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Resiliency and PTSD
Resilience and Resiliency
Resiliency and Trauma
Resiliency and Family Change
Resiliency I
Resiliency II
Resiliency III
Resiliency IV
Resiliency V
Resiliency VI
Resiliency VII

Psychological

and Physiological

Trauma Research

 

 

Seize Your Journeys

 

_______________________

Traumatic stress is found in many competent, healthy, strong, good people.  No one can completely protect themselves from traumatic experiences.  Many people have long-lasting problems following exposure to trauma.  Up to 8% of persons will have PTSD at some time in their lives. People who react to traumas are not going crazy.  What is happening to them is part of a set of common symptoms and problems that are connected with being in a traumatic situation, and thus, is a normal reaction to abnormal events and experiences.  Having symptoms after a traumatic event is NOT a sign of personal weakness.  Given exposure to a trauma that is bad enough, probably all people would develop PTSD.

By understanding trauma symptoms better, a person can become less fearful of them and better able to manage them. By recognizing the effects of trauma and knowing more about symptoms, a person will be better able to decide about getting treatment.

_______________________

 

Secure Attachments as a Defense Against Trauma

 “All people mature and thrive in a social context that has profound effects on how they cope with life’s stresses.  Particularly early in life, the social context plays a critical role in fuffering an individual against stressful situations, and in building the psychological and biological capacities to deal with further stresses.  The primary function of parents can be thought of as helping children modulate their arousal by attuned and well-timed provision of playing, feeding, comforting, touching, looking, cleaning, and resting—in short, by teaching them skills that will gradually help them modulate their own arousal.  Secure attachment bonds serve as primary defenses against trauma-induced psychopathology in both children and adults (Finkelhor & Browne, 1984).  In children who have been exposed to severe stressors, the quality of the parental bond is probably the single most important determinant of long-term damage (McFarlane, 1988).”  van der Kolk, Bessel, Alexander C. McFarlane, and Lars Weisaeth, eds.  1996. Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society.  New York and London: Guilford Press. .p. 185

 

Eating Disorders

 “The Eating Disorders are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior.  This section includes two specific diagnoses, Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.  Anorexia Nervosa is characterized by a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight.  Bulimia Nervosa is characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications; fasting; or excessive exercise.  A disturbance in perception of body shape and weight is an essential feature of both Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.  An Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified category is also provided for coding behaviors that do not meet criteria for a specific Eating Disorder.

          Simple obesity is include in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) as a general medical condition but does not appear in DSM-IV because it has not been established that it is consistently associated with a psychological or behavioral syndrome.  However, when there is evidence that psychological factors are of importance in the etiology or course of a particular case of obesity, this can be indicated by noting the presence of Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition.

          Disorders of Feeding and Eating that are usually first diagnosed in infancy or early childhood (i.e., Pica, Rumination Disorder, and Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood) are included in the section “Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood.

 Anorexia Nervosa

 Diagnostic Features

The essential features of Anorexia Nervosa are that the individual refuses to maintain a minimally normal body weight, is intensely afraid of gaining weight, and exhibits a significant disturbance in the perception of the shape or size of his or her body.  In addition, postmenarcheal females with this disorder are amenorrheic.  (The term anorexia is a misnomer because loss of appetite is rare.)

          The individual maintains a body weight that is below a minimally normal level for age and height (Criterion A).  When Anorexia Nervosa develops in an individual during childhood or early adolescence, there may be failure to make expected weight gains (i.e., while growing in height) instead of weight loss.

Criterion A provides a guideline for determining when the individual meets the threshold for being underweight.  It suggests that the individual weigh less than 85% of that weight that is considered normal for that person’s age and height (usually computed using one of several published versions of the Metropolitan Life Insurance tables or pediatric growth charts.).  An alternative and somewhat stricter guideline (used in the ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for research) requires that the individual have a body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms/height in meters2) equal to or below 17.5kg/m2.  These cutoffs are provided only as suggested guidelines for eh clinician, since it is unreasonable to specify a single standard for minimally normal weight that applies to all individuals of a given age and height.  In determining a minimally normal weight, the clinician should consider not only such guidelines but also the individual’s body build and weight history.

Usually weight loss is accomplished primarily through reduction in total food intake.  Although individuals may begin by excluding from their diet what they perceive to be highly caloric foods, most eventually end up with a very restricted diet that is sometimes limited to only a few foods.  Additional methods of weight loss include purging (i.e., self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxative or diuretics) and increased or excessive exercise.)

Individuals with this disorder intensely fear gaining weight or becoming fat (Criterion B).  This intense fear of becoming fat is usually not alleviated by the weight loss.  In fact, concern about weight gain often increases even as actual weight continues to decrease.

The experience and significance of body weight and shape are distorted in these individuals (Criterion C).  Some individuals feel globally overweight.  Others realize that they are thin but are still concerned that certain parts of their bodies, particularly the abdomen, buttocks, and thighs are “to fat.”  They may employ a wide variety of techniques to estimate their body size and weight, including excessive weighing, obsessive measuring of body parts, and persistently using a mirror to check for perceived areas of “fat.”  The self-esteem of individuals with Anorexia Nervosa is highly dependent on their body shape and weight.  Weight loss is viewed as an impressive achievement and a sign of extraordinary self-discipline, whereas weight gain is perceived as an unacceptable failure of self-control.  Though some individuals with this disorder may acknowledge being thin, they typically deny the serious medical implications of their malnourished state.

In postmenarcheal females, amenorrhea (due to abnormally low levels of estrogen secretion that are due in turn to diminished pituitary secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone [PSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) is an indicator of physiological dysfunction in Anorexia Nervosa (Criterion D.)  Amenorrhea is usually a consequence of the weight loss but, in a minority of individuals, may actually precede it.  In prepubertal females, menarche may be delayed by the illness.

The individual is often brought to professional attention by family members after marked weight loss (or failure to make expected weight gains) has occurred.  If individuals seek help on their own, it is usually because of their subjective distress over the somatic and psychological sequelae of starvation.  It is rare for an individual with Anorexia Nervosa to complain of weight loss per se.  Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa frequently lack insight into, or have considerable denial of, the problem and may be unreliable historians.  It is therefore often necessary to obtain information form parents or other outside sources to evaluate the degree of weight loss and other features of the illness.”  p. 583-584.

 Bulimia Nervosa

 “Diagnostic Features

          The essential features of Bulimia Nervosa are binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight gain.  In addition, the self-evaluation of individuals with Bulimia Nervosa is excessively influenced by body shape and weight.  To qualify for the diagnosis, the binge eating and the inappropriate compensatory behaviors must occur, on average, at least twice a week for 3 months (Criterion C.)

          A binge is defined as eating in a discrete period of time an amount of food that is definitely larger than most individuals would eat under similar circumstances (Criterion A1.).  The clinician should consider the context in which the eating occurred—what would be regarded as excessive consumption at a typical meal might be considered normal during a celebration or holiday meal.  A “discrete period of time” refers to a limited period, usually less than 2 hours.  A single episode of binge eating need not be restricted to one setting.  For example, an individual may begin a binge in a restaurant and then continue it on returning home.  Continual snacking on small amounts of food throughout the day would not be considered a binge.

          Although the type of food consumed during the binge varies, it typically includes sweet, high-calorie foods such as ice cream or cake.  However, binge eating appears to be characterized more by an abnormality in the amount of food consumed than by a craving for a specific nutrient, such as carbohydrate.  Although individuals with Bulimia Nervosa consume more calories during an episode of binge eating than persons without Bulimia Nervosa consume during a meal, the fractions of calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate are similar.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa are typically ashamed of their eating problems and attempt to conceal their symptoms.  Binge eating usually occurs in secrecy, or as inconspicuously as possible.  An episode may or may not be planned in advance and is usually (but not always) characterized by rapid consumption.  The binge eating often continues until the individual is uncomfortably, or even painfully, full.  Binge eating is typically triggered by dysphoric mood states, interpersonal stressors intense hunger following dietary restraint, or feelings related to body weight, body shape, and food.  Binge eating may transiently reduce dysphoria, but disparaging self-criticism and depressed mood often follow.

          An episode of binge eating is also accompanied by a sense of lack of control (Criterion A2).  An individual may be in a frenzied state while binge eating, especially early in the course of the disorder.  Some individuals describe a dissociative quality during, or following, the binge episodes.  After Bulimia Nervosa has persisted for some time, individuals may report that their binge-eating episodes are no longer characterized by an acute feeling of loss of control, but rather by behavioral indicators of impaired control, such as difficulty resisting binge eating or difficulty stopping a binge once it has begun.  The impairment in control associated with binge eating in bulimia Nervosa is not absolute; for example, an individual may continue binge eating while the telephone is ringing, but will cease if a roommate or spouse unexpectedly enters the room.

          Another essential feature of Bulimia Nervosa is the recurrent use of inappropriate compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain (Criterion B).  Many individuals with Bulimia Nervosa employ several methods in their attempt to compensate for binge eating.  The most common compensatory technique is the induction of vomiting after an episode of binge eating.  This method of purging is employed by 80%-90% of individuals with Bulimia Nervosa who present for treatment of eating disorders clinics.  The immediate effects of vomiting include relief from physical discomfort and reduction of fear of gaining weight.  In some cases, vomiting becomes a goal in itself, and the person will binge in order to vomit or will vomit after eating a small amount of food.  Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa may use a variety of methods to induce vomiting, including the use of fingers or instruments to stimulate the gag reflex.  Individuals generally become adept at inducing vomiting and are eventually able to vomit at will.  Rarely, individuals consume syrup of ipecac to induce vomiting.  Other purging behaviors include the issue of laxatives and diuretics.  Approximately one-third of those with Bulimia Nervosa misuse laxatives after binge eating.  Rarely, individuals with the disorder will misuse enemas following episodes of binge eating, but this is seldom the sole compensatory method employed.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa may fast for a day or more or exercise excessively in an attempt to compensate for binge eating.  Exercise may be considered to be excessive when it significantly interferes with important activities, when it occurs at inappropriate times or in inappropriate settings, or when the individual continues to exercise despite injury or other medical complications.  Rarely, individuals with this disorder may take thyroid hormone in an attempt to avoid weight gain.  Individuals with diabetes mellitus and Bulimia Nervosa may omit or reduce insulin doses in order to reduce the metabolism of food consumed during eating binges.

          Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa place an excessive emphasis on body shape and weight in their self-evaluation, and these factors are typically the most important ones in determining self-esteem (Criterion D).  Individuals with this disorder may closely resemble those with Anorexia Nervosa in their fear of gaining weight, in their desire to lose weight, and in the level of dissatisfaction with their bodies.  However, a diagnosis of Bulimia Nervosa should not be given when the disturbance occurs only during episodes of Anorexia Nervosa (Criterion E).”  p. 589-591

 

Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 2000. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

 

 

 

LifeSpan Developmental Trauma

 

Resiliency I

Record: 1

Title:

The prevention of depressive symptoms in low-income, minority children: Two-year follow-up.

Author(s):

Cardemil, Esteban, Frances L. Hiatt School of Psychology, Clark University, Worcester, MA, US, ECardemil@clarku.edu
Reivich, Karen J., Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, US, reivich@psych.upenn.edu
Beevers, Christopher G., Department of Psychology, University of Texas, Austin, TX, US, beevers@psy.utexas.edu
Seligman, Martin E. P., Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, US
James, Julie, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, PA, US

Address:

Cardemil, Esteban, Frances L. Hiatt School of Psychology, Clark University, 950 Main Street, Worcester, MA, US, 01610, ECardemil@clarku.edu

Source:

Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol 45(2), Feb 2007. pp. 313-327.

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Abstract:

We present 2-year follow-up data on the efficacy of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), a school-based depression prevention program, with low-income, racial/ethnic minority children. This program taught cognitive and social problem-solving skills to 168 Latino and African American middle school children who were at-risk for developing depressive symptoms by virtue of their low-income status. We had previously reported beneficial effects of the PRP up to 6 months after the conclusion of the program for the Latino children, but no clear effect for the African American children. In this paper, we extend the analyses to 24 months after the conclusion of the PRP. We continue to find some beneficial effects for the Latino children and no differentially beneficial effect for the African American children. Implications of findings and future research directions are discussed.

Tests & Measures:

Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire
Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children
Children's Depression Inventory
Hopelessness Scale


Record: 2

Title:

School-Based Prevention of Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Study of the Effectiveness and Specificity of the Penn Resiliency Program.

Author(s):

Gillham, Jane E., Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, US, jgillha1@swarthmore.edu
Reivich, Karen J., Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, US
Freres, Derek R., Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania, PA, US
Chaplin, Tara M., Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, US
Shatté, Andrew J., Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, US
Samuels, Barbra, Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, US
Elkon, Andrea G. L., Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, US
Litzinger, Samantha, Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, US
Lascher, Marisa, Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, US
Gallop, Robert, Department of Mathematics Applied Statistics Program, West Chester University, West Chester, PA, US
Seligman, Martin E. P., Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, US

Address:

Gillham, Jane E., Psychology Department, Swarthmore College, 500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, PA, US, 19081, jgillha1@swarthmore.edu

Source:

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 75(1), Feb 2007. pp. 9-19.

Publisher:

US: American Psychological Assn

ISSN:

0022-006X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1037/0022-006X.75.1.9

Language:

English

Keywords:

depression; prevention; children; adolescence; Penn Resiliency Program; cognitive-behavioral program; school-based prevention

Abstract:

The authors investigated the effectiveness and specificity of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP; J. E. Gillham, L. H. Jaycox, K. J. Reivich, M. E. P. Seligman, & T. Silver, 1990), a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program. Children (N = 697) from 3 middle schools were randomly assigned to PRP, Control (CON), or the Penn Enhancement Program (PEP; K. J. Reivich, 1996; A. J. Shatté, 1997), an alternate intervention that controls for nonspecific intervention ingredients. Children's depressive symptoms were assessed through 3 years of follow-up. There was no intervention effect on average levels of depressive symptoms in the full sample. Findings varied by school. In 2 schools, PRP significantly reduced depressive symptoms across the follow-up relative to both CON and PEP. In the 3rd school, PRP did not prevent depressive symptoms. The authors discuss the findings in relation to previous research on PRP and the dissemination of prevention programs.

Tests & Measures:

Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents
Children's Depression Inventory
Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised


Record: 3

Title:

Capital Mitigation From a Developmental Perspective: The Importance of Risk Factors, Protective Factors, and the Construct of Resilience.

Author(s):

Salekin, Karen L., U Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, US

Source:

Expert psychological testimony for the courts. Costanzo, Mark (Ed); Krauss, Daniel (Ed); Pezdek, Kathy (Ed); pp. 149-176.
Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 2007. vi, 321 pp.

ISBN:

0-8058-5648-X (paperback)
1-4106-1439-5 (Electronic)
0-8058-5647-1 (hardcover)
9780805856484 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

capital mitigation; developmental perspective; risk factors; protective factors; resilience; mental health; developmental psychopathology; defendant

Abstract:

(from the chapter) With recognition that not all defense attorneys choose to put forth mental health expert testimony during the sentencing phase of a capital trial, the focus of this chapter relates to the more typical mitigation strategy that includes presentation of a defendant's troubled life history. Specifically, the chapter concentrates on the role of the mental health expert whose job it is to relate the life story of the defendant and effectively communicate potentially mitigating information to the trier of fact. It is argued that expert testimony regarding life history, regardless of who presents the data, must be firmly grounded in the research findings of developmental psychopathology. This is not to say that other disciplines do not have anything to offer, but simply that the fruits borne from other research (e.g., psychopathology, cycles of violence, drug addiction, and the ontogeny of antisocial behavior) can often be better explained from within a developmental framework. With that in mind, the emphasis of this chapter is on how to portray the capital defendant's life story against the empirical backdrop of science, in particular, in the developmental concepts of risk factors, protective factors, and resiliency.


Record: 4

Title:

Asian American and Pacific Islander Families: Resiliency and Life-Span Socialization in a Cultural Context.

Author(s):

Yee, Barbara W. K., Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, US
DeBaryshe, Barbara D., Center on the Family, University of Hawaii, HI, US
Yuen, Sylvia, Canter on the Family, University of Hawaii, HI, US
Kim, Su Yeong, Department of Human Ecology, University of Texas, Austin, TX, US
McCubbin, Hamilton I., Center on the Family, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, US

Source:

Handbook of Asian American psychology: Second Edition. Leong, Frederick T. L. (Ed); Ebreo, Angela (Ed); Kinoshita, Lisa (Ed); Inman, Arpana G. (Ed); Yang, Lawrence Hsin (Ed); et al; pp. 69-86.
Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc, 2007. x, 515 pp.

ISBN:

1-4129-2467-7 (paperback)
1-4129-4133-4 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

Asian American; Pacific Islander; families; family resilience conceptual framework; family interdependence; protection; life-span socialization

Abstract:

(from the chapter) Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are often portrayed as a resilient "model minority." AAPI individuals have been described as being well educated and financially stable; valuing hard work and family ties; and exhibiting positive social behaviors. This positive characterization overlooks the difficult life circumstances that some AAPI individuals experience and downplays the very real needs of those who are vulnerable to experiences of discrimination, trauma, or poverty. An examination of the evidence reveals great variation in the prevalence of risk and protective factors and resiliency processes across AAPI ethnic groups (Yee, Huang, & Lew, 1998). In this chapter, the authors highlight how AAPI families provide protection and diminish risk for family members as they traverse developmental milestones and cope with challenges over the life course. Specifically, the authors (a) provide a family resilience conceptual framework for understanding risk and protective factors in AAPI families, (b) discuss how AAPI cultures promote family interdependence as a basis for family protective or risk factors, (c) outline key demographic variables that serve as risk and protective factors for AAPI families, (d) address family life-cycle issues for AAPI families, and (e) conclude by highlighting directions for future AAPI family research opportunities and federal family research funding policies.


Record: 5

Title:

Trans/Gender/Sexuality: A Research Agenda.

Author(s):

Hill, Darryl B., Department of Psychology, College of Staten Island, Staten Island, NY, US, darrylhill@verizon.net

Address:

Hill, Darryl B., Department of Psychology, College of Staten Island, Staten Island, NY, US, 10314, darrylhill@verizon.net

Source:

Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services: Issues in Practice, Policy & Research, Vol 18(2), 2007. pp. 101-109.

Publisher:

US: Haworth Press

ISSN:

1053-8720 (Print)
1540-4056 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1300/J041v18n02_06

Language:

English

Keywords:

transgender experience; transsexual experience; United States; wellness; resiliency; research

Abstract:

This paper discusses a research agenda for trans (transgender and transsexual) experience in the U.S., both how and what to study. As the field of trans studies develops, researchers should primarily utilize a community-based participatory action research model. Research remaining to be done includes: documenting the size of trans communities across the U.S., exploring the short and long-term effects of hormonal and surgical interventions, studies that focus on resiliency and wellness (i.e., those who are able to fend off pathology), explorations of who is likely to oppress or discriminate against trans people, and the legal issues faced by trans people.


Record: 6

Title:

Handbook of Asian American psychology: Second Edition.

Author(s):

Leong, Frederick T. L., (Ed), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, US
Ebreo, Angela, (Ed), University of Illinois, Institute for Research on Race and Public Policy, Chicago, IL, US
Kinoshita, Lisa, (Ed), Stanford University, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, CA, US
Inman, Arpana G., (Ed), Lehigh University, Counseling Psychology Program, Bethlehem, PA, US
Yang, Lawrence Hsin, (Ed), Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, US
Fu, Michi, (Ed), Asian Pacific Family Center, Pacific Clinics, Rosemead, CA, US

Source:

Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc, 2007. x, 515 pp.

ISBN:

1-4129-2467-7 (paperback)
1-4129-4133-4 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

Asian American psychology

Abstract:

(from the cover) The Second Edition of the Handbook of Asian American Psychology fills a fundamental gap in the Asian American literature by addressing the full spectrum of methodological, substantive, and theoretical areas related to Asian American psychology. This new edition provides important scholarly contributions by a new generation of researchers that address the shifts in contemporary issues for Asians and Asian Americans in the United States. New topics addressed in this Second Edition include men, personality, and psychopathology, among others.


Record: 7

Title:

The effects of cumulative risks and promotive factors on Urban adolescent alcohol and other drug use: A longitudinal study of resiliency.

Author(s):

Ostaszewski, Krzysztof, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland
Zimmerman, Marc A., HBHE, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, US

Address:

Zimmerman, Marc A., HBHE, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, US, 48109-2029

Source:

American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol 38(3-4), Dec 2006. Special issue: Exemplars of community practice. pp. 237-249.

Publisher:

Germany: Springer

ISSN:

0091-0562 (Print)
1573-2770 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1007/s10464-006-9076-x

Language:

English

Keywords:

cumulative risks; promotive factors; urban adolescents; alcohol use; drug use; resiliency study

Abstract:

Resiliency theory provides a conceptual framework for studying why some youth exposed to risk factors do not develop the negative behaviors they predict. The purpose of this study was to test compensatory and protective models of resiliency in a longitudinal sample of urban adolescents (80% African American). The data were from Years 1 (9th grade) and 4 (12th grade). The study examined effects of cumulative risk and promotive factors on adolescent polydrug use including alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. Cumulative measures of risk/promotive factors represented individual characteristics, peer influence, and parental/familial influences. After controlling for demographics, results of multiple regression of polydrug use support the compensatory model of resiliency both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Promotive factors were also found to have compensatory effects on change in adolescent polydrug use. The protective model of resiliency evidenced cross-sectionally was not supported in longitudinal analysis. The findings support resiliency theory and the use of cumulative risk/promotive measures in resiliency research. Implications focused on utilizing multiple assets and resources in prevention programming are discussed.


Record: 8

Title:

Risk and protective factors for psychopathology among older versus younger adults after the 2004 Florida hurricanes.

Author(s):

Acierno, Ron, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, US, acierno@musc.edu
Ruggiero, Kenneth J ., Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, US
Kilpatrick, Dean G., Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, US
Resnick, Heidi S., Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, US
Galea, Sandro, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, US

Address:

Acierno, Ron, National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, P.O. Box 250852, Charleston, SC, US, 29425, acierno@musc.edu

Source:

American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol 14(12), Dec 2006. pp. 1051-1059.

Publisher:

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISSN:

1064-7481 (Print)
1545-7214 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1097/01.JGP.0000221327.97904.b0

Language:

English

Keywords:

risk factors; protective factors; psychopathology; age differences; Florida hurricanes; postdisaster mental illness

Abstract:

Objective: Previous research demonstrates increased resiliency to psychopathology after disasters among older adults. However, little is known about differences in age-based risk and protective factors for postdisaster mental illness. Method: The authors used random-digit dialing methodology to survey 1,130 older adults (60+ years) and 413 younger adults residing in Florida counties directly affected by the 2004 hurricanes. Assessed risk and protective factors included demographics, social support, displacement, incurred dollar losses, perceived positive outcomes, and self-rated health status. Outcome variables included symptom counts of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-defined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Results: Older adults reported fewer symptoms of PTSD, MDD, and GAD. Explanatory risk variables accounted for large proportions of variance, but differed in meaningful ways across age groups. Conclusion: Although older adults are less symptomatic, their psychologic reactions appear more closely connected to economic consequences of disasters.

Tests & Measures:

Women's Study PTSD Module
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV


Record: 9

Title:

On their own: What happens to kids when they age out of the foster care system.

Author(s):

Cook, Ronna, Westat, US, cookr1@westat.com

Address:

Cook, Ronna, cookr1@westat.com

Source:

Children and Youth Services Review, Vol 28(11), Nov 2006. pp. 1413-1414.

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Reviewed Item:

Martha Shirk and Gary Stangler (2004). On their own: What happens to kids when they age out of the foster care system; Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 2004, ISBN: 0-8133-4180-9298

ISSN:

0190-7409 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1016/j.childyouth.2006.04.004

Language:

English

Keywords:

foster care; health care services; criticism; foster youth

Abstract:

Reviews the book, On their own: What happens to kids when they age out of the foster care system by Martha Shirk and Gary Stangler (2004). The good news about this book is we are still talking about how to provide transitional living services to youth. The bad news is we are still talking about how to provide transitional living services to youth in foster care. This is not a criticism of the authors--they understand and describe our current reality very well. The vignettes are the strength of this book. The heterogeneity of foster care youth is highlighted through the array of stories provided. The vignettes serve as a lens into the psyche of eight youth and allow the reader to experience both the plights and resiliency of older youth in foster care facing discharge. The stories describe youth's feelings, while showing how their behavior and decisions can be contrary to what the youth really want. The authors' stated purpose in writing this book is to bring to life the "otherwise numbing statistics on what usually happens to youth who age out of foster care". The hope is to educate the general public about the plight that foster care youth face. On Their Own should be required reading for all caseworkers, supervisors, and administrators working in the foster care system.


Record: 10

Title:

Through wise eyes: Thriving elder women's perspectives on thriving in elder adulthood.

Author(s):

Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle, Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, CA, US

Address:

Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle, PMB 274, 3267 Bee Caves Road, Ste. 107, Austin, TX, US, 78746

Source:

Educational Gerontology, Vol 32(10), Nov-Dec 2006. pp. 881-905.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis

ISSN:

0360-1277 (Print)
1521-0472 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1080/03601270600846709

Language:

English

Keywords:

elder adulthood; thriving; elder women's perspectives; elder women's perspectives; involvement; service; desire to learn; basic life components; honesty; responsibility; positive attitude; faith

Abstract:

Prompted by increasing U.S. longevity and aging demographics, this phenomenological study explored what it is like for 13 women, 75-91, to thrive in elder adulthood. Through multiple interviews, projective inventories, and focus groups, 6 group patterns emerged: (a) vital involvement and service, (b) desire to learn, (c) appreciation of basic life components--family, friends, health, home, and financial security, (d) valuing honesty and responsibility, (e) positive attitude, and (f) reliance on faith. A theme of resiliency emerged from their life stories of overcoming untimely deaths of family members, World War II experiences, and serious health challenges. Aging well advice is offered.

Tests & Measures:

Kilpatrick and Cantril Self-Anchoring Scale
Rokeach Values Inventory
Strengths Finder Assessment


Record: 11

Title:

Child ADHD and personality/temperament traits of reactive and effortful control, resiliency, and emotionality.

Author(s):

Martel, Michelle M., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, US, martelmi@msu.edu
Nigg, Joel T., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, US

Address:

Martel, Michelle M., 43 Psychology Building, East Lansing, MI, US, 48823-1116, martelmi@msu.edu

Source:

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol 47(11), Nov 2006. pp. 1175-1183.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

ISSN:

0021-9630 (Print)
1469-7610 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01629.x

Language:

English

Keywords:

ADHD children; personality & temperament traits; reactive control; effortful control; resiliency; emotionality; symptoms; ratings; dispositional trait scores; regulation problems; motivational control

Abstract:

Background: Models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest developmental influences may feed into components of the disorder separately from associated disruptive behavior problems. We investigated this in terms of key personality/temperament traits of Reactive and Effortful Control, Resiliency, and Emotionality. Methods: A sample of 179 children (age 6-12, 63% boys), of whom 92 had ADHD, 52 were Controls, and 35 were borderline or not otherwise specified cases of ADHD, were examined. Dispositional trait scores were derived from parent-completed California Q-sort and the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire. Child ADHD symptoms were evaluated using maternal structured diagnostic interview and teacher-completed symptom ratings. Results: Traits were differentially associated with symptoms. Reactive Control was related to hyperactivity-impulsivity as rated by both parents and teachers. Negative Emotionality was related to oppositional-defiance. Resiliency was primarily related to inattention-disorganization as rated by both parents and teachers; Effortful Control was related uniquely to inattention in parent but not teacher data. A moderation effect emerged; the relationship between parent-rated Negative Emotionality and teacher-rated ADHD symptoms was stronger for children with high levels of both Reactive and Effortful Control. Conclusions: Results are interpreted in relation to a two-pathway model of ADHD; regulation problems contribute to the emergence of symptoms of inattention-disorganization, reactive or motivational control problems to the emergence of hyperactivity-impulsivity, and these are distinct from negative affectivity. Children with regulation deficits and a reactive motivational style are especially at risk for the development of ADHD.

Tests & Measures:

Swanson-Nolanand-Pelham (SNAP-IV) scale
Conners (1997) Rating Scale
Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV)
ADHD Symptom Checklist.
DSM-IV ADHD Symptom Checklist
Child Behavior Checklist
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition
ADHD Rating Scale


Record: 12

Title:

A Gale Force Wind: Meaning Making by Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

Author(s):

Grossman, Frances K., Department of Psychology, Boston University, Boston, MA, US, frang@bu.edu
Sorsoli, Lynn, Center for Research on Gender and Sexuality, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, US
Kia-Keating, Maryam, Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, US

Address:

Grossman, Frances K., 61 Huntington Road, Newton, MA, US, 02458, frang@bu.edu

Source:

American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol 76(4), Oct 2006. pp. 434-443.

Publisher:

US: Educational Publishing Foundation

ISSN:

0002-9432 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.434

Language:

English

Keywords:

male survivors; childhood sexual abuse; resiliency; meaning making; narratives; trauma therapy

Abstract:

This in-depth qualitative study explores how 16 resilient male survivors of serious childhood sexual abuse, representing a range of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds, made meaning from their abuse experiences. Three main types of meaning making styles were identified in the narratives: meaning making through action, using cognitive strategies, and engaging spirituality. Meaning making through action included helping others and using creative expression to describe and process the abuse. Reasoning systems that helped survivors to understand why the abuse happened included developing a psychological framework for understanding the abuser or the role of the self in the abuse, using a sociocultural explanation, or developing a philosophical view. A few men made meaning through their spirituality. Meaning making styles seem to be related to experiences with therapy; the more experience these men had had with specialized trauma therapy, the more likely they were to make meaning by attempting to understand their perpetrators. In this study, men of color, regardless of socioeconomic class, were less likely than Caucasian men to have received specialized trauma therapy.


Record: 13

Title:

Can Lebanon conjure a public health phoenix from the ashes?

Author(s):

Sibai, Abla-Mehio, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon, ansibai@aub.edu.lb
Sen, Kasturi, International NGO Training and Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom

Address:

Sibai, Abla-Mehio, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut, Lebanon, ansibai@aub.edu.lb

Source:

BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol 333(7573), Oct 2006. pp. 848-849.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: BMJ Publishing Group

ISSN:

0959-8138 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1136/bmj.38996.466678.68

Language:

English

Keywords:

Lebanon conjure; public health; phoenix; ashes; aftermath; health system; community health centers; long term care

Abstract:

Lebanon is currently struggling with the aftermath of the most devastating conflict in its history. As Lebanon moves to meet the needs of its population in the aftermath of the most recent war, it has an opportunity to challenge its predominantly market led health system and begin anew, with a vision for radical change. Any government planning of health services should follow the lead of local non-governmental organizations. This means moving away from high tech care and focusing on providing expanded access to primary care and community health centers for the poor and uninsured populations in the more remote regions. Expanding public coverage through partnership with trusted local providers and civil society groups needs to be a priority. Similarly, donors and international non-governmental organizations providing emergency relief in Lebanon should work closely with local health providers to rebuild services and plan for longer term care. Working in partnership with local communities will help expand affordable health care coverage, encourage retention of the workforce, promote resiliency, and begin a healing process to a hugely traumatized and dispossessed population.


Record: 14

Title:

Personality and misconduct correlates of body modification and other cultural deviance markers.

Author(s):

Nathanson, Craig, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Paulhus, Delroy L., Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, dpaulhus@psych.ubc.ca
Williams, Kevin M., Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Address:

Paulhus, Delroy L., Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6T 1Z4, dpaulhus@psych.ubc.ca

Source:

Journal of Research in Personality, Vol 40(5), Oct 2006. pp. 779-802.

