment         

Abstract:       The purpose of the exploratory study was to examine the

association between childhood use of constructive aggression as a

response to parental physical abuse and adult resilience, psychological

maturity and life adaptation. A review of the literature revealed showed

some anecdotal reports of constructive aggression used by survivors of

trauma and abuse, but no systematic explorations of the use of

constructive aggression in supporting self-integrity and self-esteem

under traumatic circumstances. In an effort to develop more systematic

knowledge regarding the use of constructive aggression to protect

self-integrity and self-esteem, a group of 32 adults who had been

physically abused in childhood by their caretakers were given both

quantitative and qualitative assessments of their use of constructive

aggression and their adult adjustment, resilience, and intrapsychic

structure. Participants completed two-hour semi-clinical interviews in

which they were asked about the strategies they used to cope and survive

their abuse, and about their current ways of dealing with anger and

their adult life functioning. They also completed quantitative

self-report measures of self-esteem, ego resilience, ego strength, locus

of control, self and object constancy, life adaptation as adults, and

current use of various types of responses to anger-evoking situations.

Additionally, participants completed a quantitative self-report measure

of the use of constructive aggression in response to childhood abuse

(The Constructive Aggression Inventory), which was designed for this

study. The results suggest that childhood constructive aggression is

associated adult resilience in physical abuse survivors. The

Constructive Aggression Inventory related as predicted to a measure of

adult responses to anger. Additionally, the Constructive Aggression

Inventory was positively related to all measures of adult resilience.

Thematic analysis of 20 interviews (including 10 high resilient and 10

low resilient participants, based on their scores on the quantitative

measures of resilience), revealed that high resilient participants used

less destructive aggression and predominately relied on constructive

aggression strategies in responding to their parents' attempts at

humiliation and control, which supported their self-integrity and

self-esteem. The less resilient participants primarily utilized

destructive aggression strategies, which undermined their self-integrity

and self-esteem. High resilient participants continued to use

constructive aggression throughout life, as opposed to low resilient

participants who used destructive aggression in childhood and in their

adult lives. These findings suggest that it is important to teach social

workers, mental health professionals and others who work with abused

children and adult survivors of abuse ways to discover and mobilize

client strengths by emphasizing the use of constructive aggression to

promote self-integrity and self-esteem.

  _____ 

 

Record: 20

         

Title:   Standing in the shadows: Adult daughters of alcoholic mothers. 

Author(s):     Dingledine, Dale W., Smith Coll School For Social Work,

US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities &

Social Sciences, Vol 61(5-A), Dec 2000. pp. 2037.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI9974843  

Language:     English

Keywords:     ego functioning; maternal alcoholism; adult daughters    

Abstract:       Descriptions of growing up with maternal alcoholism, and

consequent ego functioning in ten women were examined. Since most

research on offspring of alcoholics utilize male subjects or focuses on

alcoholic men, women are an under-researched population. Literature from

ego psychology, and its emphasis on individual adaptation to the

environment, was used. Feminist, traumatic stress, neuroscience and

trauma, infant observation, resilience, and parallel literatures were

also consulted. Respondents were recruited through purposive and

snowball sampling from Adult Children of Alcoholics support groups and

social networks. Respondents were interviewed (1) for descriptions of

growing up with an alcoholic mother, and (2) according to the Ego

Functions Assessment Interview. Findings were analyzed qualitatively for

emergent themes, and quantitatively for an ego functions profile.

Emergent themes include a basic lack of connection with the mother,

sense of estrangement from others and inadequate internalizations, and

identity problems with a False Self adaptation. Lowest scores on the EFA

were object relations and defensive functioning; highest scores were

autonomous and synthetic-integrative functioning. Clinical implications

include confusion of diagnosis for borderline or schizoid personality.

Consideration of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder may be more accurate.

Clinical histories and sensitive attention to transference are

essential.

  _____ 

 

Record: 21

         

Title:   Generating stories of resilience: Helping gay and lesbian youth

and their families.    

Author(s):     Sanders, Gary L., U Calgary, Faculty of Medicine, Human

Sexuality Program, Calgary, AB, Canada

 

Kroll, Ian T.

Source:         Journal of Marital & Family Therapy, Vol 26(4), Oct 2000. pp.

433-442.

Publisher:      US: American Assn for Marriage & Family Therapy

 

Publisher URL: http://www.aamft.org

ISSN:  0194-472X (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     suggestions for family therapists on resilience from

homophobia & heterosexism & therapeutic interventions, gay & lesbian

person & their families        

Abstract:       Examines how homophobia and heterosexism are both

manifest and recovered from using case examples and offering therapeutic

suggestions to clinicians. The authors address self-awareness issues,

development of resilient adaptations to a socially oppressive world, the

larger system as a main danger, and the role and responsibility of

clinicians in helping youth and their families. The authors seek to (1)

help family therapy clinicians see the concerns for gay and lesbian

youth, (2) use an affiliative understanding of gay and lesbian persons

rather than traditional genital (sexual) conceptualization, (3)

differentiate negative socially constructed stories of lesbian and gay

persons from personal stories of resilience and growth, (4) "name" the

oppressive processes that are restraining and demeaning lesbian and gay

youths and their families, and (5) provide therapists with ideas of

effective and respectful interventions for individuals, families, and

the larger system. The therapeutic interventions presented in this

article are meant as tools to orient therapists and mental health

professionals in the primary task of helping to enrich the client's

inner selves while helping them enrich their own interpersonal worlds.

  _____ 

 

Record: 22

         

Title:   Well-being of parents of young children with asthma.     

Author(s):     Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun, U Iceland, School of

Nursing, Reykjavik, Iceland

 

McCubbin, Marilyn A.

 

Kane, Janet H.

Source:         Research in Nursing & Health, Vol 23(5), Oct 2000. pp. 346-358.

 

Journal URL: http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0160-6891/

Publisher:      US: John Wiley & Sons

 

Publisher URL: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/

ISSN:  0160-6891 (Print)

 

1098-240X (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1002/1098-240X(200010)23:5<346::AID-NUR2>3.3.CO;2-N   

Language:     English

Keywords:     family & caregiving demands & sense of coherence &

hardiness & parents' well being, mothers & fathers of infant-6 yr Olds

with asthma  

Abstract:       Examined relationships between family demands,

caregiving demands, sense of coherence (SOC), family hardiness (FH) and

parents' well-being in 76 families, including 22-51 yr old parents (75

mothers and 62 fathers) of young children (infant-6 yrs) with asthma.

The Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment and Adaptation was the

conceptual framework for the study. The major hypothesis was that SOC

and FH, separately and in combination, moderate both family system and

caregiving demands on general well-being. Results of hierarchical

regression analysis showed that SOC and FH explained 56% of the variance

in mothers' well-being; family demands, SOC, and FH explained 67% of the

variance in fathers' well-being. No moderating relationships were found

for SOC or FH. It is concluded that resiliency factors (SOC and FH) and

family demands had direct relationships with the well-being of parents

of young children with asthma.

  _____ 

 

Record: 23

         

Title:   The construct of resilience: Implications for interventions and

social policies.         

Author(s):     Luthar, Suniya S., Columbia U, Teachers Coll, Dept of

Human Development, New York, NY, US

 

Cicchetti, Dante

Source:         Development & Psychopathology, Vol 12(4), Fal 2000. pp. 857-885.

 

Journal URL: http://uk.cambridge.org/journals/dpp/

Publisher:      US: Cambridge Univ Press

 

Publisher URL: http://www.cup.org

ISSN:  0954-5794 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1017/S0954579400004156        

Language:     English

Keywords:     resilience, implications for interventions & social

policy 

Abstract:       Focuses on the interface between research on resilience

(a construct representing positive adaptation despite adversity) and the

applications of this work to the development of interventions and social

policies. Salient defining features of research on resilience are

delineated, as are various advantages, limitations, and precautions

linked with the application of the resilience framework to developing

interventions. For future applied efforts within this tradition, a

series of guiding principles are presented along with exemplars of

existing programs based on the resilience paradigm. The article

concludes with discussions of directions for future work in this area,

with emphasis on an enhanced interface between science and practice, and

a broadened scope of resilience-based interventions in terms of the

types of populations, and the types of adjustment domains, that are

encompassed.   

  _____ 

 

Record: 24

         

Title:   Adult children of fathers missing in action (MIA): An

examination of emotional distress, grief, and family hardiness.    

Author(s):     Campbell, Cathy L., Georgia State U, School of Nursing,

Atlanta, GA, US

 

Demi, Alice S.

Source:         Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family

Studies, Vol 49(3), Jul 2000. pp. 267-276.

 

Journal URL:

http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0197-6664&site=1

Publisher:      United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

 

Publisher URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

ISSN:  0197-6664 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1111/j.1741-3729.2000.00267.x

Language:     English

Keywords:     emotional distress & grief & family hardiness, 29-48 yr

old children of fathers missing in action     

Abstract:       Investigated the relationships among emotional distress,

grief, and family hardiness in 29-48 yr old adult children of missing in

action (MIA) fathers using the Resiliency Model of Family Stress,

Adjustment and Adaptation. Quantitative and qualitative data were

collected in telephone interviews of 20 adult children. The results

indicate that 25 yrs after notification of their father's MIA status,

participants still had unresolved grief. The findings provide some

support for family hardiness as a strength that facilitated family

bonadaptation.

  _____ 

 

Record: 25

         

Title:   HIV disclosure among women of African descent: Associations with

coping, social support, and psychological adaptation.     

Author(s):     Simoni, Jane M., Yeshiva U, Ferkauf Graduate School of

Psychology, Bronx, NY, US, jsimoni@aecom.yu.edu

 

Demas, Penelope, Montefiore Medical Ctr, AIDS Research Program, Bronx,

NY, US

 

Mason, Hyacinth R. C., U Southern California, School of Medicine, Dept

of Preventive Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, US

 

Drossman, Jill A., Yeshiva U, Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology,

Bronx, NY, US

 

Davis, Michelle L., Yeshiva U, Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology,

Bronx, NY, US

Address:        Simoni, Jane M., Yeshiva U, Ferkauf Graduate School of

Psychology, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY, US, jsimoni@aecom.yu.edu

 

Source:         AIDS & Behavior, Vol 4(2), Jun 2000. pp. 147-158.

 

Journal URL: http://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/1090-7165

Publisher:      Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers

 

Publisher URL: http://www.wkap.nl

ISSN:  1090-7165 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1023/A:1009508406855  

Language:     English

Keywords:     disclosure; HIV; coping; social support; psychological

adaptation; African American women        

Abstract:       In the present study of women living with HIV in New

York City, the authors assessed rates of disclosure of HIV infection to

family, friends, and lovers. The authors were particularly interested in

learning if disclosure was related to more adaptive coping strategies,

greater social support, and better psychological adaptation to HIV

disease. 143 women (aged 24.62-61.02 yrs) were interviewed. Hispanic

Black (n=37) and non-Hispanic Black (n=106) women reported high rates of

HIV disclosure to family, friends, and lovers; few ethnic differences

were noted. Bivariate analyses revealed disclosure was related to

greater frequency of HIV-related social support, although not directly

to less depressive symptomatology or mood disturbance scores.

Additionally, disclosure rates were positively associated with the use

of more adaptive coping strategies (i.e., spiritual resilience,

constructive cognitions, and community involvement). Multiple regression

analyses indicated satisfaction with social support mediated the

relationship between adaptive coping and psychological distress. The

discussion considers HIV disclosure within the constellation of

processes leading to successful adaptation to HIV/AIDS.

Conference:   Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Aug,

1998, San Francisco, CA, US         

Conference Notes:    Portions of this paper were originally presented

at the aforementioned meeting.

  _____ 

 

Record: 26

         

Title:   Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy.    

Author(s):     Bandura, Albert, Stanford U, Dept of Psychology,

Stanford, CA, US

Source:         Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol 9(3), Jun 2000.

pp. 75-78.

 

Journal URL:

http://www.blackwellpublishers.co.uk/asp/journal.asp?ref=0963-7214

Publisher:      United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

 

Publisher URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

ISSN:  0963-7214 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1111/1467-8721.00064  

Language:     English

Keywords:     nature & structure & role of perceived collective

efficacy in human adaptation & change     

Abstract:       Social cognitive theory adopts an agentic perspective in

which individuals are producers of experiences and shapers of events.