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science

ISSN:

0092-6566 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1016/j.jrp.2005.09.002

Language:

English

Keywords:

personality correlates; misconduct correlates; body modification; cultural deviance; psychopathy; self esteem

Abstract:

The personality and misconduct correlates of body modification (e.g., tattoos, piercings) and other markers of cultural deviance (Goth or provocative appearance) were examined in a sample of 279 undergraduate students. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of personality questionnaires and provided detailed self-reports of any unusual appearance markers. In addition, participants provided anonymous self-reports of five categories of misconduct. Three personality variables (openness to experience, subclinical psychopathy, and low self-esteem) independently predicted the likelihood of having deviance markers. After controlling for personality, however, the positive association between deviance markers and overall misconduct was eliminated. This finding undermines the allegation that acquiring deviance markers directly increases the likelihood of misconduct. One exception was a significant positive association between deviance markers and drug abuse that remained after controlling for personality. Our personality analysis provides a three-facet organizational framework for understanding the psychological significance of deviance markers.

Tests & Measures:

Mach-IV Scale
Big Five Inventory
Ego Resiliency Scale
Self-Report Psychopathy Scale
Comprehensive Misconduct Inventory
Narcissistic Personality Inventory
Psychopathy Checklist


Record: 15

Title:

Changes in salivary cortisol and corticosteroid receptor-α mRNA expression following a 3-week multidisciplinary treatment program in patients with fibromyalgia.

Author(s):

Bonifazi, Marco, Dipartimento di Fisiologia, Via Aldo Moro, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy, bonifazi@unisi.it
Suman, Anna Lisa, Dipartimento di Fisiologia, Via Aldo Moro, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy
Cambiaggi, Caterina, Dipartimento di Fisiologia, Via Aldo Moro, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy
Felici, Andrea, Dipartimento di Fisiologia, Via Aldo Moro, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy
Grasso, Giovanni, Dipartimento di Scienze Anatomiche e Biomediche, Via Aldo Moro, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy
Lodi, Leda, Dipartimento di Fisiologia, Via Aldo Moro, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy
Mencarelli, Marzia, Dipartimento di Fisiologia, Via Aldo Moro, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy
Muscettola, Michela, Dipartimento di Fisiologia, Via Aldo Moro, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy
Carli, Giancarlo, Dipartimento di Fisiologia, Via Aldo Moro, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy

Address:

Bonifazi, Marco, Dipartimento di Fisiologia, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Via Aldo Moro, I-53100, Siena, Italy, bonifazi@unisi.it

Source:

Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol 31(9), Oct 2006. pp. 1076-1086.

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science

ISSN:

0306-4530 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

residential multidisciplinary non-pharmacological treatment program; fibromyalgia symptoms; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function; salivary cortisol; corticosteroid receptor; mRNA expression

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a 3-week residential multidisciplinary non-pharmacological treatment program (including individually prescribed aerobic exercise and cognitive-behavioral therapy) on fibromyalgia symptoms and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Salivary and venous blood samples were collected from 12 female patients with fibromyalgia (age: 25-58) the day before and the day after the treatment period: saliva, eight times (every two hours from 0800 to 2200 h); venous blood, at 0800 h. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated and analyzed for glucocorticoid receptor-α (GR-α) mRNA expression by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, while the salivary cortisol concentration was determined by RIA. At the same time, pain and aerobic capacity were evaluated. Aerobic capacity improved at the end of the treatment program. The slope of the regression of salivary cortisol values on sampling time was steeper in all patients after treatment, indicating that the cortisol decline was more rapid. Concomitantly, the area under the cortisol curve 'with respect to increase' (AUC-sub(i)) was higher and there was a significant increase in GR-α mRNA expression in PBMC. The number of positive tender points, present pain, pain area and CES-D score were significantly reduced after the treatment, while the pressure pain threshold increased at most of the tender points. Our findings suggest that one of the active mechanisms underlying the effects of our treatment is an improvement of HPA axis function, consisting in increased resiliency and sensitivity of the stress system probably related to stimulation of GR-α synthesis by the components of the treatment.

Tests & Measures:

Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale
Visual Analogue Scale


Record: 16

Title:

Promotion of Evidence-Based Practices for Child Traumatic Stress in Rural Populations: Identification of Barriers and Promising Solutions.

Author(s):

Paul, Lisa A., University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, US
Gray, Matt J., University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, US
Elhai, Jon D., University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, US
Massad, Phillip M., Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, US
Stamm, Beth Hudnall, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, US

Source:

Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Vol 7(4), Oct 2006. pp. 260-273.

Publisher:

US: Sage Publications

ISSN:

1524-8380 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1177/1524838006292521

Language:

English

Keywords:

promotion; evidence-based practices; child traumatic stress; rural populations

Abstract:

Child physical abuse, child sexual abuse, and other forms of traumatic stress in childhood are unfortunately quite prevalent. Although most children exhibit striking resiliency in the face of such harrowing experiences, the ubiquity of childhood trauma translates into a significant number of children in need of clinical services to address resultant unremitting distress. Encouragingly, a number of effective interventions for child traumatic stress have been developed in the past several years, and these services are increasingly available in urban areas. Unfortunately, residents of rural and frontier regions may remain underserved despite the existence of effective treatments. This article briefly reviews the prevalence and sequelae of childhood trauma and depicts the numerous barriers to effective treatment faced by rural populations. The authors then briefly review promising evidence-based interventions for child traumatic stress and conclude by enumerating mechanisms for increasing rural populations' access to these services.


Record: 17

Title:

Surviving repeated waves of organizational downsizing: The recency, duration, and order effects associated with different forms of layoff contact.

Author(s):

Moore, Sarah, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA, US, smoore@ups.edu
Grunberg, Leon, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA, US
Greenberg, Edward, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, US

Address:

Moore, Sarah, Department of Psychology, University of Puget Sound, 1500 N. Warner, Tacoma, WA, US, 98416, smoore@ups.edu

Source:

Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, Vol 19(3), Sep 2006. pp. 309-329.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis

ISSN:

1061-5806 (Print)
1477-2205 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1080/10615800600901341

Language:

English

Keywords:

repeated organizational downsizing; layoff contact; job security; worker experiences; recency of layoff contact; effect duration; order effects

Abstract:

In this paper we examine: (1) recency and duration effects of layoff contact; and (2) the order effects associated with different types of layoff contact experiences. Workers employed by a large company engaged in repeated waves of downsizing completed questionnaires in 1997, 1999, and 2003. Using data only from workers who experienced indirect or direct layoff contact at each time period (N = 460), we found some evidence that recent direct experiences were associated with significant group differences for intent to quit and depression. There was also some evidence to suggest that a single direct layoff experience still affected workers' levels of job security, even when this experience occurred some 6 years prior to the Time 3 measurement. The largest within-group changes in scores over time were typically found among workers experiencing an indirect experience followed by a direct experience, suggesting that the order of events impacted worker job security, intent to quit, and depression. For workers experiencing back-to-back direct downsizing, the rate of decline slowed for depression. These findings are examined in light of the stress vulnerability and resiliency hypotheses.

Tests & Measures:

CES-Radloff Scale


Record: 18

Title:

Psychological distress and resources among siblings and parents exposed to traumatic events.

Author(s):

Punamäki, Raija-Leena, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland, raija-leena.punamaki@uta.fi
Qouta, Samir, Gaza Community Mental Health Program, Gaza, Palestine
El Sarraj, Eyad, Gaza Community Mental Health Program, Gaza, Palestine
Montgomery, Edith, Rehabilitation and Research Center for Torture Victims, Copenhagen, Denmark

Address:

Punamäki, Raija-Leena, Department of Psychology, University of Tampere, 33014, Tampere, Finland, raija-leena.punamaki@uta.fi

Source:

International Journal of Behavioral Development, Vol 30(5), Sep 2006. pp. 385-397.

Publisher:

US: Sage Publications

ISSN:

0165-0254 (Print)
1464-0651 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1177/0165025406066743

Language:

English

Keywords:

family members; psychological distress; psychological resources; exposure to traumatic events; depressive symptoms; PTSD; quality of life; resilient attitudes

Abstract:

We examined symmetries and asymmetries within family members' psychological distress and resources in general and when exposed to traumatic events in particular. PTSD and depressive symptoms indicated distress and resilient attitudes, and satisfaction with quality of life indicated resources. We also analysed potential complementary dynamics between family members and identified family types according to their distress and resources. Concerning trauma impact, we hypothesized that exposure to family military violence (FMV) and recent personal trauma (RPT) predict family members' psychological distress and resources differently, indicating asymmetry in family responses. The participants were 65 Palestinian families each consisting of a mother, a father and their 15-, 17- and 19-year-old children. The within-family MANOVA results showed asymmetric in psychological distress and resources in sibling and spousal subsystems, for example older siblings reported a higher level of depressive symptoms than both parents, and mothers reported PTSD more often than fathers. The cluster analysis identified four family types, two with symmetric responses: In the "resilient families" all members showed low distress and high resources, and in the "ordeal families" all showed distress and low resources. In the asymmetric families either the children or the parents showed low distress and high resources, named the "children's strength families" and the "parental strength families", respectively. Partial correlation analysis revealed complementary dynamics between children and their parents: If mothers reported high levels of psychological distress, the 15- and 17-year-olds reported low or vice versa. Spousal complementary dynamics were found in psychosocial resources: If the mother showed highly resilient attitudes, the father showed low or vice versa. As hypothesized, exposure to traumatic events was differently associated with family members' psychological distress and resources. Family military trauma (FMT) predicted depressive symptoms only among the youngest siblings, and recent personal trauma (RPT) was associated with dissatisfaction with quality of life only among the oldest sibling and fathers.

Tests & Measures:

Health-related Quality of Life
Resiliency Attitudes Scales
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-Reaction Index
Beck Depression Inventory


Record: 19

Title:

Review of The Trauma Spectrum: Hidden Wounds and Human Resiliency.

Author(s):

Elliott-Pascal, Astrid

Source:

Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol 27(3), Sep 2006. pp. 183-184.

Publisher:

US: Informa Healthcare

Reviewed Item:

Robert Scaer (2005). The Trauma Spectrum: Hidden Wounds and Human Resiliency; W.W. Northon & Company, 2005 ISBN 0393704661, 320 pp

ISSN:

0167-482X (Print)
1743-8942 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1080/01674820600664555

Language:

English

Keywords:

trauma; brain; mind; body; health; disease; culture; human resiliency; coping strategies; trauma related somatic illnesses

Abstract:

Reviews the book, The Trauma Spectrum: Hidden Wounds and Human Resiliency by Robert Scaer (see record 2005-07598-000). The Trauma Spectrum is a creative and original work on the argument that both major and minor traumas have an impact on brain, mind and body. It offers links between health, disease and culture. The book takes a clear evolutionary perspective by looking at the survival skills of our earliest forefathers (and other members of the animal family), who used instinctive strategies whilst under threat. In conclusion, the book offers over 300 pages of very accessible writing for all those who are prepared to take onboard a new view on psychological adaptation and how to overcome negative coping strategies in trauma-related somatic illnesses.


Record: 20

Title:

News from the Field.

Author(s):

Tolchin, Matthew, (Ed)

Source:

Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, Vol 34(3), Fal 2006. pp. 535-536.

Publisher:

US: Guilford Publications

ISSN:

1546-0371 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

communist government; psychoanalytic perspective; cold war; trauma

Abstract:

At the Omni Colonnade Hotel in Miami on Saturday, February 4, 2006, the Florida Psychoanalytic Society hosted the conference, "Trauma, Resilience and Growth: The Pedro Pan Experience." The conference addressed a forgotten episode of the Cold War known as "Operation Pedro Pan." In 1962, at the height of the Cuban Missile Crisis and in an attempt to increase police control over the population on the island, the communist government of Cuba passed a decree taking the custody of all Cuban children away from their parents and making the children "wards of the state." The conference aimed at examining the pain and resiliency of these children, many of whom are currently in their early and mid-fifties, seen through the focus of a psychoanalytic perspective.


Record: 21

Title:

ABCT Member Jennifer S. Cheavens Featured on CNN's American Morning.

Author(s):

Dreer, Laura E., University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, US, dreer@uab.edu

Address:

Dreer, Laura E., Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 415 Campbell Hall, Room 233, Birmingham, AL, US, 35243, dreer@uab.edu

Source:

the Behavior Therapist, Vol 29(6), Sep 2006. pp. 116-118.

Publisher:

US: Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies

ISSN:

0278-8403 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

CNN; Jennifer Cheavens; Hurrican Katrina; disaster responses

Abstract:

ABCT member Jennifer Cheavens was featured on CNN's American Morning on September 27, 2005. The CNN segment highlighted various recovery efforts following the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. In the CNN segment featuring Dr. Cheavens, she discussed the different types of reactions that individuals commonly experience following a natural disaster. Dr. Cheavens educated viewers about the immediate psychological reactions as well as the long-term implications on adjustment. Consistent with her research in positive psychology, she also described the resiliency, strength, and determination that often emerge in individuals as a result of experiencing disaster. She reminded viewers that individual differences in emotional responses are large and that even wide fluctuations from day to day may be "normal." However, Dr. Cheavens also advised that individuals that continue to experience distress should consult with a mental health professional. Dr. Cheavens proceeded to briefly discuss how she had been helping those affected by the hurricane meet their most immediate needs.


Record: 22

Title:

Relation of Emotion-Related Regulation to Children's Social Competence: A Longitudinal Study.

Author(s):

Spinrad, Tracy L., Department of Family and Human Development, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, US, tspinrad@asu.edu
Eisenberg, Nancy, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, US
Cumberland, Amanda, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, US
Fabes, Richard A., Department of Family and Human Development, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, US
Valiente, Carlos, Department of Family and Human Development, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, US
Shepard, Stephanie A., Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, US
Reiser, Mark, Department of Economics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, US
Losoya, Sandra H., Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, US
Guthrie, Ivanna K., Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, US

Address:

Spinrad, Tracy L., Department of Family and Human Development, Arizona State University, Cowden Room 13, Tempe, AZ, US, 85287-2502, tspinrad@asu.edu

Source:

Emotion, Vol 6(3), Aug 2006. pp. 498-510.

Publisher:

US: American Psychological Assn

ISSN:

1528-3542 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1037/1528-3542.6.3.498

Language:

English

Keywords:

emotion regulation; effortful control; impulsivity; popularity; social competence

Abstract:

The differential relations of children's emotion-related regulation (i.e., effortful control and impulsivity) to their personality resiliency, adult-rated popularity, and social competence were examined in children who were 4.5-7.9 years old and who were remeasured 2 years later. Parents and teachers reported on all constructs, and children's attentional persistence was observed. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediating role of resiliency on the relations between regulation/control and popularity using two-wave longitudinal data. The results provide some evidence of the mediating role of resiliency in the relations between effortful control and popularity, provide some evidence of bidirectional effects, and also buttress the view that emotional regulation should be differentiated into effortful and reactive forms of control.

Tests & Measures:

Child Behavior Questionnaire
Block Q-Sort
Child Behavior Checklist


Record: 23

Title:

Narrative Identity Processing of Difficult Life Experiences: Pathways of Personality Development and Positive Self-Transformation in Adulthood.

Author(s):

Pals, Jennifer L., Foley Center for the Study of Lives, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, US, j-pals@northwestern.edu

Address:

Pals, Jennifer L., Foley Center for the Study of Lives, Northwestern University, 2120 Campus Dr., Evanston, IL, US, 60208, j-pals@northwestern.edu

Source:

Journal of Personality, Vol 74(4), Aug 2006. pp. 1079-1110.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

ISSN:

0022-3506 (Print)
1467-6494 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00403.x

Language:

English

Keywords:

narrative identity processing; difficult life experiences; personality development; positive self-transformation; adulthood; personality traits; physical health; individual differences

Abstract:

Difficult life experiences in adulthood constitute a challenge to the narrative construction of identity. Individual differences in how adults respond to this challenge were conceptualized in terms of two dimensions of narrative identity processing: exploratory narrative processing and coherent positive resolution. These dimensions, coded from narratives of difficult experiences reported by the women of the Mills Longitudinal Study (Helson, 1967) at age 52, were expected to be related to personality traits and to have implications for pathways of personality development and physical health. First, the exploratory narrative processing of difficult experiences mediated the relationship between the trait of coping openness in young adulthood (age 21) and the outcome of maturity in late midlife (age 61). Second, coherent positive resolution predicted increasing ego-resiliency between young adulthood and midlife (age 52), and this pattern of increasing ego-resiliency, in turn, mediated the relationship between coherent positive resolution and life satisfaction in late midlife. Finally, the integration of exploratory narrative processing and coherent positive resolution predicted positive self-transformation within narratives of difficult experiences. In turn, positive self-transformation uniquely predicted optimal development (composite of maturity and life satisfaction) and physical health.

Tests & Measures:

California Psychological Inventory


Record: 24

Title:

Resiliency in Families with a Member with a Psychological Disorder.

Author(s):

Greeff, Abraham P., Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa, apg@sun.ac.za
Vansteenwegen, Alfons, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Ide, Mieke, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Address:

Greeff, Abraham P., Department of Psychology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, South Africa, 7602, apg@sun.ac.za

Source:

American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol 34(4), Jul-Sep 2006. pp. 285-300.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis

ISSN:

0192-6187 (Print)
1521-0383 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1080/01926180600637465

Language:

English

Keywords:

families; resiliency factors; family members; psychological disorder; emotional adjustment

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to identify resiliency factors in families with a mentally ill family member. The study population was composed of 30 families, where questionnaires were independently completed by both a parent and a child. The results indicate that family hardiness was an important resilience factor for both the parents and the children. According to the parents the passive evaluation of a crisis situation, or the use of avoidance strategies, was also helpful for the family to adapt. For the children, the extent to which they found support from within the community and the extent to which they experienced emotional support, self-worth, and community support were linked to their view on family adaptation to stressful situations.

Tests & Measures:

Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale
Family Sense of Coherence Scale
Social Support Index
Family Hardiness Index


Record: 25

Title:

Behavioral Control and Resiliency in the Onset of Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use: A Prospective Study From Preschool to Adolescence.

Author(s):

Wong, Maria M., Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, US, wongmari@isu.edu
Nigg, Joel T., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, US
Zucker, Robert A., University of Michigan, MI, US
Puttler, Leon I., University of Michigan, MI, US
Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, US
Jester, Jennifer M., University of Michigan, MI, US
Glass, Jennifer M., University of Michigan, MI, US
Adams, Kenneth, University of Michigan, MI, US

Address:

Wong, Maria M., Department of Psychology, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, US, 83209-8112, wongmari@isu.edu

Source:

Child Development, Vol 77(4), Jul 2006. pp. 1016-1033.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

ISSN:

0009-3920 (Print)
1467-8624 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00916.x

Language:

English

Keywords:

behavioral control; resiliency; alcohol abuse; illicit drug use; childhood development; onset

Abstract:

The developmental trajectories of behavioral control and resiliency from early childhood to adolescence and their effects on early onset of substance use were examined. Behavioral control is the tendency to express or contain one's impulses and behaviors. Resiliency is the ability to adapt flexibly one's characteristic level of control in response to the environment. Study participants were 514 children of alcoholics and matched controls from a longitudinal community sample (Time 1 age in years: M = 4.32, SD = 0.89). Children with slower rates of increase in behavioral control were more likely to use alcohol and other drugs in adolescence. Children with higher initial levels of resiliency were less likely to begin using alcohol.

Tests & Measures:

California Child Q-Sort
Drinking and other Drug Use History Questionnaire
Child Behavior Rating Scale
Short Michigan Alcohol Screening Test
Diagnostic Interview Schedule -Version III
Drug History Questionnaire


Record: 26

Title:

The Stability and Resiliency of Self-Control in a Sample of Incarcerated Offenders.

Author(s):

Mitchell, Ojmarrh, Division of Criminal Justice, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, US
MacKenzie, Doris Layton, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland, MD, US

Source:

Crime & Delinquency, Vol 52(3), Jul 2006. pp. 432-449.

Publisher:

US: Sage Publications

ISSN:

0011-1287 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1177/0011128705280586

Language:

English

Keywords:

self-control; antisocial behavior; stability; resiliency; incarcerated offenders; individual differences

Abstract:

The central tenet of Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory is that antisocial behavior is caused by stable between-individual differences in self-control. They also argue that after early childhood, interventions aimed at reducing antisocial behavior will be unsuccessful, as one's level of self-control is resilient to such efforts. This research tested the stability and resiliency hypotheses using a two-wave panel design in a sample of incarcerated offenders. The results indicated that self-control was not stable during a short period of time but that self-control was resilient to participation in a treatment-oriented boot-camp program.


Record: 27

Title:

Resilience, family adversity and well-being among Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian adolescents.

Author(s):

Carlton, Barry S., Native Hawaiian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP), Department of Psychiatry, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, US, carltonb@dop.hawaii.edu
Goebert, Deborah A., Native Hawaiian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP), Department of Psychiatry, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, US
Miyamoto, Robin H., Native Hawaiian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP), Department of Psychiatry, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, US
Andrade, Naleen N., Native Hawaiian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP), Department of Psychiatry, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, US
Hishinuma, Earl S., Native Hawaiian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP), Department of Psychiatry, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, US
Makini, George K. Jr., Native Hawaiian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP), Department of Psychiatry, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, US
Yuen, Noelle Y. C., Native Hawaiian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP), Department of Psychiatry, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, US
Bell, Cathy K., Native Hawaiian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP), Department of Psychiatry, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, US
McCubbin, Laurie D., Native Hawaiian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP), Department of Psychiatry, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, US
Else, 'Iwalani R. N., Native Hawaiian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP), Department of Psychiatry, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, US
Nishimura, Stephanie T., Native Hawaiian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP), Department of Psychiatry, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, US

Address:

Carlton, Barry S., Department of Psychiatry, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, 1356 Lusitana St., 4th Floor, Honolulu, HI, US, 96813, carltonb@dop.hawaii.edu

Source:

International Journal of Social Psychiatry, Vol 52(4), Jul 2006. pp. 291-308.

Publisher:

US: Sage Publications

ISSN:

0020-7640 (Print)
1741-2854 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1177/0020764006065136

Language:

English

Keywords:

resilience; family adversity; support; well being; Hawaiian & non-Hawaiian adolescents

Abstract:

Background: Minorities and indigenous peoples are likely to have poor mental health and physical outcomes. This study examines resiliency indicators in Hawaiian adolescents. Aims: Multiple resiliency indicators were examined across different domains including individual, family and community in relation to increased psychological well-being. Methods: Existing data from the Native Hawaiian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP) were used. These data included information from a community sample of five high schools on three islands from the state of Hawai'i. The sample included 1,832 students, where 64% were Native Hawaiian and 36% were non-Hawaiian. Results: This study found that Native Hawaiian youth experienced more family adversity compared with non-Hawaiians, but Native Hawaiians were also more likely to have higher levels of family support. For internalizing symptomatology, the most robust resiliency factors were family support and physical fitness/health for Native Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian adolescents. For externalizing symptomatology, achievement and family support were consistently strong resiliency factors. The indicator for physical fitness and health was more influential among Native Hawaiians than non-Hawaiians for externalizing symptoms, while academic achievement was more influential among non-Hawaiians than for Native Hawaiians for the protection against internalizing symptoms. Conclusions: Our findings support the need for intervention programs designed to promote resilience in adolescents, including highlighting the importance of the family. Further research is needed to design and evaluate programs that promote well-being, enhance resilience and improve mental health in culturally appropriate ways.

Tests & Measures:

Braver Aggressiveness Dimension Scale
SASSI-A
Perceived Social Support from Friends Scale
Hawaiian Culture Scale-Adolescent version
Major Life Events Scale
Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory
Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory
Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale


Record: 28

Title:

Maternal attachment state of mind moderates the impact of postnatal depression on infant attachment.

Author(s):

McMahon, Catherine A., Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia, cmcmahon@psy.mq.edu.au
Barnett, Byranne, South West Sydney Area Health Service, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Kowalenko, Nicholas M., Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Tennant, Christopher C., Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Address:

McMahon, Catherine A., Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 2109, cmcmahon@psy.mq.edu.au

Source:

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol 47(7), Jul 2006. pp. 660-669.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

ISSN:

0021-9630 (Print)
1469-7610 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01547.x

Language:

English

Keywords:

maternal attachment; mental state; postnatal depression; infant attachment; maternal depression; insecure mother child attachment; state of mind

Abstract:

Background: Empirical studies have revealed a significant, but modest association between maternal depression and insecure mother-child attachment. Across studies, however, a substantial number of mothers with depression are able to provide a sensitive caretaking environment for their children. This paper aimed to explore whether a mother's own state of mind regarding attachment moderated the association between postpartum depression and insecure mother-child attachment. Methods: Mothers (n = 111), mainly middle-class mothers, and their infants participated in a longitudinal study of postnatal depression, maternal attachment state of mind and child attachment. Depression was assessed using a diagnostic interview (at 4 and 12 months) and symptom checklists (at 4, 12 and 15 months). The Adult Attachment Interview was conducted at 12 months and the Strange Situation procedure at 15 months. Results: Mothers diagnosed as depressed were more likely to have an insecure state of mind regarding attachment. Infants of chronically depressed mothers were more likely to be insecurely attached; however, the relationship between maternal depression and child attachment was moderated by maternal attachment state of mind. Conclusions: Results are discussed with reference to resiliency factors for women with postnatal depression and implications for intervention.

Tests & Measures:

Adult Attachment Interview
Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale
Composite International Diagnostic Interview

Conference:

World Congress for Infant Mental Health, 9th, Jan, 2004, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Conference Notes:

Sections of this paper were presented at the aforementioned conference.


Record: 29

Title:

'Self-Reported Aggression and the Perception of Anger in Facial Expression Photos:' Erratum.

Author(s):

Hall, Cathy W., Department of Psychology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, US, hallc@mail.ecu.edu

Address:

Hall, Cathy W., Psychology Department, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, US, 27858, hallc@mail.ecu.edu

Source:

Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, Vol 140(4), Jul 2006. pp. 395-396.

Publisher:

US: Heldref Publications

ISSN:

0022-3980 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

self-reported aggression; perception of anger; facial expression photographs; resiliency; locus of control

Abstract:

Reports an error in "Self-Reported Aggression and the Perception of Anger in Facial Expression Photos" by Cathy W. Hall (Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 2006 May, Vol 140(3), 255-267). Table 1 was printed incorrectly; the correct table is presented in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2006-10377-007). The author's purpose in this study was to assess the relationship between self-reported aggression and "seeing" anger in others. Eighty-four undergraduate participants completed a self-report questionnaire about their own aggression (i.e., aggressive attitude, verbal aggression, and physical aggression), as well as measures of resiliency and locus of control. They also responded to a series of photographs depicting facial expressions of happy, sad, angry, and fearful emotions. The results indicated that individuals reporting higher levels of overall aggression also misidentified anger from the facial expressions when this was not the emotion presented (errors of commission). No significant differences appeared among individuals reporting high and low levels of aggression in terms of underreporting anger (errors of omission). The author also found significant correlations among identification of anger from photographs, resiliency, and locus of control. The findings of the study have important implications for understanding the relationship between aggression and one's perception of anger in others.


Record: 30

Title:

A New Scale for Adolescent Resilience: Grasping the Central Protective Resources Behind Healthy Development.

Author(s):

Hjemdal, Odin, Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, odin.hjemdal@svt.ntnu.no
Friborg, Oddgeir, Department of Psychology, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway
Stiles, Tore C., Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
Martinussen, Monica, Department of Psychology, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway
Rosenvinge, Jan H., Department of Psychology, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway

Address:

Hjemdal, Odin, Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491, Trondheim, Norway, odin.hjemdal@svt.ntnu.no

Source:

Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development, Vol 39(2), Jul 2006. pp. 84-96.

Publisher:

US: American Counseling Assn

ISSN:

0748-1756 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

psychometrics; Resilience Scale for Adolescents; factor analysis; health development; test validity

Abstract:

In this study, the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) was developed with confirmatory factor analysis and cross-validated factor model. The results show that the READ has sound psychometric qualities and that it measures all the central aspects of the psychological construct of resiliency.

Tests & Measures:

Resilience Scale for Adolescents
Mood and Feelings Questionnaire


Record: 31

Title:

Hope in Cognitive Psychotherapies: On Working With Client Strengths.

Author(s):

Cheavens, Jennifer S., Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, US, cheav001@mc.duke.edu
Feldman, David B., Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA, US
Woodward, Julia T., Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, US
Snyder, C. R., University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, US

Address:

Cheavens, Jennifer S., Department of Medical Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3026, Durham, NC, US, 27710, cheav001@mc.duke.edu

Source:

Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol 20(2), Sum 2006. Special issue: Positive psychology. pp. 135-145.

Publisher:

US: Springer Publishing

ISSN:

0889-8391 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1891/jcop.20.2.135

Language:

English

Keywords:

cognitive psychotherapies; working conditions; client strengths; positive psychology; pathology; traditional psychology

Abstract:

The field of psychology, which is traditionally rooted in the study and treatment of psychological disorders and pathology, recently has begun to embrace an examination of individual, as well as societal, strengths and virtues. This subspecialty within psychology, known as positive psychology, can be defined as the attempt to understand the characteristics and processes that contribute to optimal functioning, flourishing, and resiliency. The purpose of the present article is to draw a link between traditional psychology and positive psychology using the example of the positive psychological construct of hope. Specifically, we explore the ways in which hope theory can be incorporated into traditional forms of cognitive therapy for symptom reduction and elimination. First, the theory of hope (Snyder, 1994) is introduced and the concept of hopeful thought is defined. Next, we explore the distinction between Snyder's definition of hope and Beck's definition of hopelessness (Beck, Weissman, Lester, & Trexler, 1974). Finally, we present possible strategies for utilizing hope concepts in cognitive therapies. Studying individuals with high levels of hope has resulted in a wealth of information about the ways these individuals overcome obstacles and find multiple ways to the goals that they have set for themselves. Integrating these lessons into empirically based treatments for symptom reduction is likely to result in a synergy that utilizes the most sound aspects of both traditional psychology and positive psychology.


Record: 32

Title:

Resiliency Determinants and Resiliency Processes Among Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

Author(s):

Bogar, Christine B., Counseling and Testing Service, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, US, cbogar@usouthal.edu
Hulse-Killacky, Diana, Department of Educational Leadership, Counseling, and Foundations, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, US

Address:

Bogar, Christine B., Counseling and Testing Service, University of South Alabama, AHE 326, Mobile, AL, US, 36688-0002, cbogar@usouthal.edu

Source:

Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol 84(3), Sum 2006. pp. 318-327.

Publisher:

US: American Counseling Assn

ISSN:

0748-9633 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

resiliency determinants; female adult survivors; sexual abuse; phenomenology

Abstract:

This phenomenological, qualitative study examined resiliency determinants and resiliency formation among 10 women who had been sexually abused as children. An examination of the determinants and processes that facilitated resiliency in participants' adult lives revealed 5 determinant clusters (interpersonally skilled, competent, high self-regard, spiritual, and helpful life circumstances) and 4 process clusters (coping strategies, refocusing and moving on, active healing, and achieving closure).


Record: 33

Title:

Venturing a 30-Year Longitudinal Study.

Author(s):

Block, Jack, Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, US, jblock@socrates.berkeley.edu
Block, Jeanne H., Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, US

Address:

Block, Jack, Department of Psychology, University of California, Tolman Hall, Berkeley, CA, US, 94720-1650, jblock@socrates.berkeley.edu

Source:

American Psychologist, Vol 61(4), May-Jun 2006. pp. 315-327.

Publisher:

US: American Psychological Assn

ISSN:

0003-066X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1037/0003-066X.61.4.315

Language:

English

Keywords:

longitudinal; ego-control; ego-resiliency; multimeasure; multiperiod; methodology

Abstract:

Longitudinal inquiry has long been recognized as a uniquely powerful method for seeking understanding of psychological development. A 30-year longitudinal venture is described--its theoretical motivation, methodological rationale, and details of implementation. Some of the novel and implicative findings the study has generated are briefly described. Common to all of the results is an absolute reliance on long-term, widely ranging, independent data. Although specific aspects of the study have appeared over the years, its intentions and scope are recounted only here. By and large, the organizing constructs of ego-control and ego-resiliency find impressive support in various empirical inquiries, here quickly described. Methodologically, a number of savvy research procedures useful and perhaps even necessary in longitudinal research are conveyed. The troublesome burdens but ever-alluring attractions of longitudinal inquiry are noted. A forthcoming Web site will contain the extensive 30-year longitudinal data bank together with explanatory information. Psychological investigators may find these imminently available data resources useful.

Tests & Measures:

Kogan Metaphor Test
Kelly's Rep Test
Spivack and Shure Interpersonal Problem-Solving Measure
Lowenfeld Mosaic Test
Raven Progressive Matrices
Stroop Color and Word Test
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children


Record: 34

Title:

A particular resiliency to threatening environments.

Author(s):

Inzlicht, Michael, Department of Life Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, michael.inzlicht@utoronto.ca
Aronson, Joshua, New York University, New York, NY, US
Good, Catherine, Columbia University, New York, NY, US
McKay, Linda, New York University, New York, NY, US

Address:

Inzlicht, Michael, Department of Life Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, M1C 1A4, michael.inzlicht@utoronto.ca

Source:

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol 42(3), May 2006. pp. 323-336.

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science

ISSN:

0022-1031 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1016/j.jesp.2005.05.005

Language:

English

Keywords:

resiliency; threatening environments; intellectual performance; self monitoring; race; sex

Abstract:

Being in the numerical minority can impair intellectual performance. We suggest, however, that these negative effects need not extend to everyone because some people--specifically high self-monitors--can overcome the effects of situationally activated stereotypes. In two studies, we manipulated the race/sex composition of small groups and assessed intellectual performance. Results revealed that: (a) self-monitoring moderated the effects of group-composition on performance, such that it was positively related to performance in stressful minority settings, (b) the number of out-group members in a group caused a linear effect on performance that differed for high and low self-monitors, and (c) stereotype activation mediated self-monitoring's moderating effect on performance. Thus, high self-monitors may be resilient to threatening environments because they react to negative stereotypes with increased (and not decreased) performance. We discuss these results in relation to theories of inter-group contact, stereotype threat, and stress and coping.

Tests & Measures:

Revised Self-Monitoring Scale
Mathematics Identification Questionnaire
Graduate Record Examinations--General Test (The)


Record: 35

Title:

Psychological capital development: Toward a micro-intervention.

Author(s):

Luthans, Fred, Department of Management, Gallup Leadership Institute, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, US, fluthans1@unl.edu
Avey, James B., Department of Management, Gallup Leadership Institute, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, US
Avolio, Bruce J., Department of Management, Gallup Leadership Institute, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, US
Norman, Steven M., Department of Management, Gallup Leadership Institute, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, US
Combs, Gwendolyn M., Department of Management, Gallup Leadership Institute, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, US

Address:

Luthans, Fred, Department of Management, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, US, 68588-0491, fluthans1@unl.edu

Source:

Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol 27(3), May 2006. pp. 387-393.

Publisher:

US: John Wiley & Sons

ISSN:

0894-3796 (Print)
1099-1379 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1002/job.373

Language:

English

Keywords:

psychological capital development; micro intervention

Abstract:

After first providing the meaning of psychological capital (PsyCap), we present a micro-intervention to develop it. Drawn from hope, optimism, efficacy, and resiliency development, this PsyCap Intervention (PCI) is shown to have preliminary support for not only increasing participants' PsyCap, but also financial impact and high return on investment.


Record: 36

Title:

Positive Adolescent Life Skills Training for High-Risk Teens: Results of a Group Intervention Study.

Author(s):

Tuttle, Jane, FNP Program, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, US, Jane_Tuttle@urmc.rochester.edu
Campbell-Heider, Nancy, Health Promotion and Development Division, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, US
David, Tamala M., University of Rochester School of Nursing, Rochester, NY, US

Address:

Tuttle, Jane, University of Rochester, School of Nursing, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box SON, Rochester, NY, US, 14642, Jane_Tuttle@urmc.rochester.edu

Source:

Journal of Pediatric Health Care, Vol 20(3), May-Jun 2006. pp. 184-191.

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science

ISSN:

0891-5245 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1016/j.pedhc.2005.10.011

Language:

English

Keywords:

positive adolescent life skills training; high risk teens; group intervention; cognitive behavioral skill building; urban adolescents; resilience

Abstract:

Introduction: This study tested the addition of a cognitive-behavioral skill-building component called Positive Adolescent Life Skills (PALS) training to an existing intervention for urban adolescents to enhance resiliency. In previous pilot work with the existing intervention, called "Teen Club," it was found that participants in group meetings and intensive case management reported an enhanced ability to connect with positive resources. Method: Sixteen adolescents aged 12 to 16 years (10 boys and 6 girls) attending an urban secondary school were randomly assigned to Teen Club or Teen Club plus PALS. Boys and girls met separately in one of the two conditions for 30 weeks. The Problem-Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) subscale scores were measured at baseline and at the completion of the program. Results: The sample consisted of 11 Black and five Hispanic teens. Between-group differences in the POSIT subscale scores were not significantly different in this small sample. Group interviews conducted at the conclusion of the intervention revealed that participants found the PALS intervention to be relevant and useful. Discussion: Results suggest that the PALS component strengthened the existing intervention and lend preliminary support for the continuation of this combination of interventions. Future research with larger numbers is needed.

Tests & Measures:

Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers
Youth Risk Behavior Survey


Record: 37

Title:

Self-Reported Aggression and the Perception of Anger in Facial Expression Photos.

Author(s):

Hall, Cathy W., Department of Psychology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, US, hallc@mail.ecu.edu

Address:

Hall, Cathy W., Psychology Department, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, US, 27858, hallc@mail.ecu.edu

Source:

Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, Vol 140(3), May 2006. pp. 255-267.

Publisher:

US: Heldref Publications

ISSN:

0022-3980 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

self-reported aggression; perception of anger; facial expression photographs; resiliency; locus of control

Abstract:

[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 140(4) of Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied (see record 2006-11593-007). Table 1 was printed incorrectly; the correct table is presented in the erratum.] The author's purpose in this study was to assess the relationship between self-reported aggression and "seeing" anger in others. Eighty-four undergraduate participants completed a self-report questionnaire about their own aggression (i.e., aggressive attitude, verbal aggression, and physical aggression), as well as measures of resiliency and locus of control. They also responded to a series of photographs depicting facial expressions of happy, sad, angry, and fearful emotions. The results indicated that individuals reporting higher levels of overall aggression also misidentified anger from the facial expressions when this was not the emotion presented (errors of commission). No significant differences appeared among individuals reporting high and low levels of aggression in terms of underreporting anger (errors of omission). The author also found significant correlations among identification of anger from photographs, resiliency, and locus of control. The findings of the study have important implications for understanding the relationship between aggression and one's perception of anger in others.

Tests & Measures:

Hall Resiliency Scale
Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy (DANVA)
Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy-African American
Nowicki-Duke Locus of Control Scale
Personality Assessment Inventory


Record: 38

Title:

Dissociation, Hardiness, and Performance in Military Cadets Participating in Survival Training.

Author(s):

Eid, Jarle, Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, Jarle.eid@psysp.uib.no
Morgan, Charles A. III, Yale University School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare Systems, West Haven, CT, US

Address:

Eid, Jarle, Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Christiegate 12, 5014, Bergen, Norway, Jarle.eid@psysp.uib.no

Source:

Military Medicine, Vol 171(5), May 2006. pp. 436-442.

Publisher:

US: Assn of Military Surgeons of the US

ISSN:

0026-4075 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

peritraumatic dissociation; hardiness; military performance; military cadets; survival training

Abstract:

The present study examined the relationship between peritraumatic dissociation, hardiness, and military performance in Norwegian Navy officer cadets (N = 80) after a simulated prisoner of war (POW) exercise. The cadets reported symptoms of peritraumatic amnesia, depersonalization, and derealization in response to a mild stress experience (time point 1) and exhibited a significant increase in such symptoms when subsequently exposed to a highly stressful experience of being placed in a mock POW camp (time point 2). Symptoms of peritraumatic dissociation were significantly and negatively related to performance, and predicted between 16 and 26% of the variance between subjects. A subscale of the personality hardiness measure (i.e., the subdimension of challenge) was negatively associated with peritraumatic dissociation in response to both the mild stress situation and the more stressful POW exercise in study subjects. Hardiness was not significantly associated with military performance scores. The present data indicate that individual differences in attribution style and in a propensity to dissociate significantly affect military performance during exposure to high stress situations.

Tests & Measures:

Clinician-administered Dissociative States Scale
Hardiness Scale
Dispositional Resiliency Scale


Record: 39

Title:

Children as Mystics, Activists, Sages, and Holy Fools: Understanding the Spirituality of Children and Its Significance for Clinical Work.

Author(s):

Mercer, Joyce Ann, Graduate Theological Union, San Francisco Theological Seminary, San Anselmo, CA, US, jmercer@sfts.edu

Address:

Mercer, Joyce Ann, San Francisco Theological Seminary, 105 Seminary Road, San Anselmo, CA, US, 94960, jmercer@sfts.edu

Source:

Pastoral Psychology, Vol 54(5), May 2006. pp. 497-515.

Publisher:

Germany: Springer

ISSN:

0031-2789 (Print)
1573-6679 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1007/s11089-005-0013-y

Language:

English

Keywords:

children; mystics; activists; sages; holy fools; spirituality; clinical work

Abstract:

This article explores children's spirituality and its significance for health care providers seeking to provide "spiritually competent care" of children amidst religious and spiritual diversity. Four metaphors of different spiritualities evidenced among children are explored: mystics, activists, sages, and holy fools. The article addresses issues clinicians face such as the problem of defining spirituality in relation to religion, and countertransference around religious and spiritual matters. Current research shows that spiritual and religious involvements constitute positive factors promoting resiliency and health in children. James W. Fowler's theory of faith development facilitates an exploration of questions concerning how children develop a belief system, leading to a view of children's spirituality as multidimensional. This article preserves the less formal conversational style of an earlier version's presentation in Grand Rounds at the UCLA Medical Center's Neuropsychiatric Hospital on December 10, 2003.


Record: 40

Title:

Everything I'm Cracked Up to Be: A Rock & Roll Fairy Tale.

Author(s):

Fisher, William H., Department of Psychiatry, Center for Mental Health Services Research, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, US

Source:

Psychiatric Services, Vol 57(5), May 2006. pp. 748-749.

Publisher:

US: American Psychiatric Assn

Reviewed Item:

Jen Trynin (2006). Everything I'm Cracked Up to Be: A Rock & Roll Fairy Tale; New York, Harcourt Trade Publishers, 2006, 355 pages, $23

ISSN:

1075-2730 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

young adults; emotional transition; psychological perspective; resilience; coping; self image; human females

Abstract:

Reviews the book Everything I'm Cracked Up to Be: A Rock & Roll Fairy Tale by Jen Trynin (2006). This book is not written from a psychological perspective, obviously, but is nonetheless full of self-insight and frank self-disclosures, including descriptions of her excesses with alcohol and concerns about self-image. Personally, I wish the author had explored her emotional transition from rock star to wife and mother a bit more fully. But hopefully this book will prompt others with similar experiences to share their stories. These accounts should be of particular interest to anyone interested in resiliency and coping in young adults.


Record: 41

Title:

Preventing Depression Among Early Adolescents in the Primary Care Setting: A Randomized Controlled Study of the Penn Resiliency Program.

Author(s):

Gillham, Jane E., Psychology Department, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA, US, jgillhal@swarthmore.edu
Hamilton, John, Permanente Medical Group of California, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Freres, Derek R., Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, US
Patton, Ken, Permanente Medical Group of California, CA, US
Gallop, Robert, Department of Mathematics Applied Statistics Program, West Chester University, West Chester, PA, US

Address:

Gillham, Jane E., Psychology Department, Swarthmore College, 500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, PA, US, 19081, jgillhal@swarthmore.edu

Source:

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol 34(2), Apr 2006. pp. 203-219.

Publisher:

Germany: Springer

ISSN:

0091-0627 (Print)
1573-2835 (Electronic)

Language:

English

Keywords:

preventing depression; early adolescents; primary care setting; anxiety; psychological interventions; Penn Resiliency Program

Abstract:

This study evaluated the Penn Resiliency Program's effectiveness in preventing depression when delivered by therapists in a primary care setting. Two-hundred and seventy-one 11- and 12-year-olds, with elevated depressive symptoms, were randomized to PRP or usual care. Over the 2-year followup, PRP improved explanatory style for positive events. PRP's effects on depressive symptoms and explanatory style for negative events were moderated by sex, with girls benefiting more than boys. Stronger effects were seen in high-fidelity groups than low-fidelity groups. PRP did not significantly prevent depressive disorders but significantly prevented depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorders (when combined) among high-symptom participants. Findings are discussed in relation to previous PRP studies and research on the dissemination of psychological interventions.

Tests & Measures:

Diagnostic Inventory for Children and Adolescents
Adolescent Cognitive Style Questionnaire
Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire
Children's Depression Inventory


Record: 42

Title:

A Level of Care Instrument for Children's Systems of Care: Construction, Reliability and Validity.

Author(s):

Fallon, Theodore Jr., Psychoanalytic Center of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, US, Corinne7@Verizon.net
Pumariega, Andres, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, US
Sowers, Wesley, Allegheny County Office of Behavioral Health, Pittsburgh, PA, US
Klaehn, Robert, Maricopa Integrated Health System, Phoenix, AZ, US
Huffine, Charles, Department of Psychiatry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, US
Vaughan, Thomas Jr., Children's Hospital of Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, US
Winters, Nancy, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR, US
Chenven, Mark, Vista Hill Foundation, San Diego, CA, US
Marx, Larry, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR, US
Zachik, Albert, Maryland Department of Mental Health, Baltimore, MD, US
Heffron, William, Department of Psychiatry, University of Kentucky, Louisville, KY, US
Grimes, Katherine, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, US

Address:

Fallon, Theodore Jr., P.O. Box 81, Chester Springs, PA, US, 19425, Corinne7@Verizon.net

Source:

Journal of Child and Family Studies, Vol 15(2), Apr 2006. pp. 143-155.

Publisher:

Germany: Springer

ISSN:

1062-1024 (Print)
1573-2843 (Electronic)

Language:

English

Keywords:

care instrument; Child and Adolescent Level of Care System; Child and Adolescent Service Intensity Instrument; test construction; test reliability; test validity; mental health system

Abstract:

The Child and Adolescent Level of Care System/Child and Adolescent Service Intensity Instrument (CALOCUS/CASII) is designed to help determine the intensity of services needed for a child served in a mental health system of care. The instrument contains eight dimensions that are rated following a comprehensive clinical evaluation. The dimensions are risk of harm, functionality, co-morbidity (psychiatric, substance abuse, development disability and medical), environmental stressors, environmental supports, the child's resiliency, and the child and family's willingness to engage in treatment. An algorithm connects the ratings to a level of care recommendation. The instrument specifies six levels of care defined flexibly enough to consider whatever services are available. The results of psychometric testing using raters with a broad range of clinical experience and training from four different systems of care around the country are presented. The testing demonstrates excellent reliability when rating vignettes. Using children and adolescents in live system of care clinical settings, the CALOCUS/CASII demonstrates reasonable validity when compared with the Child Global Assessment Scale, and the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale.

Tests & Measures:

Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale
Child and Adolescent Service Intensity Instrument
Child Global Assessment Scale


Record: 43

Title:

Exposure to Terrorism, Stress-Related Mental Health Symptoms, and Defensive Coping Among Jews and Arabs in Israel.

Author(s):

Hobfoll, Stevan E., Department of Psychology, Kent State University, Kent, OH, US, shobfoll@kent.edu
Canetti-Nisim, Daphna, Department of Political Science, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Israel
Johnson, Robert J., Department of Sociology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, US

Address:

Hobfoll, Stevan E., Department of Psychology, Kent State University, P. O. Box 5190, Kent, OH, US, 44242-0001, shobfoll@kent.edu

Source:

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 74(2), Apr 2006. pp. 207-218.

Publisher:

US: American Psychological Assn

ISSN:

0022-006X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1037/0022-006X.74.2.207

Language:

English

Keywords:

terrorism; PTSD; depression; political violence; resiliency; stress-related mental health symptoms; defensive coping; Jews; Arabs

Abstract:

The authors conducted a large-scale study of terrorism in Israel via telephone surveys in September 2003 with 905 adult Jewish and Palestinian citizens of Israel (PCIs). Structural equation path modeling indicated that exposure to terrorism was significantly related to greater loss and gain of psychosocial resources and to greater posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. Psychosocial resource loss and gain associated with terrorism were, in turn, significantly related to both greater PTSD and depressive symptoms. PCIs had significantly higher levels of PTSD and depressive symptoms than Jews. Further, PTSD symptoms in particular were related to greater authoritarian beliefs and ethnocentrism, suggesting how PTSD may lead to a self-protective style of defensive coping.

Tests & Measures:

Psychosocial Resource Loss Scale
COR-Evaluation
Public Health Questionnaire
PTSD Symptom Scale
Social Support Questionnaire-5


Record: 44

Title:

The association of avoidance coping style, and perceived mother and father support with anxiety/depression among late adolescents: Applicability of resiliency models.

Author(s):

Gomez, Rapson, School of Behavioural and Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia, r.gomez@ballarat.edu.au
McLaren, Suzanne, School of Behavioural and Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia

Address:

Gomez, Rapson, School of Behavioural and Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Ballarat, University Drive, Mount Helen, P.O. Box 663, Ballarat, VIC, Australia, 3353, r.gomez@ballarat.edu.au

Source:

Personality and Individual Differences, Vol 40(6), Apr 2006. pp. 1165-1176.

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science

ISSN:

0191-8869 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.009

Language:

English

Keywords:

avoidance coping style; father support; mother support; anxiety; depression; resiliency models

Abstract:

This study examined the applicability of the compensatory, the risk-protective, the challenge, and the protective-protective models of resiliency for the prediction of anxiety/depression from avoidance coping style (the risk factor) and perceived mother and father support (the protective factors). A total of 331 participants, with age ranging from 18 to 20 years, completed self-rating questionnaires covering perceived mother support, perceived father support, avoidance coping style, and anxiety/depression. Results showed that for perceived mother support as the protective factor, there was support for the compensatory, the risk-protective, and the challenge models. With perceived father support as the protective factor, there was support for the compensatory and challenge models. When both perceived mother and father support were considered together, there was support for the protective-protective model.

Tests & Measures:

Coping Across Situations Questionnaire
Youth Self-Report


Record: 45

Title:

Understanding and treating psychopathology in schools: Introduction to the special issue.

Author(s):

Davis, Andrew S., Ball State University, Muncie, IN, US, davis@bsu.edu
Kruczek, Theresa, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, US
Mcintosh, David E., Ball State University, Muncie, IN, US

Address:

Davis, Andrew S., Department of Educational Psychology, Teachers College, Ball State University, Room 515, Muncie, IN, US, 47306, davis@bsu.edu

Source:

Psychology in the Schools, Vol 43(4), Apr 2006. pp. 413-417.

Publisher:

US: John Wiley & Sons

ISSN:

0033-3085 (Print)
1520-6807 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1002/pits.20155

Language:

English

Keywords:

school aged children; treating psychopathology; mental health care; treatment needs; professional psychology

Abstract:

Investigating psychopathology in school-aged children is a topical discussion given the recent increased focus of the U.S. government and professional psychology on this issue. In the last 5 years, the Surgeon General of the United States (Satcher, 2000) and the President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health (2003) both addressed the need for schools to actively participate in the treatment of children's mental health disorders. Further, psychologists were charged with transforming mental health care for children and families by promoting collaboration between schools, families, and communities; identifying empirically supported interventions; and enhancing culturally competent care for children and teens (P. Tolan & K. Dodge, 2005). To achieve these goals, mental health professionals in the schools need to be able to understand and effectively treat psychopathology in the school setting. School-based treatment of psychopathology should be based on effective collaboration and grounded within the cultural context of the student population. A comprehensive understanding takes into account the biological basis of these disorders and factors influencing risk and resiliency. Treatment needs for these students often combine traditional therapies and psychopharmacology. Within a comprehensive system of care, specific disorders such as Reactive Attachment Disorder, Early Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, depression, and anxiety can and should be treated in schools.


Record: 46

Title:

Understanding girls' circle as an intervention on perceived social support, body image, self-efficacy, locus of control, and self-esteem.

Author(s):

Steese, Stephanie, Department of Psychology, Dominican University of California, Cotati, CA, US
Dollette, Maya, Department of Psychology, Dominican University of California, Cotati, CA, US
Phillips, William, Department of Psychology, Dominican University of California, Cotati, CA, US
Hossfeld, Elizabeth, Girls' Circle Association, Cotati, CA, US
Matthews, Gail, Department of Psychology, Dominican University of California, Cotati, CA, US
Taormina, Giovanna, Girls' Circle Association, Cotati, CA, US

Address:

Taormina, Giovanna, Girls' Circle Association--A Project of The Tides Center, 458 Christensen Lane, Cotati, CA, US, 94931

Source:

Adolescence, Vol 41(161), Spr 2006. pp. 55-74.

Publisher:

US: Libra Publishers

ISSN:

0001-8449 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

adolescent girls; intervention; social support; body image; self efficacy; locus of control; self esteem; Girls' Circle; resiliency; empathic skills

Abstract:

The Girls' Circle is a support group for adolescent girls developed by Beth Hossfeld and Giovanna Taormina as a unique program that addresses the needs of girls by focusing on increasing connections, building empathic skills, and developing resiliency. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of the Girls' Circle intervention on improving social support, body image, locus of control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Sixty-three girls from 9 support groups (comprising 5 to 15 girls each) across the United States completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, the Nowicki-Strickland Personal Reaction Survey, Schwarzer's General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale both before and after the 10-week Girls' Circle program. Results revealed a significant increase in social support, body image, and self-efficacy after completion of the program.

Tests & Measures:

Nowicki-Strickland Personal Reaction Survey
Schwarzer's General Self-Efficacy Scale
Body Parts Satisfaction Scale-Revised
Perceived Social Support Scale
Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale


Record: 47

Title:

Creativity in Psychotherapy: Reaching New Heights with Individuals, Couples and Families.

Author(s):

Pavlin, Helen

Source:

ANZJFT Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, Vol 27(1), Mar 2006. pp. 59-60.

Publisher:

Australia: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy

Reviewed Item:

David K. Carson, and Kent W. Becker (2003). Creativity in Psychotherapy: Reaching New Heights with Individuals, Couples and Families; NY, Haworth, 2003. The Haworth Clinical Practice Press. Soft Cover, 237pp. ISBN:0-7890-1579-X. US$34.95 plus 20% outside US/Canada/Mexico

ISSN:

0814-723X (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

creativity; psychotherapy; playfulness; mental health; family therapy; couples; individuals

Abstract:

Reviews the book, Creativity in Psychotherapy: Reaching New Heights with Individuals, Couples and Families by David K. Carson and Kent W. Becker (see record 2003-88296-000). This book promises much. Its three sections contain a total of 10 chapters, which are evidently designed to take the reader through the importance of creativity in therapy with reference to health, dysfunction and resiliency, then its role in mental health, followed by an exploration of therapists' perceptions of creativity. The reviewer suggests that this book tries to be too many things to too many people, and wonders to whom this book is aimed at. In various places this text on creativity encourages the reader to remember the importance of playfulness. Playful tasks are set for the would-be creative therapist. Too often in this context, they read to the reviewer like paradoxical injunctions.


Record: 48

Title:

Suicide and Its Prevention Among Older Adults.

Author(s):

Heisel, Marnin J., Department of Psychiatry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada, Marnin.Heisel@lhsc.on.ca

Address:

Heisel, Marnin J., Department of Psychiatry, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, Room 5054, 375 South Street, London, ON, Canada, N64 4G5, Marnin.Heisel@lhsc.on.ca

Source:

Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 51(3), Mar 2006. pp. 143-154.

Publisher:

Canada: Canadian Psychiatric Assn

ISSN:

0706-7437 (Print)
1497-0015 (Electronic)

Language:

English

Keywords:

suicide prevention; mental health outreach; suicide prevention; older adults

Abstract:

Objective: To review the research on the epidemiology, risk and resiliency, assessment, treatment, and prevention of late-life suicide. Method: I reviewed mortality statistics. I searched MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases for research on suicide risk and resiliency and for randomized controlled trials with suicidal outcomes. I also reviewed mental health outreach and suicide prevention initiatives. Results: Approximately 12/100 000 individuals aged 65 years or over die by suicide in Canada annually. Suicide is most prevalent among older white men; risk is associated with suicidal ideation or behaviour, mental illness, personality vulnerability, medical illness, losses and poor social supports, functional impairment, and low resiliency. Novel measures to assess late-life suicide features are under development. Few randomized treatment trials exist with at-risk older adults. Conclusions: Research is needed on risk and resiliency and clinical assessment and interventions for at-risk older adults. Collaborative outreach strategies might aid suicide prevention.


Record: 49

Title:

Neurodevelopmental surveillance in the first 2 years after extremely preterm birth: Evidence, challenges, and guidelines.

Author(s):

Msall, Michael E., University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine, Kennedy Mental Retardation Center, Comer Children's and LaRabida Children's Hospitals, Chicago, IL, US, mmsall@peds.bsd.uchicago.edu

Address:

Msall, Michael E., University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine, Kennedy Mental Retardation Center, Comer Children's and LaRabida Children's Hospitals, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC0900, Chicago, IL, US, 60637, mmsall@peds.bsd.uchicago.edu

Source:

Early Human Development, Vol 82(3), Mar 2006. pp. 157-166.

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science

ISSN:

0378-3782 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2005.12.016

Language:

English

Keywords:

neurodevelopmental surveillance; preterm birth; neonatology; preterm babies; infant; neonatal morbidities

Abstract:

During the past decade, major advances in maternal-fetal medicine and neonatology have resulted in unprecedented survival of very preterm babies. These babies represent a small fraction of infants born preterm, but present significant challenges with respect to respiratory, nutritional, and developmental vulnerabilities. Several efforts involving the UK, US, Canada, Australia, and the Netherlands have provided information on regional trends over time with respect to neonatal morbidities and neurodevelopmental outcomes through the first two years of life. Historically gross and fine motor, cognitive and communicative skills, vision and hearing performance have been the focus of assessment. Indicators of major neurodevelopmental disabilities at 2 years have included presence of severe neurosensory impairment, i.e. cerebral palsy, sensorineural hearing loss requiring aides, and blindness. In addition cognitive developmental disability has been generally defined as a Bayley MDI or developmental quotient < 70, i.e. lower than 2 standard deviations below the mean. However these outcomes cannot reliably capture trajectories of resiliency as well as more complex developmental challenges in the domains of coordination, perception, attention, communication, and learning. Recently tools have become available for assessing functional status in gross motor, communicative, adaptive and social-emotional behaviours of imitation, regulation, and play. This review will describe the major progress in assessing early neurodevelopmental status of vulnerable survivors receiving new biomedical technologies, highlight challenges, and propose guidelines based on current best evidence.


Record: 50

Title:

Adventure Healing: Trauma, Resiliency, and the Search for Meaning.

Author(s):

Ernzen, Florence, fernzen@comcast.net
Lewis, Ruby, Rube627@aol.com

Address:

Ernzen, Florence, fernzen@comcast.net

Source:

International Forum for Logotherapy, Vol 29(1), Spr 2006. pp. 25-36.

Publisher:

US: Viktor Frankl Inst of Logotherapy

ISSN:

0191-3379 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

adventure healing; emotional trauma; survivors; logotherapy

Abstract:

In this Adventure Healing article we discuss, explore, and describe a group program designed for adolescents who have survived multiple traumas. We acknowledge the impact of family deaths, abuse, frequent moves, and homelessness. We recognize, build, and focus on the inner resources that surface in these structured activities. In this innovative program, we call on trauma resources. We build on the fundamental principles of logotherapy and its focus on the healthy core within each individual. We incorporate logotherapy exercises - in particular, those designed to expand conscious awareness of internal values. In this article we describe adventure based activities that incorporate understanding of the effects of trauma, opportunities to accelerate healing, and discovery of inner resources.

Title:

Grandmothers, Caregiving, and Family Functioning.

Author(s):

Musil, Carol M., School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve Universit, Cleveland, OH, US, cmm4@cwru.edu
Warner, Camille B., School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve Universit, Cleveland, OH, US
Zauszniewski, Jaclene A., School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve Universit, Cleveland, OH, US
Jeanblanc, Alexandra B., School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve Universit, Cleveland, OH, US
Kercher, Kyle, Department of Gerontology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Cleveland, OH, US

Address:

Musil, Carol M., School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve Universit, Cleveland, OH, US, 44106-4604, cmm4@cwru.edu

Source:

Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, Vol 61B(2), Mar 2006. pp. S89-S98.

Publisher:

US: Gerontological Society of America

ISSN:

1079-5014 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

grandmothers resourcefulness; caregiving; family functioning; family stress

Abstract:

Objectives: We used McCubbin's Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment and Adaptation (McCubbin, Thompson, & McCubbin, 2001) to examine how demographic factors, family stress, grandmother resourcefulness, support, and role reward affect perceptions of family functioning for grandmothers raising grandchildren, grandmothers living in multigenerational households, and grandmothers not caregiving for grandchildren. Methods: A sample of 486 grandmothers completed a mailed questionnaire. We used structural equation modeling to (a) test the effects of demographic factors (i.e., grandmother's age, race, marital status, and employment), family stressful life events and strain, grandmother's resourcefulness, subjective and instrumental support, and role reward on perceptions of family functioning for each grandmother group; (b) evaluate differences in the measurement and structural models between the grandmother groups using multisample analysis; and (c) test the model on the full sample, coding for caregiver status. Results: The models did not differ significantly by grandmother group; therefore we assessed the composite model using a multisample analysis. We found general support for the resiliency model and equivalence of the models across grandmother groups. Less support, resourcefulness, and reward, and more intrafamily strain and stressful family life events contributed to perceptions of worse family functioning. Discussion: Findings demonstrate the importance of the quality of family functioning for grandmothers in all types of families.

Tests & Measures:

Family Inventory of Life Events
Self-Control Schedule
Duke Social Support Index
Family Assessment Device


Record: 2

Title:

Constraints and Contributors to Becoming a Science Teacher-Leader.

Author(s):

Lewthwaite, Brian, Faculty of Education, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, Lewthwaite@xtra.co.nz

Address:

Lewthwaite, Brian, Faculty of Education, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, R3T2N2, Lewthwaite@xtra.co.nz

Source:

Science Education, Vol 90(2), Mar 2006. pp. 331-347.