Among the mechanisms of human agency, none is more focal or pervading

than the belief of personal efficacy. This core belief is the foundation

of human agency. Unless people believe that they can produce desired

effects and forestall undesired ones by their actions, they have little

incentive to act. The growing interdependence of human functioning is

placing a premium on the exercise of collective agency through shared

beliefs in the power to produce effects by collective action. The

present article analyzes the nature of perceived collective efficacy and

its centrality in how people live their lives. Perceived collective

efficacy fosters groups' motivational commitment to their missions,

resilience to adversity, and performance accomplishments.

  _____ 

 

Record: 27

         

Title:   The contribution of the preterm labor stress and family

resiliency factors to pregnancy adjustment and adaptation in the preterm

labor family.  

Author(s):     Kuo, Su-Chen, U Minnesota, US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences &

Engineering, Vol 60(11-B), Jun 2000. pp. 5435.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI9952322  

Language:     English

Keywords:     preterm labor stress & resiliency factors, pregnancy

adjustment & adaptation, families, Taiwan 

Abstract:       This study examined the contribution of preterm labor

stress and family resiliency factors to family adaptation and the

differences between fathers and mothers in their adjustment. The sample

consisted of 131 families recruited when the mother was in preterm labor

in nineteen hospitals in Taiwan. Families were surveyed using measures

of pregnancy adjustment, family functioning, ambiguity tolerance,

uncertainty of high-risk pregnancy, family hardiness, and social

support. Number of children, gestational weeks, and the length of

hospital stay were included in the predictor variables. Correlation and

multiple regression analysis revealed significant relationships between

pregnancy adjustment and family hardiness, presence of another child in

the family and uncertainty of high-risk pregnancy for fathers, mothers,

and families. There was no association between family functioning and

ambiguity tolerance, uncertainty of high-risk pregnancy, family

hardiness, and social support. Study results were also found to

partially support the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and

Adaptation. Family hardiness, presence of another child, uncertainty of

high-risk pregnancy, social support, ambiguity tolerance, gestational

weeks, and length of hospital stay accounted for 36% of the variance in

pregnancy adjustment for fathers, 30% for mothers, and 36% when a family

level of analysis was performed. In all of the regression models family

hardiness was the strongest predictor for pregnancy adjustment. In

comparing fathers and mother, no differences were found in pregnancy

adjustment, family functioning, uncertainty of high-risk pregnancy,

family hardiness, and social support. However, fathers reported more

ambiguity tolerance than mothers did. Assessments of physical and

psychological presence of the fetus in the "Drawing a Fetus Test,"

nearly 90% of fathers and mothers drew the fetus inside the symbolic

family boundary and between the father and mother. A major contribution

of the study was the standardization of all measures in Chinese.

Recommendations for future studies include testing the conceptual model

with different high-risk conditions, using a longitudinal design to

explore change in family adaptation, and developing comparative

replication studies. Results of this study support inclusion of

assessment of family stressors, resource factors, and appraisal in

estimates of family adaptation to determine levels of care for high-risk

pregnancy family health.

  _____ 

 

Record: 28

         

Title:   Eva's story: One woman's life viewed through the interpretive

lens of Gilligan's theory.      

Author(s):     Belknap, Ruth Ann, Northern Illinois U, DeKalb, IL, US

Source:         Violence Against Women, Vol 6(6), Jun 2000. pp. 586-605.

Publisher:      US: Sage Publications

 

Publisher URL: http://www.sagepublications.com/

ISSN:  1077-8012 (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     abuse narrative interpreted through C. Gilligan's theory

of moral development, adult female

Abstract:       This work is an interpretive reading of one Mexican

American woman's story as told to an Anglo researcher. It demonstrates

the methodological meaningfulness of reading for conflict and voice in

the narratives of women who have experienced abuse and, perhaps more

important, brings others into relationship with Eva and her story. The

story is read through the interpretive lens of women's moral development

as described by Carol Gilligan. The article begins with a review of

Gilligan's theory of moral development followed by a detailed

interpretation of the reading of Eva's story. The method used for the

analysis is an adaptation of the method developed by Gilligan and

several of her colleagues. This method of analysis explicates

experiences described as creating moral conflict, the narrator's sense

of self, and the voices of psychological distress and resilience in her

story.

  _____ 

 

Record: 29

         

Title:   The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and

guidelines for future work.   

Author(s):     Luthar, Suniya S., Columbia U, Teachers Coll, Dept of

Human Development, New York, NY, US

 

Cicchetti, Dante

 

Becker, Bronwyn

Source:         Child Development, Vol 71(3), May-Jun 2000. pp. 543-562.

 

Journal URL:

http://www.blackwellpublishers.co.uk/asp/journal.asp?ref=0009-3920

Publisher:      United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

 

Publisher URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

ISSN:  0009-3920 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1111/1467-8624.00164  

Language:     English

Keywords:     critical evaluation of construct of resilience &

guidelines for future work    

Abstract:       This paper presents a critical appraisal of resilience,

a construct connoting the maintenance of positive adaptation by

individuals despite experiences of significant adversity. As empirical

research on resilience has burgeoned in recent years, criticisms have

been levied at work in this area. These critiques have generally focused

on ambiguities in definitions and central terminology; heterogeneity in

risks experienced and competence achieved by individuals viewed as

resilient; instability of the phenomenon of resilience; and concerns

regarding the usefulness of resilience as a theoretical construct. The

authors address each identified criticism in turn, proposing solutions

for those viewed as legitimate and clarifying misunderstandings

surrounding those believed to be less valid. It is concluded that work

on resilience possesses substantial potential for augmenting the

understanding of processes affecting at-risk individuals. Realization of

the potential embodied by this construct, however, will remain

constrained without continued scientific attention to some of the

serious conceptual and methodological pitfalls that have been noted by

skeptics and proponents alike.

  _____ 

 

Record: 30

         

Title:   Environment, time-use, and adaptedness in prosimians:

Implications for discerning behavior that is occupational in nature.       

Author(s):     Wood, Wendy, U North Carolina, Div of Occupational

Science, Chapel Hill, NC, US, wwood@css.unc.edu

 

Towers, Laurie

 

Malchow, Jean

Address:        Wood, Wendy, U North Carolina--Chapel Hill, Div of

Occupational Science, Medical School Wing E, CB #1720, Chapel Hill, NC,

US, wwood@css.unc.edu    

Source:         Journal of Occupational Science, Vol 7(1), Apr 2000. pp. 5-18.