Publisher:

US: John Wiley & Sons

ISSN:

0036-8326 (Print)
1098-237X (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1002/sce.20093

Language:

English

Keywords:

science teacher-leader development; personal attributes; environmental factors

Abstract:

This inquiry examines the personal attribute and environmental factors that contribute to and impede science teacher-leader development. Using a narrative approach, the inquiry focuses on the experiences of three teachers in three different New Zealand primary schools (years 1-6) as they develop in their capabilities as science teacher-leaders during sustained school-wide science delivery improvement projects. Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model and Rutter's views on resiliency are used as a foundation for interpreting the science teacher-leader development process. Teachers identify a variety of personal attribute and environmental factors and the interplay between these factors as risk and supportive factors contributing to and impeding their development as science teacher-leaders. Teachers also identify that their development is influenced by several proximal processes that are context and time dependent. Ramifications of this study in the context of general school curriculum, in particular science development, are also considered.

Tests & Measures:

Science Curriculum Implementation Questionnaire


Record: 3

Title:

Risk and Resilience Markers in Bipolar Disorder: Brain Responses to Emotional Challenge in Bipolar Patients and Their Healthy Siblings.

Author(s):

Krüger, Stephanie, Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatric und Psychotherapie, Universitätsklinikum Carl-Gustav Carus Dresden, Dresden, Germany, stephanie.krueger@uniklinikum-dresden.de
Alda, Martin
Young, L. Trevor
Goldapple, Kim
Parikh, Saghar
Mayberg, Helen S.

Address:

Krüger, Stephanie, Klinik und Poliklinik fur Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Universitatsklinikum Carl-Gustav Carus Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany, stephanie.krueger@uniklinikum-dresden.de

Source:

American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 163(2), Feb 2006. pp. 257-264.

Publisher:

US: American Psychiatric Assn

ISSN:

0002-953X (Print)
1535-7228 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1176/appi.ajp.163.2.257

Language:

English

Keywords:

risk markers; resilience markers; bipolar disorder; brain responses; emotional challenge; healthy siblings; lithium-response patients; cerebral blood flow

Abstract:

Objective: The authors previously identified depression-specific differences in brain responses to an emotional challenge in patients with bipolar and unipolar mood disorder. In this study, potential markers of bipolar risk and resilience were examined in a new cohort of lithium-responsive bipolar patients and their healthy siblings. Method: Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured with [ą-sup-5O]water positron emission tomography after induction of transient sadness in nine euthymic lithium responders and nine healthy siblings. The patterns of change in these groups were compared, and then they were contrasted with previous findings on bipolar responders to valproate. Results: Common to all three groups with induced sadness were rCBF increases in the dorsal/rostral anterior cingulate and anterior insula and decreases in the orbitofrontal and inferior temporal cortices. Distinguishing the groups were decreases in the medial frontal cortex in the patients but an increase in this region in the siblings. Discussion: Common changes with emotional challenge were identified in bipolar patients and their healthy siblings. These were not seen previously in healthy subjects without a family history of mood disorder, suggesting a potential marker of bipolar risk. The siblings' unique increases in the medial frontal cortex appear to identify a compensatory response in this at-risk group, as this pattern was not seen previously in healthy subjects without depression risk factors. This differential change pattern in patients and their siblings highlights the role of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal regions in mediating resiliency and vulnerability in bipolar disorder families.

Tests & Measures:

Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV


Record: 4

Title:

The Scripto-Trauma Genogram: An innovative technique for working with trauma survivors' intrusive memories.

Author(s):

Jordan, Karin, George Fox University, Newberg, OR, US, kjordan@georgefox.edu

Address:

Jordan, Karin, Graduate Department of Counseling, George Fox University, 414 North Meridian Street, Newberg, OR, US, 97132, kjordan@georgefox.edu

Source:

Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, Vol 6(1), Feb 2006. Special issue: Economic crisis and women's childbearing motivations: the induced abortion response of women on public assistance. pp. 36-51.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Oxford Univ Press

ISSN:

1474-3310 (Print)
1474-3329 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1093/brief-treatment/mhj002

Language:

English

Keywords:

Scripto Trauma Genogram; trauma survivors; survivors intrusive memories; Acute Stress Disorder; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Abstract:

This article focuses on how to construct the Scripto-Trauma Genogram and how to use it with trauma survivors who struggle with intrusive memories. Clients develop Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after a traumatic event, based upon personal factors, predisposing factors, peridisposing factors, postdisposing factors and resiliency factors. Clients with ASD or PTSD, as well as trauma survivors who do not quite meet all the diagnostic criteria for ASD or PTSD, often report struggling with intrusive memories, which are believed to be brief sensory fragments of the traumatic event and are experienced as intensely as they were during the traumatic event.


Record: 5

Title:

Depression prevention for early adolescent girls: A pilot study of all girls versus co-ed groups.

Author(s):

Chaplin, Tara M., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, US, tchaplin@psych.upenn.edu
Gillham, Jane E., Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA, US, jgillham@psych.upenn.edu
Reivich, Karen, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, US, reivich@psych.upenn.edu
Elkon, Andrea G. L., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, US, andreaglelkon@yahoo.com
Samuels, Barbra, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, US, bsamuels@ucla.edu
Freres, Derek R., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, US, dfreres@asc.upenn.edu
Winder, Breanna, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA, US, bwinder1@swarthmore.edu
Seligman, Martin E. P., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, US, seligman@psych.upenn.edu

Address:

Chaplin, Tara M., Psychology Department, University of Pennsylvania, 3720 Walnut St., Philadelphia, PA, US, 19104, tchaplin@psych.upenn.edu

Source:

Journal of Early Adolescence, Vol 26(1), Feb 2006. pp. 110-126.

Publisher:

US: Sage Publications

ISSN:

0272-4316 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1177/0272431605282655

Language:

English

Keywords:

depression prevention program; coeducation groups; all-girl groups; depressive symptoms; early adolescence; girls

Abstract:

Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested whether there were greater effects for boys than for girls. Participants were 208 11- to 14-year-olds. Girls were randomly assigned to all-girls groups, co-ed groups, or control. Boys were assigned to co-ed groups or control. Students completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and explanatory style before and after the intervention. Girls groups were better than co-ed groups in reducing girls' hopelessness and for session attendance rates but were similar to co-ed groups in reducing depressive symptoms. Co-ed groups decreased depressive symptoms, but this did not differ by gender. Findings support prevention programs and suggest additional benefits of girls groups.


Record: 6

Title:

Conclusions and Future Directions.

Author(s):

Feerick, Margaret M., Feerick Consulting, 21021 Brooke Knolls Road, Laytonsville, MD, US
Silverman, Gerald B., Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning & Evaluation, US Department of Health & Human Services, Washington, DC, US

Address:

Feerick, Margaret M., Feerick Counsulting, 21021 Brooke Knolls Road, Laytonsville, MD, US, 20882

Source:

Children exposed to violence. Feerick, Margaret M. (Ed); Silverman, Gerald B. (Ed); pp. 239-248.
Baltimore, MD, US: Paul H Brookes Publishing, 2006. xxvi, 267 pp.

ISBN:

1-55766-804-3 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

childhood development; exposure to violence; intervention; treatment; research

Abstract:

(from the chapter) Understanding children's exposure to violence and the effects of this exposure on children requires the efforts of researchers and clinicians from a diverse range of disciplines. In this chapter, the authors provide conclusions and recommendations for future research. Common themes in intervention include the need for a developmental perspective in dealing with children exposed to violence, the need for an ecological perspective, the need to understand resiliency and strengths, the need for a relational approach to treatment, the need for safety, and the need for measured policy responses. Key research needs include defining and measuring violence exposure, designs and methodologies that capture the range of children's experiences, theory and model development, intervention and services research, research on effective policies and practice.


Record: 7

Title:

Bipolar Disorders.

Author(s):

Lofthouse, Nicholas, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, US
Fristad, Mary A., Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, US

Source:

Children's needs III: Development, prevention, and intervention. Bear, George G. (Ed); Minke, Kathleen M. (Ed); pp. 211-224.
Washington, DC, US: National Association of School Psychologists, 2006. x, 1106 pp.

ISBN:

0-932955-79-7 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

school interventions; early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders; children; adolescents

Abstract:

(from the chapter) Early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (EOBPSD) are severe, highly comorbid, chronic, cyclical, and frequently relapsing biopsychosocial mood disorders of childhood and adolescence. The core symptoms of manic and depressive symptoms can be further exacerbated by the secondary problems of comorbidity; teacher, parent, and sibling stress; sleep disruptions; and time spent out of school. Interacting in a dynamic, caustic, debilitating cycle, this constellation of problems can lead to a further escalation of core symptoms, secondary problems, and devastating effects on developmental, home, school, and peer functioning. Although EOBPSD cannot currently be cured or grown out of, children, their families, and school professionals can help to increase resiliency and recovery by the combined use of effective medications, psychoeducation, and psychosocial and school interventions designed to manage dysfunctional mood, related comorbid symptoms, and environmental stressors. Despite the recent development and testing of family-based psychosocial treatments for EOBPSD, no empirically supported school-based programs currently exist. One of the main challenges facing researchers of treatment outcomes is how to scientifically examine school interventions for a group of disorders that are relatively infrequent. Despite the lack of research on school interventions, a number of potentially beneficial clinical and educational recommendations are available. Seven fundamental recommendations are described in this chapter. In conclusion, although EOBPSD is often chronic, variable, and damaging to family life, school functioning, and peer relationships, it is important not to lose hope. Several effective treatment tools currently exist, and with the increasing professional and public interest EOBPSD has received in recent years, additional treatments are likely to become available in the future.


Record: 8

Title:

Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth.

Author(s):

Lasser, Jon, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, US
Tharinger, Deborah, University of Texas, Austin, TX, US
Cloth, Allison, University of Texas, Austin, TX, US

Source:

Children's needs III: Development, prevention, and intervention. Bear, George G. (Ed); Minke, Kathleen M. (Ed); pp. 419-430.
Washington, DC, US: National Association of School Psychologists, 2006. x, 1106 pp.

ISBN:

0-932955-79-7 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

gay; bisexual; lesbian; at-risk youth; prevention; intervention; psychosocial development

Abstract:

(from the chapter) Gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) youth share many characteristics with their heterosexual peers, yet their unique developmental and social experiences warrant attention. Raised in a homophobic and heterosexist culture, GLB youth face discrimination and abuses in their schools, homes, and communities. The resiliency and positive developmental outcomes of GLB youth are often seriously compromised because of overwhelmed personal resources, pervasive lack of interpersonal protective factors, and pervasive presence of rejecting interpersonal factors. This combination predisposes many GLB youth to negative developmental outcomes, including increased rates of mental health disorders and suicidal tendencies, high-risk behaviors, substance abuse, school failure and dropout, and homelessness. Fortunately, this awareness also provides a clear template for prevention and intervention activities and actions for schools. That template includes promoting supportive attitudes and behaviors, promoting safe and secure educational environments, and working with GLB youth and their families to facilitate positive outcomes.


Record: 9

Title:

Adolescent Eating Disorders.

Author(s):

Cook-Cottone, Catherine, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, US
Phelps, LeAdelle, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, US

Source:

Children's needs III: Development, prevention, and intervention. Bear, George G. (Ed); Minke, Kathleen M. (Ed); pp. 977-988.
Washington, DC, US: National Association of School Psychologists, 2006. x, 1106 pp.

ISBN:

0-932955-79-7 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

adolescents; eating disorders; etiology; prevention; schools

Abstract:

(from the chapter) Within the past decade, notable changes have taken place in the understanding of the prevention and treatment of eating disordered behaviors. The etiology of eating disordered behavior is now viewed as a pathogenic developmental trajectory influenced by individual, familial, and cultural variables that manifests as a restricted experience of the self, which is diminished to dissatisfaction with and control of the body (i.e., food restriction, binging and/or purging). The developmental model of eating disorder etiology guides strategic implementation of prevention efforts, in the elementary years, that address individual, familial, and cultural factors. Recognizing the ineffectiveness of didactic, psychoeducational prevention programs, prevention efforts have turned toward a more constructive learning model with program content that reflects positive psychology ideals. Prevention curricula include media literacy and activism, coping and self-regulating strategies, assertiveness and competence training, and the development of a positive physical self-concept. When a child or adolescent is clinically ill, school professionals provide support for all aspects of the treatment effort: health status and medication, nutritional rehabilitation and counseling, and psychosocial needs. Overall, by helping maintain a safe, positive, and healthy environment; by providing constructive prevention efforts that address areas known to promote resiliency; and by facilitating treatment and school transition efforts, school personnel can be a powerful component of efforts to prevent and heal eating disorders.


Record: 10

Title:

Suicide and Positive Cognitions: Positive Psychology Applied to the Understanding and Treatment of Suicidal Behavior.

Author(s):

Wingate, LaRicka R., Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, US
Burns, Andrea B., Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, US
Gordon, Kathryn H., Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, US
Perez, Marisol, Mexican American/Latino Research Center, Department of Psychology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX, US
Walker, Rheeda L., Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, US
Williams, Foluso M., Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, US
Joiner, Thomas E. Jr., Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, US

Source:

Cognition and suicide: Theory, research, and therapy. Ellis, Thomas E. (Ed); pp. 261-283.
Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2006. xviii, 409 pp.

ISBN:

1-59147-357-8 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

positive psychology; suicidal behavior; positive cognitions; optimism; suicidal ideation

Abstract:

(from the chapter) Positive psychology is highly relevant to the understanding and treatment of suicidal behavior. Its focus on the study of human strengths and virtues provides a fruitful avenue for the study of protective and resiliency factors that can serve as a buffer against suicidal ideation and behaviors. The influence of positive psychology also seems to be extremely important in conceptualizing treatment for suicidal persons. Positive experiences including optimism, sound health, hope, creativity, and broadened thinking can play a vital role in helping to understand and alleviate suicidality. This chapter considers the relationships among several concepts that relate the field of positive psychology to the study of suicide. The research on optimism supports a connection between a pessimistic outlook and psychopathology, as well as the promotion of psychological well-being through optimistic expectations. Studies on optimism and suicide suggest that level of optimism is a good indicator of suicidal risk. Health psychology research has shown that positive emotions can lead to increases in physical health. Positive psychology may be the mechanism that can serve to interrupt the cycle or relationship between poor health and poor emotions that may lead to suicidal behavior.


Record: 11

Title:

Cancer and Blood Disorders in Childhood: Biopsychosocial-Developmental Issues in Assessment and Treatment.

Author(s):

Armstrong, F. Daniel, U Miami, School of Medicine, Mailman Ctr for Child Development, Dept of Pediatrics, Miami, FL, US

Source:

Comprehensive handbook of childhood cancer and sickle cell disease: A biopsychosocial approach. Brown, Ronald T. (Ed); pp. 17-32.
New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press, 2006. xv, 586 pp.

ISBN:

0-19-516985-9 (hardcover)
978-0-19-516985-0 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

sickle cell disease; resiliency; biopsychosocial perspective; family coping; cancer; developmental issues; blood disorders; hemophilia; immunologic disorders; treatment

Abstract:

(from the chapter) Cancer, sickle cell disease (SCD), hemophilia, and other blood-related and immunologic disorders represent some of the most complex medical conditions of childhood. Despite the complexity and high potential for devastating biologic, psychosocial, family, and economic consequences, hematologic and oncologic diseases have affected individuals and families who do not experience devastating consequences and in fact demonstrate a biologic and psychologic resiliency that defies conventional wisdom. Understanding the complex interactions among genetic risk; biology of disease; effectiveness and outcome of treatment; child and family coping, adjustment, and resilience; developmental trajectories; and community support is the challenge for investigators and clinicians during this century, particularly as basic advances in diagnosis and treatment result in anticipation of probable survival for the vast majority of children with these conditions. It is for this reason that these diseases of childhood are frequently considered from a biopsychosocial perspective (Engel, 1980), although we argue that this term must be expanded to incorporate developmental complexity, particularly when applied to children.


Record: 12

Title:

Promoting Strengths in a Socially Toxic World: Supporting Resiliency With Systemic Interventions.

Author(s):

Vera, Elizabeth M., Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, US
Shin, Richard Q., Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, US

Source:

Counseling Psychologist, Vol 34(1), Jan 2006. pp. 80-89.

Publisher:

US: Sage Publications

ISSN:

0011-0000 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1177/0011000005282365

Language:

English

Keywords:

at-risk youth; social class differences; mental health problems; demographic labels; low-income youth; counseling; strength based counseling

Abstract:

Smith's (2006 [this issue]) Major Contribution on strength-based counseling with at-risk youth provides counseling psychologists with a blueprint for applying positive psychology in clinical settings. Such a blueprint is long overdue, and we commend Smith for articulating a model that will be a great asset to practitioners who work with children and adolescents. As she argues in her Major Contribution, the need for a strength-based counseling model for at-risk youth is based on the fact that the preponderance of the psychological literature paints a grim picture of this population. This is particularly true of the literature on low-income, urban youth of color (Marsella, 1998). While the author makes many excellent suggestions for identifying and promoting the strengths of children and adolescents, one of the Major Contribution's most compelling aspects is the exploration of the relationship between individual resiliency and environmental factors. In this reaction, the relationship is explored in greater detail, and suggestions for including family- and environment-focused interventions within a strength-based model of counseling are offered. Smith (2006) prefaces her article by stating that not all at-risk youth are poor, of color, or "disadvantaged" because of living in an oppressive environment. While it is true that psychological disorders do not discriminate on the basis of race, social class, or other demographic labels, one could argue that the social ecology of youth differs based on such variables. One need look only at the data on the racial disparities in many physical and mental health problems (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) or at the academic-achievement gap between youth of color and their White counterparts, which is exacerbated by social class differences (National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Sanders, 2000; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Such disparities lead to the question, are some youth more at risk than others? The sometimes dramatic difference in outcomes between White, middle-class youth and low-income youth of color in the United States may very well be a function of social context.


Record: 13

Title:

Role Strain and Adaptation Issues in the Strength-Based Model: Diversity, Multilevel, and Life-Span Considerations.

Author(s):

Bowman, Phillip J., University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, US, pjbowman@uic.edu

Address:

Bowman, Phillip J., Institute for Research on Race and Public Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 412 S. Peoria Street, Suite 324, Chicago, IL, US, 60607, pbowman@uic.edu

Source:

Counseling Psychologist, Vol 34(1), Jan 2006. pp. 118-133.

Publisher:

US: Sage Publications

ISSN:

0011-0000 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1177/0011000005282374

Language:

English

Keywords:

role strain; adaptation issues; strength-based model; counseling; diversity; life-span considerations; intervention; at-risk youth; universal strengths; ethnic-specific strengths; risk factors

Abstract:

This article applauds the strength-based model (SBM) of counseling but calls for an extension. In the existential or humanistic tradition, the SBM builds on emerging trends in psychology to highlight the importance of individual strengths in counseling interventions. However, a role strain and adaptation (RSA) approach extends the SBM to systematically address diversity, multilevel, and life-span issues among at-risk youth. Guided by cross-cultural research, the RSA extension of SBM explains how universal (etic) and ethnic-specific (emic) strengths facilitate coping. Building on ecological studies, the RSA extension also clarifies the operation of risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and community levels. Moreover, the RSA extension provides a life-span framework to examine risk factors and protective strengths as adolescents prepare for early, middle, and elder adulthood. Finally, the RSA extension can help psychologists and other professionals better distinguish between three empowerment goals in interventions with at-risk populations-therapeutic, resiliency, and systemic.


Record: 14

Title:

The Effects of Intimate Partner Violence on Children.

Author(s):

Patton, Declan, School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Systems, Health Sciences Centre, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Source:

Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Vol 16(2), 2006. pp. 133-134.

Publisher:

US: John Wiley & Sons

Reviewed Item:

Robert A. Geffner, Robyn Spurling Igelman, and Jennifer Zellner (Eds.) (2003). The Effects of Intimate Partner Violence on Children; Haworth Maltreatment & Trauma Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghampton, NY 1390445082003, USA. Hardback, US $47.90 ISBN 60-7890-2160-9. Paperback $31.96, ISBN 0-7890-2161-7

ISSN:

0957-9664 (Print)
1471-2857 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1002/cbm.16

Language:

English

Keywords:

intimate partner violence; children; child custody; legal issues; child welfare

Abstract:

Reviews the book, The Effects of Intimate Partner Violence on Children edited by Robert A. Geffner, Robyn Spurling Igelman and Jennifer Zellner (2003). This book has four main sections, with a total of 11 chapters, all of which were previously published in the Journal of Emotional Abuse. All 25 contributors, and the editors, have a background in child and family health and/or social care. An overview is given of how family violence affects children, why children who are so exposed are at greater risk of social and psychological damage, resiliency, child custody, and issues surrounding assessments and interventions employed with such children. There are five articles in the opening section entitled 'Adjustment in Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Clinical Research'. Four are research based, the other is a critical literature review. Section two talks about 'Prevention and Intervention for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence'. The penultimate section pertains to research on other treatments. The final section 'Legal Issues and Policy Implications', opens with a review of Canadian family law cases from 1997 to 2000; all included spousal abuse. In conclusion, this book is a must for those involved, at any level, in child welfare.


Record: 15

Title:

And then the dog died.

Author(s):

Kaufman, Kenneth R., Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, US, kaufmakr@umdnj.edu
Kaufman, Nathaniel D., Millstone River Elementary School, Plainsboro, NJ, US

Address:

Kaufman, Kenneth R., Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 125 Paterson Street, Suite #2200, New Brunswick, NJ, US, 08901, kaufmakr@umdnj.edu

Source:

Death Studies, Vol 30(1), Jan-Feb 2006. pp. 61-76.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis

ISSN:

0748-1187 (Print)
1091-7683 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1080/07481180500348811

Language:

English

Keywords:

childhood grief; mourning; childhood pet bereavement; emotional consequences

Abstract:

Childhood grief and mourning of family and friends may have immediate and long-lasting consequences including depression, anxiety, social withdrawal, behavioral disturbances, and school underachievement. Childhood pet bereavement is no less important, because the pet is often considered a member of the family by the child. However, society does not always acknowledge the significance of pet bereavement, which can result in unresolved grief. This article, a case analysis with literature review, addresses childhood pet bereavement in the context of multiple prior losses (K. R. Kaufman & N. D. Kaufman, 2005). This case mirrors both old and new findings in grief research and therapy: (a) beneficial response to emotional expression of grief in context of search for meaning; (b) beneficial response to cognitive approach toward grief with ability to prevent development of complicated grief even in the face of multiple losses; (c) beneficial effects associated with supportive family and with positive self-concept; (d) intensity of grief magnified by the child's degree of attachment to the pet, the suddenness of the pet's death, the multiple prior losses, and the role of the pet in the child's life; and (e) resiliency. This case further emphasizes the need for parents not to trivialize death of pets, to appreciate the role pets have in children's lives, and to assist the child in multiple approaches toward expression (be it verbal, written, or artistic). Finally, this case reinforces the ability of the child to assist in family bereavement and to serve as teacher.

Conference:

Congress of the Association of European Psychiatrists, 13th, Apr, 2005, Munich, Germany

Conference Notes:

This research was presented at the aforementioned conference and at the 7th International Conference on Grief and Bereavement, London, England, July 12-15, 2005.


Record: 16

Title:

Emotions and developmental psychopathology.

Author(s):

Izard, Carroll E., University of Delaware, Newark, DE, US
Youngstrom, Eric A., Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, US
Fine, Sarah E., Brown University, Providence, RI, US
Mostow, Allison J., Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, US
Trentacosta, Christopher J., University of Delaware, Newark, DE, US

Source:

Developmental psychopathology, Vol 1: Theory and method (2nd ed.). Cicchetti, Dante (Ed); Cohen, Donald J. (Ed); pp. 244-292.
Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2006. xvii, 1084 pp.

ISBN:

0-471-23736-1 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

developmental psychopathology; emotions; motivational processes; self-organization; self-regulation; adjustment; personality development; personality factors

Abstract:

(from the chapter) In this chapter, we assume that the motivational processes associated with emotions are major players in self-organization within and across systems, in self-regulation, and in determining the adaptiveness of developmental trajectories. We take this position while remaining aware that a broad construct like self-regulation, often used in explaining the roots of psychopathology, requires research in attentional/cognitive regulation and emotion regulation, as well as regulation at the neurobiological level. In this chapter, we examine the role of the social functions of emotions in psychopathology, but we place equal emphasis on intrapersonal functions of emotions, their role in motivating and organizing the thought and action involved in individual adjustment and personality development and functioning. We consider emotion thresholds and the related construct of trait emotionality as examples of emotion-related personality factors or individual differences that may contribute to either normal or abnormal development, to resiliency or psychopathology.


Record: 17

Title:

Traumatic stress from a multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective.

Author(s):

Bremner, J. Douglas, Emory U Hosp, Atlanta, GA, US

Source:

Developmental psychopathology, Vol 2: Developmental neuroscience (2nd ed.). Cicchetti, Dante (Ed); Cohen, Donald J. (Ed); pp. 656-676.
Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2006. xvii, 876 pp.

ISBN:

0-471-23737-X (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

traumatic stress; stress effects; society; brain; individual physiology; physical health; predisposition; risk factors; resiliency

Abstract:

(from the chapter) In trying to move beyond the gridlock created by the abduction of disorder, it helps to have a perspective on mental disorders that goes beyond the current DSM era. This chapter reviews the long history of research in the traumatic stress area of psychiatry and an even longer history of recognition of the effects of traumatic stress in popular culture that predates the DSM era. This chapter argues that, to understand the complete effects of traumatic stress, it is necessary to understand the effects of trauma on the individual psyche, in the context of the individual within society, on the brain, individual physiology, and physical health, predisposition, risk factors, and resiliency--in other words, a multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective.


Record: 18

Title:

Resilience in development: A synthesis of research across five decades.

Author(s):

Luthar, Suniya S., Teacher's College, Columbia University, New York, NY, US

Source:

Developmental psychopathology, Vol 3: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (2nd ed.). Cicchetti, Dante (Ed); Cohen, Donald J. (Ed); pp. 739-795.
Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2006. xvi, 944 pp.

ISBN:

0-471-23738-8 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

resilience; history; vulnerability factors; protective factors; development

Abstract:

(from the chapter) In this chapter, we describe the major developments in the field of resilience since its inception more than 40 years ago. The chapter is organized in four sections, the first one presenting a brief history of work on resilience. The second section is devoted to elucidating critical features of research on this construct, highlighting three sets of issues: definitions and operationalization of the two constructs at its core, protective and vulnerability factors; distinctions between the construct of resilience and related constructs, such as competence and ego resiliency; and differences between resilience research and related fields, including risk research, prevention science, and positive psychology. The third section of the chapter is focused on major findings on vulnerability and protective factors. These are discussed not only in terms of the specific factors found to modify risk within three broad categories--attributes of the family, community, and child--but also in terms of factors that exert strong effects across many risk conditions and those more idiosyncratic to specific risk contexts. The final section includes a summary of extant evidence in the field along with major considerations for future work on resilience across the life span.


Record: 19

Title:

Making room for daddies: Male couples and their adopted children.

Author(s):

Wells, Gregory Charles, U Texas At Austin, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 67(1-A), 2006. pp. 97.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3204199

Language:

English

Keywords:

male couples; adopted children; heterosexism; male headed family development; lesbian parents; gay parents

Abstract:

Despite the increased visibility of gay and lesbian parents, absent from the literature is theory concerning how or why gay men decide to become fathers and how these families navigate the unique challenge of defining their families within a context of pervasive heterosexism and antigay prejudice. The current study utilized a grounded theory approach to aid in the development of a theory of gay male-headed family development. Questions considered included: Who are these men and how do they go about forming their families? What challenges do these families face in their daily lives and from whom or what do they seek support? Finally, what are the experiences of these families as they interact with such contextual forces as schools, communities, biological families, and chosen families? Results indicate that this new generation of gay fathers exhibit great strength and resiliency in constructing and raising their families. These men are themselves transformed by the act of fathering while at the same time acting as forces of change to transform the very idea of fatherhood in American culture.


Record: 20

Title:

An examination of the impact of student mobility on the achievement of 6th grade elementary students.

Author(s):

Johnson-Struempler, Kersten M., U Oregon, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 67(3-A), 2006. pp. 797.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3211220

Language:

English

Keywords:

resiliency; student mobility; school achievement; 6th grade students

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between resiliency and student mobility and the impact on achievement of Anchorage School District 6th grade students. The emphasis of the study was to look at the key factors that led to the resiliency of at risk students and ascertain if the protective factors also influenced mobile students' school achievement. Mobility has presented challenges that students must overcome. For instance, when students moved, they have had to adjust to a new school environment and family stresses generated by the move. Many of these challenges were characteristic of at risk students. These factors were often detrimental and disruptive to student learning. The literature review identified common characteristics between at risk and mobile students; however, a gap in the research existed between mobile students and resiliency research. This study has added to the existing literature and made a connection between mobility and resiliency. The research was guided by two questions: (1) Which resiliency categories predicted passing the Alaska Benchmark Exam for mobile and non-mobile sixth graders including subgroups of mobile and non-mobile students (gender, ethnicity, SES, and bilingual)? (2) Was there a significant difference in achievement between mobile and non-mobile sixth graders, including subgroups of mobile and non-mobile students (gender, ethnicity, SES, and bilingual) on the Alaska Benchmark Exam? To address research question one, a random sample of 6th grade students were surveyed using the Developmental Assets Profile. The survey was used to determine which resiliency factors predicted academic achievement on the Alaska Benchmark Exam. To address research question two, I compared a group of mobile 6th grade students with a group of non-mobile 6th grade students, to determine whether or not student mobility impacted their performance on the Alaska Benchmark Exam. The statistical analysis conducted included t-tests, ANOVA, and linear regression. The Developmental Assets Profile data indicated factors that most influenced mobile student achievement. The factors identified were positive identity and commitment to learning. In addition, the study found that mobile students performance was lower than non-mobile students.


Record: 21

Title:

How teachers in a resiliency-building school promote resiliency within African American male students.

Author(s):

Allen, Tawannah G., U North Carolina At Chapel Hill, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 67(4-A), 2006. pp. 1201.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3212530

Language:

English

Keywords:

teachers; schools; resiliency; African Americans; male students; classroom environment

Abstract:

This descriptive case study examines in a building identified as resiliency-building for teachers, the extent to which teachers promote resiliency within African American male students. Using Henderson and Milstein's Resiliency Wheel (2003), this study examined the relationships and interactions between 12 African American male students in grades 3-8 and their 10 classroom teachers (nine Caucasians and one African American). The study setting was considered rural using Beeson & Strange's 2003 definition. The identification of Leenob as a resiliency-building environment for teachers, by the Malloy and Allen, 2004, study prompted the selection of Leenob as the site for this study. Henderson and Milstein's Resiliency Wheel is comprised of six divisions: increase prosocial bonding, set clear and consistent boundaries, teach life skills, provide caring and support, set and communicate high expectations and provide opportunity for meaningful participation. This study used: provide caring and support, set and communicate high expectations and provide opportunity for meaningful participation as guiding premises for interview questions and classroom observations. Based upon student and teacher interviews and classroom observations, the Caring and Supportive Adults quadrant generated the themes: students know teachers care, establish a ridicule free classroom environment for mistakes, use multiple ways of praise, and the teacher plays multiple roles with students. The Setting and Communicating High Expectations interviews and classroom observations generated the following themes: all children have the right to learn; giving tasks for which students can be successful builds self-confidence and self-esteem; and knowing and expecting students to be successful assures success. The final quadrant, Providing Opportunities for Meaningful Participation, generated the following themes: student participation is a must; positive criticism encourages greater class participation; and using various instructional strategies to help students experience success results in success. Each division played a significant role in the development of resiliency among Leenob's male students. However, the most resoundingly effective division was the caring and supportive adult. The caring and supporting adult division alone was most important to resiliency in that without the presence of a caring individual, it is difficult to overcome life's adversities (Henderson & Milstein, 2003). The findings of this qualitative study indicate that teachers in a resiliency building school for teachers can promote resiliency within African American male students.