Publisher:      Australia: Univ of South Australia/School of

Occupational Therapy

 

Publisher URL: http://www.jos.edu.au/

ISSN:  1442-7591 (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     Coquerel sifakas; environmental influences; adaptedness;

prosimians; occupational behavior; time-use; environmental press &

channeling; behavioral resilience    

Abstract:       A case study of three Coquerel sifakas, members of the

prosimian sub-order of primates, was undertaken in order to examine

environmental influences on behavior and adaptedness. By studying shifts

and continuities in behavior evidenced by members of this primitive

primate species across four different housing conditions, the study also

sought to discern identifying features of occupational behavior.

Findings suggest that two environmental factors, environmental

opportunities for action and time, interacted to produce two other

environmental dynamics, environmental press and environmental

channeling, that were especially powerful in limiting the sifakas'

behavioral expression under some conditions. Nevertheless, the sifakas

also evidenced behavioral resilience. Based on these findings,

properties were identified that distinguish behavior that is

occupational in nature from behavior that is not. Specifically,

occupational behavior manifestly evidences intentionality and

purposiveness; it comes into being only by merit of environmental

transactions that have been influenced, in some way, by a living being's

expression of agency; and it possesses a quality of being able to serve

adaptedness. Implications for future research in occupational science

are developed.

  _____ 

 

Record: 31

         

Title:   Resilience factors associated with adaptation to HIV disease.    

Author(s):     Farber, Eugene W., Emory U, School of Medicine,

Infectious Disease Program, Atlanta, GA, US

 

Schwartz, Jennifer A. J.

 

Schaper, Paul E.

 

Moonen, DeElla J.

 

McDaniel, J. Stephen

Source:         Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry, Vol

41(2), Mar-Apr 2000. pp. 140-146.

 

Journal URL: http://psy.psychiatryonline.org/

Publisher:      US: American Psychiatric Assn

 

Publisher URL: http://www.appi.org

ISSN:  0033-3182 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:       10.1176/appi.psy.41.2.140  

Language:     English

Keywords:     resilience factors & hardiness & psychological distress

& quality of life & core personal beliefs associated with adaptation to

disease, 23-71 yr old outpatients with HIV or AIDS        

Abstract:       Examined the hardiness dimensions of commitment,

challenge, and control as resilience factors in adaptation among persons

with symptomatic HIV disease and AIDS. 200 outpatients (aged 23-71 yrs)

completed self-report questionnaires measuring hardiness, psychological

distress, quality of life, and core personal beliefs. A series of

standard multiple regression analyses showed that high hardiness was

significantly related to 1) lower psychological distress levels; 2)

higher perceived quality of life in physical health, mental health, and

overall functioning domains; 3) more positive personal beliefs regarding

the benevolence of the world and people, self-worth, and randomness of

life events; and 4) lowered belief in controllability of life events.

Commitment was the hardiness factor that most frequently made a unique

contribution to predicting adaptation in the regression models.

Implications of these findings for understanding HIV-related adaptation

and for clinical mental health intervention are considered. Future

directions in HIV-related adaptation research are suggested.

  _____ 

 

Record: 32

         

Title:   Development and psychopathology.

Author(s):     Popper, Sally D., U Pittsburgh, School of Medicine,

Western Psychiatric Inst & Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA, US

 

Ross, Shelley

 

Jennings, Kay D.

Source:         Advanced abnormal child psychology (2nd ed.). Hersen, Michel

(Ed); Ammerman, Robert T. (Ed); pp. 47-56. Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence

Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2000. x, 525 pp.  

ISBN:  0-8058-2866-4 (hardcover)

 

0-8058-2867-2 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     development & psychopathology in children         

Abstract:       (from the chapter) In this chapter, the authors further

define developmental psychopathology and describe how it is different

from other related fields. The authors discuss how a developmental

approach enhances our understanding of psychopathology, and provide

illustrations from both research and clinical work. Topics discussed

include how developmental psychopathology link patterns of adaptation

and maladaptation over time, problems in defining child psychopathology,

and the transactional model in developmental psychopathology. Future

directions for research and clinical work are also reviewed: (1)

continued study of normal development; (2) further definition and

identification of maladaptive development and refinement of

classification systems; and (3) understanding developmental

transformation, vulnerability, and resilience across the life span.  

  _____ 

 

Record: 33

         

Title:   Autobiographical narrative on growing up deaf.    

Author(s):     Steinberg, Annie, U Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, US

Source:         Deaf child in the family and at school: Essays in honor of

Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans. Spencer, Patricia Elizabeth (Ed); Erting,

Carol J. (Ed); et al; pp. 93-108. Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum

Associates, Publishers, 2000. xix, 318 pp.  

ISBN:  0-8058-3220-3 (hardcover)

 

0-8058-3221-1 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     childhood experiences, deaf persons         

Abstract:       Includes quotes and clinical vignettes excerpted from

stories of adults who are deaf as well as parents of children who are

deaf. Although most interviews were conducted with adolescents or

adults, a majority of the individuals referred frequently to their

family of origin and experiences during early childhood or adolescence.

They shed light on how the child experiences the world and on what was

transmitted by the parents who loved them and tried to make the right

choices for them. The following topics are discussed: shared language:

the foundation of narrative, the need for information: impact of

deafness on narrative flow, affect containment in the narrative,

adaptation and resilience: narrative and making sense of adversity.

  _____ 

 

Record: 34

         

Title:   The gifted personality: Resilient children and adolescents,

their adjustment and their relationships.    

Author(s):     van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M., U Nijmegen, Dept of

Developmental Psychology, Nijmegen, Netherlands

 

Scholte, Ron H. J.

 

van Aken, Marcel A. G.

 

Haselager, Gerbert J. T.

 

Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

Source:         Developing talent across the life span. van Lieshout, Cornelis

F. M. (Ed); Heymans, Peter G. (Ed); pp. 103-123. New York, NY, US:

Psychology Press, 2000. xviii, 333 pp.       

ISBN:  0-86377-556-X (hardcover)

Language:     English

Keywords:     adjustment & relationships & psychosocial functioning &

diversity & personality, gifted & resilient male & female children &

adolescents in school setting        

Abstract:       (from the chapter) The first goal in this chapter is to

define the gifted personality for the primary school and adolescent

years. Next, the authors attempt to establish whether the adaptation and

psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents with a gifted

personality, their networks of relationships, and their positions and

reputations within their school classes differ from those for children

and adolescents with a less gifted personality. The authors focus in

particular on the diversity of the gifted personality profiles for boys

and girls in relation to the quality of their relationships and their

positions and reputations within their school classes.

  _____ 

 

Record: 35

         

Title:   Stories of struggle and survival: The social construction of

school experience by incest survivors.      

Author(s):     Sanders, Susan Thompson, U Washington, US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities &

Social Sciences, Vol 61(6-A), Jan 2000. pp. 2199.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI9976051  

Language:     English

Keywords:     school experience; incest; resilience; survivors    

Abstract:       This qualitative study investigates the phenomenological

school experience of incest survivors. Eight female survivors of sexual

abuse participated in 60 hours of in-depth interviews over a period of

four months time. Journals, follow-up interviews, narrative, and

collaborative analysis were used. The interviews utilized a qualitative

research design, and therefore were semi-structured. Each interview was

audio-taped and transcribed. The transcriptions were analyzed using

content analytic method (Berg, 1995). Analysis yielded 17 themes and 56

sub themes in two domains, struggle and survival. This study shows that

supposedly non-resilient youth possess hidden resiliencies that school

personnel can support through academic tasks and environmental

adaptation. Implications for educators and school counselors are

discussed and future research recommendations are made.

  _____ 

 

Record: 36

         

Title:   Listening to well-educated Chinese immigrant families: The

parents' perceptions of family resilience.   

Author(s):     Chang, Hung Hsiu, Texas Woman'S U., US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities &

Social Sciences, Vol 61(6-A), Jan 2000. pp. 2478.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:          AAI9976852  

Language:     English

Keywords:     Chinese immigrant families; resilience; United States       

Abstract:       The purpose of this research was to elucidate the

resilience in Chinese immigrant families who had been in the United

States from 3 to 10 years. A qualitative research methodology with

semi-structured, face-to-face, and in-depth interviews was utilized with

both parents of 20 Chinese immigrant families from China, Taiwan and

Hong Kong. Parents were asked to answer four questions to describe their

experiences in adapting and adjusting to the United States and their

perceptions of the resilient Chinese immigrant family. Interviews were

audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using Taylor

and Bogdan's (1984) procedure. Management of trustworthiness in this

study was obtained through the strategies of peer debriefing, member

check, thick descriptions and an audit trail. Examination of the

transcripts revealed nine themes, which were encompassed by three

resilient types. The three resilient types were encountering changes

within immigration, commitment to children, and commitment to the

marriage. Thirteen categories of resources were utilized by the Chinese

immigrant family during adaptations or adjustments. Nine perceptions

were summarized from the interviews. This study indicated that the

Chinese parents' commitment to their children preserved their marriage

and enabled them to be resilient parents during transition.

Consequently, the parents' commitment to their children promoted

adaptation, success and prosperity during immigration. The most

frequently utilized resources were assistance and support from the

grandparents, the extended families and friends. This showed that

Chinese immigrant families were not accustomed to accessing resources

from the public system. Most of the parents' perceptions were consistent

with having resilience within their coping processes. This demonstrated

that few differences existed between the parents' perceptions and the

parents' real life experiences.

  _____ 

 

Record: 37

         

Title:   Competência social e empatia: Um estudo sobre resiliência com

crianças em situação de pobreza.  

Translated Title:       Social competence and empathy: Study about

resilience with children in poverty.  

Author(s):     Cecconello, Alessandra Marques, U Federal do Rio Grande

do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil

 

Koller, Sílvia Helena

Source:         Estudos de Psicologia, Vol 5(1), 2000. pp. 71-93.

Publisher:      Brazil: Estudos de Psicologia UFRN

ISSN:  1413-294X (Print)

Language:     Portuguese   

Keywords:     social competence & empathy & resilience & adaptation,

6-9 yr old boys & girls living in poverty     

Abstract:       The aim of this study was to evaluate social competence

and empathy in school children who live in poverty. 100 boys and girls

(aged 6-9 yrs) participated in this research. The materials were the

Incomplete Stories Test (S. Mondell and F. B. Tyler, 1981) and the

Empathy Scale (B. K. Bryant, 1982), that evaluated, respectively, social

competence and empathy. The results demonstrated that girls are more

socially competent and more empathic than boys. In the same way, the

more empathic children tend to be more socially competent than the

others. In a global sense, the data emphasized the importance of these

two characteristics as protective factors, contributing to resilience

and adaptation.

  _____ 

 

Record: 38

         

Title:   Protective factors and individual resilience.

Author(s):     Werner, Emmy E., U California, Dept of Human & Community

Development, Davis, CA, US

Source:         Handbook of early childhood intervention (2nd ed.). Shonkoff,

Jack P. (Ed); Meisels, Samuel J. (Ed); pp. 115-132. New York, NY, US:

Cambridge University Press, 2000. xxi, 734 pp.     

ISBN:  0-521-58471-X (hardcover)

 

0-521-58573-2 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     resilience; protective factors; successful adaptation;

at-risk children; early intervention  

Abstract:       (from the chapter) The 1st objective of this chapter is

a clarification of the concepts of "resilience" and "protective factors"

on the basis of a brief description of the major longitudinal studies of

infants and preschool children that have examined these phenomena over

time. The 2nd objective is to provide an overview of what is presently

known about the role of protective factors--both internal and external

resources--in the successful adaptation of children at risk. The chapter

concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for

early intervention, as well as suggestions of avenues for future

research across cultures and generations that may help in better

understanding the roots of resilience.

  _____ 

 

Record: 39

         

Title:   Approche éco-systémique des facteurs de risque et de protection

dans l'adaptation scolaire d'élèves en zone d'Education Prioritaire.        

Translated Title:       Ecosystem approach toward risk and protective

factors in scholastic adaptation in students from a priority educational

zone. 

Author(s):     Allès-Jardel, Monique, U Provence, UFR de Psychologie,

Aix en Provence, France

 

Malbos, Clotilde

 

Sanhes, Sandrine

Source:         Pratiques Psychologiques, Vol 1, 2000. pp. 65-84.