Record: 22

Title:

Adaptation of Chinese-born adopted children.

Author(s):

Bobrovitz, Candace Denise, State U New York At Buffalo, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 67(4-A), 2006. pp. 1288.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3213927

Language:

English

Keywords:

adaptation; adopted children; China; protective factors; resiliency

Abstract:

Resiliency, the ability to adapt effectively after exposure to severe adversity, has received limited attention in children who have been raised in orphanages abroad, then subsequently been adopted by families in North America. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the development of young children adopted from China and to examine the protective factors that might account for enhancing their competence and adjustment. In particular, the areas of competence that were related to the home and school settings (peer relations, rule governed behavior, and academic achievement) were explored. A small sample of five adoptive families was recruited. The children had been adopted from an institution before 21 months of age and were between five to eight years of age at the time of the study. Both qualitative and quantitative measures were used to explore the problem under investigation. Standardized measures included a behavior scale (Child Behavior Checklist-CBCL), a family environment scale (Home Observation and Measurement of the Environment-HOME), a basic concept and readiness scale (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-VABS), and a play scale (Test of Playfulness-ToP). Interviews were conducted with parents about their child's competencies in both the home and school environments. Results revealed that all of the children had adequate scores on the VABS Adaptive Behavior Composites and overall T scores on the CBCL 6-18 were within the normal range. Correlations between adoption age, total T scores on the CBCL 6-18, and number of siblings did not reveal statistically significant relationships. Competence scores on the CBCL were all within the normal range. The home environment and familial relationships were suggested as possible protective factors for enhancing the children's resilience. Implications of the findings are discussed with recommendations for further research.


Record: 23

Title:

Protective factors in the sixth and seventh grades that act as inhibitors to violence in the eighth grade.

Author(s):

Yansen, Edward A., U Rochester, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 67(5-A), 2006. pp. 1615.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3220555

Language:

English

Keywords:

school violence; protective factors; sixth grade; seventh grade; eighth grade

Abstract:

Youth violence is a major problem in our society. Researchers have found that youth were arrested for 2.4 million crimes in 1999. These arrests covered the full-range of crimes including homicides, forcible rapes, robbery and aggravated assault (Snyder, 1999, 2000). In the same study researchers found that youth accounted for one in every six arrests for all violent crimes in the United States. School violence is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. In an early study in 1949, principals reported no incidents of interpersonal violence or destruction of property (NEA 1949). However, from 1949--2000 schools reported incidents of homicides, drugs, attempted rape and possession of weapons. Some of the violence was racially motivated as school officials tried to enforce or block court ordered desegregation of the public schools (NEA, 1993, Baybee & Gee, 1982, Kachur, et al. 1994, 2000). The issue of school violence was further exacerbated by numerous high profile shootings across the country including the Columbine High School incident in Littleton, Colorado where several students and faculty were murdered. The frequency and severity of school violence appear to occur at the upper grades followed by the middle grades and less frequently at the elementary level (NEA, 1978, Furlong, Chung, Bates & Morrison, 1995). Researchers also found in these studies that students in the middle grades were twice more likely to be victimized than their peers in the upper grades (Chung, Bates, & Morrison, 1995). The majority of youth who attend public schools in the United States do not commit crimes (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001). The essential question is why do some youth commit crimes while their peers do not? There are four theories which attempt to explain youth violence. These theories are biological, psychological, psychosocial, environmental/situational and societal. The theory that best explains youth violence is the psychological/psychosocial theories. Embedded in these two theories is a theory called Resiliency. This theory states that there are common adaptive systems that promote positive developmental outcome for children across favorable and unfavorable environments (Masten & Coatsworth, 1988; Masten 2001). This study will identify the protective factors on the sixth and seventh grades that act as inhibitors to violence in the eighth grade. The investigator will use preexisting data collected in 1998--1999 in the Rochester City School Middle Schools. The study will attempt to answer two questions. (1) What are the variables that differentiate the students who do not commit violence in the sixth and seventh grades and the students who commit acts of violence in the sixth and seventh grades? (2) Do the variables identified in questions serve as inhibitors of violence in the eighth grade? The subjects will be 900 middle school students who completed the University of Rochester Middle School Questionnaire. The subjects will be divided into three groups. The data will be analyzed using a significance of the study is that it will be one of the first study to look at resiliency in sixth and seventh grade students in an urban setting. The study will provide information to educators to develop strategies to reduce violence in the middle grades.


Record: 24

Title:

A metamorphosis: An examination of protective factors and resilient outcomes of at-risk youth enrolled within an alternative education setting.

Author(s):

Aristilde, Mary V., Fairleigh Dickinson U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 67(5-A), 2006. pp. 1645.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3217951

Language:

English

Keywords:

resiliency factors; protective factors; at risk youths; alternative education

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the internal and institutional characteristics that have served as resiliency factors for a senior class consisting of 10 students that are currently enrolled in a therapeutic support program which serves at-risk adolescents. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were employed. Findings suggest that participants perceive a low average sense of mastery, a low average sense of relatedness, and above average emotional reactivity when compared to a normative sample. There were no significant differences found in resilient outcomes of low functioning students to those of high functioning students (p>.05). Differences in the grade point averages of the participants before placement within an alternative educational setting when compared to their grade point averages after placement were found to be statistically significant (p<.05). Also of note, placement within a small school environment, staff, and student cohesiveness were identified as some of the institutional factors that attributed to their educational success. Implications for future studies examining alternative educational settings were addressed.


Record: 25

Title:

Resiliency enhancement and academic achievement of middle school youth in alternative schooling: A comparison of two alternative school models.

Author(s):

Ardern, Pamela Miller, Clemson U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 66(7-A), 2006. pp. 2476.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3183168

Language:

English

Keywords:

resiliency; academic achievement; middle school; alternative schooling

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of two alternative school models on the enhancement of resiliency and grade achievement in middle school youth. One model utilized experiential education while the second was a traditional model. The quasi-experiential design utilized a pre and posttest of resiliency skills and grade achievement. Furthermore, School A implemented a resiliency building curriculum. Additional data was acquired through interviews. Students in the two alternative schools in the fifth through eighth grades, ages 12 to 15, were the subjects. The raw mean change score of the resiliency skills revealed there was a positive change in all seven resiliency skills in School A, while the scores revealed an increase in four skills for School B. School A had an 11 point increase in the grade point average while School B had a three point increase. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) utilized to analyze the pre/posttest scores for resiliency revealed there was no significant difference in the change scores of the seven resiliency skills between the two schools. A second ANCOVA revealed there was no significant difference in the change in grade point average between the two schools. A Correlation of Coefficients performed on the change in resiliency skills scores and change in grade point average for each student revealed no significant relationships for either school. However, in an additional analysis of the ANCOVA investigating if the change in resiliency skills within each school was significantly different from 0, it was found that in School A the change in all seven resiliency skills was significantly different while for School B the change was found to be significant for all except initiative. It was also found that the change in grade point averages was significantly different from 0 for School A, but not School B. Therefore, these finding suggest that within each alternative school model the change in the resiliency skills was significant, but the rate of change across the two schools was not significantly different. Furthermore, the change in grade point average within School A was significant, while the change in School B was not.


Record: 26

Title:

Portraits of purpose: A study examining the ways a sense of purpose contributes to positive youth development.

Author(s):

Bronk, Kendall Cotton, Stanford U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 66(8-A), 2006. pp. 2839.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3187267

Language:

English

Keywords:

sense of purpose; youth development; mentors

Abstract:

Empirical research and theoretical writings consistently point to the positive role that a sense of purpose plays in the lives of young people. However, empirical work has yet to explore the particular characteristics of purposeful youth, the ways in which purposeful youth differ from non-purposeful youth, or the psychological processes through which a sense of purpose may help young people develop in positive directions. These were the three primary goals of the present study. Through qualitative research methods, this study examined a sub-set of the data collected in conjunction with the Youth Purpose project led by William Damon at the Stanford University Center on Adolescence. The data were drawn from in-depth interviews with nine adolescents who exemplified the concept of purpose and nine adolescents who demonstrated no discernible commitment to any purposes beyond themselves. Results suggest that purposeful youth share a number of defining characteristics. As a group they were relatively open, focused on the broader implications of their efforts, vital and enthusiastic about their interests, and committed to core values including humility, gratitude, and integrity. They devised a number of creative strategies for overcoming challenges, actively sought and created communities of like-minded peers, and established intense, long-term relationships with mentors. Non-purposeful youth, on the other hand, were found to be more focused on short-term rather than long-term aims and were significantly less likely to be open, vital, or committed to core values. Though nearly as many of the non-purposeful youth had mentors, their mentoring relationships were less focused, less intense, and less long-lasting. In sum, both defining characteristics and their intensity were unique to the purposeful sample. A sense of purpose also increased the likelihood that these young people would establish caring relationships with mentors and supportive communities of like-minded peers. Moreover, a sense of purpose predicted a strong sense of moral identity and resiliency. These are all assets which prior empirical research has shown play an important role in positive youth development.


Record: 27

Title:

Fathers of children with educational disabilities: The role of stress in life satisfaction.

Author(s):

Strachan, John Weir Jr., The Florida State U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 66(11-A), 2006. pp. 4199.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3198260

Language:

English

Keywords:

fathers; children; educational disabilities; stress; life satisfaction; family; theories; resiliency; life changes; coping; parenting

Abstract:

In utilizing predominantly Family Stress Theory and Family Resiliency Theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of family life changes, level of family and individual coping, and parenting and health stress upon life satisfaction for fathers having children with educational disabilities and fathers having children without educational disabilities over the last twelve months. A survey research design was employed that utilized a total sample of 212 fathers from a county school system in Western Kentucky. Of the 212 fathers, 85 reported having a child with educational disabilities and 127 reported having a child without educational disabilities. Research instruments included the Family Inventory of Life Events and Changes, Parenting Daily Hassles scale, Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales, Coping Scales for Adults, Parenting Stress Index, Family Health Status Inventory, and Satisfaction With Life Scale. Analysis of variance was conducted to test differences between the two father groups. In addition, a confirmatory factor analysis was utilized to determine if the proposed indicators in the study were valid measures of the latent constructs. A path analysis was also employed to examine the relationships among the variables. Fathers of disabled children experienced greater levels of family stress, more occurrences of parenting daily hassles, greater degree of difficulty related to parenting daily hassles, less variety and number of family resources, less individual sharing of problems, more emotional and physical health symptoms, greater parenting stress, and less overall satisfaction with life. There were no differences found between the two groups of fathers on level of individual coping pertaining to dealing with problems, non-productive coping, and optimism. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis determined that the variables parenting stress, nonproductive coping, and sharing did not adequately measure the latent constructs in the restricted model for both father groups and were therefore subsequently removed. For the saturated model, the variable family events had the greatest total effects for the fathers with disabled children group whereas level of stress had the greatest total effects in the fathers with non-disabled children group. The percentage of variance explained in the model for fathers with disabled children was higher (74%) than in the fathers with non-disabled children (52%).


Record: 28

Title:

The impact of struggle on spiritually-centered educational leaders and their leadership.

Author(s):

Schaid, Timothy J., U Wisconsin - Madison, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 66(12-A), 2006. pp. 4261.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3200002

Language:

English

Keywords:

spirituality; educational leaders; leadership; conceptualization

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of personal struggle in the practice of spiritually-centered educational leaders. The following strands of literature were reviewed: (a) spirituality, (b) spirituality in the workplace and workplace leadership, (c) spirituality in education and educational leadership, and (d) psychological resiliency and post-traumatic growth. An identifiable void exists in the literature about the specific ways personal struggle may inform the spiritually-centered educational leader. The study was guided by three questions: (a) what are the self and spiritual understandings spiritually-centered educational leaders attribute to personal struggle? (b) in what ways do those understandings inform the leadership practice of the spiritually-centered leader? and (c) what challenges do spiritually-centered leaders encounter as a spiritually-centered leader? A psychological transpersonal growth model conceptually framed data analyses. Eight public school principals and superintendents were included in this study. A qualitative, positioned subject approach attentive to traditions from life history research and autoethnography guided the methodology. Data obtained from interviews were analyzed through use of the constant comparative method to develop a grounded theory. The findings suggest participants moved through a cycle of psycho-spiritual gain to form a relationship between their struggles and their self and spiritual understandings in three ways: (a) recognition of a gap between the lived self and spiritual self, (b) strengthening of spiritual conceptualizations, and (c) development of spiritual courage. Those understandings mirrored themselves in leadership praxes through: (a) an alliance of the spiritual self and leader self, (b) an imperative for a spiritual moral and ethical leadership framework, and (c) a zeal for leadership as service. The findings also suggest these leaders encounter challenges from externally- and internally-induced locations, challenges they deem as further struggle with which to cope. Included in the discussion of the findings are some noted differences with respect to ethnicity and gender. A theory on the impact of struggle on spiritually-centered leaders and their leadership is advanced in this study. Implications for educational leadership practice, preparation, and future research are also discussed.


Record: 29

Title:

Resiliency in severely abused children.

Author(s):

Fleming, Kathleen, U San Francisco, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 66(12-A), 2006. pp. 4307.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3198492

Language:

English

Keywords:

resiliency; severely abused children; personal relationships; perpetrators; schools

Abstract:

The research question investigated for this study was: What factors promote resiliency in severely abused children? This research question was investigated by utilizing a participatory research design involving dialogues with resilient, emancipated, young adults, who were a part of the foster care system as severely abused children. The main findings were: (1) Personal Relationships are Extremely Important for Promoting Resiliency in Children; (2) All the Participants had a Strong Sense of Independence and Self-Reliance; (3) All of the Participants were High Achievers in School; (4) All of the Participants had an Interest in Their Church and Practiced a Religious Faith; (5) All of the Participants had the Insight to Understand the Circumstances of Their Abuse in Relationship to Their Parents and Stepparents as Their Perpetrators; and (6) The Independent Living Skills and Transitional Living Programs Strengthened the Resiliency of the Participants.


Record: 30

Title:

Structuring distributed cognitions and action in a high reliability organization.

Author(s):

Valerio, Michael Dominic Stephen, The George Washington U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 66(12-A), 2006. pp. 4450.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4209 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3199656

Language:

English

Keywords:

cognitions; high reliability organization; cognitive structure; cognitive maps; resiliency; organization learning

Abstract:

Scholars have yet to agree on how distributed cognitions and actions can be characterized, and under what conditions collective cognitive structure associated with high reliability organizations (HROs) emerges, is activated and then transferred to others. Understanding distributed cognitions in HROs offers the potential promise of avoiding disaster. HROs such as military aircraft, nuclear power plants or emergency surgical wards must develop and share resilient collective cognitive structures capable of making sense in increasingly complex technologically dependent environments. Operationalizing Bougon's (1992) Theory of Congregate Cognitive Maps (CCM), the first CCMs for an HRO, more specifically a Coast Guard C130 Aircraft engaged in Law Enforcement and Search and Rescue were constructed. Findings suggest that despite changing participants and despite differing beliefs and assumptions of diverse participants, resiliency and reliability in organizations can be achieved by learning the language of congregation, that is, a specific grammar and syntax to organizing. The CCM is the organization and it can be manifestly utilized for organizational development and improvement. Distributed cognitions and collective actions, as the product and process of organizational learning, fosters discovering and interpreting new information that assists adaptation, renewal and learning. Characteristics of resilient sensemaking are believed to be manifest within the supporting congregate cognitive maps (CCMs) of HROs. Cognitive mapping offers the methodological access to describing the complex relationship between the content and structure of individual participants and congregate cognitive mapping now affords a method of describing the organizing collectivity such as the collective knowledge in specific action domains such as aerial law enforcement. Relating the deep collective cognitive structure embodied within CCMs to collective sensemaking affords an opportunity to pursue an operational construct of resilient distributed cognitions and collective action.


Record: 31

Title:

Resiliency in adult children of alcoholics: An exploration.

Author(s):

Rubin-Salzberger, Audrey, U Hartford, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(2-B), 2006. pp. 1165.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3206715

Language:

English

Keywords:

resiliency; adult children; alcoholics; families; parents

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the resiliency characteristics demonstrated by children of alcoholics and their families, and to investigate those resiliency characteristics that may contribute to the prevention of adult alcoholism. Historically, researchers have almost universally assumed that children of alcoholics will be casualties of their parent's alcoholism, "damaged" as children of single parent families or children of divorce were formerly viewed. However, there are many children of alcoholic parents who manage to thrive despite their parent's addiction, and as a result of this resiliency, avoid developing alcoholism themselves. This study investigates the relationship between adult alcoholism and resiliency in children of alcoholics (COAs). Alcoholic children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and non-alcoholic children of alcoholics (NACOAs) completed a web-based survey consisting of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), the Resiliency Attitudes Scale (RAS), and a Screener Questionnaire. ACOAs and NACOAs, were compared on resiliency factors. NACOAs were found to have higher total resiliency scores on the RAS than their alcoholic counterparts. Having a support relationship with someone, morality, initiative, and insight were also found to have a strong impact on resiliency rates.


Record: 32

Title:

Trajectories of marital quality for white couples and black couples: A longitudinal risk and resiliency approach.

Author(s):

Hirsch, Abigail, U Massachusetts Boston, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(2-B), 2006. pp. 1205.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3205032

Language:

English

Keywords:

resiliency; marital quality; white couples; marriage

Abstract:

This study expands on previous work on the course of early marriage using theory and analytic tools permitting a longitudinal, risk and resiliency approach. The work compares trajectories of marital quality by (1) investigating the course of marital quality in Black and White couples during the early years of marriage, (2) examining how this course is shifted by exposure to stressful situations and (3) looking at how personal and dyadic strengths at the beginning of marriage influence future marital quality trajectories. The study re-analyzes data collected by Veroff, Hatchett, Douvan and Orbuch (1987) tracking White and Black couples over the first four years of marriage. HLM is used to model growth trajectories. Findings reveal that marital satisfaction declines over the early years of marriage with Black couples reporting lower mean levels of marital quality than White couples. Second, exposure to higher levels of risk correlates with reduced mean level of quality and greater decline over time. Finally, personality and dyadic qualities at the start of marriage also influence marital satisfaction, though in slightly different ways dependent on gender and race. With personal/dyadic qualities controlled, marital quality ratings increase rather than decrease over time. However, change over time is less well explained than mean levels of marital satisfaction.


Record: 33

Title:

A study of the relationship between resiliency attitudes and selected risk factors of gang involvement in adult Honduran males.

Author(s):

Panting, Georgina, Northern Illinois U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(2-B), 2006. pp. 1207.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3205112

Language:

English

Keywords:

gang involvement; resiliency attitudes; risk factors; higher education

Abstract:

The present dissertation investigated the relationship between resiliency attitudes and selected risk factors in male Honduran gang members. This was a quantitative study with a cross-sectional, single-test design. The following hypotheses were tested at the .05 confidence level: (1) higher scores of resiliency attitudes will predict later age of entry to the gang, (2) higher scores of resiliency attitudes will predict less use of illegal drugs and alcohol, and (3) higher scores of resiliency attitudes will predict higher level of education. Two instruments were used. The Resiliency Attitudes Scales (RAS) and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR). General demographic information was also obtained. The sample of the study included detained male gang members at the Comayagua Jail Farm in Honduras. A total of 130 packets were distributed, yielding 48 usable questionnaires, which represents a 36% return rate. Data generated from the surveys were analyzed using simple and binary logistic regressions. The Pearson product-correlation coefficient was utilized to analyze the relationship among the variables. The results indicated that there was no statistically significant amount of variance accounted for by age of entry to the gang. The Pearson product correlation revealed that age of entry was significantly related to the relationship subscale (r = .301, n = 48, p < .05, two tailed) and to the creativity and humor subscales (r = .289, n = 48, p < .05, two tailed). Furthermore, there was no statistically significant amount of unique variance accounted for by use of alcohol (X (7) = 8.73, ns at the .05 level) nor for drug use (X (7) = 7.12, ns at the .05 level) among the participants. Finally, the model, level of education and resiliency attitudes, was statistically significant for X (7) = 16.41 at the 0.05 level. The Pearson product-moment correlation confirmed the relationship between these variables. For the creativity and humor scale r = .395, n = 48, p < .01, two tailed, and for the general resiliency subscale r = .333, n = 48, p < .05, two tailed. Implications for professional counselors, recommendations for future research, and limitations of the study have been included in Chapter 5.


Record: 34

Title:

Program effectiveness of substance abuse treatment for adolescents in juvenile corrections.

Author(s):

Voight, Amanda M., Capella U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(2-B), 2006. pp. 1210.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3208072

Language:

English

Keywords:

program effectiveness; substance abuse treatment; adolescents; juvenile corrections; recidivism; mental health; risk factors

Abstract:

Adolescents who reach the juvenile justice system and are placed in correctional facilities often have a variety of risk factors including mental health concerns, educational needs, substance abuse and dependency issues, family discord, or financial instability. In order to reduce the likelihood of future adolescent recidivism, correctional facilities can be a catalyst for change by promoting protective factors. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness, in supporting resiliency, of a substance abuse treatment program inside a juvenile correctional facility. Resiliency was defined by comparing the adolescents' risk, measured on 17 different subscales, both before and after treatment. Two groups were used to compare differences in risk and protective factors, a treatment group and a control group. Two standardized tests were given to the adolescents, once upon entering the correctional facility and again 30 days later. This study found adolescents in the substance abuse treatment group improved the overall risk factor score, school functioning score, and substance abuse score. Further discussion and directions for future research are included.


Record: 35

Title:

A resiliency-based, bowen family systems approach to treating a sibling survivor of homicide: A case study.

Author(s):

Cunningham, Barbara R., Alliant International U, San Diego, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(3-B), 2006. pp. 1695.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3209945

Language:

English

Keywords:

resiliency; family systems; sibling survivor; homicide; grief

Abstract:

This was a single case study utilizing a resiliency-based Bowen (1978) Family Systems approach to the treatment of an adult sibling survivor of homicide with complicated grief. The resiliency-based piece of treatment was based on Wolin and Wolin's (1993) Challenge Model. The impact of horrific loss on a family system is incomprehensible. A focus on multigenerational patterns of strength, as well as patterns of maladaptation, scaffolds the client in a way that he/she does not feel doomed to repeat the intensity of dysfunction within many generations. This approach was addressed through a literature review for each of the key concepts, such as sibling bereavement, especially in relation to homicide, resilience in the individual and in the family system, Bowen Family Systems, complicated grief, and multigenerational transmission. The study identified how these concepts are interrelated and utilized in the treatment of this sibling survivor of homicide. Kubler-Ross's (1969) model is lacking with this particular population in that it places emphasis upon individual grieving reactions. Grief and loss cannot be understood apart from the context in which they occur. It is remarkable that there has been little or no systemic research that has focused on psychotherapy of bereavement after homicide. This single case study may pave the way for researchers to examine the efficacy of a broad, systemic treatment for this population. This case study of the client, a sibling survivor of homicide who had been in ongoing treatment with the author for almost 2 years, includes a background of the client, an assessment, and the course of her treatment, including early, intermediate and later stages. Excerpts from psychotherapy transcripts are provided as anecdotal illustration of the clinical approach. Letters written by the client and a timeline that she constructed are also included. A discussion of the case is presented, with implications for research, theory, and practice.


Record: 36

Title:

Bias incidents based in sexual orientation: Charting the scope of experiences and exploring their meaning.

Author(s):

Jackson, Erik R., Saint Louis U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(3-B), 2006. pp. 1703.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3211613

Language:

English

Keywords:

sexual orientation; lesbians; gays; bisexual; transgendered; family; interpersonal victimization; crimes

Abstract:

Despite signs of increasing acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT) individuals by secular society, LGBT persons continue to encounter potentially stressful experiences such as facing institutionalized bias against their sexual orientation, and navigating a minority status, initially within their own families, and later among their surrounding environments (i.e., neighborhoods, academic institutions, and workplaces). Mounting evidence for the increased lifetime risk for victimization among LGBT persons and the increasing rates for anti-gay bias crimes underscores the value of investigating bias experiences encountered by LGBT persons. The present investigation was devised to examine both the quantifiable aspects of sexual orientation-based bias incidents reported by LGBT individuals and LGBT victims' subjective report of how such incidents impacted them, through a qualitative investigation. Study 1 examined telephone calls made to a victim assistance hotline, yielding quantitative data about the features of a broad range of bias incidents experienced by LGBT callers. Study 2 applied a qualitative analytic approach to examine semi-structured interviews with LGBT victims of bias incidents, resulting in an investigation of bias incidents' impact on LGBT identities, coping, long-term changes, and the potential for positive experiences. Similar to the nonbias experiences of interpersonal victimization and traumatic experiences, LGBT persons experienced emotional changes characterized by fear, anxiety, anger, and increased vulnerability, as well as significant decrements in viewing others or their surroundings as safe. Findings differed from non-LGBT bias incidents in the increased frequency of familiar offenders that frequented victims' environments (workplaces, schools, neighborhoods). Additionally, gay men and lesbians yielded largely equivalent quantitative findings, in contrast with some LGBT bias crime investigations. Unique expressions of experiencing bias incidents based on sexual orientation included efforts to conceal LGBT identity by increased monitoring and alteration to appearance and behavior. Participants' LGBT identities were impacted toward increased conflict as well as strengthening; similarly, a range of outcomes emerged among participants toward both increased resiliency/vulnerability and interpersonal comfort/discomfort. Findings among LGBT bias victims echo themes of emotional changes and self-protective behaviors, but also posttraumatic growth found in the larger victimization literature.


Record: 37

Title:

The eco-imaginal underpinnings of community identity in harmony grove valley: Unbinding the ecological imagination (California).

Author(s):

Mitchell, Laura Hough, Pacifica Graduate Inst., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(3-B), 2006. pp. 1709.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3211955

Language:

English

Keywords:

ecological imagination; community; eco-imaginal voice; human nature

Abstract:

This study grew out of 5 years of community and ecological fieldwork in Harmony Grove valley, Escondido, California. It is an exploration of the ecological imagination as it relates to community place-relations and identity. By way of interviews, community art, images, and dialogue, I look for an emerging eco-imaginal voice surfacing within the implaced community. Implaced-community refers to the ways that community, person, and place determine one other. The eco-imaginal is the commonality we share with all life forms; it makes possible human-nature and human-place communication: an intersentience experienced as the mapping of the world within the lived body. This body-place/world unity---a view based in the thinking of Merleau-Ponty and Edward Casey as well as the ageless tradition of panpsychism---informs my perspective. The triad of body, place, and depth establishes the context for the study of the ecological imagination. Depth provides the ultimate dimension of inclusivity. The visible world is the surface of an inexhaustible depth wherein all things mutually implicate one another. In this way, the visible and the invisible, matter and psyche, the global and the local, the simultaneous and the successive are intimately bound together, thereby setting the field for eco-imaginal experiencing. The dual purpose of this study is to look at primal structures, such as the eco-imaginal, place-loss, and participatory awareness, that subtend a community's sense of place and to also foster a liberatory sensibility as a basis of advocacy for our communities and neighborhoods. In particular, this work responds to the need for developing terminology and modes of thinking sufficiently free of mechanistic metaphors to be resonant with the natural world. The nomadic methodology I am using is an engaged response to the postmodern condition of placelessness. It is based in an attitude of deterritorialization and accountability along with the creation of free spaces. Extensive boundary-crossing between disciplines, the use of multiple voices, styles, and perspectives, and the mixing of the theoretical and lyrical characterize this basically phenomenological approach. In this climate, the recovery of place-relations can flourish: resiliency can be re-inspired and reanimated.


Record: 38

Title:

Wounded healers: Resilient psychotherapists.

Author(s):

Bryant, Mary T., Capella U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(4-B), 2006. pp. 2216.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3213411

Language:

English

Keywords:

resiliency; psychotherapists; dysfunctional families

Abstract:

This qualitative, phenomenological research was based upon Adlerian psychology and used early recollections, memorable adolescent experiences, family constellations, and the Basic Adlerian Scales for Interpersonal Success-Adult Form (BASIS-A) to study resiliency in psychotherapists reared in dysfunctional families. An abundance of prior research indicated that psychotherapists, as compared to other professionals, reported being reared in disturbed or troubled families (Elliott & Guy, 1993; Farber, 1985, 2005; Fussell & Bonney, 1990; Goldberg, 1986; Houston, 1987; Kottler, 1986/2003; Maeder, 1989; Marsh, 1988; Murphy & Halgin, 1995; Norcross, 2002; Orlinsky & Ronnestad, 2005; Sussman, 1992, 1995), and this research has traditionally focused upon (a) reasons for entering the field, (b) professional development, (c) theoretical orientations, and somewhat upon (d) family dynamics. Few researchers have focused upon the resilience, positive mental health, and social interest of wounded healer psychotherapists (Fussell & Bonney, 1990; Harris, 1972; Higgins, 1994), and only a few authors agreed with the belief system that all humans have been wounded to some lesser or greater extent (Harris, 1976; Higgins, 1994; Houston, 1987; Jung, 1951; Knight, 1986; Nouwen, 1979). This research was conducted through informal, open-ended interviews and Adlerian measures to describe and explore the variables crucial to the development of resilience, positive mental health, and social interest; the relationship between childhood experiences and current therapeutic effectiveness; and the validity of the concept of the wounded healer. The constructs of the wounded healer, resilience, positive mental health, and social interest were operationally defined.


Record: 39

Title:

Launching after finally getting onboard: A qualitative study of previously infertile mothers and their experience.

Author(s):

Ford, Lora Reed, Argosy U/Seattle, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(4-B), 2006. pp. 2223.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3214707

Language:

English

Keywords:

infertile mothers; infertility experiences

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore possible long-term effects of infertility as it relates to the letting go or launching process of grown children by previously infertile mothers. The sample includes six heterosexual previously infertile women whose ages range from mid-forties to early sixties who have launched their biological child within the last five years. The women participated in one of two focus groups in which they were asked to discuss their stories of parenting after infertility and the subsequent launching process. The study found that previous infertility had an indirect, invisible and unclaimed influence on the launching process. Loss of control associated with infertility was regained when these mothers became pregnant and they denied any ongoing effects. Yet some participants reported spoiling or over-indulging their children conceived after infertility and all assumed that parenting would be easier for them but found that it was not. Four of the participants who had been divorced believed that the experience of infertility sped up the dissolution of their marriage, but forced separations due to visitation schedules eased the launching process. The mothers reported increased on-going resiliency and flexibility related to the experience of infertility, but not to the normative process of launching. Prior research has called for qualitative studies of the long-term effects of parenting after infertility. This qualitative study proposes a new theoretical construct utilizing the participant's subjective experience and naturalistic observation in a six-step grounded theory coding process. The results provide an accurate representation of the participants' experiences, but findings cannot be generalized to the population as a whole until further validating studies are completed. Earlier research has suggested that those entering parenthood after previous infertility may be less likely to seek support, and this study offers specific suggestions to assist in treatment, therapy, and a preventative approach implementing existing systems designed to ease the difficult transition into parenthood.* *This dissertation is a compound document (contains both a paper copy and a CD as part of the dissertation). The CD requires the following system requirements: Adobe Acrobat.


Record: 40

Title:

Resiliency in older immigrant women: Exploring recurring themes of inner strength and survival.