 

Journal URL: http://espritemps.free.fr/pratpsy/Pratpsy.htm

Publisher:      France: L'Esprit du Temps

 

Publisher URL: http://espritemps.free.fr/Acceuil.htm

ISSN:  1269-1763 (Print)

Language:     French

Keywords:     sociodemographics & family background, risk & protective

factors in school performance & adjustment, 4th graders from low SES

families         

Abstract:       Studied the relation of sociodemographic variables,

school performance, and resilience in 76 4th grade students (low SES).

Data on sociodemographic variables, school performance, and resilience

factors were obtained from student and teacher questionnaires. The

Social and School Adaptation Scale (F. M. Gresham and S. N. Elliot,

1990), the Family Environment Questionnaire (B. Terrisse et al 1998),

and the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire were used.

The results indicate that school performance and resilience are

associated with number of siblings, language spoken at home, parental

occupation, and internal causal attributions. A model for school

performance and resilience in at risk students is described.

  _____ 

 

Record: 40

         

Title:   Resilience as cumulative competence promotion and stress

protection: Theory and intervention.        

Author(s):     Wyman, Peter A., U Rochester, School of Medicine,

Rochester, NY, US

 

Sandler, Irwin

 

Wolchik, Sharlene

 

Nelson, Kathleen

Source:         Promotion of wellness in children and adolescents. Cicchetti,

Dante (Ed); Rappaport, Julian (Ed); et al; pp. 133-184. Washington, DC,

US: Child Welfare League of America, Inc, 2000. xxvi, 515 pp.   

ISBN:  0-87868-791-2 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     understanding processes that foster resilience &

wellness promotion & development of programs to promote resilience,

children & adolescents        

Abstract:       (from the chapter) This chapter is concerned with

understanding processes that foster resilience and with the development

of programs to promote resilience in children and adolescents.

Resilience is defined as a child's achievement of positive developmental

outcomes and avoidance of maladaptive outcomes, under significantly

adverse conditions. Resilience has been conceptualized as an important

component within a broader concept of wellness (E. L. Cowen, 1994).

Children's resilience has been investigated within several distinct

research perspectives. A primary goal of this chapter is the integration

of knowledge about resilience that comes from two of those research

domains: (1) studies of multiple risk factors and resilience, and (2)

studies focusing on processes of stress and coping in the context of

specific life stressors. Another goal of this chapter is to present a

description of an approach for enhancing wellness among children who

face adversity, drawn from knowledge accrued by studies of children's

adaptation to multiple and discrete adverse processes.

  _____ 

 

Record: 41

         

Title:   Profiles in resilience: Educational achievement and ambition

among children of immigrants in Southern California.       

Author(s):     Rumbaut, Rubén G., Michigan State U, East Lansing, MI,

US

Source:         Resilience across contexts: Family, work, culture, and

community. Taylor, Ronald D. (Ed); Wang, Margaret C. (Ed); pp. 257-294.

Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2000. xiii, 386

pp.    

ISBN:  0-8058-3347-1 (hardcover)

Language:     English

Keywords:     social & cultural & psychological adaptation &

educational performance & aspirations, junior high & high school

students of immigrant parents       

Abstract:       (from the chapter) Reports on some of the latest results

of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), which studies

the educational performance and social, cultural, and psychological

adaptation of children of immigrants during the 1990s. Eighth and ninth

grade students were surveyed and interviewed. This chapter is limited to

and focuses on the educational performance and aspirations of the youths

in the San Diego area. A portrait of the children is given. The portrait

includes the socioeconomic status and neighborhood contexts, family

structure and the quality of family relationships, patterns of

achievement, and patterns of ambition. The predictors of achievement and

ambition are also discussed.

Conference:   National Invitational Conference on "Resilience Across

Contexts: Family, Work, Culture, and Community.", Mar, 1998, Temple U,

Philadelphia, PA, US  

Conference Notes:    This chapter is a revision of a paper presented

at the aforementioned conference.

  _____ 

 

Record: 42

         

Title:   Evaluating resiliency patterns using the ER89: A case study from

Kuwait.        

Author(s):     Al-Naser, Fahad, Kuwait U, Dept of Sociology & Social

Work, Kaifan, Kuwait

 

Sandman, Mark M. A.

Source:         Social Behavior & Personality, Vol 28(5), 2000. pp. 505-514.

Publisher:      New Zealand: Society for Personality Research

 

Publisher URL: http://www.sbp-journal.com/

ISSN:  0301-2212 (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     stress & adversity, personality resilience, male vs

female college students, Kuwait     

Abstract:       Examined the component patterns of personality

resilience within a population recently exposed to extreme stress and

adversity. The self-scoring Ego Resiliency Scale (ER89) was used to

identify individual qualities of ego resilience in 495 Kuwait University

students. Males and females, married and single, took the ER89 5 yrs

after Kuwait's liberation. The question of gender differences and the

quality of resilience were addressed. The ER89, a self-scoring inventory

of 14 items using a 4-point scale, reflects the pure resilience

qualities of respondents. Results show differences between male/female

respondents and nuclear/extended family types. The scope of this study

did not include the Ss' adaptation to the invasion experience, thus no

symptom or exposure measures were included.

  _____ 

 

Record: 43

         

Title:   Resiliency: Pathway to protective factors and possibilities for

self-righting narratives.      

Author(s):     Lewis, Rolla E., Portland State U, Graduate School of

Education, Portland, OR, US

Source:         Youth risk: A prevention resource for counselors, teachers, and

parents (3rd ed.). Capuzzi, David (Ed); Gross, Douglas R. (Ed); pp.

41-78. Alexandria, VA, US: American Counseling Association, 2000. xvii,

526 pp.        

ISBN:  1-55620-219-9 (paperback)

Language:     English

Keywords:     structured narrative & health realization &

structure-relationship model in resilience research & practice &

opportunities for counselors & teachers & parents, youth with or at risk

for disorders  

Abstract:       (from the chapter) This chapter looks at resilience

research and practice to call attention to the evolving resiliency

paradigm's capacity to expand opportunities for the counseling and

teaching professions to provide hopeful and rewarding service to youth,

and to highlight how the resiliency paradigm can inform and guide

counselors, teachers, and parents. The chapter defines resiliency,

explicates resiliency's causal factors, and discusses risks and

strengths. It then presents 4 approaches to prevention and interventions

exemplifying resiliency (structured narrative, framework for tapping

resilience, health realization, structure-relationship model) and a

discussion of additional interventions for youth with disabilities. The

chapter concludes with a brief but emphatic emphasis on adaptations for

diversity.

  _____ 

 

Record: 44

         

Title:   The resiliency of street children in Brazil.   

Author(s):     D'Abreu, Renata C., Florida State U, Dept of Family &

Child Sciences, Tallahassee, FL, US

 

Mullis, Ann K.

 

Cook, Laura R.

Source:         Adolescence, Vol 34(136), Win 1999. pp. 745-751.

Publisher:      US: Libra Publishers

ISSN:  0001-8449 (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     social support & resiliency & adaptation to life on the

streets, 13-18 yr olds, Brazil

Abstract:       This study examined the relationship between social

support and the ability of Brazilian adolescents to adapt to life on the

streets. Participants included 30 male street children in Rio de

Janerio. These youths, and a comparison group, were 13-18 yrs old. It

was hypothesized that street children with more social support would

adapt better to life on the streets. It was also hypothesized that

street children with higher quality support would adapt better. Findings

indicated that neither quantity not quality of social support was

related to adaptation. The implications of these findings with regard to

the resiliency of street children are discussed.

  _____ 

 

Record: 45

         

Title:   Resiliency among adult children of alcoholics: Understanding

individual differences.         

Author(s):     Averna, Susan J., Boston Coll., US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences &

Engineering, Vol 60(5-B), Dec 1999. pp. 2383.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:          AEH9928355  

Language:     English

Keywords:     factors influencing effect of alcoholism on adult

functioning, undergraduate & graduate students with alcoholic parent  

Abstract:       Adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) have been portrayed

by clinicians as having emotional, interpersonal and academic

difficulties. Several studies in the last decade have findings which

contradict these portrayals. Inconsistencies in the literature suggest a

range of functioning among ACOAs. Some resilient ACOAs function well

interpersonally, emotionally and/or academically despite adverse

circumstances in the home. Identifying factors which influence the

effect of parental alcoholism (PA) on individual adult functioning can

help inform prevention and intervention efforts aimed at this

population. The resiliency literature points to the need to understand

the underlying process by which ACOAs respond the their experiences. The

present study considers how resources both internal and external to the

individual are used to cope with parental alcoholism (PA). Undergraduate

and graduate students who volunteered for the study were interviewed

using a semi-structured interview protocol to explore the lived

experience of being an adult child of an alcoholic. The questions being

asked in this research endeavor are: What are the factors which

influence the effects of parental alcoholism on adult functioning? What

is the process by which these factors influence the impact of parental

alcoholism? How do these factors change over different periods of the

individual's development? Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and

coded. A qualitative analysis of these interviews was conducted using

the transcriptions of the audio tapes. Characteristics of participants

reflect those described in the clinical literature on ACOAs. Themes of

coping emerged from the interviews which challenge a current model of

coping and argue for an expanded model for understanding coping and

adaptation among adult children of alcoholics. Gender differences in

level of anxiety and emphasis on academics are discussed.

  _____ 

 

Record: 46

         

Title:   A case study of adolescent African-American males and factors in

resiliency that have contributed to their development and school

success. (boys).      

Author(s):     Batey, Samuel Richard, U Colorado At Denver Graduate

School Of Public Affairs, US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities &

Social Sciences, Vol 60(4-A), Oct 1999. pp. 1342.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:          AEH9928105  

Language:     English

Keywords:     protective factors & resiliency, school success,

adolescent African American males 

Abstract:       The primary purpose of this qualitative research was to

explore the factors in resilience that have contributed to the success

of adolescent African American males, and attempt to identify so-called

"protective factors," or those conditions that foster resiliency in

Black males despite the negative odds they face. This research examined

how resiliency and the protective factors in the family, school, and the

community can affect the young Black males' ability to succeed. The

researcher selected a qualitative case study approach to focus on the

developmental tasks of adolescent African American males. The study also

focuses on: the environmental risks that confront them, evidence of

resilience in light of the risks faced, and explanations for the

observed adaptation, and implications for the education of young African

American males. The site for this qualitative case study was

"Metropolitan Community," a community under adverse circumstances in the

city of Denver. The study explored four adolescent African American

males who live in the "Metropolitan Community" where poverty and

unemployment rates are high, drugs and violent crimes are commonplace,

and high stress can affect home and school environments, as well as

family functioning. Nonetheless, the four young men in this study

developed adaptive and coping strategies to overcome these adverse

circumstances. The traditional qualitative data collection of

interviewing, observing, transcribing and analyzing were employed in

this case study. The field notes included personal contact with school

personnel and community members along with interviews with the young

men's parents. The findings from the study strongly suggest that the

protective factors identified with resiliency were clearly factors in

the four African American male students. The findings revealed they had

positive relationships with their families, friends, and other adults in

their lives. Furthermore, they were socially competent, and effective

problem-solvers, who were able to negotiate through a web of adversity

at their school and in their neighborhood. Future research could study

how resiliency and the protective factors can prevent the escalating

cycles of deviance and dysfunctional behavior of some of our young

African American males.

  _____ 

 

Record: 47

         

Title:   Psychosocial consequences of age-related visual impairment:

Comparison with mobility-impaired older adults and long-term outcome. 

Author(s):     Wahl, Hans-Werner, U Heidelberg, The German Ctr for

Research on Aging, Heidelberg, Germany

 

Schilling, Oliver

 

Oswald, Frank

 

Heyl, Vera

Source:         Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences &

Social Sciences, Vol 54B(5), Sep 1999. pp. P304-P316.

 

Journal URL: http://psychsoc.gerontologyjournals.org/

Publisher:      US: Gerontological Society of America

 

Publisher URL: http://www.geron.org

ISSN:  1079-5014 (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     psychosocial consequences & long-term adaptation of

age-related vision impairment, visually impaired vs mobility-impaired vs

unimpaired 65 yr olds & older         

Abstract:       Investigated the psychosocial consequences of

age-related vision impairment in a threefold manner: (1) comparison of

visually impaired and unimpaired elders, (2) comparison of visually

impaired and mobility-impaired elders, and (3) long-term adaptation

across 5 yrs. Ss were older adults (aged 65 yrs and older) in which 42

were severely visually impaired, 42 were blind, 42 were

mobility-impaired, and 42 were unimpaired. Ss completed measures of

behavioral competence (instrumental activities of daily living [IADLs],

activities of daily living, use of outdoor resources, leisure activity

level) and emotional adaptation (subjective well-being, future

orientation). Compared with the mobility impaired, the visually impaired

demonstrated lower IADL competence but no difference in emotional

adaptation. The long-term adjustment of the visually impaired remained

relatively stable in the behavioral domain, although lower compared with

the unimpaired elders. Emotional adaptation decreased over the 5-yr

longitudinal interval in the visually impaired and the unimpaired group,

but the decrease was generally higher in the visually impaired group.