Author(s):

Lisogurski, Rachelle L., Capella U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(4-B), 2006. pp. 2233.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3216002

Language:

English

Keywords:

resiliency; older immigrant women; inner strength; survival skills

Abstract:

This dissertation describes a study of resiliency in older immigrant women based on themes of inner strength and survival skills. This has been a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) triangulation study---a model in which an investigator uses two different methods in an attempt to confirm, cross-validate, or corroborate findings within a single study. Although a triangulation study generally uses separate quantitative and qualitative methods to offset the weaknesses inherent in either method with the strengths of the other, in this study the quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently, within a single phase of the research study. This strategy integrated the results of the two methods during the interpretation phase, allowing the convergence of the findings to be noted and thus to strengthen the knowledge claims of the study. The traditional mixed-methods model is advantageous because it is familiar to most researchers and can result in well validated and substantiated findings. The advantage of the concurrent method has been that it requires less time for data collection than would one of the sequential approaches. This study researched resiliency through the recalled experiences of older women who have immigrated to the United States. The focus of the study was the resiliency and strength shown by the participants: Older immigrant women who have refused to capitulate under the stress of adverse circumstances and who have continued to uphold the humane values that have lent great meaning to their lives.


Record: 41

Title:

The effect of the death of a child on midlife mental and physical health: An exploration of risk and resilience factors.

Author(s):

Rogers, Catherine H., Georgia State U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(4-B), 2006. pp. 2241.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3215564

Language:

English

Keywords:

risk factors; child death; mental health; physical health; resilience factors; parents

Abstract:

The study examined the long-term effects of a death of a child on a variety of parental psychological and physical outcomes, incorporating several methodological and conceptual innovations over previous research. Prior bereavement research typically has focused on functioning within a short time period after the death and often has utilized self-selected samples of grieving parents; thus current models of grief may be inadequate. In contrast, this study broadened the timeframe in which bereavement is studied (average time since death= 20 years), and examined a sample of bereaved parents who were not self-selected. Participants were members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (713 bereaved and 713 non-bereaved parents) who were assessed in 1957, 1975/77, and 1992/94 and were matched on family of origin demographic variables. Results show that bereaved parents reported a higher sense of purpose in life than non-bereaved parents. Further, higher levels of purpose in life was associated with lower levels of depression in bereaved parents, and with lower levels of physical illness in bereaved men. As expected, bereaved parents exhibited higher levels of depression than non-bereaved parents. For bereaved women, having someone with whom to share private thoughts and feelings was correlated with higher levels of depression, indicating that social support may be sought when functioning is poor. Higher job satisfaction was associated with lower levels of depression in bereaved women suggesting that role variegation is a factor promoting resiliency. Further, having another child after the death of a child was associated with lower levels of depression for bereaved women. Contrary to expectations, having other children in the home at the time of death was associated with lower social support and higher divorce rates for bereaved women. In sum, the current study suggests that the negative effects of the death of a child are longstanding. Several factors (e.g., purpose in life, role variegation) may promote resiliency and thus merit more scientific study and clinical attention.


Record: 42

Title:

Racial identity and academic achievement in African Americans.

Author(s):

Brooks, Sandra Olevia, Loma Linda U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(4-B), 2006. pp. 2256.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3212450

Language:

English

Keywords:

African Americans; college students; racial identity; academic achievement

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to test a resiliency model of academic achievement among African American college students. Using Brofenbrenner's (1986) ecological model as a theoretical framework, it was expected that microsystem environmental factors (parental racial socialization and students' perceptions of campus climate) would predict the development of a strong racial identity (as defined by Cross's 1971 model of psychological Nigrescence), attributional processes and achievement motivation. Participants were 289 African American undergraduates attending Historically Black and Predominantly White institutions. The EQS program for structural equation analysis was used to test models resulting from the integration of hypotheses. Findings suggest that although campus environment may influence racial identity development, is likely that racial identity attitudes obtained through parental socialization influence students' perceptions of the campus climate which in turn influence success-related attributions and subsequent academic achievement. Results are discussed in terms of factors promoting students' college adjustment, regardless of institution type.


Record: 43

Title:

Foster youth emancipation: Implications of resiliency, independence and responsibility.

Author(s):

Harris-Sims, Deborah, Capella U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(4-B), 2006. pp. 2258.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3216003

Language:

English

Keywords:

foster care youth; resiliency; independence; responsibility

Abstract:

This study incorporated descriptive research methods and correlational research methods to explore possible relationships between independence-responsibility and resiliency. The researcher administered the Resiliency Scales for Adolescents (RSA) to N=60 foster care youth. In addition, the Responsibility and Independence Scales for Adolescents (RISA) was administered to each foster youth's caseworker or agency appointed designee N=30-40 responsible for managing the life of the youth. Results from the study indicated a null relationship between the cumulative constructs of resiliency and independence-responsibility. However, in respect to sub-scales, the study found that for youth in foster care higher levels of emotional reactivity were associated with lower levels of responsibility. Further, in comparison to their non-foster care peers, youth in foster care scored significantly lower in their sense of relatedness, responsibility, and emotional reactivity. Results from this study will add to the existing body of literature concerning foster youth emancipation. In addition, this study provides a rationale to continue research that explores the impact of resiliency in relationship to adolescent development and victims of maltreatment.


Record: 44

Title:

Implementing attachment theory in Head Start to enhance social competence: A program development.

Author(s):

James, Melissa, The Chicago School Of Professional Psychology, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(4-B), 2006. pp. 2259.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3215582

Language:

English

Keywords:

peer interaction; social competence; Head Start; program development; attachment theory

Abstract:

Studies of peer interaction and social competence in preschool-aged children have found that children characterized as having secure attachments with their caregivers have more ego resiliency, self-esteem, and independence; furthermore, they are more empathic, engaging, and demonstrate more leadership skills and problem-solving abilities in novel situations. These developmental skills significantly help preschool-aged children succeed in classroom settings and are critical for the development of social competence and personality development. Children from impoverished neighborhoods and low-income families are at greater risk for problematic and insecure attachments, inhibiting their social competence and cognitive performance in educational settings. As such, it is necessary to implement a program in early childhood settings serving low-income populations that enhances the development of secure attachments. Using John Bowlby's attachment theory and his understanding of attachment as influential to relational and personality development, this dissertation introduces an attachment-based program that can be utilized in Head Start and other early childhood settings serving low-resource families to help meet educational standards by enhancing social competence and emotional development. Furthermore, this dissertation discusses current problems in Head Start programs and emphasizes the importance of infant development, infant-caregiver attachment, and its implications for personality development and school functioning. The implementation of this program to an already comprehensive educational setting such as Head Start will provide higher quality care by utilizing a holistic approach to early development and enhancing the development of social competence needed to succeed in academic settings.


Record: 45

Title:

From the backstreets to the high road. a portrait of Black survival and resilience: A phenomenological case study.

Author(s):

Nickow, Marcia S., The Chicago School Of Professional Psychology, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(4-B), 2006. pp. 2282.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3215593

Language:

English

Keywords:

Black men; resilience; personality transformations

Abstract:

Inordinate numbers of Black men come of age in the urban enclave of "the 'hood," exposed to drugs, street culture, and violence. Many die young, die brutally, die needlessly. Much research has focused on the ethnography and pathology of drug culture and the efficacy of treatment approaches. Few studies, however, have looked at resiliency factors among African American males who have transcended drug-centered lifestyles to become respected citizens and contributors to their communities. This in-depth case study of a 59-year-old African American man identified resiliency themes that might be generally applicable to addicted Black men. It highlights the remarkable personality transformations that sometimes occur with abstinence-based programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). The study elicited a phenomenological understanding of factors that may have influenced Terrell's transformation, to illuminate factors likely to lead to success in recovery for African American male substance abusers. Resiliency themes identified were significant early relationships; support of extended family; closeness with a "core" of immediate family; warm childhood memories; family, cultural, and ethnic pride; spiritual roots; artistic talent and interests; early leadership experiences; strong work ethic; meaningful social networks; commitment to volunteer work; and personality characteristics such as congeniality, charm, positive attitude, curiosity, intelligence, self-confidence, ambition, and "adoptability" (Rubin, 1996). Results of the study support the need for Afrocentric approaches to the treatment of addicted Black men. Educational interventions could help Black men develop cultural knowledge and build a healthy bicultural identity, as Americans and African Americans. Black manhood training programs, rites-of-passage programs geared toward men with delayed social development resulting from addiction, and mentorship programs also could help Black men develop needed competencies. A sociopolitical-spiritual approach to recovery is suggested. Future studies could be geared toward designing, implementing, and evaluating the effectiveness of creative Afrocentric approaches to treatment and prevention. Studies also could explore whether there is a "culture of resiliency" within family or social networks that heightens the chances that people afforded certain early-life exposures will eventually beat the odds and overcome difficult life circumstances.


Record: 46

Title:

Effects of self-help discourse upon adult children of alcoholics' resiliency levels as measured by self perception of problem solving and quality of life.

Author(s):

Powell, Lisa S., Capella U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(4-B), 2006. pp. 2283.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3216025

Language:

English

Keywords:

self help discourse; self perception; problem solving; quality of life; adult children of alcoholics; resiliency

Abstract:

The 1980's self-help movement gave birth to a now popular Adult Children of Alcoholic (ACOA) profile that in many ways has not served this population. Current empirical evidence consistently contradicts the many character flaws assigned to ACOAs over non-ACOAs. Despite current research thousands of ACOAs, the treatment community, and society at large continue to accept this unsubstantiated profile. In fact recent studies suggest that ACOAs have high rates of resiliency, and in many cases develop into well-adjusted adults. This study explores the impact of self-help discourse on ACOAs' self-perception. Focus is placed on perceived resiliency levels operationalized through problem solving skills and quality of life. The study compares scores of ACOA participants with self-help discourse exposure with the scores of ACOAs who have not been exposed to self-help rhetoric as well as non-ACOAs. Measures used in this study include the Problem Solving Inventory, Quality of Life Inventory and a researcher designed Personality Trait List. The study's results support the notion that ACOAs' resiliency levels are similar to non-ACOAs. The study also found that ACOAs with self-help exposure scored higher indicating greater resiliency when compared to ACOAs who have not had self-help exposure. Further, this study explored the validity of the widely believed ACOA personality traits. As in the case of existing studies, this study did not yield statistically significant results to validate these traits as particularly relevant to ACOAs.


Record: 47

Title:

Using positive psychology in sexually transmitted disease prevention programs for early adolescence.

Author(s):

Nogen, Caron J., Alliant International U, San Francisco Bay, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(4-B), 2006. pp. 2283.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3215402

Language:

English

Keywords:

positive psychology; sexually transmitted disease; prevention programs; early adolescence

Abstract:

This dissertation explores how to increase the effectiveness of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention programs for young adolescents. A review of literature explores adolescent development and the developmental tasks and sexual vulnerabilities adolescents face today. This study explores the major theories guiding the development of prevention programs, identifies factors that collectively contribute to effective prevention among adolescents, and investigates a few effective STD prevention programs already in use. Special focus is given to positive psychology, which is based on a prevention model. Positive psychology aims to identify and foster strengths in the hope that these strengths will assist in buffering against future stressors and vulnerabilities. This study identifies some of the positive psychology components embedded in effective STD prevention programs such as self-efficacy, resiliency, optimism, sense of coherence (SOC), and hardiness. This dissertation proposes that incorporating positive psychology themes into STD prevention programs for young adolescents will assist in strengthening the skills that will protect against participation in risky sexual behaviors. This dissertation focuses on the middle school age group (11-14 years). Nearly one in five adolescents has engaged in sexual intercourse before his/her 15th birthday. This statistic does not include adolescents who have engaged in oral sex or other sexual behaviors that increase the risk for STD transmission. Statistics for these behaviors among this age group are incomplete. To date, few STD prevention programs developed for this age group have shown evidence of long-term positive effects. This study offers guidelines on how to focus on aspects of positive psychology to increase the overall effectiveness of STD prevention programs oriented towards young adolescents. The guidelines also offer other ideas for improving the effectiveness of STD prevention programs for middle school youth, such as educating them about forms of sexual contact that can lead to the transmission of STDs which appear to be increasing today. It is also focused on educating students about the more commonly transmitted STDs (e.g., HPV, chlamydia, trichomoniasis). Limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed.


Record: 48

Title:

Resilience as a factor in long-term recovery from opiate addiction.

Author(s):

Broder, Sally Anne, California Inst Integral Studies, US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(5-B), 2006. pp. 2824.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3218529

Language:

English

Keywords:

resilience; long term recovery; opiate addiction

Abstract:

The current study attempts to explore the possible connection between a formerly opiate-addicted individual's ability to maintain long-term (10 years or more) abstinence from the use of opiates and a personality construct defined as resilience. My premise is that it is not only the method of rehabilitation that affords an individual the opportunity and the ability to gain freedom over their addiction problem but also specific qualities within the personality. This study also explores the possibility that an individual can consciously cultivate and build a foundation of supportive characteristics in adulthood that can help to prevent relapses into opiate addiction. Data was gathered from 10 individuals using a semi-structured interview. The interview questions were designed to capture the lived experience of each participant as they have been experiencing their recovery from opiate addiction. The interview questions were also aimed at discovering the presence, absence or level of importance of six personality characteristics that have been identified as being "resilient" characteristics (Werner & Smith 1982; Masten, 2001; Vaillant, 1993; Higgins, 1994; Garmezy, 1985; Rutter, 1985; Rutter & Quinton, 1984). These characteristics are attribution, self-efficacy, internal locus of control, motivation, goal-setting and self esteem. Their responses were analyzed qualitatively using grounded theory methodology. Participants were also given The Resiliency Skills and Abilities Scale. Results of this study seem to indicate that four of the personality characteristics (self-efficacy, internal locus of control, motivation and self esteem) can develop over time in an individual. These characteristics seem to build upon themselves and to support ongoing recovery. A second finding is that a high level of self esteem is not crucial in order to achieve long-term recovery from opiate addiction. Quality of recovery, however, was found to be enhanced by higher self esteem. The findings of this study have relevance for implementation in drug treatment facilities, both inpatient and outpatient, in the area of gearing treatment modalities towards the development of personality characteristics that support ongoing recovery and quality of life. Individual clinicians and therapists can also benefit from these findings to help them understand and aid their clients presenting with addiction issues.


Record: 49

Title:

Visible racial-ethnic identity and womanist identity as predictors of body image and eating concerns among Asian American college women.

Author(s):

Querimit, Dara S., Columbia U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 66(7-B), 2006. pp. 3957.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3183003

Language:

English

Keywords:

body image; eating concerns; Asian Americans; college women; racial ethnic identity; womanist identity; racial ethnic attitudes

Abstract:

Body image and eating concerns represent significant health risks among college women and they have become increasingly recognized among college women of color (Mulholland & Mintz, 2001). Yet, there is a paucity of research that investigates the factors that may contribute to the development of these afflictions among Asian American college women. While the etiology of body image and eating concerns are said to be multifactorial with a myriad of factors contributing to their development, female identity development issues have long since been implicated in the development of body image and eating problems (Dimalanta, 1998). Yet, identity development theories and works on women's health issues rarely examine the multiple layers of female identities and instead offer a unidimensional view of racially and culturally diverse groups (Sue, 2000). The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of visible racial-ethnic identity attitudes and womanist identity attitudes as predictors of body image and eating concerns among Asian American college women. The conceptual framework for this study was drawn from sociocultural theories of eating concerns, Helms's womanist identity development model (1990) and Helms's and Carter's visible racial-ethnic identity development model (1986). Womanist identity attitudes and visible racial-ethnic identity attitudes are important variables that may contribute to a greater understanding of the potential risks and resiliencies of body image and eating concerns among Asian American college women. Implications for future research, college service personnel, and practitioners are discussed.


Record: 50

Title:

Risk and resilience in youth: An examination of moderating factors.

Author(s):

Fortson, Beverly L., West Virginia U., US

Source:

Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 66(9-B), 2006. pp. 5085.

Publisher:

US: ProQuest Information & Learning

ISSN:

0419-4217 (Print)

Order Number:

AAI3191219

Language:

English

Keywords:

resilience; child maltreatment; emotional abuse; physical abuse; sexual abuse; posttraumatic stress disorder; generalized anxiety disorder

Abstract:

Child maltreatment (i.e., emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect) poses a significant risk for psychological difficulties to millions of children annually. Some children develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder), depressive disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder), and substance abuse/dependence as a result of maltreatment. Fortunately, many other children, who have been termed "resilient," escape such incidents relatively unscathed. This study explored the unique associations between child maltreatment and several outcome variables (e.g., substance use, sexualized behavior, depression, generalized anxiety, and social anxiety) as well as the role in which factors purported to promote resiliency (i.e., level of social support, parentification, attachment style, and locus of control) moderate the relation between child maltreatment and outcome. A large sample of undergraduate students (N = 502) were used in examining these relations. Results from data analyses suggested that the subtypes of maltreatment were not, in all cases, significant predictors of each of the different outcomes. Likewise, the resiliency factors examined in the current study did not consistently emerge as moderators of the maltreatment-outcome relation. Implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed.

Title:

Resiliency in Divorced Families.

Author(s):

Greeff, Abraham P., University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa
Vansteenwegen, Alfons, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
DeMot, Liesbeth, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Source:

Social Work in Mental Health, Vol 4(4), 2006. pp. 67-81.

Publisher:

US: Haworth Press

ISSN:

1533-2985 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

resiliency; divorced families; family adaptation

Abstract:

The aim of this cross-sectional and exploratory study was to identify resiliency factors that are associated with family adaptation after divorce. Questionnaires (The Family Hardiness Index, The Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales, The Relative and Friend Support Index, The Social Support Index, The Family Sense of Coherence Scale) and an open-ended question were used to collect data independently from parents and children belonging to 68 divorced families in Belgium. Results indicate that there is a significant positive correlation between the three components of family hardiness (commitment, challenge, and control-according to the parents) and the family's adaptation to its changed circumstances. There are also positive correlations for both parents and children between the positive redefining of stressful situations by the family, the social support of the family, and the family's adaptation after divorce. According to the children there are also significant positive relationships between the family's use of avoidance strategies, the parents' educational level, the number of years that the parent had been divorced, and the family's adaptation.

Tests & Measures:

Family Hardiness Index
Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales
Relative and Friend Support Index
Social Support Index
Family Sense of Coherence Scale


Record: 2

Title:

Resiliency in Conditions of War and Military Violence: Preconditions and Developmental Processes.

Series Title:

Book series of the International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions

Author(s):

Punamäki, Raija-Leena, U Tampere, Finland

Source:

Working with children and adolescents: An evidence-based approach to risk and resilience. Garralda, M. Elena (Ed); Flament, Martine (Ed); pp. 129-177.
Lanham, MD, US: Jason Aronson, 2006. xiii, 209 pp.

ISBN:

0-7657-0443-9 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

military violence; developmental processes; developmental science; war; resiliency; child development; mental health; cognitive-emotional processes

Abstract:

(from the chapter) In developmental science humans are defined as resilient when they successfully adapt despite adversity (Rutter, 1985), overcome hardships and trauma, achieve developmental competencies, and even blossom in harsh conditions (Masten and Coatsworth, 1998; Werner, 1993) and create life in adversity through dynamic developmental processes (Luthar, Cicchetti, and Becker, 2000; Masten and Coatsworth, 1998). War with its heroic images and humiliating calamities tells about resiliency and vulnerability. Analyzing child development and mental health in conditions of war and military violence evokes some fundamental questions of resilience: How do processes that enhance versus endanger resiliency differ historically, that is, in times of peace and war? How universal or culture bound are risk and protecting factors? This chapter starts with a review of research on resiliency among children living in conditions of war and military violence, and it continues in analyzing the ways that sociopolitical realities are embedded in the cognitive-emotional processes enhancing resiliency.


Record: 3

Title:

Building a home within: Meeting the emotional needs of children and youth in foster care.

Author(s):

Heineman, Toni Vaughn, (Ed), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, US
Ehrensaft, Diane, (Ed)

Source:

Baltimore, MD, US: Paul H Brookes Publishing, 2006. xix, 245 pp.

ISBN:

1-55766-839-6 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

foster care; emotional needs; mental health; child psychotherapy

Abstract:

(from the foreword) Building a Home Within: Meeting the Emotional Needs of Children and Youth in Foster Care is a pioneering book, and the editors' and contributors' vision, determination, charity, and courage are extraordinary. It offers real hope both to those at the bottom of society and to those professionals who despair of ever getting to grips with effecting real change at the grimmest of levels. The children described in this book have suffered multiple bereavements and traumas, some unfortunately and unknowingly inflicted by the care system itself. They usually have great difficulty in trusting in the reliability and decency of adults, so they may also have great difficulty in respecting adult helpers or in finding them interesting. In the worst cases, the damage is not only emotional: The children's early lives have been so chaotic that their mental and cognitive abilities, their capacity to think and learn, have been damaged, too. If such children are to have sufficient peace and pleasure in their lives to develop the capacity to think, they need some degree of consistency in the world and in their emotional lives. The therapists who contributed to this book do not claim to erase old traumas or to prevent new injuries to the children in their care, but they can and do build emotional and cognitive buffers against what further blows may come. The children begin to build-to varying degrees-better internal representations of what other human beings are like and can offer. Many of the children described in Building a Home Within learned to overcome despair instead of freezing up against it. This book shows that in the first 10 years of CPP, therapists have already developed enormous expertise in understanding the complexity of the children's struggles to find an identity and a sense of belonging to an internal family. The therapists who contributed to this book have much to say about a multitude of issues, including, for example, the timing and nature of reunifications with biological parents. This is a wise and compelling book, and we can all learn from it.


Record: 4

Title:

Emotionally intelligent school counseling.

Author(s):

Pellitteri, John, (Ed), Graduate Program in Counseling, Queens College, City University of New York, Flushing, NY, US
Stern, Robin, (Ed), Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, US
Shelton, Claudia, (Ed), The Hopewell Group, LLC, US
Muller-Ackerman, Barbara, (Ed), Parsippany Counseling Center, US

Source:

Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 2006. xxx, 274 pp.

ISBN:

0-8058-5034-1 (hardcover)
0-8058-5035-X (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

emotional intelligence; school counseling; school counselors

Abstract:

(from the cover) The concept of emotional intelligence (EI), which has gained increasing popularity in the fields of psychology and education, is particularly well suited to the work of school counselors. To date, however, no book has systematically integrated the theoretical and scientific foundations of EI into the professional school counseling roles and functions. Counselors continually address the social-emotional needs of students, consult with school personnel, and focus on the whole school ecology. In adopting an EI orientation, counselors, school psychologists, and other educational professionals can become the "emotional centers" of the school and facilitate systemic change. In addition to illustrating how social emotional learning is important to both individual students and the school climate, the book also shows school counselors how to expand their own emotional awareness and resiliency. Key features of this outstanding new book include: (1) ASCA Guidelines--The book integrates the latest findings from the field of social emotional learning with the new ASCA guidelines for school counselors; (2) Real-life Cases--The book moves quickly from an overview of basic definitions and theories to stories of real counselors working with students, administrators, teachers, and parents; (3) Broad Applicability--There are chapters that describe EI work at the elementary, middle, and high school levels, strategies with various groups (such as special needs students, school personnel, and parents), social emotional learning with special modalities, and successful EI programs in schools, districts, and state levels. This book is appropriate as a supplementary text in school counseling courses and as a professional reference work for practicing school counselors, counselor educators, counseling psychologists, school psychologists, and educational administrators.


Record: 5

Title:

Families with futures: A survey of family studies for the 21st century.

Author(s):

Karraker, Meg Wilkes, University of St. Thomas, MN, US
Grochowski, Janet R., Health and Human Performance Department, University of St. Thomas, MN, US

Source:

Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 2006. xxii, 455 pp.

ISBN:

0-8058-5469-X (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

families; family dynamics; family systems; family members

Abstract:

(from the cover) Families with Futures is an interdisciplinary textbook that offers a fresh, positive approach to the study of families in everyday life. Learners explore families as dynamic evolving organisms composed of creative and resilient family members. Unique to this textbook are chapters on resilience, time management, wellness, and an Epilogue that frames family studies as a professional career. Perfect for the senior undergraduate or beginning graduate student in family studies or for anyone who simply needs a refresher, the presentations are clear and well grounded in theory and research from sociology, psychology, and other social sciences, as well as human development. The chapter model includes an overview and outline of contents, and ends with a glossary, provocative questions, and references for further exploration. The two appendixes are indispensable resources--the full text of the National Council on Family Relations' "Ethical Principles and Guidelines," and a comprehensive "Guide to Resources for Family Studies," prepared by an information management specialist in social science.


Record: 6

Title:

Handbook of divorce and relationship dissolution.

Author(s):

Fine, Mark A., (Ed), U Missouri, Dept of Human Development & Family Studies, Columbia, MO, US
Harvey, John H., (Ed), U Iowa, Dept of Psychology, Iowa City, IA, US

Source:

Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 2006. xiii, 679 pp.

ISBN:

0-8058-5905-5 (paperback)
978-0-8058-5905-8 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

relationship dissolution; divorce; relationship termination; policy implications; separation; man-woman relationships

Abstract:

(from the cover) This comprehensive handbook presents the most up-to-date scholarship on the causes and predictors, processes, consequences, and policy implications of divorce and relationship dissolution. Featuring contributions from leading scholars from multiple disciplines, this handbook reviews relationship termination, including variations depending on such factors as legal status, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Chapters distinguish what is known about divorce from what is known about other types of relationship dissolution (dating, cohabiting, etc.). The handbook focuses on the often-neglected processes involved as the relationship unfolds, such as infidelity, hurt, disaffection, and remarriage. It also covers the legal and policy aspects of divorce including mediation, educational programs for parents experiencing divorce, and the demographics and historical aspects of divorce. Diversity is addressed through the inclusion of chapters on gay and lesbian, Hispanic, and African American relationships, and the integration of diversity issues wherever possible. Commentaries from Alan Booth, Robert Weiss, and Ellen Berscheid provide an overview of the field and recommendations for future research and policy directions. The Handbook of Divorce and Relationship Dissolution is intended for researchers, practitioners, counselors, clinicians, and advanced students in psychology, sociology, family studies, communication, nursing, and other disciplines. The book will also serve as a text in advanced courses on divorce, marriage and the family, and close relationships.


Record: 7

Title:

How to fail as a therapist: 50 ways to lose or damage your patients.

Author(s):

Schwartz, Bernard
Flowers, John V., Chapman University, CA, US

Source:

Atascadero, CA, US: Impact Publishers, 2006. xii, 144 pp.

ISBN:

1-886230-70-6 (paperback)
978-1886230705 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

therapists; errors; failure; professional competence; client-therapist relationship; therapist attitudes; therapist characteristics

Abstract:

(from the cover) How to Fail as a Therapist is a manual for practicing clinicians and clinicians-in-training, detailing the fifty most common errors therapists make, and how to avoid them. Therapists will learn to avoid such failures as not recognizing one's limitations, performing incomplete assessments, ignoring science, injuring the client relationship, setting improper boundaries, terminating inappropriately, therapist burnout, and more. An indispensable resource for novices and seasoned therapists alike.


Record: 8

Title:

How to reach and teach all children in the inclusive classroom: Practical strategies, lessons, and activities (2nd ed.).

Author(s):

Rief, Sandra F., California State University, East Bay, CA, US
Heimburge, Julie A., San Diego Unified School District, CA, US

Source:

San Francisco, CA, US: Jossey-Bass, 2006. xiv, 456 pp.

ISBN:

0-7879-8154-0 (paperback)
978-0-7879-8154-9 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

classroom teachers; special educators; administrators; inclusive classroom; teaching strategies; lessons; activities; learning styles; classroom characteristics

Abstract:

(from the cover) This thoroughly updated edition of the best-selling book gives all classroom teachers, special educators, and administrators an arsenal of adaptable and ready-to-use strategies, lessons, and activities. How to Reach and Teach All Children in the Inclusive Classroom is a comprehensive resource that helps teachers reach students with varied learning styles, ability levels, skills, and behaviors. The authors offer a team approach that includes parents, colleagues, and learning specialists, enabling teachers to guide diverse groups of students in grades 3-8 toward academic, social, and emotional success. This book is an invaluable resource for educators who want to successfully reach and teach all of the children in a mainstream general education classroom. Topics include how to: effectively differentiate instruction; make accommodations and modifications for students based on their learning styles, abilities, and behaviors; engage reluctant readers and writers; motivate all students to be successful mathematicians; increase communication and collaboration between home and school; build students' organization, time management, and study skills; implement positive behavioral supports and interventions; and create classroom and schoolwide programs designed to enhance students' resiliency and self-esteem.


Record: 9

Title:

Military life: The psychology of serving in peace and combat (Vol. 3): The military family.

Series Title:

The Military Life

Author(s):

Castro, Carl Andrew, (Ed), Department of Military Psychology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD, US
Adler, Amy B., (Ed), U. S. Army Medical Research Unit-Europe, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Heidelberg, Germany
Britt, Thomas W., (Ed), Department of Psychology, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, US

Source:

Westport, CT,: Praeger Security International, 2006. viii, 262 pp.

ISBN:

0-275-98303-X (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

military personnel; military life; military families; well-being; family separation; family relocation; death; single parents; military children; dual-military couples; family violence

Abstract:

(from the preface) The psychological health and well-being of military personnel is important to the effectiveness of a nation's military, the adjustment of military families, and the integration of military personnel into the larger civilian community. A careful examination of the psychological issues confronting military personnel must necessarily be broad in scope and include a range of disciplines within psychology and the social sciences to provide a comprehensive assessment of the factors that affect the performance, health, and well-being of military personnel and their families. Such a multidisciplinary approach ensures researchers, military leaders, policy makers, and health care providers with a framework for understanding key factors relevant to modern military operations. This third volume in the set takes an in-depth look at The Military Family. This comprehensive volume tackles the major stressors facing military families head on: family separation, family relocation, and dealing with the death of a service member. The particular issues confronting single parents, military children, and dual-military couples are also addressed. Another chapter addresses the balance between military work and family life. The problem of military family violence is the topic of the next chapter. A final chapter focuses on strategies for reducing military family conflict.


Record: 10

Title:

Nurturing future generations: Promoting resilience in children and adolescents through social, emotional and cognitive skills, second edition.

Author(s):

Thompson, Rosemary A., Chesapeake Public Schools, Chesapeake, VA, US

Source:

New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, 2006. x, 532 pp.

ISBN:

0-415-95097-X (paperback)
0-415-95096-1 (hardcover)
978-0-4159-5097-8 (paperback)
978-0415-95096-1 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

prevention; intervention; resilience; children; adolescents; social skills; emotional skills; cognitive skills; counseling strategies; psychoeducational techniques

Abstract:

(from the cover) Nurturing Future Generations goes beyond the stilted rhetoric on the problems of youth and focuses on resiliency, protective factors, and best practices in prevention research. Educators and helping professionals will find useful counseling strategies and psychoeducational techniques that focus on primary prevention and intervention. Rosemary A. Thompson has also provided life skills training exercises, questionnaires, and project checklists for teens, making this one of the most thorough and valuable volumes on the market. This book offers more than the norm, including not only information on the state of today's youth, but also strategies for addressing their needs. Educators, students, and practitioners alike can only benefit by adding this book to their collections.


Record: 11

Title:

Psychology in the service of national security.

Author(s):

Mangelsdorff, A. David, (Ed), Army Medical Department Center and School, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX, US

Source:

Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2006. xv, 338 pp.