Conceptual ideas from environmental gerontology as well as psychological

resilience are used to interpret these results.

  _____ 

 

Record: 48

         

Title:   Indications of resilience among family members of people

admitted to a psychiatric facility.   

Author(s):     Enns, Richard A., Alberta Hosp, Edmonton, AB, Canada

 

Reddon, John R.

 

McDonald, Linda

Source:         Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, Vol 23(2), Fal 1999. pp.

127-135.

Publisher:      US: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal

 

Publisher URL: http://www.bu.edu/cpr/

ISSN:  1095-158X (Print)

Language:     English

Keywords:     family adaptation & appraisal & stressors & resources &

resilience, family members of patients admitted to a psychiatric

facility

Abstract:       Family members (n=

  _____ 

 

Record: 1

         

Title:   Affect regulation strategies as a pathway to resilient

adaptation in a high-risk population.         

Author(s):     Torres Clemente, Monica P., Boston U, US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences &

Engineering, Vol 60(1-B), Jul 1999. pp. 0378.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:          AAM9916610 

Language:     English

Keywords:     emotional regulation skills & expression & levels of

alexithymia & coping mechanisms, resilient adaptation, Black & Latina

female inner-city community college students      

Abstract:       Although personality attributes have been extensively

investigated in research exploring resilient adaptation in high risk

individuals, the role of emotional regulation for competent functioning

has been insufficiently studied. The current project examines emotional

regulation skills, emotional expression, levels of alexithymia and

coping mechanisms as potential mediators facilitating resilient

adaptation. The sample consisted of 120 Black and Latina female students

enrolled at an inner city community college. The majority of women in

the study had experienced multiple psychosocial risks. Participants

completed self-report measures that included: Affect Regulation Scale,

Negative Mood Regulation Scale, Cope Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale,

Social Skills Inventory, Symptoms Checklist-10, and the Social

Adjustment Scale. Resilience was defined as high functioning despite

severe adversity. Two-tailed t-tests revealed that resilient individuals

had a higher capacity to differentiate feelings from somatic states, a

propensity toward emotional expression, and were more likely to seek

emotional support compared with the non-resilient women. The study also

found that generalized emotional regulation difficulty, consisting of

the use of maladaptive affect regulation strategies and marked by

displays of less constructive coping, characterized non-resilient women.

Specifically, the study revealed that non-resilient women relied on

oral/somatic and sexual/aggressive strategies to cope with negative

affects. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that three

mediating variables, social control, the belief that one can regulate

negative mood states, and the tendency to seek emotional support,

significantly enhanced functioning. Interaction effects revealed that

the expectation that sexual/aggressive strategies would help alleviate

negative affect operated as a vulnerability factor. Women with high

scores on this variable were more seriously affected by risks than were

women low on this attribute. Results of the factor analysis illuminated

an underlying cluster of cognitive-affective variables comprising the

somatic/forfeiture factor, such as oral passivity, which were found to

operate as a vulnerability mechanism. There were also significant

differences detected between Latina and Black women with respect to

coping and affect regulation styles. It is concluded that affect

regulatory functions are important pathways for adaptation in inner city

Black and Latina women exposed to multiple risks. These findings suggest

that clinical interventions should focus on modifying less adaptive

affect regulation strategies.

  _____ 

 

Record: 2

         

Title:   An examination of factors associated with resiliency in siblings

of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: A family systems

perspective.  

Author(s):     Wutzke, Tracy Michele, California School of Professional

Psychology - San Diego, US

Source:         Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences &

Engineering, Vol 60(1-B), Jul 1999. pp. 0380.

Publisher:      US: Univ Microfilms International

 

Publisher URL: http://www.il.proquest.com/umi/

ISSN:  0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:          AAM9918689 

Language:     English

Keywords:     prominent themes & psychosocial adaptation & coping

skills & resiliency, 8-14 yr old siblings of children with juvenile

rheumatoid arthritis  

Abstract:       Most children who have a brother or sister with juvenile

rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) experience the impact of the illness on

themselves and their family. Research data regarding healthy siblings of

children with a chronic illness are often obtained from parents or

teachers, which can vary from that of the siblings. The present study

focused on three main areas: (1) prominent themes that emerged for

siblings of children with JRA, (2) psychosocial adaptation to having a

brother or sister with JRA, and (3) coping skills reported by the

siblings which may be associated with resiliency. This investigation was

accomplished through: (1) a structured, open-ended questionnaire

developed from themes found in previous literature regarding

psychosocial adaptation to having a chronically ill sibling; and (2)

completion of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC) by

the healthy siblings, their parents, and a teacher, as an assessment of

psychosocial adaptation and resiliency. The participants consisted of

ten children (ages 8 to 14). All of the participants had a brother or

sister who had been diagnosed with JRA at least 12 months prior to their

participation in the study. An overall qualitative analysis of the

results revealed several findings. Three of these findings are that

these children: (1) feel that they are treated differently than their

ill sibling; (2) use either mental or physical distraction as a coping

mechanism when thinking about or experiencing feelings related to having

a brother or sister with JRA; and (3) Worry about the well-being of

their ill sibling. A breakdown of resilient versus nonresilient siblings

revealed that the resilient siblings: (1) are proactive in talking to

their parents about their ill brother or sister in order to acquire more

information; (2) have not thought about the possibility of their

sibling's illness progressing; and (3) do not believe they contributed

to their sibling getting JRA. This study concludes that emphasis needs

to be placed on helping families develop greater awareness of the needs

and concerns of the healthy children in order to develop the necessary

skills required to improve individual and family coping and adaptation.

These and other relevant issues can be addressed in family therapy, and

when appropriate, individual therapy.

  _____ 

 

Record: 3

         

Title:   Caregiving and developmental factors different