ISBN:

1-59147-355-1 (hardcover)
9781591473558 (hardcover)

Language:

English

Keywords:

psychology; national security; military psychology; military psychologists; United States Armed Forces

Abstract:

(from the jacket) This volume highlights the diverse contributions of military psychologists toward our nation's security and toward the discipline of psychology itself. The United States Armed Forces have frequently led our culture in personnel and policy changes that the general population had difficulty accepting, such as racial integration and the integration of women. In addition, psychologists in the military have used clinical approaches to posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, and psychopharmacology that have expanded research understanding before widespread adaptation by the general public. Currently, psychologists are working with policymakers to help the public build resiliency and cope with disasters, terrorism, and possible threats to the United States. By putting their skills to work in such areas as personnel management, ergonomics, clinical care, training, leadership and executive development, and social and behavioral research, these individuals have transformed psychology into an integrative discipline that now encompasses aspects of health care and other fields such as information technology and disaster management. This book includes perspectives of psychologists and social scientists representing the uniformed services, research institutions, business, and academia. Readers interested in the history of psychology will learn how our armed services came to be on the cutting edge in many areas of basic and applied science. Readers inside and outside the military will learn lessons from military psychology that they can apply to community-based homeland security efforts.


Record: 12

Title:

Reaching and teaching stressed and anxious learners in grades 4-8: Strategies for relieving distress and trauma in schools and classrooms.

Author(s):

Oehlberg, Barbara E., Kent State U, OH, US, b.oehlberg@ameritech.net

Address:

Oehlberg, Barbara E., b.oehlberg@ameritech.net

Source:

Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Corwin Press, 2006. xvii, 165 pp.

ISBN:

1-4129-1724-7 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

grades 4-8; trauma; schools; stressed and anxious learners; stress responses; school safety

Abstract:

(from the cover) Not all children cope equally well with the stresses and traumas life throws their way, and every educator recognizes that "deer in the headlights" look some children get when current events and past traumas combine to trigger a fight-or-flight stress response. No matter how safe the classroom may be in reality, trauma deactivates cognitive skills, and learning cannot resume until the child's equilibrium has been restored. This important new resource helps educators understand how trauma and stress interfere with cognitive skills, and how classroom and school activities can be used to restore feelings of safety, empowerment, and well-being. Topics include (a) Neurobiology of the developing child and how cognitive lock-out from the neocortex occurs during stress responses; (b) Strategies for reactivating cognitive skills, memory, and the ability to learn following stress responses; (c) How acting-out behaviors are linked to stress and trauma; and (d) How to generate a united effort on school safety and violence-prevention issues. Teachers, counselors, principals, and administrators will find that these innovative strategies enhance feelings of safety and optimism in all learning environments and programs, transforming hopelessness and anxiety into resiliency and hope.


Record: 13

Title:

Therapy with single parents: A social constructionist approach.

Author(s):

Atwood, Joan D., Hofstra University, Graduate Programs in Marriage and Family Therapy, Hempstead, NY, US
Genovese, Frank, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, US

Source:

New York, NY, US: Haworth Press, 2006. xi, 326 pp.

ISBN:

0-7890-0294-9 (hardcover)
0-7890-0407-0 (paperback)
978-0-7890-0294-5 (hardcover)
978-0-7890-0407-9 (paperback)

Language:

English

Keywords:

single-parent family system; family therapy; single parenting; family relations; divorce; widowhood; sex; parent school relationship; work family relationship; social constructionist approach

Abstract:

(from the create) This book is unique because it is the first book on therapy with single parents that includes a focus on the strengths of the single-parent family rather than a focus on the deficits, which is more typically seen in the literature. This book is not about men. Although some sections certainly apply to the single-parent father, more than 90 percent of single parents in the United States are women and it is to them that we direct the majority of our comments. The first focus of the book is to specifically describe the most commonly reported experiences reported by single parents. These experiences are examined from the single parent's perspective and also from the child's perspective. In this way, the professional therapist can understand the many and often overwhelming problems that are faced by their clients. These considerations are addressed primarily from a social-psychological point of view, in that a major task of the single parent is to redefine social roles. These social redefinitions have psychological consequences, which are also described and discussed in detail. The second focus of the book is on therapy with this type of family. The book not only teaches interventive strategies relevant to treating specific single parent family issues but also takes into account current research findings. In so doing it provides a deeper understanding of the single-parent family system. The book proposes specific therapy strategies throughout, assisting the therapists in therapeutic direction. The theoretical orientation of the book is primarily systemic, looking at persons in context, whether that context be intimate relationships, the family as a system, or larger, outside systems such as school, the workplace, or social services. For the most part, this book will impart technical knowledge in a nontechnical language. It is based on many years of experience. The third focus of the book is on deepening the complexity of therapeutic understanding.


Record: 14

Title:

Welfare babies: Poor children's experiences informing healthy peer relationships in Canada.

Author(s):

Robinson, Lynne M., School of Health and Human Performance, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada, lynne.robinson@dal.ca
Mcintyre, Lynn, Faculty of Health Professions, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
Officer, Suzanne, Faculty of Health Professions, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada

Address:

Robinson, Lynne M., School of Health and Human Performance, Dalhousie University, 6230 South St., Halifax, NS, Canada, B3H 3J5, lynne.robinson@dal.ca

Source:

Health Promotion International, Vol 20(4), Dec 2005. pp. 342-350.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Oxford Univ Press

ISSN:

0957-4824 (Print)
1460-2245 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1093/heapro/dai017

Language:

English

Keywords:

welfare babies; poor children's experiences; healthy peer relationships; poverty; well being; resiliency; mental health; physical health

Abstract:

Positive peer relationships among children living in poverty are important for their well-being, resiliency and mental and physical health. This paper explicates the 'felt experience' of children living in poverty, and the implications of these experiences for healthy peer relationships, from a re-analysis of two qualitative research studies in Canada examining children living in food insecure circumstances. Poor children feel deprived, part of the 'poor group', embarrassed, hurt, picked on, inadequate and responsible. Poor children internalize their own lack of social resources in feelings of deprivation. They experience negative feelings relative to their peers--inadequacy, embarrassment and hurt. Children do identify group membership but it is not used as a social resource, as it could be, but rather as a symbol of social segregation. Children also feel responsible for ameliorating some of the effects of their poverty and this seems to strengthen their relationship with their mothers. This could equally be translated into peer-related support, such as standing up to poor bashing, or engaging constructively with higher social class peers. Health promotion strategies that seek to foster positive peer relationships and enhance children's sense of belonging should offer novel social environments in which poor children can engage a variety of peers.


Record: 15

Title:

Do Relationships Exist Between Age, Gender, and Education and Self-Reports of Anxiety Among Older Adults?

Author(s):

Lowe, Patricia A., University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, US, tlowe@ku.edu
Reynolds, Cecil R., Texas A& M University, College Station, TX, US

Address:

Lowe, Patricia A., University of Kansas, 634 JRP Hall, 1122 W.Campus Road, Lawrence, KS, US, tlowe@ku.edu

Source:

Individual Differences Research, Vol 3(4), Dec 2005. pp. 239-259.

Publisher:

US: Individual Differences Research Group (IDRG)

ISSN:

1541-745X (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

age differences; gender differences; self report; anxiety; older adults

Abstract:

The present study examined the test score performance of 394 non-referred older adults on the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-Elderly Version (AMAS-E; Reynolds, Richmond, &Lowe 2003c) to determine if demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, and education) are related to test score performance. Results of a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and follow-up Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) as well as two ANOVAs revealed that females and individuals with 7-12 years of education consistently reported higher levels of anxiety relative to males and individuals with 13-16 years of education on the Total Anxiety scale and the three anxiety subscales (i.e., Worry/Oversensitivity, Fear of Aging, and Physiological Anxiety). The only age difference to emerge was on the Physiological Anxiety subscale in which individuals in the 75-83 and 84-100 age groups reported higher levels of physiological anxiety in comparison to the 60-74 age group. These findings are relatively consistent with the studies examining the relationships between these different demographic variables and anxiety test scores at younger ages and suggest that the AMAS-E scores, as well as scores on other measures of anxiety, be interpreted within the context of an individual's gender, education, and age.

Tests & Measures:

Checklist of Problems and Resiliency
Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale
Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale
State Trait Anxiety Inventory
Beck Anxiety Inventory
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Anxiety Sensitivity Index
Hopkins Symptom Checklist


Record: 16

Title:

Rebuilding a region: 200 billion dollars restoring communities: Priceless.

Author(s):

Schonfeld, David J., Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, US

Source:

Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, Vol 26(6), Dec 2005. pp. 419-420.

Publisher:

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISSN:

0196-206X (Print)
1536-7312 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1097/00004703-200512000-00005

Language:

English

Keywords:

restoring communities; natural disaster

Abstract:

Children who were displaced by the recent hurricanes in the Gulf coast suffered a staggering number of losses and the additional loss of friends or loved ones who did not survive. During the immediate aftermath of a crisis, we must provide for the basic needs of children and adults first. These basic needs include safety, security, food, shelter, and communication and reunification with family and other significant caregivers. Once victims' basic needs have been addressed and a supportive environment has been established, the individuals impacted by a crisis may be better able to begin to identify and express their emotional needs, though they still may not be ready or able to do so. In the aftermath of a crisis event, many parents worry that a major natural disaster will have long-term effects on children. Despite children's resiliency, life-altering events do just that, even for children. Studies conducted after the events of September 11th demonstrated that mental health needs among children and their families were highly prevalent, significant in magnitude, and long-standing in duration. Yet most went unidentified, and in the vast majority of cases, remained untreated.


Record: 17

Title:

Parental divorce and child mental health trajectories.

Author(s):

Strohschein, Lisa, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, lisa.strohschein@ualberta.ca

Address:

Strohschein, Lisa, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, 5-21 Tory Building, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2H4, lisa.strohschein@ualberta.ca

Source:

Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol 67(5), Dec 2005. pp. 1286-1300.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing

ISSN:

0022-2445 (Print)
1741-3737 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00217.x

Language:

English

Keywords:

parental divorce; child mental health trajectories; developmental context; social context; anxiety; depression

Abstract:

A process-oriented approach to parental divorce locates the experience within the social and developmental context of children's lives, providing greater insight into how parental divorce produces vulnerability in some children and resiliency in others. The current study involves prospectively tracking a nationally representative sample of Canadian children of ages 4-7 and living with two biological parents at initial interview in 1994 (N = 2,819), and comparing the mental health trajectories of children whose parents remain married with those whose parents divorce by 1998. Results from growth curve models confirm that, even before marital breakup, children whose parents later divorce exhibit higher levels of anxiety/depression and antisocial behavior than children whose parents remain married. There is a further increase in child anxiety and depression but not antisocial behavior associated with the event of parental divorce itself. Controlling for predivorce parental socioeconomic and psychosocial resources fully accounts for poorer child mental health at initial interview among children whose parents later divorce, but does not explain the divorce-specific increase in anxiety and depression. Finally, a significant interaction between parental divorce and predivorce levels of family dysfunction suggests that child antisocial behavior decreases when marriages in highly dysfunctional families are dissolved.


Record: 18

Title:

Central Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Densities in the Basal Forebrain Predict Isolation Potentiated Startle in Rats.

Author(s):

Nair, Hemanth P., Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, US, hnair@emory.edu
Gutman, Alisa R., Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, US
Davis, Michael, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, US
Young, Larry J., Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, US

Address:

Nair, Hemanth P., Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Room 5226, Atlanta, GA, US, 30329, hnair@emory.edu

Source:

Journal of Neuroscience, Vol 25(49), Dec 2005. pp. 11479-11488.

Publisher:

US: Society for Neuroscience

ISSN:

0270-6474 (Print)
1529-2401 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2524-05.2005

Language:

English

Keywords:

oxytocin; vasopressin; corticotropin; receptors; basal forebrain; isolation; rats; anxiety

Abstract:

Individual differences in resiliency to particular stressors may be mediated by specific neuropeptide receptor patterns in the brain. Here, we explored this issue by using a multivariate approach to identify brain sites in which oxytocin (OTR), vasopressin (V1aR), and corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) or type 2 receptor binding covaried with a measure of isolation-induced anxiety: isolation potentiated startle (IPS). Partial least squares (PLS) analysis identified three binding sites, the shell of the nucleus accumbens (AccSh), lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and intermediate zone of the lateral septum, in which CRF1, V1aR, and OTR receptors, respectively, covaried with IPS. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the three binding sites accounted for more of the variation in IPS as a linear combination than when considered individually. Using the same multiple regression model, the linear combination of the same three binding sites/peptide receptors measured in a new group of animals successfully predicted their IPS values. There were no differences in binding between grouped and isolated animals, suggesting that the patterns are trait effects rather than a consequence of isolation. Based on the finding that CRF1 receptors in the AccSh were positively correlated with IPS, we infused CRF directly into the AccSh and found that it significantly potentiated startle after a short isolation period but not under grouped conditions. This result directly supported the predictions made by the combined PLS/regression approach. These results suggest that the integrated activity of neuropeptide systems mediating both social behavior and anxiety underlie IPS.


Record: 19

Title:

A faith-based integrated substance abuse and HIV prevention program for rural African American adolescents.

Author(s):

Brown, Emma J., University of Central Florida, School of Nursing, College of Health and Public Affairs, Orlando, FL, US, ejbrown@mail.ucf.edu
Wells, Sean, Mechanical University, Department of Social Work, Tallahassee, FL, US

Address:

Brown, Emma J., ejbrown@mail.ucf.edu

Source:

Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, Vol 11(6), Dec 2005. pp. 344-350.

Publisher:

US: Sage Publications

ISSN:

1078-3903 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1177/1078390305284490

Language:

English

Keywords:

faith based integrated substance abuse and HIV prevention program; rural African Americans; risk factors; resiliency factors

Abstract:

The purpose of this daylong workshop was to reach consensus about a prevention program to decrease risk and increase resiliency behaviors associated with substance abuse and HIV among rural adolescents in faith-based settings. The process and outcomes of the workshop are described. Workshop participants validated and prioritized risk and resiliency factors associated with substance abuse and HIV infection and used these to decide between potential prevention programs. A substance abuse (All Stars) program and an HIV (Be Proud! Be Responsible!) curriculum were selected and integrated. Consensus was reached that the implementation team should consist of adults and adolescents.


Record: 20

Title:

Interface of physical and emotional stress regulation through the endogenous opioid system and μ-opioid receptors.

Author(s):

Ribeiro, Saulo C., University of Michigan, Department of Psychiatry and Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute (MBNI), Ann Arbor, MI, US
Kennedy, Susan E., University of Michigan, Department of Psychiatry and Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute (MBNI), Ann Arbor, MI, US
Smith, Yolanda R., University of Michigan, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ann Arbor, MI, US
Stohler, Christian S., University of Maryland, School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD, US
Zubieta, Jon-Kar, University of Michigan, Department of Psychiatry and Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute (MBNI), Ann Arbor, MI, US, zubieta@umich.edu

Address:

Zubieta, Jon-Kar, University of Michigan, Department of Psychiatry and Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute (MBNI), 205 Zine Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI, US, 48109-0720, zubieta@umich.edu

Source:

Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, Vol 29(8), Dec 2005. pp. 1264-1280.

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science

ISSN:

0278-5846 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1016/j.pnpbp.2005.08.011

Language:

English

Keywords:

endogenous opioid; emotional stress regulation; opioid receptors; homeostasis

Abstract:

Unraveling the pathways and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the regulation of physical and emotional stress responses in humans is of critical importance to understand vulnerability and resiliency factors to the development of a number of complex physical and psychopathological states. Dysregulation of central stress response circuits have been implicated in the establishment of conditions as diverse as persistent pain, mood and personality disorders and substance abuse and dependence. The present review examines the contribution of the endogenous opioid system and μ-opioid receptors to the modulation and adaptation of the organism to challenges, such as sustained pain and negative emotional states, which threaten its internal homeostasis. Data accumulated in animal models, and more recently in humans, point to this neurotransmitter system as a critical modulator of the transition from acute (warning signals) to sustained (stressor) environmental adversity. The existence of pathways and regulatory mechanisms common to the regulation of both physical and emotional states transcend classical categorical disease classifications, and point to the need to utilize dimensional, "symptom"-related approximations to their study. Possible future areas of study at the interface of "mind" (cognitive-emotional) and "body" (physical) functions are delineated in this context.


Record: 21

Title:

The lost mother.

Author(s):

Lefley, Harriet P., Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL, US

Source:

Psychiatric Services, Vol 56(12), Dec 2005. pp. 1633.

Publisher:

US: American Psychiatric Assn

Reviewed Item:

Mary McGarry Morris (2005). The lost mother; New York, Viking, 2005, 274 pages, $23.95

ISSN:

1075-2730 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

mother's desertion; family dissolution; child resiliency

Abstract:

Reviews the book, The lost mother by Mary McGarry Morris (2005). New York Times critic has called Mary McGarry Morris one of the most skillful writers in America today. Her work has been compared to that of John Steinbeck and Carson McCullers. Like the works of these authors, The Lost Mother is set in the great depression of the 1930s. It was a time when there were no jobs, no government welfare, and no crop loans. During these hard times, a mother deserts her family and ceases all contact with her children. The mainstay of the novel is a strong brother-sister bond and a father whose fierce love for his children cannot prevent the cruel events that lead to the family's dissolution. The mother is portrayed as a frightened, dependent woman who cannot cope with the demands of parenting, nor even of maintaining employment. This novel will be of particular interest to those who work with children and families. This is a story rich in psychological insights.


Record: 22

Title:

The journey to resiliency: An integrative framework for treatment for victims and survivors of family violence.

Author(s):

Cairns-Descoteaux, Bonita, Roberts Wesleyan College, Rochester, NY, US, Descoteauxb@roberts.edu

Address:

Cairns-Descoteaux, Bonita, Roberts Wesleyan College, 2301 Westside Drive, Rochester, NY, US, 14624, Descoteauxb@roberts.edu

Source:

Social Work & Christianity, Vol 32(4), Win 2005. pp. 305-320.

Publisher:

US: North American Association of Christians in Social Work NACSW

ISSN:

0737-5778 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

resiliency; victims; family violence survivors; model; social work; spirituality

Abstract:

The model presented in this article provides a framework for working with victims of family violence that differs from other integrative frameworks in the professional literature by including a spiritual dimension. There are four parts to the model that are discussed in this paper: development of a healthy self-concept, connection to a loving God, healing of memories, and consolidating personal growth. The article begins with a process to assess clients, based on their journey towards resiliency. Using this assessment as a basis for intervention, the social worker can begin working with the client, using the four phases in this model.


Record: 23

Title:

PTSD symptoms among men and women survivors of intimate partner violence: The role of risk and protective factors.

Author(s):

Coker, Ann L., University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, TX, US, Ann.L.Coker@uth.tmc.edu
Weston, Rebecca, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, US
Creson, Daniel L., University of Texas School of Medicine, Houston, TX, US
Justice, Blair, University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, TX, US
Blakeney, Patricia, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, US

Address:

Coker, Ann L., University of Texas, School of Public Health, 1200 Herman Pressler, P.O. Box 20186, Houston, TX, US, 77225, Ann.L.Coker@uth.tmc.edu

Source:

Violence and Victims, Vol 20(6), Dec 2005. pp. 625-643.

Publisher:

US: Springer Publishing

ISSN:

0886-6708 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1891/vivi.20.6.625

Language:

English

Keywords:

PTSD symptoms; intimate partner violence; risk factors; National Violence Against Women survey; posttraumatic stress disorder; violence survivors; protective factors

Abstract:

The purpose of this cross-sectional analysis of the National Violence Against Women Survey was to characterize current symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 185 men and 369 women survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). In this subsample, 24% of women and 20% of men had current moderate-to-severe PTSD symptoms. PTSD scores were higher for women than men. Protective factors that appear to increase resiliency of survivors were higher education and income, being currently married, and reporting that IPV had stopped. Higher physical or psychological IPV scores, current depressive symptoms, and the survivor having left the relationship at least once were associated with risk of moderate-to-severe symptoms of PTSD. Protective factors may be used to boost resiliency of IPV survivors and reduce PTSD symptoms.

Tests & Measures:

Power and Control scale
Impact of Event Scale-Revised
SF-36 Health Survey
Conflict Tactics Scale


Record: 24

Title:

What we learned from 9/11: A terrorism grief and recovery process model.

Author(s):

Jordan, Karin, Graduate Department of Counseling, George Fox University, Newberg, OR, US, kjordan@georgefox.edu

Address:

Jordan, Karin, Graduate Department of Counseling, George Fox University, 414 North Meridian Street, Newberq, OR, US, 97132, kjordan@georgefox.edu

Source:

Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, Vol 5(4), Nov 2005. pp. 340-355.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Oxford Univ Press

ISSN:

1474-3310 (Print)
1474-3329 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1093/brief-treatment/mhi028

Language:

English

Keywords:

terrorism; grief and recovery process model; 9/11; predisposing factors; peridisposing factors; postdisposing factors

Abstract:

This article presents a terrorist grief and recovery process model of 3 stages: Stage I: Disequilibrium--the Immediate Aftermath; Stage II: Denial--Outward Adjustment; and Stage III: Integration--Coming to Terms. Protective factors, such as stress buffers and resiliency, are focused on, and personal factors, which include but are not limited to age, gender, and ethnicity, are also discussed. Predisposing factors (e.g., psychiatric histories, previous trauma, and educational disadvantages), peridisposing factors (e.g., proximity and duration of exposure to the terrorist attack), and postdisposing factors (e.g., family and other support systems) are also described. All these factors are believed to influence the grief and recovery process. After a terrorist attack such as that on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, people's beliefs are often impacted, specifically beliefs held about (a) the world as they knew it, (b) human nature, (c) spirituality, and (d) themselves, because their inner world cannot continue in the same way as before the attack, so they must go through some transformation in order for them to "find their place" and reintegrate themselves into the world. For many, this requires a grief and recovery process. Although many will need to assimilate or accommodate new values, some will be able to return to their old values and beliefs. Others might "get stuck," unable to deal effectively with the terrorist attack and its impact.


Record: 25

Translated Title:

Correlation of Coping Styles of Undergraduates with Ego Resiliency.

Author(s):

Zhi, Zhang, Faculty of Educational Science and Management, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, China
Lei-kui, Guo, Faculty of Educational Science and Management, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, China

Address:

Zhi, Zhang, Faculty of Educational Science and Management, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, China, 650092

Source:

Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 13(4), Nov 2005. pp. 432-433.

Publisher:

China: Clinical Psychological Research Ctr

ISSN:

1005-3611 (Print)

Language:

Chinese

Keywords:

ego; resiliency; coping styles; undergraduates

Abstract:

Objective: To understand characteristics of coping styles and their relationship with ego -resiliency. Methods: 319 university students from grade 1-4 were surveyed by CP and ER89. Results: (1) The main coping styles to frustration were respectively found as follows: problem solving, shifting, tolerance, help-seeking, oppressing, escaping, fantasy, complaining, and withdrawal; (2) Students from traditional families had significantly higher scores of problem solving but lower scores of escaping than those of nuclear families; (3) Males had significantly higher scores of problem solving and oppressing but lower scores of complaining and escaping styles than females; (4) Significant higher scores of escaping and oppressing were found of the 4th grade than others; (5) The mean scores of problem solving, help-seeking and tolerance were positively correlated with mean score of ER89, while the mean scores of escaping, withdrawal, oppressing and fantasy were negatively correlated with the mean scores of ER89. Conclusion: The factors of family living condition and gender affected student's coping styles to some extent, and positive coping styles benefited ego resiliency.

Tests & Measures:

Ego Resiliency Scale


Record: 26

Title:

Reducing HIV/AIDS and criminal justice involvement in African Americans as a consequence of drug abuse.

Author(s):

Beatty, Lula, Special Populations Office, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MB, US, lbeatty@nida.nih.gov
Jones, Dionne, Services Research Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, US
Doctor, LeKhessa, Special Populations Office, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, US

Address:

Beatty, Lula, lbeatty@nida.nih.gov

Source:

Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, Vol 16(4,SupplB), Nov 2005. pp. 1-5.

Publisher:

US: Johns Hopkins Univ Press

ISSN:

1049-2089 (Print)
1548-6869 (Electronic)

Language:

English

Keywords:

HIV; criminal justice; African Americans; drug abuse; ethnic population; epidemiological trends

Abstract:

There are few significant differences in the overall use of drugs in the United States by racial,ethnic population group. Despite the similarity in use, there are differences in the impact of drug involvement on the health and well-being of ethnic minority populations, with ethnic minority populations frequently experiencing more severe consequences of drug use and addiction than their White counterparts. Presentations were made by 21 experts in the areas of etiology, interventions, treatments, services, promising models and research dissemination in relation to HIV and criminal justice involvement among African Americans as a consequence of drug use. Presentations included details on epidemiological trends and community factors influencing the increasing rates of HIV/AIDS and criminal justice involvement. In the second article, Stroman explores a variety of methods to identify the most efficacious way to disseminate HIV/AIDS information to African Americans. In the final article in this section, Griffin describes the Building Resiliency and Vocational Excellence Program, a substance abuse and violence prevention program he designed and implemented for young African American males. Also included in this issue, as the Heroes and Great Ideas Column, is a tribute to Dr. Beny J. Primm, a long-time advocate for individuals with addictions and HIV/AIDS.


Record: 27

Title:

The building resiliency and vocational excellence (BRAVE) program: A violence-prevention and role model program for young, African American males.

Author(s):

Griffin, James P. Jr., Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, US, jgriffin@msm.edu

Address:

Griffin, James P. Jr., jgriffin@msm.edu

Source:

Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, Vol 16(4,SupplB), Nov 2005. pp. 78-88.

Publisher:

US: Johns Hopkins Univ Press

ISSN:

1049-2089 (Print)
1548-6869 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1353/hpu.2005.0113

Language:

English

Keywords:

building resiliency and vocational excellence program; violence prevention; role models; African American males; AIDS intervention; resilience networking; lifestyle management; peer relations

Abstract:

There are sharp disparities between non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans in mortality and years of potential life lost for numerous health-related conditions, including HIV/AIDS. The Building Resiliency and Vocational Excellence (BRAVE) Program is an intervention using Resiliency Networking designed for use with African American young men to help offset these disparities. Resiliency Networking incorporates coaching, career planning, and re-definition of gender roles to help young men develop a sense of purpose and future and to manage their lifestyles effectively. In addition to fostering a strong link with an older mentor, the program fosters healthy peer-to-peer relationships. The paper reports on preliminary use of the intervention and recommends future applications.


Record: 28

Title:

Commentary by Friedemann.

Author(s):

Friedemann, Marie-Luise, School of Nursing, Florida International University, Miami, FL, US

Source:

Western Journal of Nursing Research, Vol 27(7), Nov 2005. pp. 851-853.

Publisher:

US: Sage Publications

ISSN:

0193-9459 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1177/0193945905278195

Language:

English

Keywords:

teenage mothers; family; self concept; future; childrearing

Abstract:

Comments on an article by Lee SmithBattle (see record 2005-12562-005). "Teenage Mothers at Age 30" is a truly remarkable study. The author not only examines the life of teenage mothers longitudinally but also views the mothers in the social and family context and uses the metaphor of a narrative spine as a theoretical background from which she assesses the extent of the evolution of meaning in these mothers' lives. To examine scientifically this complex phenomenon of becoming through motherhood is difficult. The families of origin described in this article, however, did not support the growth process of their members. The findings of this article, however, have shown a remarkable resiliency of some young mothers who found meaning in motherhood, a partnership, and/or their work. This study is an excellent beginning. As researchers, we can move closest to the truth if we use theoretical reasoning to find support for the findings, formulate new hypotheses, and finally develop creative research methods, qualitative and quantitative, to examine the phenomenon from multiple perspectives.


Record: 29

Title:

Childhood Social Anxiety Disorder: From Understanding to Treatment.

Author(s):

Chavira, Denise A., Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, US, dchavira@ucsd.edu
Stein, Murray B., Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, US

Address:

Chavira, Denise A., Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive (0985), La Jolla, CA, US, 92093-0985, dchavira@ucsd.edu

Source:

Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol 14(4), Oct 2005. pp. 797-818.

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science

ISSN:

1056-4993 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1016/j.chc.2005.05.003

Language:

English

Keywords:

childhood social anxiety disorder; behavioral inhibition; shyness; family history; parenting; traumatic conditioning

Abstract:

Childhood social anxiety disorder is a condition of complex origins. Longitudinal studies of shyness and behavioral inhibition, and twin and family history studies, support a genetic component, but experiences such as family environment, parenting, and traumatic conditioning also are observed. Many children with significant shyness and behavioral inhibition do not develop social anxiety disorder, reinforcing the need for longitudinal studies exploring resiliency and risk factors that can be incorporated into diathesis stress models. Efficacy data regarding cognitive and behavioral therapies and pharmacotherapy are promising, and their effectiveness awaits further research. These studies will need to incorporate a multiplicity of perspectives to ensure the long-term sustainability of interventions for social anxiety disorder in children and adolescents.


Record: 30

Title:

Autoefficacia, relazioni familiari, ego-resiliency e depressione in adolescenza.

Translated Title:

Autoefficacy, familiar relationship, ego-resiliency and depression in adolescence.

Author(s):

Pastorelli, Concetta, Centro Interuniversitario per la Ricerca sulla Genesi e sullo Sviluppo delle Motivazioni Prosodali e Antisociali, Universitŕ degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza', Roma, Italy
Gerbino, Maria, Centro Interuniversitario per la Ricerca sulla Genesi e sullo Sviluppo delle Motivazioni Prosodali e Antisociali, Universitŕ degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza', Roma, Italy
Vecchio, Giovanni Maria, Centro Interuniversitario per la Ricerca sulla Genesi e sullo Sviluppo delle Motivazioni Prosodali e Antisociali, Universitŕ degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza', Roma, Italy
Paciello, Marinella, Centro Interuniversitario per la Ricerca sulla Genesi e sullo Sviluppo delle Motivazioni Prosodali e Antisociali, Universitŕ degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza', Roma, Italy
Picconi, Laura, Centro Interuniversitario per la Ricerca sulla Genesi e sullo Sviluppo delle Motivazioni Prosodali e Antisociali, Universitŕ degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza', Roma, Italy

Source:

Etŕ Evolutiva, No 82, Oct 2005. pp. 74-81.

Publisher:

Italy: Giunti Gruppo Editoriale SPA

ISSN:

0392-0658 (Print)

Language:

Italian

Keywords:

autoefficacy; familiar relationship; ego resiliency; depression; filial efficacy; self efficacy; adolescence; transition

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to further explore the role of adolescent filial efficacy in the transition from adolescence to adulthood. In particular we want to examine the role of filial efficacy on the development of depression. This study is a part of a longitudinal study conducted by the Interuniversity Center for the Study of Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior (Rome, Italy) with the aim of better understand personal, interpersonal and social determinant of adjustment and maladjustment from infancy to adolescence and adulthood. The study has been conducted with 380 adolescents, at mean age of 15, at the time of the first measurement. The theoretical model hypothesis was that adolescents' perceived self-efficacy to manage parental relationships affects depression both directly and by its impact on quality of family management practices and ego-resiliency. Results showed that perceived filial self-efficacy is linked directly and mediationally to the development of adolescent depression. Results also show important gender differences in the pattern of relations among the examined variables.


Record: 31

Title:

Predictors of Adaptation in Icelandic and American Families of Young Children With Chronic Asthma.

Author(s):

Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun, Faculty of Nursing, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, eks@hi.is
Rayens, Mary Kay, University of Kentucky College of Nursing, Lexington, KY, US
McCubbin, Marilyn, School of Nursing, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, US

Address:

Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun, Faculty of Nursing, University of Iceland, Eirbergi, Eiriksgata 34, IS-101, Reykjavik, Iceland, eks@hi.is

Source:

Family & Community Health, Vol 28(4), Oct-Dec 2005. pp. 338-350.

Publisher:

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISSN:

0160-6379 (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

Icelandic families; American families; young children; asthma; adaptation; parents coherence; family hardiness

Abstract:

The purposes of this international study were to determine the predictors of adaptation and to assess potential moderating effects of parents' sense of coherence and family hardiness on the relationship of severity of illness of a child with asthma and family and caregiving demands as predictors of family adaptation. For both parents, sense of coherence and family hardiness predicted family adaptation. Icelandic mothers perceived their family's adaptation more favorably than did their American counterparts. For the fathers, family demands predicted adaptation. Sense of coherence moderated the effect of family demands on adaptation for both parents. These findings underscore the importance of strengthening individual and family resiliency as a mechanism for improving family adaptation.


Record: 32

Title:

Cultivating Resilience in Children from Divorced Families.

Author(s):

Chen, Jen-De, University of South Carolina, SC, US
George, Rebecca A., University of South Carolina, SC, US

Source:

Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, Vol 13(4), Oct 2005. pp. 452-455.

Publisher:

US: Sage Publications

ISSN:

1066-4807 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1177/1066480705278686

Language:

English

Keywords:

children; resilience; divorced families; protective measures; counseling implications; statistics

Abstract:

The statistics for divorce in the United States are alarming. Among the shouting there are voices that are not being heard: the children's. Empirical research has shown that the implementation of protective measures may increase the probability of a child becoming resilient in the face of divorce. This review of current literature is written to discuss what resiliency is and what protective factors will benefit the child. Counseling implications will be presented also.


Record: 33

Translated Title:

Development of the Resiliency Scale for Junior High School Students.

Author(s):

Ishige, Midori, Ochanomizu University, Japan
Muto, Takashi, Shiraume Gakuen College, Japan

Source:

Japanese Journal of Counseling Science, Vol 38(3), Oct 2005. pp. 235-246.

Publisher:

Japan: Japanese Assn of Counseling Science

ISSN:

0914-8337 (Print)

Language:

Japanese

Keywords:

Resiliency Scale; scale development; junior high school students; test reliability; test validity

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to construct a scale to measure junior high school students' resiliency and to examine its reliability and validity. As a result of factor analyses, a 22--item Resiliency Scale (RS) was constructed. The RS and other measures including helplessness, coping, self-esteem, and stressors were administered to 1,468 junior high school students. Results of exploratory factor analyses indicated that the RS consists of three factors-Productive Optimism, Insight, and Freedom to Depend on Others. The RS proved test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Correlations between the RS and other measures indicated construct validity. Cross validity was established by regression analyses by dividing the sample according to school as well as school year. Content validity was verified by referring to precedent studies. It was found that productive optimism moderates the negative effect of stress such as helplessness. In addition, resilience was found to have different functions from that of coping. Finally, function of resiliency in adaptation process was discussed.

Tests & Measures:

Resiliency Scale


Record: 34

Title:

Moving upstream: The role of schools in improving population health.

Author(s):

Brindis, Claire D., University of California, San Francisco, CA, US

Source:

Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol 37(4), Oct 2005. pp. 263-265.

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science

ISSN:

1054-139X (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.08.006

Language:

English

Keywords:

positive academic performance; health indicators; population health; academic achievement; academic outcomes; adolescents; schools

Abstract:

Schools play a vital role in the lives of adolescents. Increasingly, educators recognize the complex interactions among the social and health needs of their students and the impact of these needs on academic outcomes. Studies have clearly documented the influence of substance use, emotional problems, intentional injuries, sexual behavior, and healthcare utilization on poor academic performance. Emerging research has also begun to document a relationship between resiliency, developmental assets, and positive academic performance. As research helps us to understand the social, psychological, and other antecedent factors that affect health, schools become an increasingly important setting to influence the health of adolescents. School-based research can also provide valuable insights for shaping new health interventions. The visibility and influence of popular students appears to have contributed to their ability to establish social norms, as well as shape peer behavior. Apart from the influence of popularity, social models appear to shape strongly adolescents' smoking behavior. The eclectic nature of the studies presented in this issue of the Journal documents the importance of schools in providing primary care services to at-risk adolescents, testing new interventions, and documenting or confirming trends in health indicators. With the increased emphasis on academic achievement and decreased community resources in the United States, schools are being asked to assume an expanded role in keeping our youth healthy.


Record: 35

Title:

Effects of Paroxetine and Venlafaxine XR on Heart Rate Variability in Depression.

Author(s):

Davidson, Jonathan, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, US, jonathan.Davidson@duke.edu
Watkins, Lana, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, US
Owens, Michael, Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, US
Krulewicz, Stan, GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, PA, US
Connor, Kathryn, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, US
Carpenter, David, GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, PA, US
Krishnan, Ranga, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, US
Nemeroff, Charles, Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, US

Address:

Davidson, Jonathan, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3812, Durham, NC, US, 27710, jonathan.Davidson@duke.edu

Source:

Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol 25(5), Oct 2005. pp. 480-484.

Publisher:

US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISSN:

0271-0749 (Print)
1533-712X (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1097/01.jcp.0000177547.28961.03

Language:

English

Keywords:

venlafaxine XR; paroxetine; heart rate variability; depression; drug therapy

Abstract:

Depressed patients may exhibit reduced heart rate variability (HRV), and antidepressants which block norepinephrine uptake may also lower HRV. This study compared paroxetine (PAR) and venlafaxine XR (VEN-XR) on HRV. Outpatients were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with PAR up to 40 mg or VENXR up to 225 mg daily. HRV measures of parasympathetic control consisted of change in R-R interval during forced 10-second breaths and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during paced breathing. Ex vivo estimates of serotonin and norepinephrine transporter occupancy were obtained before and after treatment, as were measures of depression, anxiety, and resilience. Plasma drug concentrations were measured at end point. Forty-nine patients entered treatment; 44 of whom were evaluable (n = 22 per group). Significant within-group reductions were noted in R-R interval variation and in RSA after VEN-XR only. Between-group analyses showed significant group-by-time interaction, with greater reduction in R-R interval variation and in RSA for VEN-XR compared with PAR. Improvement in resiliency correlated significantly with norepinephrine transporter occupancy for VEN-XR. Further comparisons of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor drugs on HRV are warranted.

Conference:

Annual ACNP Meeting, 42nd, Dec, 2003, San Juan, Puerto Rico

Conference Notes:

Portions of this research were presented at the aforementioned conference and at the 16th ECNP Congress, Prague, Czech Republic, September 22, 2003.


Record: 36

Title:

Protective, promotive, and buffering effects of perceived social support in managerial stress: The moderating role of personality.

Author(s):

Luszczynska, Aleksandra, University of Sussex, United Kingdom
Cieslak, Roman, Warsaw School of Social Psychology, Warsaw, Poland, rocie@swps.edu.pl

Address:

Cieslak, Roman, Warsaw School of Social Psychology, 19/35 Chodakowska Street, PL-03-815, Warsaw, Poland, rocie@swps.edu.pl

Source:

Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, Vol 18(3), Sep 2005. pp. 227-244.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis

ISSN:

1061-5806 (Print)
1477-2205 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1080/10615800500125587

Language:

English

Keywords:

social support; work stress; managerial stress; personality characteristics; well being; hardiness; emotional reactivity

Abstract:

The paper investigated the effects of perceived social support such as (a) protection from stress, (b) promotion of wellbeing, and (c) buffering negative effects of stress on wellbeing. Those effects were analysed in the context of moderating role of hardiness and emotional reactivity in a sample of 152 man managers. At first wave of data collection perceived social support from different sources, work stress, wellbeing, hardiness and emotional reactivity were measured. Six weeks later wellbeing and work stress were assessed again. Results of hierarchical regression showed that support from supervisors protects from work stress. Promotive effect of social support was found only in analyses where the moderating role of personality was considered. Buffering effect was found more frequently, if the moderating role of personality was considered, compared to analyses that did not include any personality moderator. Social support from coworkers or family buffered the effects of work stress in managers with low hardiness or high emotional reactivity. Managers with low hardiness (or with high emotional reactivity) who perceived high support had the same level of curiosity, regardless work stress. The results are discussed in the context of support-stress-outcome matching hypothesis. An extension of matching hypothesis may be proposed, referring to the fit between social support, stress, wellbeing (or stress outcomes), and personality characteristics.

Tests & Measures:

Perceived Organizational Stress Questionnaire
Social Support Scale
Dispositional Resiliency Scale
Satisfaction with Work Scale
State Personality Inventory
Formal Characteristics of Behavior-Temperament Inventory


Record: 37

Title:

The cross-cultural generalizability of personality types: A Philippine study.

Author(s):

Avdeyeva, Tatyana V., University of St. Thomas, US, tavdeyeva@stthomas.edu
Church, Timothy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, US

Address:

Avdeyeva, Tatyana V., 2285 Stewart Avenue No. 2425, St. Paul, MN, US, 55116, tavdeyeva@stthomas.edu

Source:

European Journal of Personality, Vol 19(6), Sep 2005. pp. 475-499.

Publisher:

US: John Wiley & Sons

ISSN:

0890-2070 (Print)
1099-0984 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1002/per.555

Language:

English

Keywords:

personality types; ego resiliency; cross cultural generalizability; Big Five traits

Abstract:

Research on personality types was extended to a non-Western culture, the Philippines. In two large samples of Filipino college students, cluster analyses of self-rated trait adjectives revealed interpretable three-cluster solutions (i.e. types) for each gender. The types differed on indigenous measures of ego resiliency and ego control and exhibited sensible configurations of Big Five traits, indigenous Filipino traits, and behavioural indicators. Most types were interpretable in terms of the concepts of ego resiliency and ego control of Block and Block (1980) and resembled types identified in other cultures. Two of three male and female types were fairly comparable and some types replicated across data sets. The results provided some support for the cross-cultural comparability of personality types and for typological research in general.

Tests & Measures:

NEO Personality Inventory


Record: 38

Title:

Enabling youth participation in school-based computer-supported community development in Canada.

Author(s):

Valaitis, Ruta, McMaster University School of Nursing, Hamilton, ON, Canada, valaitis@mcmaster.ca
O'Mara, Linda, McMaster University School of Nursing, Hamilton, ON, Canada

Address:

Valaitis, Ruta, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Room HSC 3N28E, Hamilton, ON, Canada, L8N 3Z5, valaitis@mcmaster.ca

Source:

Health Promotion International, Vol 20(3), Sep 2005. pp. 260-268.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Oxford Univ Press

ISSN:

0957-4824 (Print)
1460-2245 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1093/heapro/dah611

Language:

English

Keywords:

school based community development; youth participation; health promotion; computer supported community development; intrinsic; extrinsic; enabling factors; constraining factors

Abstract:

Schools are a main setting for health promotion for youth. A qualitative case study was undertaken in an inner-city, Canadian school. It explored factors that enabled and constrained youth in the process of a school-based computer-supported community development (CD) project. Nineteen grade seven and eight students worked with four adult facilitators for 12 weeks. They completed a community assessment, planned and implemented actions to improve their school environment. Data were collected by: youth and adult interviews, participant observation, content analysis of online postings and two surveys. Constant comparison and triangulation from various data sources and methods were used to verify themes. Themes were categorized as intrinsic or extrinsic enabling and constraining factors. Intrinsic enabling factors were youth's perceptions that they were making a difference, and feeling recognized for and having ownership of their work. Extrinsic enabling factors included flexibility in youth's choice of activities, supportive adults and community members and the use of incentives. Intrinsic constraining factors were the perceived slow pace of the CD process, and difficulties in getting group consensus/decision-making. Extrinsic constraining factors included: school disruptions and schedules, a lack of 'buy-in' from teachers and parents, and resource demands--people and computers. Relationships between these factors are noted. Research and practice implications regarding school-based CD to promote youth resiliency are discussed.


Record: 39

Title:

Strengthening Families With First-Born Children: Exploratory Story of the Outcomes of a Home Visiting Intervention.

Author(s):

de la Rosa, Iván A., New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, US, lilo@nmsu.edu
Perry, Joanne, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, US
Dalton, Lisa E., New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, US
Johnson, Victoria, First-Born Program, US

Address:

de la Rosa, Iván A., School of Social Work, New Mexico State University, MSC 3SW, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM, US, 88003, lilo@nmsu.edu

Source:

Research on Social Work Practice, Vol 15(5), Sep 2005. pp. 323-338.

Publisher:

US: Sage Publications

ISSN:

1049-7315 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1177/1049731505277004

Language:

English

Keywords:

first born children; home visiting intervention; family resiliency

Abstract:

Objective: Using a theory of change framework, this study examines outcome measures of a home visitation program that provided services to first-born children and their parents living in southwestern New Mexico. Method: Home visitation workers conducted pretest and posttest assessments for prenatal and postpartum periods for 109 families receiving services in the First-Born Program. Families were assessed using the Revised North Carolina Family Assessment Scale. Paired sample t tests were used to assess effect. Results: Clients participating in the First-Born Program displayed significantly higher posttest scores on measures of family resiliency. Specifically, clients demonstrated improved scores in operationalized measures of resilience: social support, caregiver characteristics, family interaction measures, and a reduction in personal problems affecting parenting. Conclusion: The results are promising as participants were observed to make positive improvements in specific areas related to family resiliency.

Tests & Measures:

Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development
Revised North Carolina Family Assessment Scale


Record: 40

Title:

Adolescent Victimization: Testing Models of Resiliency by Gender.

Author(s):

Christiansen, Elizabeth J., University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV, US
Evans, William P., University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV, US

Address:

Christiansen, Elizabeth J., Center for Program Evaluation and Partnership Development, University of Nevada, Reno, MS 140, HDFS, Reno, NV, US, 89557

Source:

Journal of Early Adolescence, Vol 25(3), Aug 2005. pp. 298-316.

Publisher:

US: Sage Publications

ISSN:

0272-4316 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1177/0272431605276931

Language:

English

Keywords:

adolescent victimization; resiliency models; gender differences; risk factors; protective factors; at risk populations; urban and rural schools

Abstract:

The present study examined how risk and protective factors were associated with adolescent victimization by testing four competing models from resiliency research-the compensatory, risk-protective, protective-protective, and challenge models. Models were tested separately by gender. The data for this study were based on a multistate project that surveyed 992 eighth-grade students between the ages of 12 and 15 years (54% female, 54% White) in at-risk urban and rural schools. Models incorporated family conflict, anger expression, external locus of control, witnessing violence, and involvement in risky behaviors as risk factors; protective factors included social connectedness, parental monitoring, and neighborhood cohesion. Results indicated support for the challenge model for both male and female early adolescents. Implications for prevention work and future research are discussed.

Tests & Measures:

Children's Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control Scale
Index of risky behavior
Family Functioning Scales
National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health
Buckner's Neighborhood Cohesion Instrument
State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory [1996 Edition]


Record: 41

Title:

Ego-control and ego-resiliency: Generalization of self-report scales based on personality descriptions from acquaintances, clinicians, and the self.

Author(s):

Letzring, Tera D., Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, US, hardit01@student.ucr.edu
Block, Jack, University of California, Berkeley, CA, US
Funder, David C., Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, US

Address:

Letzring, Tera D., Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, US, 92521, hardit01@student.ucr.edu

Source:

Journal of Research in Personality, Vol 39(4), Aug 2005. pp. 395-422.

Publisher:

Netherlands: Elsevier Science

ISSN:

0092-6566 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1016/j.jrp.2004.06.003

Language:

English

Keywords:

ego control; ego resiliency: self report scales; personality descriptions; impulses

Abstract:

Ego-control refers to the inhibition/expression of impulse and ego-resiliency (ER) to the dynamic capacity to contextually modify one's level of ego-control in response to situational affordances (Block, J., 1950, 2002; Block, J.H., 1951; Block & Block, 1980). This article investigates the generalization of brief under control (UC) and ER self-report scales across samples, measurement techniques, and data sources, utilizing personality descriptions provided by acquaintances, clinician-interviewers, and the self. Undercontrolled individuals were consistently described as self-dramatizing, unable to delay gratification, unpredictable, assertive, rebellious, moody, and self-indulgent. Overcontrolled individuals were consistently described as bland, consistent, dependable, and calm. Resilient individuals were described as having wide interests and a high aspiration level, assertive, socially poised and skilled, and cheerful; and not self-defeating, emotionally bland, nor lacking personal meaning in life. The definitive characteristics of both constructs were mostly consistent across data source, gender, and ethnicity, although ego-resiliency conformed more reliably with theoretical expectations among females than males, while ego-undercontrol may have more negative implications among Caucasians than other ethnic groups. Overall, the UC and ER self-report scales appear to offer effective, efficient, and accessible means for investigating these constructs.

Tests & Measures:

California adult Q-set
Scholastic Assessment Test
American College Testing Assessment
Test of English as a Foreign Language
International English Language Testing System Examination
Ego-undercontrol scale
Ego-resiliency scale
Wonderlic Personnel Test
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 [Appended]
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)


Record: 42

Title:

Toward Inherently Secure and Resilient Societies.

Author(s):

Allenby, Brad, Arizona State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tempe, AZ, US, brad.allenby@asu.edu
Fink, Jonathan, Arizona State University, Office of Vice President for Research and Economic Affairs, Tempe, AZ, US

Address:

Allenby, Brad, brad.allenby@asu.edu

Source:

Science, Vol 309(5737), Aug 2005. Special issue: Dealing with Disasters. pp. 1034-1036.

Publisher:

US: American Assn for the Advancement of Science

ISSN:

0036-8075 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1126/science.1111534

Language:

English

Keywords:

security; resilient societies; social stability; terrorist attacks; natural disasters; systems perspective; emergency response; epidemics; policy responses

Abstract:

Recent years have seen a number of challenges to social stability and order, ranging from terrorist attacks and natural disasters to epidemics such as AIDS and SARS. Such challenges have generated specific policy responses, such as enhanced security at transportation hubs and planned deployment of a global tsunami detection network. However, the range of challenges and the practical impossibility of adequately addressing each in turn argue for adoption of a more comprehensive systems perspective. This should be based on the principle of enhancing social and economic resiliency as well as meeting security and emergency response needs and, to the extent possible, developing and implementing dual-use technologies that offer societal benefits even if anticipated disasters never occur.


Record: 43

Title:

Suicide Among Patients with Schizophrenia: A Consideration of Risk and Protective Factors.

Author(s):

Montross, Lori P., University of California San Diego, Department of Psychiatry, San Diego, CA, US, pmontro@ucsd.edu
Zisook, Sidney, University of California San Diego, Department of Psychiatry, San Diego, CA, US
Kasckow, John, University of Cincinnati, Department of Psychiatry, Cincinnati, OH, US

Address:

Montross, Lori P., Department of Psychiatry, Division of Geriatric Psychiatry (116A-1), 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA, US, 92161, pmontro@ucsd.edu

Source:

Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 17(3), Jul-Sep 2005. Special issue: The History of Antipsychotics. pp. 173-182.

Publisher:

United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis

ISSN:

1040-1237 (Print)
1547-3325 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1080/10401230591002156

Language:

English

Keywords:

protective factors; risk factors; suicide prevention; schizophrenia patients; suicide

Abstract:

Background. The elevated rate of suicide among patients with schizophrenia is well documented and thus frequently researched. The majority of research has focused solely on the identification of risk factors that predispose patients to attempt or commit suicide. This review serves to expand on the literature pertaining to suicide risk factors by additionally outlining how protective factors may shield against suicide within this unique patient population. Methods. A literature review of English-language publications pertaining to suicide among people with schizophrenia was completed using PsycINFO and MEDLINE databases between the years of 1960-2004 and 1950-2004 respectively. Special emphasis was given to studies of risk factors and protective factors for suicide. Results. Commonly supported risk factors for suicide were identified: previous attempts, severity of illness, comorbidity, social isolation, temporal relationships, and demographic characteristics. Risk factors such as a history of violence, the presence of command hallucinations, and recent tragic loss were found to warrant future study. Social support, positive coping skills, life satisfaction, and resiliency emerged as protective factors that may mitigate suicide. Conclusions. Understanding why some patients wish to end their lives but also why some desire to live allows for more comprehensive suicide prevention.


Record: 44

Title:

A Qualitative Exploration of Resilience in Long-Term Lesbian Couples.

Author(s):

Connolly, Colleen M., Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, US, cconnolly@txstate.edu.

Address:

Connolly, Colleen M., Department of EAPS, Texas State University--San Marcos, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX, US, 78666, cconnolly@txstate.edu.

Source:

Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, Vol 13(3), Jul 2005. pp. 266-280.

Publisher:

US: Sage Publications

ISSN:

1066-4807 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1177/1066480704273681

Language:

English

Keywords:

lesbian couples; resilience; long term relationships

Abstract:

Counselors continually strive to expand knowledge about relational dynamics. This article focuses on a qualitative exploration of resilience with 10 lesbian couples in relationship for 10 to 24 years. The researcher used an ethnographic and phenomenological methodology from a feminist point of view to explore resilience in two joint interviews. Couples described two thematic processes of resilience that helped thwart the effects of cultural marginalization. Relational resiliency, which served to safeguard and protect couples against stressors, consisted of the subthemes of mutuality, relational balance, and interdependence. Couple resilience, processes that facilitated couples overcoming and rebounding from adversity, included subthemes of couple unification, determination, perspective, and external buffers. These areas are discussed along with recommendations and implications for research and counseling.


Record: 45

Title:

Containing and Resisting Masculinity: Narratives of Renegotiation Among Resilient Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

Author(s):

Kia-Keating, Maryam, Department of Psychology, Boston University, Boston, MA, US, kia@post.harvard.edu
Grossman, Frances K., Department of Psychology, Boston University, Boston, MA, US
Sorsoli, Lynn, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA, US
Epstein, Marina, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, MI, US

Address:

Kia-Keating, Maryam, Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, US, 92093-0109, kia@post.harvard.edu

Source:

Psychology of Men & Masculinity, Vol 6(3), Jul 2005. pp. 169-185.

Publisher:

US: Educational Publishing Foundation

ISSN:

1524-9220 (Print)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1037/1524-9220.6.3.169

Language:

English

Keywords:

childhood sexual abuse; male survivors; resiliency; masculinity; masculine ideology; traumatic stress; age; sexual orientation; socioeconomic status; ethnicity; role socialization; manhood; narratives

Abstract:

Male childhood sexual abuse survivors face the same social pressures as other men to live up to the tenets of masculinity. However, they contend with a disjuncture between cultural definitions of manhood and the discordant experience of sexual victimization. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 resilient men varying in age, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. The authors analyzed the men's narratives concerning male role socialization for toughness, stoicism, and aggressive sexuality, as well as the impact of childhood sexual abuse. Results indicate that in their paths toward recovery, the participants repeatedly described both containing and resisting traditional masculine roles and made conscious choices not to become perpetrators. The importance of raising awareness about masculinity myths in clinical interventions is discussed.


Record: 46

Title:

Características de resiliencia en jóvenes usuarios y no usuarios de drogas.

Translated Title:

Resiliency characteristics in young adults who use and don't use drugs.

Author(s):

Córdova-Alcaráz, Alberto Javier, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico, betito165@hotmail.com
Palos, Patricia Andrade, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico
Rodríguez-Kuri, Solveig Eréndira, Centros de Integración Juvenil, A.C., Mexico

Address:

Córdova-Alcaráz, Alberto Javier, betito165@hotmail.com

Source:

Revista Intercontinental de Psicología y Educación, Vol 7(2), Jul-Dec 2005. pp. 101-122.

Publisher:

Mexico: Univ Intercontinental

ISSN:

0187-7690 (Print)

Language:

Spanish

Keywords:

resiliency characteristics; illegal drugs; high school students; drug users; non-users; drug dependents

Abstract:

Objective: to identify and compare resiliency characteristics in high school students: users or dependants on illegal drugs, experimental users, and non-users; in order to attain indicators for the development of preventive intervention strategies. Material and methods: A comparative, transversal, ex post facto study, with a non-probabilistic sample of 1,021 young people from 13 to 18 years old was applied. A self-administered questionnaire was developed in four areas: sociodemographic, familiar, individual, and drug use, and attained good levels in reliability and validity. Results: Significant differences among the three groups were found. The main resiliency characteristics that are useful to distinguish between users and non-users are: conflict handling in interpersonal relations, control in risk situations, sense of humor, prospective to future, family union, "bearing" and mother acceptance. Conclusions: The development of interventions must be centered in the strength of protective elements as identified here.


Record: 47

Title:

Resiliency and Collateral Learning in Science in Some Students of Cree Ancestry.

Author(s):

Sutherland, Dawn, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, d.Sutherland@uwinnipeg.ca

Address:

Sutherland, Dawn, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Ave., R3B 2E9, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, d.Sutherland@uwinnipeg.ca

Source:

Science Education, Vol 89(4), Jul 2005. pp. 595-613.

Publisher:

US: John Wiley & Sons

ISSN:

0036-8326 (Print)
1098-237X (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1002/sce.20066

Language:

English

Keywords:

resiliency; collateral learning; science learning; Cree ancestry

Abstract:

In the context of schooling, resiliency refers to the ability to thrive academically despite adverse circumstances. In this study the relationship between academic resilience and student's collateral learning is explored in 20 students of Cree ancestry. The individual resilience of each student was examined by identifying protective factors for school leaving within the microsystem of each student's ecological framework. Student responses to questions related to motivation and engagement were ranked. In addition, students' perception of the influence of family and peers on individual attributes toward schooling was ranked. To gain insight into the collateral learning aspects of science learning in Cree students, the participants in this study were asked to reflect on their learning strategies through the use of critical incidents. The relationship between collateral learning and resiliency was also explored. This study found that students possessing a greater number of protective factors were more likely to learn science in a way described by Jegede's collateral learning theory. Responses to critical incidents indicate some Cree students hold at least two sources of knowledge to explain some science concepts and therefore may adopt a collateral learning strategy. The importance these students place on earned or experiential knowledge is evident in the interviews. Some suggestions for classroom instruction are offered in conclusion.

Tests & Measures:

Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory


Record: 48

Title:

Resilient or Resigned? Criminal Victimisation and Quality of Life in South Africa.

Author(s):

Moller, Valerie, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa, v.moller@ru.ac.za

Address:

Moller, Valerie, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Rhodes University, 6140, Grahamstown, South Africa, v.moller@ru.ac.za

Source:

Social Indicators Research, Vol 72(3), Jul 2005. pp. 263-317.

Publisher:

Germany: Springer

ISSN:

0303-8300 (Print)
1573-0921 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1007/s11205-004-5584-y

Language:

English

Keywords:

criminal victimization; quality of life; fear of crime; personal safety; South Africa; resiliency

Abstract:

A victimisation study conducted among 3300 householders in South Africa's Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality (NMMM) in the Eastern Cape Province aimed to inform a crime prevention strategy for the metropolitan area. The study found that the variables 'fear of crime'--measured in terms of perceived likelihood of victimisation--and concern about 'personal safety' had greater negative influence on life satisfaction than actual victimisation. Individual crimes against the person had greater negative influence on subjective wellbeing and feelings of personal safety than property and other household crimes. Individuals who perceived themselves to be at risk of becoming a victim of crime also perceived greater risk of other misfortunes. However, materially better-off victims reported higher levels of life satisfaction than non-victims in spite of their crime experience. South Africa has high crime rates by international standards and fighting crime presents the country with one of its major challenges in the second decade of democracy. Nevertheless, findings suggest that the negative impact of crime issues on achieving the good life are overshadowed by issues of racial inequalities and poverty. The conclusion is drawn that residents of Nelson Mandela Metropole are hardy when it comes to living with crime but nonetheless suffer stress in doing so. From a methodological perspective, the discussion considers whether subjective crime issues such as fear of crime and personal safety should be regarded as personal or neighbourhood quality-of-life issues. Based on survey findings, the conclusion is drawn that concern for personal safety is both. However, a crime-as-neighbourhood-issue is more likely to attract remedial action on the part of local authorities to better protect citizens and allay their fears of crime.


Record: 49

Title:

PTSD Following Terrorist Attacks: A Prospective Evaluation.

Author(s):

Shalev, Arieh Y., Center for Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel, ashalev@cc.huji.ac.il
Freedman, Sara, Center for Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel

Address:

Shalev, Arieh Y., Department of Psychiatry, Hadassah University Hospital, P.O. Box 12000, Jerusalem, Israel, ashalev@cc.huji.ac.il

Source:

American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 162(6), Jun 2005. pp. 1188-1191.

Publisher:

US: American Psychiatric Assn

ISSN:

0002-953X (Print)
1535-7228 (Electronic)

Digital Object Identifier:

10.1176/appi.ajp.162.6.1188

Language:

English

Keywords:

PTSD; posttraumatic stress disorder; terrorist attacks; prevalence; survivors; symptoms; longitudinal course

Abstract:

Objective: This study evaluated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the longitudinal course of early PTSD symptoms in survivors of terrorist attacks. It additionally assessed the effect of continuous terrorism on the course of early symptoms of PTSD. Method: Thirty-nine survivors of terrorist attacks and 354 survivors of motor vehicle accidents were evaluated upon admission to a general hospital emergency room and 1 week and 4 months later. Heart rate was measured upon admission to the emergency room. Peritraumatic dissociation was assessed at 1 week. PTSD symptoms, anxiety, and depression were measured at 1 week and 4 months. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale conferred a diagnosis of PTSD at 4 months. Additionally, the course of early PTSD symptoms during an era of frequent terrorist attacks (N=137) was compared with that seen during years of relative calm (N=256). Results: Survivors of terrorist attacks had higher rates of PTSD than motor vehicle accident survivors (37.8% versus 18.7%). The type of traumatic event, however, did not add to the prediction of PTSD from the emergency room heart rate, peritraumatic dissociation symptoms, and early PTSD symptoms. The longitudinal course of early PTSD symptoms was not affected by the greater frequency of terrorist attacks. Conclusions: Early symptoms are reliable risk indicators of PTSD across events and circumstances. Converging effects of terror-induced fear, adjustment, and resiliency might explain the lack of effect of intense terrorism on the course of PTSD symptoms.

Tests & Measures:

Impact of Event Scale
Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire--Self Report
State Trait Anxiety Inventory
Beck Depression Inventory
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale


Record: 50

Title:

Latinos and Electroconvulsive Therapy: Implications for Treatment, Research, and Reform in Texas and Beyond.

Author(s):

Major, Ken, Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio, TX, US, gmajok@lake.ollusa.edu

Address:

Major, Ken, Psychology Department, Our Lady of the Lake University, 411 SW 24th Street, San Antonio, TX, US, 78207, gmajok@lake.ollusa.edu

Source:

Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol 7(2), Sum 2005. pp. 159-166.

Publisher:

US: Springer Publishing

ISSN:

1523-150X (Print)

Language:

English

Keywords:

electroconvulsive therapy; cultural beliefs; Latino clients; research; treatment; reform; multicultural training

Abstract:

No literature exists concerning the implications of using electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the treatment of Latinos. Given the large and increasing Latino population in the United States, the contentious history of ECT, and the possible differences in language and cultural vantage point between the typical ECT provider and Latino client, this paucity of research is worrisome. This article identifies a number of potential problems involved in multiculturally untrained service providers treating Latinos with ECT, including invalid diagnoses, an incomplete knowledge of the strengths and resiliencies of the client, and the use of ECT rather than culturally appropriate interventions. Also discussed are Latino cultural beliefs and practices salient to mental health service providers, some of the recent mandates for multiculturally informed service provision in mental health, ideas for the constructive modification of the diagnostic and treatment protocols currently guiding the use of ECT with Latinos, and needed research relevant to the issues raised.

 

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